A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.

A common muscarinic pathway for diapause recovery in the distantly related nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma caninum. (1/92)

Converging TGF-beta and insulin-like neuroendocrine signaling pathways regulate whether Caenorhabditis elegans develops reproductively or arrests at the dauer larval stage. We examined whether neurotransmitters act in the dauer entry or recovery pathways. Muscarinic agonists promote recovery from dauer arrest induced by pheromone as well as by mutations in the TGF-beta pathway. Dauer recovery in these animals is inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Muscarinic agonists do not induce dauer recovery of either daf-2 or age-1 mutant animals, which have defects in the insulin-like signaling pathway. These data suggest that a metabotropic acetylcholine signaling pathway activates an insulin-like signal during C. elegans dauer recovery. Analogous and perhaps homologous cholinergic regulation of mammalian insulin release by the autonomic nervous system has been noted. In the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum, the dauer larval stage is the infective stage, and recovery to the reproductive stage normally is induced by host factors. Muscarinic agonists also induce and atropine potently inhibits in vitro recovery of A. caninum dauer arrest. We suggest that host or parasite insulin-like signals may regulate recovery of A. caninum and could be potential targets for antihelminthic drugs.  (+info)

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in young rats. Lymphocytes expel larval infections but not adult worms. (2/92)

Young rats were not able to expel adult N. brasiliensis infections even when the worms were damaged by antibodies and the young rats were given all the cellular components (sensitized lymphocytes and bone marrow cells) shown to be necessary for the expulsion of antibody-damaged worms from adult rats. In contrast, most of the worms were expelled from young rats given sensitized lymph node cells on the day of a larval infection. These results show that the reduced ability of young rats to respond to infection by producing sensitized lymphocytes only partly explains their inability to expel the worms. It was not possible to explain the failure of young rats to expel adult worms by hypothesizing that they develop an active factor which prevents the cells from acting on the worms. It is also unlikely that worms persist in young rats because they differ in their susceptibility to cells compared with antibody-damaged worms from mature rats. This work suggests that the immune mechanism which affects the immature stages of this nematode may differ from that which controls the adult stages.  (+info)

Immune responses in hookworm infections. (3/92)

Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections.  (+info)

Cleavage of hemoglobin by hookworm cathepsin D aspartic proteases and its potential contribution to host specificity. (4/92)

Hookworms routinely reach the gut of nonpermissive hosts but fail to successfully feed, develop, and reproduce. To investigate the effects of host-parasite coevolution on the ability of hookworms to feed in nonpermissive hosts, we cloned and expressed aspartic proteases from canine and human hookworms. We show here that a cathepsin D-like protease from the canine hookworm Ancylosotoma caninum (Ac-APR-1) and the orthologous protease from the human hookworm Necator americanus (Na-APR-1) are expressed in the gut and probably exert their proteolytic activity extracellularly. Both proteases were detected immunologically and enzymatically in somatic extracts of adult worms. The two proteases were expressed in baculovirus, and both cleaved human and dog hemoglobin (Hb) in vitro. Each protease digested Hb from its permissive host between twofold (whole molecule) and sixfold (synthetic peptides) more efficiently than Hb from the nonpermissive host, despite the two proteases' having identical residues lining their active site clefts. Furthermore, both proteases cleaved Hb at numerous distinct sites and showed different substrate preferences. The findings suggest that the paradigm of matching the molecular structure of the food source within a host to the molecular structure of the catabolic proteases of the parasite is an important contributing factor for host-parasite compatibility and host species range.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of the adults of Bunostomium phlebotomum (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae). (5/92)

The morphology of the male and female of Bunostomum phlebotomum are described based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The attachment of the worms to the small intestinal mucosa and during the copula were observed. Structures of the buccal capsule and genital organs were also studied.  (+info)

Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil. (6/92)

This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworms (Hook) in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method) per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62) or mebendazole (n = 57). Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05) one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%); Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8%) and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%). One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%), Hook (68.3%) but not for Tt (45.5%), and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.  (+info)

Helminth infection is not associated with faster progression of HIV disease in coinfected adults in Uganda. (7/92)

BACKGROUND: We studied a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Uganda who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy, to explore the impact of helminths on HIV progression in areas where antiretrovirals are not available. METHODS: A total of 663 patients were screened for helminths, treated presumptively with albendazole and selectively with praziquantel, and monitored for 6 months. Blood samples were analyzed for CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 RNA. RESULTS: Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Mansonella perstans were the most prevalent helminths. Helminth infection was not associated with higher viral load, lower CD4+ cell count, or faster decrease in CD4+ cell count preceding antihelminthic therapy. The effect of coinfection on HIV disease progression varied with species. CD4+ cell counts were highest in subjects with hookworm and Mansonella perstans infection. For most helminths, effective treatment was associated with greater decrease in CD4+ cell count than in those in whom infection was still present at follow-up. A highly significant decrease in viral load at 6 months was seen in patients with persistent Mansonella perstans infection at follow-up. Mortality was lower in subjects with hookworm infection at enrollment. CONCLUSION: Helminth infection was not associated with more-advanced HIV disease or faster disease progression. Antihelminthic therapy may not be beneficial in slowing HIV progression in coinfected adults.  (+info)

An in vitro larval motility assay to determine anthelmintic sensitivity for human hookworm and Strongyloides species. (8/92)

With the implementation of programs to control lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminths using broad spectrum anthelmintics, including albendazole and ivermectin, there is a need to develop an in vitro assay for detection of drug resistance. This report describes an in vitro assay for measuring the effects of ivermectin and benzimidazoles on the motility of larvae of the hookworm species Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Necator americanus, and Strongyloides species including Strongyloides stercoralis, and S. ratti. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated with each of the parasite species, with distinct differences observed between the various species. In pilot field testing of the assay with N. americanus larvae recovered from human fecal samples, a dose-response relationship was observed with ivermectin. While the assay has demonstrated the ability to determine drug responsiveness, its usefulness in resistance detection will require correlation with the clinical outcome among individuals infected with parasite strains showing different drug sensitivities.  (+info)

Ancylostomatoidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, which are commonly known as hookworms. These parasites are primarily found in the small intestine of their hosts, which can include humans and other animals.

Ancylostomatoidea parasites have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The life cycle begins when the parasite's eggs are passed in the feces of an infected host and hatch into larvae in the soil. The larvae then infect a new host by penetrating the skin, usually through contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the host, the larvae migrate through the body to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the small intestine. Here, they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood, causing anemia and other symptoms of hookworm infection.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to anemia, intestinal obstruction, and even death. Prevention measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, practicing good hygiene, and treating infected individuals to prevent the spread of the parasite.

2015). "Superfamily Ancylostomatoidea". Veterinary parasitology (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 38-41. ISBN 9781119073697. ...
... ancylostomatoidea MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.775.100.100 - ancylostoma MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.775.100.550 - necator MeSH ...
This suborder includes (superfamily - included families): Ancylostomatoidea Ancylostomatidae Diaphanocephaloidea ...
2015). "Superfamily Ancylostomatoidea". Veterinary parasitology (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 38-41. ISBN 9781119073697. ...
Categories: Ancylostomatoidea Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
In this concept cloud, the sizes of the concepts are based not only on the number of corresponding publications, but also how relevant the concepts are to the overall topics of the publications, how long ago the publications were written, whether the person was the first or senior author, and how many other people have written about the same topic. The largest concepts are those that are most unique to this person ...
Uncinaria stenocephala use Ancylostomatoidea Uncinaria stenocephalas use Ancylostomatoidea Uncinate Epilepsies use Epilepsy, ...
Ancylostoma Ancylostomatoidea Ancylostomiasis Animals Hookworm Infections Humans Zoonoses *. Source: Emerg Infect Dis. 2022; 28 ...
Ancylostomatoidea , Infecções por Uncinaria , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adulto , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Animais , Gabão , ... Infecções por Uncinaria , Vacinas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adulto , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , ...
Uncinaria use Ancylostomatoidea Uncinaria stenocephala use Ancylostomatoidea Uncinariose use Infecções por Uncinaria ...
Uncinaria stenocephala use Ancylostomatoidea Undaria UNESCO use Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, Ciência e ...
This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions to combat hookworm in the country.
Single-dose oral albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate show high cure rates against A lumbricoides. For hookworm infection, albendazole was more efficacious than mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate. Treatment of T trichiura with single oral doses of current anthelminthics is unsatisfactory. Ne …
Ancylostomatoidea B01.050.500.500.294.400.968.100.100 Ancylostoma B01.050.500.500.294.400.968.100.550 Necator B01.050.500.500. ...
Ancylostomatoidea Preferred Term Term UI T002176. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1966). ... Ancylostomatoidea [B01.050.500.500.294.400.968.100] * Ancylostoma [B01.050.500.500.294.400.968.100.100] * Necator [B01.050. ... Ancylostomatoidea Preferred Concept UI. M0001098. Registry Number. txid2572558. Related Numbers. txid125367. txid66064. Scope ... use ANCYLOSTOMATOIDEA to search HOOKWORMS 1966-85. History Note. 86; was HOOKWORMS 1963-85. Date Established. 1986/01/01. Date ...
Ancylostomatoidea Preferred Term Term UI T002176. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1966). ... Ancylostomatoidea [B01.050.500.500.294.400.968.100] * Ancylostoma [B01.050.500.500.294.400.968.100.100] * Necator [B01.050. ... Ancylostomatoidea Preferred Concept UI. M0001098. Registry Number. txid2572558. Related Numbers. txid125367. txid66064. Scope ... use ANCYLOSTOMATOIDEA to search HOOKWORMS 1966-85. History Note. 86; was HOOKWORMS 1963-85. Date Established. 1986/01/01. Date ...
Superfamily ancylostomatoidea (organism) {106657004 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Family Ancylostomatidae ( ...
... ankylosis ancylostomatoidea,hookworm_disease and or,and and or,or anderson-fabry,fabrys_disease androgenic hormones,androgen ...
ANCYLOSTOMATOIDEA 2015-09-25 CDISC-1317 Add C123647 Term MICROORG Microorganism Add new term to existing codelist - - - ...
Within this group, members of the superfamilies Diaphanocephaloidea, Ancylostomatoidea, and Strongyloidea were excluded based ...
Ancylostomatoidea, and Ascarididae. We characterized these putative PMTs and found that they possess bona fide PMT catalytic ...
... ankylosis ancylostomatoidea,hookworm_disease and or,and and or,or anderson-fabry,fabrys_disease androgenic hormones,androgen ...
B1.50.500.500.294.700.775.100.100 Ancylostomatoidea B1.500.500.294.700.775.100 B1.50.500.500.294.700.775.100 Andrographis ...
Uncinaria stenocephala use Ancylostomatoidea Undaria UNESCO use Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, Ciência e ...
Ancylostomatoidea -- pathogenicity. Health Education. China 402. De le gou chong bing you shen me bing zhuang ...
Veterinary in the appropriate LC SF number, by site ...
Uncinaria stenocephala use Ancylostomatoidea Undaria UNESCO use Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, Ciência e ...
Ancylostomatoidea Ancylostomiasis Andersen Syndrome Andorra Androgen Antagonists Androgen Receptor Antagonists Androgen-Binding ...

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