Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.Ancylostomiasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.Necator americanus: A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.Necatoriasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Necator: A genus of intestinal parasite worms which includes one of the most important hookworms of man, NECATOR AMERICANUS. The only other known species, N. suillus, has been recovered from pigs.Larva Migrans: Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Strongylida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Bephenium Compounds: Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Oesophagostomum: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Duddingtonia: A genus of ascomycetous mitosporic fungi in the family Orbiliaceae. It is used for the biological control of nematodes in livestock.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.

The hookworm platelet inhibitor: functional blockade of integrins GPIIb/IIIa (alphaIIbbeta3) and GPIa/IIa (alpha2beta1) inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion in vitro. (1/106)

Hookworms, aggressive, blood-feeding, intestinal nematodes, are currently a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in the developing world. An inhibitor of platelet aggregation and adhesion has been partially purified and characterized from soluble protein extracts of adult Ancylostoma caninum hookworms. This protein, named the hookworm platelet inhibitor, has an estimated molecular mass of 15 kDa as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. In addition to blocking platelet aggregation in response to a variety of agonists, the partially purified inhibitor also prevents adhesion of resting platelets to immobilized fibrinogen and collagen. Inhibitory monoclonal antibodies were used to identify specific blockade of cell surface integrins GPIIb/IIIa (alphaIIbbeta3) and GPIa/IIa (alpha2beta1), the platelet receptors for fibrinogen and collagen, respectively. This broad-spectrum anti-platelet activity is also present in excretory and secretory products of adult worms, suggesting a biologic role for the hookworm platelet inhibitor in vivo.  (+info)

Protective immunity in mice elicited by living infective third-stage hookworm larvae (Shanghai strain of Ancylostoma caninum). (2/106)

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms of protective immunity in mice elicited by living hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum third-stage infective larvae (L3). METHODS: The number of migrating infective larvae recovered from the lungs was used as an endpoint for vaccine immunity. The timing of maximal L3 lung entry was determined by counting the number of lung larvae at several time points after infection with 500 or 1000 L3. Mice were immunized either orally or subcutaneously with 500 L3, followed by two boosts of L3 once every two weeks. The immunized mice were challenged orally with 500 L3 one week after the final boost. To evaluate the protective immunity, the number of L3 recovered from the lungs of the immunized mice during the time of maximal larval entry was compared with that of controls. Host immunity was also evaluated by comparing circulating anti-L3 antibodies between immunized and controlled mice, using both enzyme immunoassays and immunoblotting techniques, and by lung histopathology. RESULTS: The peak time of larval entry into the lungs occurred 48 hours after infection. Mice immunized either orally or subcutaneously with L3 exhibited a marked reduction (90.2% and 86.2% respectively) in the number of recovered lung larvae in comparison to controls (P < 0.01). The protection might be associated with circulating anti-L3 antibodies, including antibodies directed against 132-200 kDa L3 antigens, as well as three major antigens ranging from 28 to 51 kDa. Larvae migrating through the lungs of vaccinated mice showed cuticular damages accompanied with host-inflammatory cell invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with living L3 protects mice against lung invasion after challenged with hookworm infection. Vaccine immunity is associated with circulating antibodies against L3 antigens and lung inflammatory responses. The mouse model is potentially useful for developing a hookworm vaccine.  (+info)

Epidemiology of hookworm infection in Itagua, Paraguay: a cross sectional study. (3/106)

A cross-sectional study in Itagua, Paraguay tested 192 people for the presence, intensity and species of hookworm infection. Fifty-nine percent of these individuals were found to be infected. Intensity of infection was determined on 92% of infected individuals by quantitative egg counts. The high intensity hookworm infections, which cause the greatest morbidity, were clustered between the ages of five and 14 years. No differences were seen between genders. The species of hookworm was determined for parasites reared from 72% of infected individuals. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were identified, although the former species predominated. We conclude that hookworm infection continues to be a public health problem in Paraguay, particularly among children and adolescents who suffer from high intensity infections. A. duodenale continues to persist in the Western Hemisphere and has not been completely displaced by N. americanus.  (+info)

Antibody-dependent reductions in mouse hookworm burden after vaccination with Ancylostoma caninum secreted protein 1. (4/106)

Vaccination of mice with either third-stage Ancylostoma caninum infective hookworm larvae (L3) or alum-precipitated recombinant Ancylostoma secreted protein 1 from A. caninum (Ac-ASP-1) results in protection against hookworm challenge infections. Vaccine protection is manifested by reductions in lung hookworm burdens at 48 h postchallenge. Mice actively immunized 4 times with Ac-ASP-1 also exhibited reductions in hookworm burden in the muscles. Hookworm burden reductions from Ac-ASP-1 immunization were associated with elevations in all immunoglobulin subclasses, with the greatest rise observed in host IgG1 and IgG2b. The addition of a fourth immunization resulted in even higher levels of IgG and IgE. In contrast, L3-vaccinated mice exhibited marked elevations in IgG1 and IgM, including anti-Ac-ASP-1 IgM antibody. Passive immunization with pooled sera from recombinant Ac-ASP-1-vaccinated mice also resulted in lung hookworm burden reductions. It is hypothesized that recombinant Ac-ASP-1 vaccinations elicit antibody that interferes with parasite larval migration.  (+info)

A common muscarinic pathway for diapause recovery in the distantly related nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma caninum. (5/106)

Converging TGF-beta and insulin-like neuroendocrine signaling pathways regulate whether Caenorhabditis elegans develops reproductively or arrests at the dauer larval stage. We examined whether neurotransmitters act in the dauer entry or recovery pathways. Muscarinic agonists promote recovery from dauer arrest induced by pheromone as well as by mutations in the TGF-beta pathway. Dauer recovery in these animals is inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Muscarinic agonists do not induce dauer recovery of either daf-2 or age-1 mutant animals, which have defects in the insulin-like signaling pathway. These data suggest that a metabotropic acetylcholine signaling pathway activates an insulin-like signal during C. elegans dauer recovery. Analogous and perhaps homologous cholinergic regulation of mammalian insulin release by the autonomic nervous system has been noted. In the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum, the dauer larval stage is the infective stage, and recovery to the reproductive stage normally is induced by host factors. Muscarinic agonists also induce and atropine potently inhibits in vitro recovery of A. caninum dauer arrest. We suggest that host or parasite insulin-like signals may regulate recovery of A. caninum and could be potential targets for antihelminthic drugs.  (+info)

A broad spectrum Kunitz type serine protease inhibitor secreted by the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. (6/106)

Although blood-feeding hookworms infect over a billion people worldwide, little is known about the molecular mechanisms through which these parasitic nematodes cause gastrointestinal hemorrhage and iron deficiency anemia. A cDNA corresponding to a secreted Kunitz type serine protease inhibitor has been cloned from adult Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm RNA. The translated sequence of the A. ceylanicum Kunitz type inhibitor 1 (AceKI-1) cDNA predicts a 16-amino acid secretory signal sequence, followed by a 68-amino acid mature protein with a molecular mass of 7889 daltons. Recombinant protein (rAceKI-1) was purified from induced lysates of Escherichia coli transformed with the rAceKI-1/pET 28a plasmid, and in vitro studies demonstrate that rAceKI-1 is a tight binding inhibitor of the serine proteases chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, neutrophil elastase, and trypsin. AceKI-1 inhibitory activity is present in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products of adult hookworms but not the infective third stage larvae. The native AceKI-1 inhibitor has been purified to homogeneity from soluble extracts of adult A. ceylanicum using size exclusion and reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. As a potent inhibitor of mammalian intestinal proteases, AceKI-1 may play a role in parasite survival and the pathogenesis of hookworm anemia.  (+info)

Mitigation of hookworm disease by immunization with soluble extracts of Ancylostoma ceylanicum. (7/106)

Hookworms are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries, and a strategy aimed at reducing pathology caused by blood-feeding adult parasites would be a valuable addition to global control efforts. This article describes experiments designed to induce resistance to the major clinical sequelae (weight loss and anemia) of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infection in Syrian golden hamsters of the outbred LVG strain. Previously infected animals acquired long-lived resistance to weight loss and anemia caused by a secondary hookworm infection. Furthermore, transfer of pooled serum from twice-infected hamsters to animals undergoing a primary infection was associated with partial resistance to growth delay and anemia. Active vaccination of hamsters with soluble adult hookworm antigens emulsified in alum led to partial protection from hookworm-associated pathology in the absence of reductions in adult worm burden. This intriguing result may have important implications for human vaccine development.  (+info)

Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting analysis of human serologic responses to infective hookworm larval antigen. (8/106)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the possibility of using specific antigens for immunodiagnosis of hookworm disease in endemic area. METHOD: Infective third-stage larvae of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum (A. caninum), were prepared as the source of antigen. Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting (EITB) was employed as an immunodiagnostic method. RESULTS: Two immunodominant bands of hookworm antigens (42 kDa and 55 kDa) were recognized by the sera of hookworm-infected patients (serum dilution 1:200; antigen centrifuged at 36,000 r/m for 20 minutes, but not by sera from negative controls. CONCLUSION: The 42 kDa and 55 kDa A. caninum antigens might be the specific antigens that could be used for immunodiagnosis of hookworm disease in endemic area.  (+info)

  • Viability and in vitro and in vivo activities of freeze-dried conidia of the predatory fungus Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31) were evaluated against infective larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. (
  • Clinical and demographic data, complete blood examinations, total serum immunoglobulin E assay, and serologic testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot using excretory-secretory antigens of Ancylostoma caninum . (
  • citation needed] In Ancylostoma braziliensis as the larvae are in an abnormal host, they do not mature to adults but instead migrate through the skin until killed by the host's … Loss (1898) described the pathogenesis and mode of transmission oft is parasite in human beings. (
  • Schmidt, E. M.S. , Tvarijonaviciute, A. , Martinez-Subiela, S. , Ceron, J. and Eckersall, P. D. (2016) Changes in biochemical analytes in female dogs with subclinical Ancylostoma spp. (
  • Viability and in vitro and in vivo activities of freeze-dried conidia of the predatory fungus Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31) were evaluated against infective larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. (
  • Semblen taurons , però se'n diferencien clarament per tindre les aletes pectorals (no tan amples com les rajades ) soldades lateralment amb el cap i les fenedures es troben en posició ventral. (