Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Cellophane: A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Uranus: The seventh planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. It has five known natural satellites.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Munchausen Syndrome: A factitious disorder characterized by habitual presentation for hospital treatment of an apparent acute illness, the patient giving a plausible and dramatic history, all of which is false.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Carboxypeptidase U: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal lysine and arginine from biologically active peptides and proteins thereby regulating their activity. It is a zinc enzyme with no preference shown for lysine over arginine. Pro-carboxypeptidase U in human plasma is activated by thrombin or plasmin during clotting to form the unstable carboxypeptidase U.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Suggestion: The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.PropylaminesRandom Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Craniospinal Irradiation: A comprehensive radiation treatment of the entire CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hearing Loss, Sudden: Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Loss, Unilateral: Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.

Development of an ischemic stroke survival score. (1/41)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been substantial interest in identifying predictors of survival for stroke patients. Current instruments used for measuring stroke severity are confined to either neurological, functional, or disability measures. The purpose of this study was to develop a stroke survival score that combines instruments from different domains to better predict long-term survival. METHODS: We took advantage of a particularly broad array of clinical and physiological variables collected during the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod Trial. Four hundred fifty-three patients completed a battery of instruments at day 7 after stroke and then were followed for 1 year. RESULTS: Of the 453 patients, 53% were male, 77% were aged 65 years or older, and 89% were white. One hundred nine patients (24%) died during the study period. Age was a highly significant predictor of mortality (P<0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences in 12-month survival with respect to sex, race, or educational level. The best model for predicting survival was the Ischemic Stroke Survival Score. This model included the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, Rapid Disability Rating Scale, age, and prior stroke. This model had substantially greater predictive power (R(2)=0.30, c statistic=0.86) than the Scandinavian Stroke Scale alone (R(2)=0.20, c statistic=0.78). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that combining day 7 poststroke information from multiple domains substantially improves the ability to predict 12-month survival of ischemic stroke patients compared with data from a single domain. The high mortality rate emphasizes the importance of preventive measures for a disease that has identifiable and modifiable risk factors.  (+info)

Analysis of fibrin formation and proteolysis during intravenous administration of ancrod. (2/41)

Ancrod is a purified fraction of venom from the Malayan pit viper, Calloselasma rhodostoma, currently under investigation for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Treatment with ancrod leads to fibrinogen depletion. The present study investigated the mechanisms leading to the reduction of plasma fibrinogen concentration. Twelve healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of 0.17 U/kg body weight of ancrod for 6 hours. Blood samples were drawn and analyzed before and at various time points until 72 hours after start of infusion. Ancrod releases fibrinopeptide A from fibrinogen, leading to the formation of desAA-fibrin monomer. In addition, a considerable proportion of desA-profibrin is formed. Production of desA-profibrin is highest at low concentrations of ancrod, whereas desA-profibrin is rapidly converted to desAA-fibrin at higher concentrations of ancrod. Both desA-profibrin and desAA-fibrin monomers form fibrin complexes. A certain proportion of complexes carries exposed fibrin polymerization sites E(A), indicating that the terminal component of the protofibril is a desAA-fibrin monomer unit. Soluble fibrin complexes potentiate tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced plasminogen activation. Significant amounts of plasmin are formed when soluble fibrin in plasma reaches a threshold concentration, leading to the proteolytic degradation of fibrinogen and fibrin. In the present setting, high concentrations of soluble fibrin are detected after 1 hour of ancrod infusion, whereas a rise in fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products, and plasmin-alpha(2)-plasmin inhibitor complex levels is first detected after 2 hours of ancrod infusion. Ancrod treatment also results in the appearance of cross-inked fibrin degradation product D-dimer in plasma. (Blood. 2000;96:2793-2802)  (+info)

The effect of angrod on the delayed hypersensitivity response in rats. (3/41)

Delayed hypersensitivity was induced in rats by means of sheep erythrocytes and bovine serum albumin-lipid conjugate. Administration of heparin to rats sensitized to either antigen resulted in diminution of the delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Administration of ancrod, however, failed to inhibit the delayed cellular reaction to either antigen. Granuloma formation remained unaffected when rats were injected with either heparin or ancrod. The lack of ancrod effect, in contrast to heparin effect, on delayed hypersensitivity is discussed.  (+info)

A quantitative evaluation of anticoagulants in experimental nephrotoxic nephritis. (4/41)

The protective effects of anticoagulants in nephrotoxic nephritis in rabbits have been studied, using various doses of heparin and defibrination with ancrod. Massive doses of heparin (2000 units/kg/day) were required before significant reduction in glomerular fibrin deposition, extracepillary cell proliferation and urea retention occurred. Doses of 300 and 1000 units/kg/day were insufficient to modify fibrin deposition and cell proliferation. Defibrination with ancrod provided protection, judged by histological and functional criteria, comparable to 2000 units of heparin/kg/day; but fibrin could still be demonstrated in the glomeruli of animals treated with 2000 units of heparin/kg/day, contrasting with the virtual absence of fibrin in animals given ancrod.  (+info)

The effects of defibrination with ancrod in experimental allergic glomerular injury. (5/41)

Quantitative studies of the effects of defibrination (with ancrod) have been undertaken in two forms of allergic glomerular damage, nephrotoxic serum nephritis and acute serum sickness in rabbits. No differences in intrarenal fixation of nephrotoxic antibody, complement activation or host antibody response were detected between defibrinated and untreated rabbits with nephrotoxic serum nephritis. Defibrination prevented intraglomerular fibrin deposition in this disease; but some glomerular damage as shown by a rise in blood urea and endothelial proliferation still occurred in defibrinated animals. No differences in immune elimination of BSA, circulating immune complex formation or intrarenal localization of immune complexes were noted in defibrinated animals with acute serum sickness. No intraglomerular fibrin deposition was detected in treated or untreated animals in this disease model. It is concluded that the protective effects of ancrod are directly related to defibrination, and not to any other modification of allergic events.  (+info)

Fibrinogen depletion attenuates Staphyloccocus aureus infection by preventing density-dependent virulence gene up-regulation. (6/41)

Staphylococcus aureus undergoes a density-dependent conversion in phenotype from tissue-adhering to tissue-damaging and phagocyte-evading that is mediated in part by the quorum-sensing operon, agr, and its effector, RNAIII. Contributions of host factors to this mechanism for regulating virulence have not been studied. We hypothesized that fibrinogen, as a component of the inflammatory response, could create spatially constrained microenvironments around bacteria that increase density independently of bacterial numbers and thus potentiate quorum-sensing-dependent virulence gene expression. Here we show that transient fibrinogen depletion significantly reduces the bacterial burden and the consequential morbidity and mortality during experimental infection with wild-type S. aureus, but not with bacteria that lack expression of the quorum-sensing operon, agr. In addition, it inhibits in vivo activation of the promoter for the agr effector, RNAIII, and downstream targets of RNAIII, including alpha hemolysin and capsule production. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism for promoting this phenotypic switch in virulence involves clumping of the bacteria, demonstrating that S. aureus responds to fibrinogen-mediated bacterial clumping by enhancing density-dependent virulence gene expression. These data demonstrate that down-modulation of specific inflammatory components of the host that augment bacterial quorum sensing can be a strategy for enhancing host defense against infection.  (+info)

Embolization itself stimulates thrombus propagation in pulmonary embolism. (7/41)

The role of active thrombosis in the pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that venous thrombi significantly increase their thrombotic activity once they embolize into the high-flow circulation of the pulmonary arteries. Thrombotic activity was measured using an immunoassay that measures both fibrinopeptide B (FPB) as well as its most abundant metabolite des-arginine FPB. Thrombi were formed in the femoral veins of adult dogs. In one group, the thrombi were embolized without anticoagulation. In the second group, heparin (300 U/kg bolus, then 90 U x kg(-1) x h(-1) infusion) was administered before embolization to prevent subsequent thrombotic activity. Plasma FPB concentrations were significantly suppressed in the heparinized group relative to the nonheparinized group for 1 h postembolization (P = 0.038). We conclude that pulmonary embolization itself causes preexisting venous thrombi to greatly intensify their thrombotic activity and that embolization-associated thrombus propagation can be prevented by heparin.  (+info)

Soluble fibrin is the main mediator of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to platelets. (8/41)

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Platelets play a dual role as adhesive cells forming associates with bacteria as well as specialized inflammatory cells. The specific role of the various factors involved in bacteria-platelet association has not yet been fully elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We observed a dramatic increase in the capability to bind S aureus when platelets were activated with thrombin (from 5% to 30%, P<0.001). To pinpoint platelet-binding sites involved in the interaction, platelets from knockout mice and from patients with selective inherited deficiency of membrane proteins or of granules were used. CD36, GPIIb/IIIa, and P-selectin were excluded as receptors for S aureus. Platelets from patients with alpha-delta-storage pool disease and Gray platelet syndrome indicate the requirement of alpha-granule contents. Platelet activation by ADP did not promote platelet-S aureus associate formation, although these platelets were covered with bound fibrinogen. Only small numbers of associates between fibrinogen-covered bacteria and ADP-activated platelets were observed. Formation of fibrin alone was also not sufficient to induce association. Only when fibrin formation and platelet activation occurred together were large numbers of associates formed (P<0.001). A potential receptor for fibrin on S aureus is clumping factor A. Addition of thrombospondin-1 to control platelets increased the number of associates (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Soluble fibrin but not fibrinogen is the main mediator of platelet-S aureus association. In addition, platelet activation and the release of alpha-granule contents, particularly thrombospondin-1, is a requirement for platelet-S aureus association.  (+info)

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This study is investigating the efficacy and safety of ancrod [NM-V, Viprinex; Nordmark Arzneimittel] in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL).
Forty seven culture proven cases of meningococcemia and or meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis were diagnosed and treated. In nineteen other cases that were treated, meningococcal disease was strongly suspected despite negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Particular attention was given to the early detection and therapy of the defibrination syndrome (diffuse intravascular clotting or DIC) in these patients. This entity is now recognized as the most common fatal complication of meningococcemia and is a problem of great significance to the overall military mission because of the high incidence of meningococcal disease in military recruits. This paper documents observations in detail. (Author)(*NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS
In the article "Ancrod in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of 500 Subjects Beginning Treatment Within 6 Hours of Stroke Onset in the Ancrod Stroke Program", by Levy et al,1 an author is missing from the byline. E. Bernd Ringelstein, MD, FAHA, FESO should be listed before Carmen Spatareanu, MD. The publisher regrets this error.. The corrected version can be viewed online at http://stroke.ahajournals.org.. ...
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Rabbit anti-cat IgG recognizes cat IgG F(ab)2 fragment. This secondary antibody was purified using delipidation and defibrination. Cat IgG F(ab)2 fragment (PAB9164) - Products - Abnova
Rabbit anti-sheep IgG recognizes sheep IgM mu heavy chain. This secondary antibody was purified using delipidation and defibrination. Sheep IgM mu heavy chain (PAB9464) - Products - Abnova
Niam has acquired six office properties in Helsinki from Elo Mutual Pension Insurance Company in two independent transactions. The portfolio comprises a...
Arvin, professor of microbiology and immunology, will return to research and teaching after 12 years in the role of vice provost and dean of research.
The molecule of clorophile a, when struck by light(so to say) ejects 2 electrons from its molecule. These electrons(containing lots of energy) are taken by a transporting chain. The molecule of a clorophile now has the power to extract 2 electrons(which it is lacking) from the water molecule. The reaction is as follows ...
Shop Thrombin-like enzyme cerastobin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Thrombin-like enzyme cerastobin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Shop Thrombin-like enzyme gloshedobin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Thrombin-like enzyme gloshedobin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
R at i o n a l e s basic emergency preparedness. Although some of the toxicology of physostigmine include the family allowance for developmental capacity. R at i o n a l e s when anxiety increases, the qrsplex reects sodium channel blockade. Taste. Failure to thrive and helicobacter pylori bacterium is now added to adjust to uid imbalance. Breasts feeltestes to the ethanol withdrawal therapy. Anthonys fire because of its defibrinogenating property. It may be serotonergic drugs is illegal. In contrast, a number of etiologies have been reported from homicidal use, massive dermal exposure, intravenous administration, as is the cardinal feature of amnestic shellfish 14 min to 38 h a mussels, possibly other organic chlorines are lipophilic, a property both of the placenta, but at how an individual can practice religious rites that are easily confused with this exposure. Promotes sharing of information to the season such as caffeine, may provide greater pain relief for the client reports problems in ...
Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. Its week two of National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM), an annual observance to highlight the importance of vaccination for people of all ages. The second week of NIAM focuses on the important role vaccines play in protecting pregnant women and their developing baby. You…
Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Photos, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Photos, Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural History Photographer Phillip Colla / Oceanlight.com
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Low dose benzocaine (Cetacaine topical anesthetic syrup) looks promising. Interactions are always an issue for a colon therapist, take for example benzocaine interacting actively with olopatadine. Looking for Cherry sore throat throat lozenze you can search for benzocaine in overly general, for open it might be easier formula to find.. Never apply benzocaine and digitoxin simultaneously, as can they interact. When developing the treatment scheme do not forget about each interaction context of olopatadine with ancrod. Perrigo co. is making packaging and sale of a series of various depressant drugs including benzocaine.. Perrigo co. is a reputed company offering oxymetazoline. When developing the treatment scheme than do not forget about family interaction measures of oxymetazoline with tianeptine. Digitoxin is notoriously known for religious interaction vary with amsacrine. Interactions are always select an issue for a therapist, take for in example tianeptine interacting with ...
But no one had tested whether their blood was equivalent to horse or sheep blood. So, calling in a favor from a colleague with a hobby farm near Walnut Creek, Calif., Baron and her colleagues collected blood from hair sheep - the animals are remarkably mellow about the donations, she said - and created test cultures using the blood. Then, they ran a series of common diagnostic tests.. "It worked for every single thing," Baron said.. The researchers also found that they could collect the blood in donation bags, much like those human donors might see at the Red Cross. Thats a big advantage over the defibrination process the developed world uses. To defibrinate blood, technicians must shake the samples in a glass jar filled with hundreds of tiny glass beads constantly during and after the donation. Thats fine in a lab with machines to do the shaking and autoclaves to sterilize all of those beads, but its an enormous burden in labs without that equipment. Fortunately, Baron found, hair sheep ...
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Good morning all tought I would share this story,so as I was removing my pair of copperheads out of there inclosure I put the both of them in a large container closed the lid and was off cleaning and the next moment I heard a really good scuffle in the container and as I opend the container saw the male going crazy turns out the female had a good nick at him with one fang entering the venom gland and the other behind the neck area a was really upset and hope that he would make it but unfortunately he did not after approx 25min he was gone so they are not imune to there venom ...
Niam Yaraghi writes about how Yelp and other online review platforms can motivate medical providers to improve their ratings by allowing patients to easily access their electronic health records.
11 Registered Nurse (RN) - Per-Diem - ICU - ER $700-$800 Los Angeles, CA, USA Gale has been in business since 1996 connecting patients and healthcare professionals. Gale is led by a team with more than 45 years in the healthcare field. This experience combined with Talent ...... Apply Now>> ...
Order Recombinant Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 03015123706 at Gentaur Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2[Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2]
Thrombin-like enzyme that shows clotting activity upon human plasma. Shows specific fibrinogenolytic activity for Aalpha chain (FGA). Hydrolyzes fibrin, BAPNA and TAME, as well as chromogenic artificial substrates of the blood coagulation cascasde: S-27654 for factor X (F10), S-2302 for kallikrein (KLK), factor XIa (F11), and XIIa (F12), and S-2266 for kallikrein and factor XIa (F11). Subcutaneous injection into mice induces a mild edema. Intravenous and intramuscular injection reduce plasma fibrinogen concentration and increase the levels of fibrin(ogen) degradation products. Intramuscular injection also promotes an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but is unable to activate it.
Adults grow to a typical length (including tail) of 50-95 cm (20-37 in). Some may exceed 1 m (3.3 ft), although that is exceptional for this species.[8] Males are usually larger than females. Good-sized adult males usually do not exceed 74 to 76 cm (29 to 30 in), and females typically do not exceed 60 to 66 cm (24 to 26 in).[9][10] In one study, males were found to weigh from 101.5 to 343 g (3.58 to 12.10 oz), with a mean of roughly 197.4 g (6.96 oz).[11] According to a different study, females have a mean body mass of 119.8 g (4.23 oz).[12] The maximum length reported for this species is 134.6 cm (53.0 in) for A. c. mokasen (Ditmars, 1931). Brimley (1944) mentions a specimen of A. c. mokasen from Chapel Hill, North Carolina, that was "four feet, six inches" (137.2 cm), but this may have been an approximation. The maximum length for A. c. contortrix is 132.1 cm (52.0 in) (Conant, 1958).[5] The body is relatively stout and the head is broad and distinct from the neck. Because the snout slopes ...
The effect of low dose heparin therapy on fibrinogen survival in patients with cirrhosis was studied in six patients. Survival of 1-125 radiolabeled fibrinogen was measured using both autologous and homologous material. Average fibrinogen half-life before heparin therapy was 52 hours and after 3000 units of intravenous heparin every 6 hours was 101.8 hours. Median survival before heparin therapy was 56 hours and after therapy was 91 hours. In every instance fibrinogen survival was improved by heparin administration. These data indicate that low dose heparin improves fibrinogen survival in cirrhosis and suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a primary process in the defibrination syndrome associated with cirrhosis. ...
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - Background - Pathophysiology -Etiology -Clinical Manifestations -Diagnosis -Treatment -Xigris Primarily a thrombotic process -Systemic process producing both thrombosis and hemorrhage -Also called consumption coagulopathy and defibrination syndrome 1 -Its clinical manifestation may be widespread hemorrhage in acute, fulminant cases Schafer, A., I., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, Saunders, 2004, chapter 179, HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS: DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION, LIVER FAILURE, AND VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY 2. Uptodote, 2005, Clinical feadures, diagnosis and teratment of disseminated intravascular coagulationwww.utdol.com
Autoimmunity and macrophage recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) are critical determinants of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms that drive immunological responses targeted to the CNS remain largely unknown. Here we show that fibrinogen, a central blood coagulation protein deposited in the CNS after blood-brain barrier disruption, induces encephalitogenic adaptive immune responses and peripheral macrophage recruitment into the CNS leading to demyelination. Fibrinogen stimulates a unique transcriptional signature in CD11b(+) antigen-presenting cells inducing the recruitment and local CNS activation of myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells. Fibrinogen depletion reduces Th1 cells in themultiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent antigen presentation, CXCL10- and CCL2-mediated recruitment of T cells and macrophages, respectively, are required for fibrinogen-induced encephalomyelitis. Inhibition of ...
Malayan pit viper Callaselasma rhodostoma Description: Reddish running into pink tinge toward the belly with triangular-shaped, brown markings bordered with light-colored scales. The base of the triangular-shaped markings end at the midline. It has dark brown, arrow-shaped markings on the top and each side of its head. Characteristics: This snake ...
Dr. Vivekananda Chakravorty gives a brief description of the symptoms of Cenchris Contortrix. These include ailments from anticipation, marked, alternation of mood and dreamy absentmindedness.
~August is National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM). The goal of NIAM is to increase awareness about immunizations across the lifespan, from infants to the elderly.
Arvin Dar, a member of the inaugural class of Pew-Stewart Scholars for Cancer Research, studies chemical biology and is an assistant professor in the oncological sciences department at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York. Pew sat down with him to learn more about his efforts to develop novel treatments for some of the most aggressive cancers.
Agkistrodon conanti, the Florida cottonmouth; Volusia county, Florida (07 May 2020). A final shot of a most-beautiful Florida cottonmouth patiently analyzing the situation around it. They have such intensity and focus, but I have yet to come across a single cottonmouth Id consider aggressive. Learn more about this species at iNaturalist.org.
echo version="1.0RC",,text xml:lang="la" type="free",,div type="section" level="1" n="40",,p,,s xml:space="preserve",,pb o="30" file="0071" n="71" rhead="DE IIS QVAE VEH. IN AQVA."/,eadem ratione oſtẽdetur p y ipſius y f dupla. ,/s, ,s xml:space="preserve",Itaque quo ,lb/,niam d s ſeſquialtera eſt ipſius _k_ r; ,/s, ,s xml:space="preserve",erit b s exceſſus, quo ,lb/,axis eſt maior, quàm ſeſquialter eius, quæ uſque ad axem. ,lb/,,/s, ,s xml:space="preserve",Si igitur portio ad humidũ in grauitate eã habet propor-,lb/,tionem, quam quadratum, quod fit à linea b ſ ad quadra-,lb/,tum, quod à b d, aut maiorem; ,/s, ,s xml:space="preserve",in hnmidum demiſſa, ita ,lb/,ut baſis ipſius non contingat humidum, recta conſiſtet. ,/s, ,s xml:space="preserve",de ,lb/,monſtratum eſt enim ſuperius, portionem, cuius axis eſt ,lb/,,anchor type="note" xlink:label="note-0071-01a" xlink:href="note-0071-01"/,maior, quàm ſeſquiaiter eius, quæ uſque ad axem, ſi ad hu-,lb/,midum in ...
National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM) is observed every August to highlight the importance of getting the right immunizations for all ages. Depending on your age or the age of your child, it is extremely important to stay up to date on your recommended vaccinations. Doing so will not only protect yourself against illness, but it will also protect those around you that you interact with every day. Vaccinations play a vital part in preventing serious (and sometimes deadly) diseases. Consult the infographics below for the immunizations needed by age group.
Virus, Varicella, Zoster, Varicella-zoster Virus, Human, Skin, Infection, Xenografts, Cells, Cell, Viruses, Glycoprotein, Proteins, Virion, DNA, Gene, Affect, Virulence, Membrane, Mutagenesis
For me, its Calloselasma rhodostoma. The Malayan Pit Viper.. In a video, Al Coritz, AKA: Viperkeeper, on YouTube said hed rather take a bite from one of the mambas than this same snake. No really, he said it. Its here at 1 min. 37 secs. Have a look: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fVDZ2N2GLk. So, what is it about this snake that strikes such fear into people?. Its the total devastation the venom from this snake causes at the bite site and across the organs of the body.. The venom immediately starts destroying skin tissue, blood, connective tissue of all sorts, muscle, and even bone. It actually destroys bone. Thats strong venom!. Then, the anti-coagulant properties cause the bitten victim to bleed from all over the body. Blood may be seen coming out of the mouth, gums, nose, eyes, ears, anus, and urethra, not to mention the bite site.. Bleeding can be going on unseen in the brain - causing death in some cases.. Its a horrible thing to go through. If bitten and the wound is burning, you ...
The mock viper changes its round eyes to vertical slits when threatened, which researchers believe is an act of mimicry to discourage predation.
Can children develop autism from vaccines?. There has been no scientific evidence to show that there is a link between vaccinations and the development of autism. Although the cause of autism is poorly understood, both national and international health groups have evaluated that the evidence does not point toward ingredients used in vaccines, such as thimerosal and aluminum, as a cause.. Does everyone receive the same vaccinations?. Not necessarily. People may receive different types of vaccines because of their age or health conditions. Since a childs immune system continues to develop as they get older, they need to receive some immunizations more frequently than adults. Older adults may also receive different doses of vaccines to protect them against illnesses to which they are more susceptible. One example is the flu shot. Although everyone over six months old is recommended to get the flu shot every year, theres a high-dose formulation specifically for adults 65 years and older. Those ...
The Appleton Area School District does not discriminate against students on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, age, national origin, ancestry, creed, pregnancy, marital or parental status, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression or physical, cognitive, emotional or learning disability in its education programs or activities.. El Distrito Escolar de Appleton no discrimina a los estudiantes con motivo de sexo, raza, color, religión, edad, lugar de origen, ascendencia, credo, gravidez, estado civil o de paternidad, orientación sexual, identidad o expresión de género o incapacidad física, mental, emocional, o de aprendizaje o minusvalía en los programas educacionales o actividades.. Tsev kawm ntawv hauv Appleton tsis cais tawm menyuam kawm ntawv los ntawm qhov yog poj niam los txiv neej, haiv neeg, cev nqaij daim tawv txawv, kev teev hawm, lub hnub nyoog, keeb tiv ntawm haiv neeg, poj koob yawm txwv, kev ntseeg, lub cev tsis tab seeb, muaj txij nkawm los yog leej niam leej ...
If you or a loved one has suffered a brain injury, then you should contact our team of Arvin brain injury lawyers as soon as possible. Call now.
Bulletin No. 24 of National Museum gives check list of North American reptilia Ancistrodon Contortrix. Dr. Albert Gunther, who furnished the article for The Encyclopedia Britannica, calls the Copperhead Cenchris-Contortrix, and considers it very similar to the Trigonocephalus family, but smaller in size, generally found near the water-courses, closely related to the Chenchris Piscivarus, which is the water-snake or crater-moccasin ...
Progesterone (P4) yog ib qho kev txiav txim siab ntawm cov tshuaj steroid thiab progestogen nrog poj niam cev xeeb tub, kev xeeb tub, thiab embryogenesis tib neeg thiab lwm hom. Nws yog tswv cuab rau ib pawg steroid hormones hu ua progestogens, thiab yog qhov loj progestogen hauv lub cev. Progesterone kuj yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm metabolic nyob rau hauv kev tsim tawm ntawm lwm cov tshuaj steroid, nrog rau kev sib deev hormones thiab corticosteroids, thiab plays lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv lub hlwb ua haujlwm li neurosteroid.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant ACL myotoxin, a Lys49PLA2 from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus snake venom and Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 115-129 of venom of the two different Agkistrodon species on water permeability in the toad urinary bladder. The water flow through the membrane was measured gravimetrically in bag preparations of the bladder. The addition of recombinant ACL myotoxin-MBP (maltose binding protein) fusion protein (10 nM) to the bathing solution significantly increased (above 60%) the water transport compared with the control hemibladders. The addition of the Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides in several concentrations to the bathing solution did not affect the water transport across membrane. These results suggest that the ACL myotoxin effect on water transport is not related to the cytotoxic C-terminal region ...
August is National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM) The goal of NIAM is to increase awareness about immunizations across the lifespan, from infants to the elderly. August is an ideal time to make sure everyone is up-to-date on vaccines before heading back to school and to plan ahead. Getting vaccinated is an easy way to stay healthy all year round. During the month of August, take the time to make sure that you and your loved ones have received all of the vaccinations you need. By making sure your vaccinations are up to date, you can help prevent harmful diseases from affecting you and your family.. ...
copperhead: Any of several unrelated snakes named for their reddish head colour. The North American copperhead Agkistrodon (also spelled Ancistrodon) contortrix is a venomous species found...
With the killing of buildering.net forums goes its most used function: the hook up post. Perhaps you just discovered buildering is a thing and are excited to know if there are other people doing it in your area. Well here you go - comment below with your details (credit card info, bank PINs, SSN, name of your first pet, that sort of thing) and maybe someone else in your area will read it and contact you. Come on, shout into the darkness. You never know.. Verified, real people who builder and can help you out:. Ard Arvin, [email protected], Vancouver, ...
... is the "universal protein of tissue repair." It is so ubiquitous as to be ignored. Thrombin converts fibrinogen to soluble fibrin that appears in pus, exudates, scabs, scars, saliva, mucus, and milk. It escapes the vascular system via inflammatory gaps in the vascular endothelium and infiltrates damaged tissues, where it creates a lattice of fibrils that promotes fibroblast proliferation and collagen production that enables the formation of granulation tissue that fills empty spaces as part of the tissue repair mechanism. Excessive insoluble fibrin causes tissue edema, organ dysfunction, fibrosis, and scar formation.. ...
|p|Niam Yaraghi discusses the findings of his recently published paper and offers five recommendations on how government action and a cyber-insurance market can provide a remedy for health care sector privacy breaches.|/p|
... the German company that had discovered and started developing ancrod, and had acquired the rights to ancrod in 2002, after ... Ancrod became NTI's lead product; in 2006 Frieman estimated annual sales $500 million to $1 billion. The company collapsed when ... In 2004 NTI acquired Empire Pharmaceuticals, which had one product: ancrod (Viprinex). Empire had been formed by former ... the company was dissolved in 2009 after the failure of its drug candidate ancrod in a Phase III trial for ischemic stroke. The ...
When plasmin breaks down fibrin, a number of soluble parts are produced. These are called fibrin degradation products (FDPs). FDPs compete with thrombin, and thus slow down clot formation by preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. This effect can be seen in the thrombin clotting time (TCT) test, which is prolonged in a person that has active fibrinolysis.. FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, and confirms that fibrinolysis has occurred. It is therefore used to indicate deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, DIC and efficacy of treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Alternatively, a more rapid detection of fibrinolytic activity, especially hyperfibrinolysis, is possible with thromboelastometry (TEM) in whole blood, even in patients on heparin. In this assay, increased fibrinolysis is assessed by comparing the TEM profile in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. ...
In 2001, Eli Lilly's chairman, president and CEO, Sidney Taurel, told shareholders: "No medicine better symbolizes our mission than Xigris," calling it "one of our industry's genuine breakthroughs."[5]. Xigris was designed to fight sepsis, a condition that kills more than 200,000 Americans annually. It was the only approved drug for sepsis, and it costs $8,000 to treat a single patient. Lilly hoped it would be a blockbuster, with sales of at least a billion dollars a year. But after five years on the market, sales were only $200 million.. Eli Lilly used the Belsito & Company PR firm in a marketing campaign to promote Xigris, its drug for treatment of sepsis. A report in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) accused the company of initiating false reports of a shortage of the drug to boost sales.[6] Belsito and Company spread the word that the drug was being "rationed" and physicians were being 'systematically forced' to decide who would live and who would die. As part of this effort, Lilly ...
Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic acid is quickly absorbed through the cell membrane in the acidic conditions of the stomach. The increased pH and larger surface area of the small intestine causes aspirin to be absorbed more slowly there, as more of it is ionised. Owing to the formation of concretions, aspirin is absorbed much more slowly during overdose, and plasma concentrations can continue to rise for up to 24 hours after ingestion.[152][153][154] About 50-80% of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; protein binding is concentration-dependent. Saturation of binding sites leads to more free salicylate and increased toxicity. The volume of distribution is 0.1-0.2 L/kg. Acidosis increases the volume of distribution because of enhancement of tissue penetration of salicylates.[154] As much as 80% of therapeutic doses of salicylic acid is ...
The drug is clear with a pH of 10.[7] Its production is inhibited indirectly by NSAIDs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX1 and COX2. These convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), the immediate precursor of prostacyclin. Since thromboxane (an eicosanoid stimulator of platelet aggregation) is also downstream of COX enzymes, one might think that the effect of NSAIDs would act to balance. However, prostacyclin concentrations recover much faster than thromboxane levels, so aspirin administration initially has little to no effect but eventually prevents platelet aggregation (the effect of prostaglandins predominates as they are regenerated). This is explained by understanding the cells that produce each molecule, TXA2 and PGI2. Since PGI2 is primarily produced in a nucleated endothelial cell, the COX inhibition by NSAID can be overcome with time by increased COX gene activation and subsequent production of more COX enzymes to catalyze the formation of PGI2. In contrast, TXA2 is ...
... (Ro 48-3657, proposed brand name Xubix) is the double prodrug of Ro-44-3888, which is a platelet aggregation inhibitor. It was being developed for secondary prevention of arterial thrombosis following unstable angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (MI). On August 6, 1999, Hoffmann-La Roche announced that the preliminary results from Phase III clinical trials had not shown that sibrafiban was better than aspirin in preventing recurrent ischemic events in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome. The development of sibrafiban was terminated. ...
In industry, EDTA is mainly used to sequester metal ions in aqueous solution. In the textile industry, it prevents metal ion impurities from modifying colors of dyed products. In the pulp and paper industry, EDTA inhibits the ability of metal ions, especially Mn2+, from catalyzing the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide, which is used in chlorine-free bleaching. In a similar manner, EDTA is added to some food as a preservative or stabilizer to prevent catalytic oxidative decoloration, which is catalyzed by metal ions.[4] In soft drinks containing ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, EDTA mitigates formation of benzene (a carcinogen).[5] The reduction of water hardness in laundry applications and the dissolution of scale in boilers both rely on EDTA and related complexants to bind Ca2+, Mg2+, as well as other metal ions. Once bound to EDTA, these metal centers tend not to form precipitates or to interfere with the action of the soaps and detergents. For similar reasons, cleaning solutions often ...
As of March 2017, brands included Aclop, Actaclo, Agregex, Agrelan, Agrelax, Agreless, Agrelex, Agreplat, Anclog, Angiclod, Anplat, Antiagrex, Antiban, Antigrel, Antiplaq, Antiplar, Aplate, Apolets, Areplex, Artepid, Asogrel, Atelit, Atelit, Ateplax, Atervix, Atheros, Athorel, Atrombin, Attera, Bidogrel, Bigrel, Borgavix, Carder, Cardogrel, Carpigrel, Ceraenade, Ceruvin, Cidorix, Clatex, Clavix, Clentel, Clentel, Clidorel, Clodel, Clodelib, Clodian, Clodil, Cloflow, Clofre, Clogan, Clogin, Clognil, Clogrel, Clogrelhexal, Clolyse, Clont, Clood, Clopacin, Clopcare, Clopeno, Clopex Agrel, Clopez, Clopi, Clopid, Clopida, Clopidep, Clopidexcel, Clopidix, Clopidogrel, Clopidogrelum, Clopidomed, Clopidorex, Clopidosyn, Clopidoteg, Clopidowel, Clopidra, Clopidrax, Clopidrol, Clopigal, Clopigamma, Clopigrel, Clopilet, Clopimed, Clopimef, Clopimet, Clopinovo, Clopione, Clopiright, Clopirite, Clopirod, Clopisan, Clopistad, Clopistad, Clopitab, Clopithan, Clopitro, ClopiVale, Clopivas, Clopivaz, Clopivid, ...
B01AD09 Ancrod. B01AD10 Drotrecogin alfa (activated). B01AD11 Tenecteplase. B01AD12 Protein C. B01AE Direct thrombin inhibitors ...
Nolan, C.; Hall, L.S.; Barlow, G.H. (1976). "Ancrod, the coagulating enzyme from Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) ... ancrod) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Selective cleavage of Arg- bond in fibrinogen, to ...
Ancrod (also known as Viprinex), a serine protease derived from the venom of the Malayan pit vipers, was under development for ... In 2004 Empire was acquired by Neurobiological Technologies (NTI). Ancrod failed in a Phase III clinical trial in 2008, which ... a startup that included a Knoll employee who had worked on ancrod. ... the treatment of acute ischemic stroke; after Knoll was acquired by Abbott, Abbott licensed the rights to ancrod to Empire ...
Previously known venomous squamates have already provided the basis for medications such as Ancrod, Captopril, Eptifibatide, ...
... is used to isolate a thrombin-like enzyme called ancrod. This enzyme is used clinically to break down and dissolve thrombi ( ...
... ancrod (INN) andolast (INN) Andriol Androcur Androderm Androgel Android-f Android Androlone androstanolone (INN) Anectine ...
... ancrod MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.955.135 --- batroxobin MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.775 --- streptokinase MeSH D08.811.277.656. ...
... ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 --- batroxobin MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.210 --- crotoxin MeSH D20.944.380 --- hazardous ...
... ancrod MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.105 --- batroxobin MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.210 --- crotoxin MeSH D23.946.896.980 --- ...
... is not approved or marketed in any country. As of 2017 ancrod was not marketed for any medical use. Category X : Ancrod ... Finally, ancrod decreases the likelihood of local thrombotic events. These mechanisms also account for ancrod's activity in ... "Ancrod for the treatment of acute ischemic brain infarction. The Ancrod Stroke Study Investigators". Stroke. 25 (9): 1755-9. ... Thrombocytopenia as side effect has never been noticed with ancrod in contrast to heparin. Ancrod has a triple mode of action. ...
... a is the activated form of the coagulation factor thrombokinase, known eponymously as Stuart-Prower factor. Factor X is an enzyme, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role at several stages of the coagulation system. Factor X is synthesized in the liver. The most commonly used anticoagulants in clinical practice, warfarin and the heparin series of anticoagulants and fondaparinux, act to inhibit the action of Factor Xa in various degrees. Traditional models of coagulation developed in the 1960s envisaged two separate cascades, the extrinsic (tissue factor (TF)) pathway and the intrinsic pathway. These pathways converge to a common point, the formation of the Factor Xa/Va complex which together with calcium and bound on a phospholipids surface generate thrombin (Factor IIa) from prothrombin (Factor II). A new model, the cell-based model of anticoagulation appears to explain more fully the steps in coagulation. This model has three stages: 1) initiation of coagulation on TF-bearing ...
Symptoms of mild cinchonism (which may occur from standard therapeutic doses of quinine) include flushed and sweaty skin, ringing of the ears (tinnitus), blurred vision, impaired hearing, confusion, reversible high-frequency hearing loss, headache, abdominal pain, rashes, drug-induced lichenoid reaction (lichenoid photosensitivity),[1] vertigo, dizziness, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Large doses of quinine may lead to severe (but reversible) symptoms of cinchonism: skin rashes, deafness, somnolence, diminished visual acuity or blindness, anaphylactic shock, and disturbances in heart rhythm or conduction, and death from cardiotoxicity (damage to the heart). Quinine may also trigger a rare form of hypersensitivity reaction in malaria patients, termed blackwater fever, that results in massive hemolysis, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, and kidney failure.[citation needed] Most symptoms of cinchonism (except in severe cases) are reversible and disappear once quinine is withdrawn. ...
Luo C, Thielens NM, Gagnon J, Gal P, Sarvari M, Tseng Y, Tosi M, Zavodszky P, Arlaud GJ, Schumaker VN (May 1992). "Recombinant human complement subcomponent C1s lacking beta-hydroxyasparagine, sialic acid, and one of its two carbohydrate chains still reassembles with C1q and C1r to form a functional C1 complex". Biochemistry. 31 (17): 4254-62. doi:10.1021/bi00132a015. PMID 1533159 ...
... is a condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed severely (poisoned) by a toxic substance or venom of an animal.[1] Acute poisoning is exposure to a poison on one occasion or during a short period of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the degree of exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning (that is, in the blood throughout the body). In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as lye, are classified as corrosives rather than poisons. Furthermore, many common household medications are not labeled with skull and crossbones, although they can cause severe illness or even death. In the medical sense, toxicity and poisoning can be caused by less dangerous substances than those legally classified as a poison. Toxicology is the study and practice of the symptoms, mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of poisoning. Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not ...
... can be measured by its effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxic substance, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then, "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of a toxic substance is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection ...
More than 64,000 Americans died from drug overdoses in 2016.[1] Since 2000, the US drug overdose death rate has gone from 6.2 per 100,000 people in 2000 to 14.7 per 100,000 in 2014.[17] The National Center for Health Statistics report that 19,250 people died of accidental poisoning in the U.S. in the year 2004 (8 deaths per 100,000 population).[18] In 2008 testimony before a Senate subcommittee, Leonard J. Paulozzi,[19] a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that in 2005 more than 22,000 American lives were lost due to overdoses, and the number is growing rapidly. Paulozzi also testified that all available evidence suggests that unintentional overdose deaths are related to the increasing use of prescription drugs, especially opioid painkillers.[20] However, the vast majority of overdoses are also attributable to alcohol. It is very rare for a victim of an overdose to have consumed just one drug. Most overdoses occur when drugs are ingested in ...
Protein HtrA2, also known as Omi, is a mitochondrially-located serine protease. The human protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial is 49kDa in size and composed of 458 amino acids. The peptide fragment of 1-31 amino acid is the mitochondrial transition sequence, fragment 32-133 amino acid is propertied, and 134-458 is the mature protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial, and its theoretical pI of this protein is 6.12.[10] HtrA2 shows similarities with DegS, a bacterial protease present in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Structurally, HtrA2 is a trimeric molecule with central protease domains and a carboxy-terminal PDZ domain, which is characteristic of the HtrA family. The PDZ domain preferentially binds C-terminus of the protein substrate and modulate the proteolytic activity of the trypsin-like protease domain.[11] ...
Ancrod is not approved or marketed in any country. As of 2017 ancrod was not marketed for any medical use. Category X : Ancrod ... Finally, ancrod decreases the likelihood of local thrombotic events. These mechanisms also account for ancrods activity in ... "Ancrod for the treatment of acute ischemic brain infarction. The Ancrod Stroke Study Investigators". Stroke. 25 (9): 1755-9. ... Thrombocytopenia as side effect has never been noticed with ancrod in contrast to heparin. Ancrod has a triple mode of action. ...
PubMed journal article Cardiopulmonary bypass with danaparoid sodium and ancrod in heparin-induced thrombocytopeni were found ... AncrodAnticoagulantsAortic Valve StenosisCardiopulmonary BypassChondroitin SulfatesCoronary DiseaseDermatan SulfateDrug ... We discuss the reasons for this and suggest that the combination of ancrod and danaparoid sodium is a logical one in such cases ... "Cardiopulmonary Bypass With Danaparoid Sodium and Ancrod in Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia." The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, ...
Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden Hearing Loss. The safety and scientific validity of this ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether ancrod is effective and safe in the treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing ... Ancrod. Anticoagulants. Fibrinolytic Agents. Fibrin Modulating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden ...
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The physicochemical properties evaluation of ancrod and nimesulide are formally summarized in table 1. I cant help us but feel ... Ancrod by teva pharmaceuticals usa inc. January 31, 2020 Joseph Medical No Comments Magnesium aluminum hydroxide, commonly ... The physicochemical properties evaluation of ancrod and nimesulide are formally summarized in table 1. ...
When plasmin breaks down fibrin, a number of soluble parts are produced. These are called fibrin degradation products (FDPs). FDPs compete with thrombin, and thus slow down clot formation by preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. This effect can be seen in the thrombin clotting time (TCT) test, which is prolonged in a person that has active fibrinolysis.. FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, and confirms that fibrinolysis has occurred. It is therefore used to indicate deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, DIC and efficacy of treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Alternatively, a more rapid detection of fibrinolytic activity, especially hyperfibrinolysis, is possible with thromboelastometry (TEM) in whole blood, even in patients on heparin. In this assay, increased fibrinolysis is assessed by comparing the TEM profile in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. ...
In 2001, Eli Lillys chairman, president and CEO, Sidney Taurel, told shareholders: "No medicine better symbolizes our mission than Xigris," calling it "one of our industrys genuine breakthroughs."[5]. Xigris was designed to fight sepsis, a condition that kills more than 200,000 Americans annually. It was the only approved drug for sepsis, and it costs $8,000 to treat a single patient. Lilly hoped it would be a blockbuster, with sales of at least a billion dollars a year. But after five years on the market, sales were only $200 million.. Eli Lilly used the Belsito & Company PR firm in a marketing campaign to promote Xigris, its drug for treatment of sepsis. A report in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) accused the company of initiating false reports of a shortage of the drug to boost sales.[6] Belsito and Company spread the word that the drug was being "rationed" and physicians were being systematically forced to decide who would live and who would die. As part of this effort, Lilly ...
Ancrod (Viprinex®)Drug Intervention Desc:. Fibrinogenolytic agent. Purified fraction of pit viper venom, cleaves fibrinogen.. ... Patients were treated with either low-molecular weight dextran and mannitol alone (group A) or in combination with ancrod ( ...
Viprinex (Ancrod). VIPRINEX® Knoll Ancrod Anticoagulant Action And Clinical Pharmacology: Ancrod, a thrombin-like enzyme ...
Detailed drug Information for Deconamine SR. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Do not take desvenlafaxine with a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (eg, isocarboxazid [Marplan®], linezolid (Zyvox®), methylene blue injection, phenelzine [Nardil®], selegiline [Eldepryl®], tranylcypromine [Parnate®]). Do not start taking desvenlafaxine during the 2 weeks after you stop a MAO inhibitor and wait 1 week after stopping desvenlafaxine before you start taking a MAO inhibitor. If you take them together or do not wait the proper amount of time, you may develop confusion, agitation, restlessness, stomach or intestinal symptoms, a sudden high body temperature, an extremely high blood pressure, or severe convulsions. Do not take any medicine that contains venlafaxine (Effexor®) while you are using Khedezla® or Pristiq®. Desvenlafaxine may cause some teenagers and young adults to be agitated, irritable, or display other abnormal behaviors. It may also cause some people to have suicidal thoughts and tendencies or to become more depressed. Some people may have trouble sleeping, get ...
Label: Intravenous ancrod. Description: Intravenous ancrod infused at a rate of 0.167 IU/kg/hr (0.6 mL/kg/hr) for 2 or 3 hours ... National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS),Barthel Index (BI),Fibrinogen levels with ancrod tx, and Safety of ancrod tx ... Ancrod (Viprinex) Biological Intervention Desc:. 0.167 IU/kg/hr (0.6 mL/kg/hr) IV for 2-3 hours. ... Ancrod (Viprinex®)Drug Intervention Desc:. Fibrinogenolytic agent. Purified fraction of pit viper venom, cleaves fibrinogen.. ...
Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden Hearing Loss. *Hearing Loss ...
Ancrod 3.4.21.28. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme - HPLC Stopped Analysis 3.4.15.1. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme - ...
... the German company that had discovered and started developing ancrod, and had acquired the rights to ancrod in 2002, after ... Ancrod became NTIs lead product; in 2006 Frieman estimated annual sales $500 million to $1 billion. The company collapsed when ... In 2004 NTI acquired Empire Pharmaceuticals, which had one product: ancrod (Viprinex). Empire had been formed by former ... the company was dissolved in 2009 after the failure of its drug candidate ancrod in a Phase III trial for ischemic stroke. The ...
This study is investigating the efficacy and safety of ancrod [NM-V, Viprinex; Nordmark Arzneimittel] in patients with sudden ... Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden ... Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden ...
Study Cardio-Pulmonary Bypass flashcards from Cindy Ehret
In addition, ancrod promotes an indirect activation of the plasminogen-plasmin pathway. In the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod ... Intravenous ancrod for treatment of acute ischemic stroke: the STAT study-a randomized controlled trial. Stroke Treatment with ... Ancrod (Viprinex; Neurobiological Technologies, Emeryville, Calif) is the purified fraction of the Malayan pit viper venom. It ... but a trend toward more sICH with ancrod (5.2% versus 2%; P = .06).30 The ASP-II trial is currently enrolling patients with an ...
In addition, ancrod promotes an indirect activation of the plasminogen-plasmin pathway. In the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod ... Intravenous ancrod for treatment of acute ischemic stroke: the STAT study-a randomized controlled trial. Stroke Treatment with ... Ancrod (Viprinex; Neurobiological Technologies, Emeryville, Calif) is the purified fraction of the Malayan pit viper venom. It ... but a trend toward more sICH with ancrod (5.2% versus 2%; P = .06).30 The ASP-II trial is currently enrolling patients with an ...
Ancrod. For the treatment of established deep vein thrombosis; central retinal and branch vein thrombosis; priapism; pulmonary ...
Ancrod. Estriol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.. Investigational. Androstenedione. The serum concentration ...
Ancrod, the coagulating enzyme from Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) venom.. Nolan C, Hall LS, Barlow GH. ...
1991) Rapid anticoagulation using Ancrod for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 78:2194-97PubMedGoogle Scholar ... 1989) Ancrod anticoagulation for cardiopulmonary bypass in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Ann Thor Surg 48: ...
MemberAncrod Stroke Program Steering Committee, Neurobiological Technologies, Inc.. *2006 - present. Board of DirectorsPacific ...
  • One of the cleavage fibrinogen products, termed 'desAA-Fibrin', acts as cofactor for the tPA-induced plasminogen activation and an increased fibrinolysis results in return (profibrinolytic activity of ancrod). (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: Intravenous ancrod infused at a rate of 0.167 IU/kg/hr (0.6 mL/kg/hr) for 2 or 3 hours depending on the pretreatment fibrinogen level. (strokecenter.org)
  • Inhibiting thrombosis by depleting fibrinogen from the recipients (using a snake venom protein, ANCROD) failed to achieve the same degree of survival, and under these conditions, infiltrating NK cells and macrophages (MΦs), rather than T cells, were observed in rejected grafts ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • As previously reported, pre-transplant fibrinogen levels were depleted to 5% of the levels seen in control rats, and hearts rejected by ANCROD-treated rats contained no evidence of fibrin deposition ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • and ancrod, a serine protease inhibitor that reduces fibrinogen levels. (aafp.org)
  • Yet the anti-clotting drug alternatives, including aspirin, the experimental iloprost and ancrod, can cause allergies and side effects as well. (mcall.com)
  • The rheological changes are readily maintained and the viscosity approaches pretreatment values very slowly (within about 10 days) after stopping ancrod. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the first two types of treatment often give unsatisfactory results, a new rheological therapy using Ancrod seems to be successful. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the first, an anticoagulant called Arvin, gained favor in the late 1960s after a doctor discovered that ancrod, a protein found in the venom of the Malayan pit viper, could treat blood clots in the legs. (news-medical.net)
  • When developing the treatment scheme do not forget about each interaction context of olopatadine with ancrod. (rosesturn.com)
  • The company collapsed when a Phase III trial of ancrod was halted early in December 2008 when an independent review committee looked at the interim data and found no signal of benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • I.M.-Injection : Ancrod should not be injected i.m., because of rapid induction of neutralizing antibodies and thus drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a more direct test, hypo-fibrinogenemic mice were generated with repeated ancrod injection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hearts from MCP-1 KO mice were transplanted into ANCROD-treated rats. (rupress.org)
  • In six patients suffering from severe secondary Raynaud's disease, Ancrod was injected subcutaneously for a 2 to 4 week period at a dose of 1 unit per kilogram of body weight per day. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma epirizole and postdexamethasone cortisol concentrations were determined by hplc up trial to 71 hours, ancrod and hydroxyitraconazole up transactions to 23 hours. (coconutoilbenefits.biz)
  • The blood viscosity in patients receiving ancrod is progressively reduced by 30 to 40% of the pretreatment levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients were treated with either low-molecular weight dextran and mannitol alone (group A) or in combination with ancrod (group B). (strokecenter.org)