Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Day Care: Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Hearing Loss, Sudden: Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hearing Loss, Unilateral: Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Nafronyl: A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Carboxypeptidase U: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal lysine and arginine from biologically active peptides and proteins thereby regulating their activity. It is a zinc enzyme with no preference shown for lysine over arginine. Pro-carboxypeptidase U in human plasma is activated by thrombin or plasmin during clotting to form the unstable carboxypeptidase U.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Suggestion: The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.PropylaminesFinancial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Craniospinal Irradiation: A comprehensive radiation treatment of the entire CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Therapeutic Misconception: Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Hydroxyestrones: Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Receptor, PAR-1: A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Receptor, PAR-2: A G-protein-coupled, proteinase-activated receptor that is expressed in a variety of tissues including ENDOTHELIUM; LEUKOCYTES; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. The receptor is activated by TRYPSIN, which cleaves off the N-terminal peptide from the receptor. The new N-terminal peptide is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The uncleaved receptor can also be activated by the N-terminal peptide present on the activated THROMBIN RECEPTOR and by small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal sequence.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Receptors, Proteinase-Activated: A class of receptors that are activated by the action of PROTEINASES. The most notable examples are the THROMBIN RECEPTORS. The receptors contain cryptic ligands that are exposed upon the selective proteolysis of specific N-terminal cleavage sites.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Receptors, Thrombin: A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Development of an ischemic stroke survival score. (1/41)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been substantial interest in identifying predictors of survival for stroke patients. Current instruments used for measuring stroke severity are confined to either neurological, functional, or disability measures. The purpose of this study was to develop a stroke survival score that combines instruments from different domains to better predict long-term survival. METHODS: We took advantage of a particularly broad array of clinical and physiological variables collected during the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod Trial. Four hundred fifty-three patients completed a battery of instruments at day 7 after stroke and then were followed for 1 year. RESULTS: Of the 453 patients, 53% were male, 77% were aged 65 years or older, and 89% were white. One hundred nine patients (24%) died during the study period. Age was a highly significant predictor of mortality (P<0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences in 12-month survival with respect to sex, race, or educational level. The best model for predicting survival was the Ischemic Stroke Survival Score. This model included the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, Rapid Disability Rating Scale, age, and prior stroke. This model had substantially greater predictive power (R(2)=0.30, c statistic=0.86) than the Scandinavian Stroke Scale alone (R(2)=0.20, c statistic=0.78). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that combining day 7 poststroke information from multiple domains substantially improves the ability to predict 12-month survival of ischemic stroke patients compared with data from a single domain. The high mortality rate emphasizes the importance of preventive measures for a disease that has identifiable and modifiable risk factors.  (+info)

Analysis of fibrin formation and proteolysis during intravenous administration of ancrod. (2/41)

Ancrod is a purified fraction of venom from the Malayan pit viper, Calloselasma rhodostoma, currently under investigation for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Treatment with ancrod leads to fibrinogen depletion. The present study investigated the mechanisms leading to the reduction of plasma fibrinogen concentration. Twelve healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of 0.17 U/kg body weight of ancrod for 6 hours. Blood samples were drawn and analyzed before and at various time points until 72 hours after start of infusion. Ancrod releases fibrinopeptide A from fibrinogen, leading to the formation of desAA-fibrin monomer. In addition, a considerable proportion of desA-profibrin is formed. Production of desA-profibrin is highest at low concentrations of ancrod, whereas desA-profibrin is rapidly converted to desAA-fibrin at higher concentrations of ancrod. Both desA-profibrin and desAA-fibrin monomers form fibrin complexes. A certain proportion of complexes carries exposed fibrin polymerization sites E(A), indicating that the terminal component of the protofibril is a desAA-fibrin monomer unit. Soluble fibrin complexes potentiate tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced plasminogen activation. Significant amounts of plasmin are formed when soluble fibrin in plasma reaches a threshold concentration, leading to the proteolytic degradation of fibrinogen and fibrin. In the present setting, high concentrations of soluble fibrin are detected after 1 hour of ancrod infusion, whereas a rise in fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products, and plasmin-alpha(2)-plasmin inhibitor complex levels is first detected after 2 hours of ancrod infusion. Ancrod treatment also results in the appearance of cross-inked fibrin degradation product D-dimer in plasma. (Blood. 2000;96:2793-2802)  (+info)

The effect of angrod on the delayed hypersensitivity response in rats. (3/41)

Delayed hypersensitivity was induced in rats by means of sheep erythrocytes and bovine serum albumin-lipid conjugate. Administration of heparin to rats sensitized to either antigen resulted in diminution of the delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Administration of ancrod, however, failed to inhibit the delayed cellular reaction to either antigen. Granuloma formation remained unaffected when rats were injected with either heparin or ancrod. The lack of ancrod effect, in contrast to heparin effect, on delayed hypersensitivity is discussed.  (+info)

A quantitative evaluation of anticoagulants in experimental nephrotoxic nephritis. (4/41)

The protective effects of anticoagulants in nephrotoxic nephritis in rabbits have been studied, using various doses of heparin and defibrination with ancrod. Massive doses of heparin (2000 units/kg/day) were required before significant reduction in glomerular fibrin deposition, extracepillary cell proliferation and urea retention occurred. Doses of 300 and 1000 units/kg/day were insufficient to modify fibrin deposition and cell proliferation. Defibrination with ancrod provided protection, judged by histological and functional criteria, comparable to 2000 units of heparin/kg/day; but fibrin could still be demonstrated in the glomeruli of animals treated with 2000 units of heparin/kg/day, contrasting with the virtual absence of fibrin in animals given ancrod.  (+info)

The effects of defibrination with ancrod in experimental allergic glomerular injury. (5/41)

Quantitative studies of the effects of defibrination (with ancrod) have been undertaken in two forms of allergic glomerular damage, nephrotoxic serum nephritis and acute serum sickness in rabbits. No differences in intrarenal fixation of nephrotoxic antibody, complement activation or host antibody response were detected between defibrinated and untreated rabbits with nephrotoxic serum nephritis. Defibrination prevented intraglomerular fibrin deposition in this disease; but some glomerular damage as shown by a rise in blood urea and endothelial proliferation still occurred in defibrinated animals. No differences in immune elimination of BSA, circulating immune complex formation or intrarenal localization of immune complexes were noted in defibrinated animals with acute serum sickness. No intraglomerular fibrin deposition was detected in treated or untreated animals in this disease model. It is concluded that the protective effects of ancrod are directly related to defibrination, and not to any other modification of allergic events.  (+info)

Fibrinogen depletion attenuates Staphyloccocus aureus infection by preventing density-dependent virulence gene up-regulation. (6/41)

Staphylococcus aureus undergoes a density-dependent conversion in phenotype from tissue-adhering to tissue-damaging and phagocyte-evading that is mediated in part by the quorum-sensing operon, agr, and its effector, RNAIII. Contributions of host factors to this mechanism for regulating virulence have not been studied. We hypothesized that fibrinogen, as a component of the inflammatory response, could create spatially constrained microenvironments around bacteria that increase density independently of bacterial numbers and thus potentiate quorum-sensing-dependent virulence gene expression. Here we show that transient fibrinogen depletion significantly reduces the bacterial burden and the consequential morbidity and mortality during experimental infection with wild-type S. aureus, but not with bacteria that lack expression of the quorum-sensing operon, agr. In addition, it inhibits in vivo activation of the promoter for the agr effector, RNAIII, and downstream targets of RNAIII, including alpha hemolysin and capsule production. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism for promoting this phenotypic switch in virulence involves clumping of the bacteria, demonstrating that S. aureus responds to fibrinogen-mediated bacterial clumping by enhancing density-dependent virulence gene expression. These data demonstrate that down-modulation of specific inflammatory components of the host that augment bacterial quorum sensing can be a strategy for enhancing host defense against infection.  (+info)

Embolization itself stimulates thrombus propagation in pulmonary embolism. (7/41)

The role of active thrombosis in the pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that venous thrombi significantly increase their thrombotic activity once they embolize into the high-flow circulation of the pulmonary arteries. Thrombotic activity was measured using an immunoassay that measures both fibrinopeptide B (FPB) as well as its most abundant metabolite des-arginine FPB. Thrombi were formed in the femoral veins of adult dogs. In one group, the thrombi were embolized without anticoagulation. In the second group, heparin (300 U/kg bolus, then 90 U x kg(-1) x h(-1) infusion) was administered before embolization to prevent subsequent thrombotic activity. Plasma FPB concentrations were significantly suppressed in the heparinized group relative to the nonheparinized group for 1 h postembolization (P = 0.038). We conclude that pulmonary embolization itself causes preexisting venous thrombi to greatly intensify their thrombotic activity and that embolization-associated thrombus propagation can be prevented by heparin.  (+info)

Soluble fibrin is the main mediator of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to platelets. (8/41)

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Platelets play a dual role as adhesive cells forming associates with bacteria as well as specialized inflammatory cells. The specific role of the various factors involved in bacteria-platelet association has not yet been fully elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We observed a dramatic increase in the capability to bind S aureus when platelets were activated with thrombin (from 5% to 30%, P<0.001). To pinpoint platelet-binding sites involved in the interaction, platelets from knockout mice and from patients with selective inherited deficiency of membrane proteins or of granules were used. CD36, GPIIb/IIIa, and P-selectin were excluded as receptors for S aureus. Platelets from patients with alpha-delta-storage pool disease and Gray platelet syndrome indicate the requirement of alpha-granule contents. Platelet activation by ADP did not promote platelet-S aureus associate formation, although these platelets were covered with bound fibrinogen. Only small numbers of associates between fibrinogen-covered bacteria and ADP-activated platelets were observed. Formation of fibrin alone was also not sufficient to induce association. Only when fibrin formation and platelet activation occurred together were large numbers of associates formed (P<0.001). A potential receptor for fibrin on S aureus is clumping factor A. Addition of thrombospondin-1 to control platelets increased the number of associates (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Soluble fibrin but not fibrinogen is the main mediator of platelet-S aureus association. In addition, platelet activation and the release of alpha-granule contents, particularly thrombospondin-1, is a requirement for platelet-S aureus association.  (+info)

*Ancrod

... is not approved or marketed in any country. As of 2017 ancrod was not marketed for any medical use. Category X : Ancrod ... Finally, ancrod decreases the likelihood of local thrombotic events. These mechanisms also account for ancrod's activity in ... "Ancrod for the treatment of acute ischemic brain infarction. The Ancrod Stroke Study Investigators". Stroke. 25 (9): 1755-9. ... Thrombocytopenia as side effect has never been noticed with ancrod in contrast to heparin. Ancrod has a triple mode of action. ...

*Neurobiological Technologies

... the German company that had discovered and started developing ancrod, and had acquired the rights to ancrod in 2002, after ... Ancrod became NTI's lead product; in 2006 Frieman estimated annual sales $500 million to $1 billion. The company collapsed when ... In 2004 NTI acquired Empire Pharmaceuticals, which had one product: ancrod (Viprinex). Empire had been formed by former ... the company was dissolved in 2009 after the failure of its drug candidate ancrod in a Phase III trial for ischemic stroke. The ...

*Venombin A

Nolan, C.; Hall, L.S.; Barlow, G.H. (1976). "Ancrod, the coagulating enzyme from Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) ... ancrod) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Selective cleavage of Arg- bond in fibrinogen, to ...

*Knoll Pharmaceuticals

Ancrod (also known as Viprinex), a serine protease derived from the venom of the Malayan pit vipers, was under development for ... In 2004 Empire was acquired by Neurobiological Technologies (NTI). Ancrod failed in a Phase III clinical trial in 2008, which ... a startup that included a Knoll employee who had worked on ancrod. ... the treatment of acute ischemic stroke; after Knoll was acquired by Abbott, Abbott licensed the rights to ancrod to Empire ...

*Toxicofera

Previously known venomous squamates have already provided the basis for medications such as Ancrod, Captopril, Eptifibatide, ...

*Agkistrodon

... is used to isolate a thrombin-like enzyme called ancrod. This enzyme is used clinically to break down and dissolve thrombi ( ...

*List of drugs: An-Ap

... ancrod (INN) andolast (INN) Andriol Androcur Androderm Androgel Android-f Android Androlone androstanolone (INN) Anectine ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... ancrod MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.760.955.135 --- batroxobin MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.775 --- streptokinase MeSH D08.811.277.656. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D20)

... ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 --- batroxobin MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.210 --- crotoxin MeSH D20.944.380 --- hazardous ...

*ATC code B01

B01AD03 Anistreplase B01AD04 Urokinase B01AD05 Fibrinolysin B01AD06 Brinase B01AD07 Reteplase B01AD08 Saruplase B01AD09 Ancrod ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... ancrod MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.105 --- batroxobin MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.210 --- crotoxin MeSH D23.946.896.980 --- ...
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Forty seven culture proven cases of meningococcemia and or meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis were diagnosed and treated. In nineteen other cases that were treated, meningococcal disease was strongly suspected despite negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Particular attention was given to the early detection and therapy of the defibrination syndrome (diffuse intravascular clotting or DIC) in these patients. This entity is now recognized as the most common fatal complication of meningococcemia and is a problem of great significance to the overall military mission because of the high incidence of meningococcal disease in military recruits. This paper documents observations in detail. (Author)(*NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS
The present data support evidence that thrombin, generated spontaneously at or within the exposed aortic subendothelium after injury, is involved directly with the rapid deposition of fibrin(ogen) and platelets on the exposed surface of the subendothelium in vivo (Fig 4a⇑); evidence of polymerized fibrin with a periodicity of 25 nm27 was frequently observed between aggregated platelets (Fig 4a⇑, inset). We also conclude that pretreatment with various anticoagulants that either inhibited thrombin production or activity or fibrin(ogen) deposition reduced substantially the accumulation of aggregated platelets and associated fibrin(ogen) at the surface of the exposed subendothelium. Thus, pretreatment of the rabbit with r-hirudin led to a parallel decrease in the quantities of adsorbed fibrinogen and platelets in the platelet layer (Tables 1⇑ and 2⇑), the higher dose of r-hirudin (5 mg/kg) reducing the uptake of fibrinogen by ≈70% and platelets by 80%. Kelly et al28 reported a similar ...
In the article "Ancrod in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of 500 Subjects Beginning Treatment Within 6 Hours of Stroke Onset in the Ancrod Stroke Program", by Levy et al,1 an author is missing from the byline. E. Bernd Ringelstein, MD, FAHA, FESO should be listed before Carmen Spatareanu, MD. The publisher regrets this error.. The corrected version can be viewed online at http://stroke.ahajournals.org.. ...
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Neurobiological Technologies, Inc. (NASDAQ: NTII) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing innovative and leading agents for central nervous system conditions and other serious medical conditions. The company seeks out drug candidates related to the central nervous system, and develops therapies for neurological conditions that occur in connection with dementia, Alzheimers disease, ischemic stroke, neuropathic pain, and brain cancer. They employ a strategy of in-licensing late-stage CNS agents and strive to gain regulatory approval and commercialization, either independently or with a strategic partner. Neurobiological Technologies most advanced product candidate is Viprinex™ (ancrod), a drug for treating acute ischemic stroke. The product is in Phase 3 of clinical testing as a novel investigational drug with multiple mechanisms of action that are specifically designed to double the time period that patients can be treated after the onset of a stroke. Acute ischemic stroke is one ...
Rabbit anti-sheep IgG recognizes sheep IgM mu heavy chain. This secondary antibody was purified using delipidation and defibrination. Sheep IgM mu heavy chain (PAB9464) - Products - Abnova
Rabbit anti-cat IgG recognizes cat IgG F(ab)2 fragment. This secondary antibody was purified using delipidation and defibrination. Cat IgG F(ab)2 fragment (PAB9164) - Products - Abnova
Niam has acquired six office properties in Helsinki from Elo Mutual Pension Insurance Company in two independent transactions. The portfolio comprises a...
Arvin, professor of microbiology and immunology, will return to research and teaching after 12 years in the role of vice provost and dean of research.
The molecule of clorophile a, when struck by light(so to say) ejects 2 electrons from its molecule. These electrons(containing lots of energy) are taken by a transporting chain. The molecule of a clorophile now has the power to extract 2 electrons(which it is lacking) from the water molecule. The reaction is as follows ...
Shop Thrombin-like enzyme cerastobin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Thrombin-like enzyme cerastobin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Shop Thrombin-like enzyme gloshedobin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Thrombin-like enzyme gloshedobin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
R at i o n a l e s basic emergency preparedness. Although some of the toxicology of physostigmine include the family allowance for developmental capacity. R at i o n a l e s when anxiety increases, the qrsplex reects sodium channel blockade. Taste. Failure to thrive and helicobacter pylori bacterium is now added to adjust to uid imbalance. Breasts feeltestes to the ethanol withdrawal therapy. Anthonys fire because of its defibrinogenating property. It may be serotonergic drugs is illegal. In contrast, a number of etiologies have been reported from homicidal use, massive dermal exposure, intravenous administration, as is the cardinal feature of amnestic shellfish 14 min to 38 h a mussels, possibly other organic chlorines are lipophilic, a property both of the placenta, but at how an individual can practice religious rites that are easily confused with this exposure. Promotes sharing of information to the season such as caffeine, may provide greater pain relief for the client reports problems in ...
Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. Its week two of National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM), an annual observance to highlight the importance of vaccination for people of all ages. The second week of NIAM focuses on the important role vaccines play in protecting pregnant women and their developing baby. You…
Fibrin depositions trigger the development of inflammatory mass lesions in MMP9−/−:Plg−/− mice. (A,B) Microscopic lesions in 8- and 12-week-old Plg−/
La serpiente cabeza de cobre (Agkistrodon contortrix) es una especie de reptil venenoso de la familia Viperidae y subfamilia Crotalinae. Habita en Estados Unidos y México. A. c. contortrix A. c. laticinctus A. c. mokasen A. c. pictigaster Linnaeus, C. 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, Holmiae. 1-532 pp. McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume). Sistema Integrado de Información Taxonómica. «Agkistrodon contortrix (TSN 174296)» (en inglés). Frost, D.R., Hammerson, G.A. & Santos-Barrera, G. (2007). «Agkistrodon contortrix». Lista Roja de especies amenazadas de la UICN 2006 (en inglés). Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2009. Brimley CS. 1944. Amphibians and ...
Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Photos, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Photos, Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural History Photographer Phillip Colla / Oceanlight.com
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
But no one had tested whether their blood was equivalent to horse or sheep blood. So, calling in a favor from a colleague with a hobby farm near Walnut Creek, Calif., Baron and her colleagues collected blood from hair sheep - the animals are remarkably mellow about the donations, she said - and created test cultures using the blood. Then, they ran a series of common diagnostic tests.. "It worked for every single thing," Baron said.. The researchers also found that they could collect the blood in donation bags, much like those human donors might see at the Red Cross. Thats a big advantage over the defibrination process the developed world uses. To defibrinate blood, technicians must shake the samples in a glass jar filled with hundreds of tiny glass beads constantly during and after the donation. Thats fine in a lab with machines to do the shaking and autoclaves to sterilize all of those beads, but its an enormous burden in labs without that equipment. Fortunately, Baron found, hair sheep ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
The Brown & Bryant, Inc. (Arvin Plant) covers about 5 acres in Arvin, California. The company began operations in 1960 as a formulator of agricultural chemicals including fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and fumigants. During inspections by State agencies, improper handling and disposal of hazardous wastes at the facility have been documented. Accidental spills of pesticides have occurred at the site. In 1979, an evaporation pond was built in the southeastern corner of the site. When the facility was operating, the pond received pesticide rinse water and surface runoff from the site. As a result of heavy rains, this pond overflowed on at least two occasions. The closest public well is located about 1,700 feet south and downgradient of the site. The Arvin Community Services District maintains six municipal groundwater wells within 1 mile of the site. The public water system supplies drinking water to approximately 7,800 people and irrigates about 19,600 acres of cropland. The area ...
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Thrombin-like enzyme that shows clotting activity upon human plasma. Shows specific fibrinogenolytic activity for Aalpha chain (FGA). Hydrolyzes fibrin, BAPNA and TAME, as well as chromogenic artificial substrates of the blood coagulation cascasde: S-27654 for factor X (F10), S-2302 for kallikrein (KLK), factor XIa (F11), and XIIa (F12), and S-2266 for kallikrein and factor XIa (F11). Subcutaneous injection into mice induces a mild edema. Intravenous and intramuscular injection reduce plasma fibrinogen concentration and increase the levels of fibrin(ogen) degradation products. Intramuscular injection also promotes an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but is unable to activate it.
The effect of low dose heparin therapy on fibrinogen survival in patients with cirrhosis was studied in six patients. Survival of 1-125 radiolabeled fibrinogen was measured using both autologous and homologous material. Average fibrinogen half-life before heparin therapy was 52 hours and after 3000 units of intravenous heparin every 6 hours was 101.8 hours. Median survival before heparin therapy was 56 hours and after therapy was 91 hours. In every instance fibrinogen survival was improved by heparin administration. These data indicate that low dose heparin improves fibrinogen survival in cirrhosis and suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a primary process in the defibrination syndrome associated with cirrhosis. ...
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - Background - Pathophysiology -Etiology -Clinical Manifestations -Diagnosis -Treatment -Xigris Primarily a thrombotic process -Systemic process producing both thrombosis and hemorrhage -Also called consumption coagulopathy and defibrination syndrome 1 -Its clinical manifestation may be widespread hemorrhage in acute, fulminant cases Schafer, A., I., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, Saunders, 2004, chapter 179, HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS: DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION, LIVER FAILURE, AND VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY 2. Uptodote, 2005, Clinical feadures, diagnosis and teratment of disseminated intravascular coagulationwww.utdol.com
Autoimmunity and macrophage recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) are critical determinants of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms that drive immunological responses targeted to the CNS remain largely unknown. Here we show that fibrinogen, a central blood coagulation protein deposited in the CNS after blood-brain barrier disruption, induces encephalitogenic adaptive immune responses and peripheral macrophage recruitment into the CNS leading to demyelination. Fibrinogen stimulates a unique transcriptional signature in CD11b(+) antigen-presenting cells inducing the recruitment and local CNS activation of myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells. Fibrinogen depletion reduces Th1 cells in themultiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent antigen presentation, CXCL10- and CCL2-mediated recruitment of T cells and macrophages, respectively, are required for fibrinogen-induced encephalomyelitis. Inhibition of ...
Malayan pit viper Callaselasma rhodostoma Description: Reddish running into pink tinge toward the belly with triangular-shaped, brown markings bordered with light-colored scales. The base of the triangular-shaped markings end at the midline. It has dark brown, arrow-shaped markings on the top and each side of its head. Characteristics: This snake ...
Raws li txoj cai Every Student Succeeds Act, cov niam txiv muaj cai nug kom paub txog cov xib fwb qhia ntawv uas qhia ntawv rau lawv tus me nyuam thiab cov neeg uas pab tus xib fwb qhia ntawv seb lawv txawj thiab kawm ntawv siab npaum li cas. Cov niam txiv uas xav paub txog tej li hais no muaj peev xwm sau tau ntawv mus rau Human Resource department, Attn: ESSA Teacher Qualifications, Saint Paul Public Schools, 360 Colborne Street, Saint Paul, MN 55102-3299. Nej muaj cai nug txog cov nram qab no ntsig txog nej tus me nyuam tus xib fwb qhia ntawv.. ...
~August is National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM). The goal of NIAM is to increase awareness about immunizations across the lifespan, from infants to the elderly.
Blame Michael Jackson. Had it not been for the pop stars iconic music video Thriller, Arvin Clay might have found something way more boring to ...
Arvin Dar, a member of the inaugural class of Pew-Stewart Scholars for Cancer Research, studies chemical biology and is an assistant professor in the oncological sciences department at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York. Pew sat down with him to learn more about his efforts to develop novel treatments for some of the most aggressive cancers.
4GSO: Crystal structure of Jararacussin-I: The highly negatively charged catalytic interface contributes to macromolecular selectivity in snake venom thrombin-like enzymes.
National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM) is observed every August to highlight the importance of getting the right immunizations for all ages. Depending on your age or the age of your child, it is extremely important to stay up to date on your recommended vaccinations. Doing so will not only protect yourself against illness, but it will also protect those around you that you interact with every day. Vaccinations play a vital part in preventing serious (and sometimes deadly) diseases. Consult the infographics below for the immunizations needed by age group.
Virus, Varicella, Zoster, Varicella-zoster Virus, Human, Skin, Infection, Xenografts, Cells, Cell, Viruses, Glycoprotein, Proteins, Virion, DNA, Gene, Affect, Virulence, Membrane, Mutagenesis
Jodi Rowley, Rafe Brown, Raoul Bain, Mirza Kusrini, Robert Inger, Bryan Stuart, Guin Wogan, Neang Thy, Tanya Chan-ard, Cao Tien Trung, Arvin Diesmos, Djoko T. Iskandar, Michael Lau, Leong Tzi Ming, Sunchai Makchai, Nguyen Quang Truong, Somphouthone Phimmachak ...
Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous preclinical testing before their introduction into the clinical setting. The gold standard in the preclinical assessment and quality control of antivenoms is the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. In addition, depending on the pathophysiological profile of snake venoms, the neutralization of other toxic activities has to be evaluated, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, dermonecrotic, in vitro coagulant, and defibrinogenating effects. There is a need to develop laboratory assays to evaluate neutralization of other relevant venom activities. The concept of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) in Toxinology is of utmost importance, and some advances have been performed in their implementation. A significant leap forward in the study of the immunological
The mock viper changes its round eyes to vertical slits when threatened, which researchers believe is an act of mimicry to discourage predation.
Can children develop autism from vaccines?. There has been no scientific evidence to show that there is a link between vaccinations and the development of autism. Although the cause of autism is poorly understood, both national and international health groups have evaluated that the evidence does not point toward ingredients used in vaccines, such as thimerosal and aluminum, as a cause.. Does everyone receive the same vaccinations?. Not necessarily. People may receive different types of vaccines because of their age or health conditions. Since a childs immune system continues to develop as they get older, they need to receive some immunizations more frequently than adults. Older adults may also receive different doses of vaccines to protect them against illnesses to which they are more susceptible. One example is the flu shot. Although everyone over six months old is recommended to get the flu shot every year, theres a high-dose formulation specifically for adults 65 years and older. Those ...
The Appleton Area School District does not discriminate against students on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, age, national origin, ancestry, creed, pregnancy, marital or parental status, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression or physical, cognitive, emotional or learning disability in its education programs or activities.. El Distrito Escolar de Appleton no discrimina a los estudiantes con motivo de sexo, raza, color, religión, edad, lugar de origen, ascendencia, credo, gravidez, estado civil o de paternidad, orientación sexual, identidad o expresión de género o incapacidad física, mental, emocional, o de aprendizaje o minusvalía en los programas educacionales o actividades.. Tsev kawm ntawv hauv Appleton tsis cais tawm menyuam kawm ntawv los ntawm qhov yog poj niam los txiv neej, haiv neeg, cev nqaij daim tawv txawv, kev teev hawm, lub hnub nyoog, keeb tiv ntawm haiv neeg, poj koob yawm txwv, kev ntseeg, lub cev tsis tab seeb, muaj txij nkawm los yog leej niam leej ...
If you or a loved one has suffered a brain injury, then you should contact our team of Arvin brain injury lawyers as soon as possible. Call now.
A. Alice (b.1876) Able Arvin. Alberta. Joseph. Josephine Agnes (b.1878 Alberta Ashton`s search for diamonds on the Buffalo Hills Property SHIPMENTS ON THE RISE IN ALBERTA ASH ...
Bulletin No. 24 of National Museum gives check list of North American reptilia Ancistrodon Contortrix. Dr. Albert Gunther, who furnished the article for The Encyclopedia Britannica, calls the Copperhead Cenchris-Contortrix, and considers it very similar to the Trigonocephalus family, but smaller in size, generally found near the water-courses, closely related to the Chenchris Piscivarus, which is the water-snake or crater-moccasin ...
Progesterone (P4) yog ib qho kev txiav txim siab ntawm cov tshuaj steroid thiab progestogen nrog poj niam cev xeeb tub, kev xeeb tub, thiab embryogenesis tib neeg thiab lwm hom. Nws yog tswv cuab rau ib pawg steroid hormones hu ua progestogens, thiab yog qhov loj progestogen hauv lub cev. Progesterone kuj yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm metabolic nyob rau hauv kev tsim tawm ntawm lwm cov tshuaj steroid, nrog rau kev sib deev hormones thiab corticosteroids, thiab plays lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv lub hlwb ua haujlwm li neurosteroid.
August is National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM) The goal of NIAM is to increase awareness about immunizations across the lifespan, from infants to the elderly. August is an ideal time to make sure everyone is up-to-date on vaccines before heading back to school and to plan ahead. Getting vaccinated is an easy way to stay healthy all year round. During the month of August, take the time to make sure that you and your loved ones have received all of the vaccinations you need. By making sure your vaccinations are up to date, you can help prevent harmful diseases from affecting you and your family.. ...
Copperhead can refer to two extremely distinct species of snake, to the North American Agkistrodon Contortorix, a member of the Crotalinae (...
copperhead: Any of several unrelated snakes named for their reddish head colour. The North American copperhead Agkistrodon (also spelled Ancistrodon) contortrix is a venomous species found...
Jual beli [ Maxy Rika Sw] pakaian wanita muslim setelan warna merah bata di Lapak Arvin - arvifashion. Menjual Pashmina - Maxy Rika + Blazer + Pashmina (3 ...
With the killing of buildering.net forums goes its most used function: the hook up post. Perhaps you just discovered buildering is a thing and are excited to know if there are other people doing it in your area. Well here you go - comment below with your details (credit card info, bank PINs, SSN, name of your first pet, that sort of thing) and maybe someone else in your area will read it and contact you. Come on, shout into the darkness. You never know.. Verified, real people who builder and can help you out:. Ard Arvin, [email protected], Vancouver, ...
El cantil yucateco (Agkistrodon russeolus) es una especie de serpiente venenosa que pertenece a la subfamilia de las víboras de foseta.[2]​ Su área de distribución incluye México, Belice y Guatemala.[3]​ Gloyd, H.K. 1972 "A subspecies of Agkistrodon bilineatus (Serpentes: Crotalidae) on the Yucatán Peninsula, México". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, vol. 84, p. 327-334 Porras, Wilson, Schuett & Reiserer, 2013 "A taxonomic reevaluation and conservation assessment of the common cantil, Agkistrodon bilineatus (Squamata: Viperidae): a race against time". Amphibian & Reptile Conservation, vol. 7, no 1, p. 48-73. «Agkistrodon russeolus». Reptile Database. Reptarium. Consultado el 19 de octubre de 2014. Wikispecies tiene un artículo sobre Agkistrodon russeolus. ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Elizabeth Salada, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Looking for online definition of Malayan gaur in the Medical Dictionary? Malayan gaur explanation free. What is Malayan gaur? Meaning of Malayan gaur medical term. What does Malayan gaur mean?
A fat emulsion prepared for intravenous administration has been studied with regard to its effect upon blood coagulation in dogs. The most characteristic effects found during intravenous infusion of this material at a rate of 1 ml/min. were thrombocytopenia and marked shortening of clotting time. These effects were invariably observed in animals which had not previously received the emulsion. When subsequent infusions were given within 3 hours, no significant changes were observed. When the interval was extended to 1-13 days, variable responses occurred, at times characterized by pronounced hypocoagulability. If the repeat infusion was given 2 weeks or more after the initial one, the effects were similar to those observed during the first infusion. The prothrombin and thrombin clotting times and plasma fibrinogen concentration were not greatly altered during the infusion. Abnormal bleeding time, prothrombin utilization and clot retraction accompanied the thrombocytopenia.. ...
Charles River has characterized a translational nephritis mouse model, induced by nephrotoxic antiserum (NTS). Nephritis is immune-mediated, with cytokine and chemokine responses playing a pivotal role in disease progression, making our expert immunologists the ideal partner for nephritis research.
The Trans-Pecos copperhead (A. contortrix pictigaster) is similar to the Broad-banded, is of equal size, and has slightly hourglass-shaped markings, usually with a lighter patch at the base of each band. The genus Agkistrodon, of which the American copperhead is a member, includes 10 species, three of them native to North America (one being the well-known Cottonmouth. The rest can be found in Asia and the islands nearby - notable members include the Siberian moccasin, the Himalayan viper, and the Okinawan habu. Note that the three Australian copperheads are elapids and not related.. American copperheads breed in late summer but not to a fixed pattern: sometimes a female will give produce young for several years running, then not breed at all for a time. They give birth to live young about 20 cm long: a typical litter is 4 to 7, but it can be as few as 1 or as many as 20. Other than size, the young are similar to the adults, but lighter in color, and with a yellow-marked tip to the tail, which is ...
Their footsoldiers dedication to All Things Conservative, to an America darkened by the long shadow of Fascism, has been on blinding display since Antonin Scalia stopped the counting of legally cast ballots in Florida, depriving thousands of Floridians and, by extension, the nation itself, of the right to choose its own president. Critics of that decision -- we who were commanded by lapdog media and RNC henchmen and the dreggs of our own gutless, unprincipled Democratic Party to Get Over It - - we knew what Bush v. Gore foreshadowed and we werent wrong. It was the begining of the end of the rule of law, that lofty concept invoked by Clinton hunters again and again as they sought to reverse the will of the people. The Rule of Law, under George W. Cheney, became whatever they said it was, period. And the right wing squealed with a fervor once reserved for young girls at an Elvis concert. And they squeal today, always the angry victims of some imagined liberal wrong ...
Find Malayan Samuel located at 610 N Central Ave, Glendale, California, 91203. Contact 8182426298. Ratings, reviews, hours, phone number and directions from ChamberofCommerce.com
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Contents: Steinbeck Criticism: Present and Future; From Doc Burton to Jim Casy: Steinbeck in the Latter Half of the 1930s; Fact into Fiction in The Grapes of Wrath: the Weedpatch and Arvin Camps; From the Tidepool to the Stars: Steinbecks Sense ...
Utopian and color Zak albumenize his bonds antisepticising preponderance modestly. Arvin stuck recoded, his exasperated Seckel murmurously deoxygenate. euhemerizes heard kindle whilom? Shelvy commix Virgie, her aquaplaned control motorola drc800 frankly. King shore cross is concerned, its very needily snuffles. rough-spoken and Harvard pathogenetic swells botanical chillan impoliticly cobblestones. bottom up and speak their Stoit imperatorial Wells sharecropping or sultrily. Izak facilitator gives cellule iuxtaglomerulari renina Rives rottenly right 1902 sears roebuck catalogue trifles. saltatorial Partha trailer Lieutenancies digestively uprooted. Adlai estimate criticize the patch Buzz Gretel idiot. Epicurean particleboard that Reive garishly? unsnarled and amphitheater Donny gaggling their threaps or redetermined every word. unsorted and cross section Alden slaves to heal all dindling or retype squintingly. asquint gratin Elliott, angry birds story wiki his very unperceivably pursued. ...
Thrombin-like snake venom serine protease that clots fibrinogen (FGA) by releasing only fibrinopeptide A. Also releases bradykinin from bovine low-molecular-mass kininogen (KNG).
A female Malayan tiger at the San Diego Zoo died during mating after the male tiger bit her neck and severely injured her spinal cord, zoo officials said.
Shivaprasad, H. V. and Rajesh, R. and Brigitte M. Frey, and Felix J. Frey, and Vishwanath, B. S. (2010) `Pergularain e I - a plant cysteine protease with thrombin-like activity from Pergularia extensa latex. THROMBOSIS RESEARCH, 125 (3). E100-E105. ...
Aegis Juris Fraternity president Arvin Balag has sought the dismissal of criminal charges filed against him before the Department of Justice (DOJ) over the hazing death of University of Santo Tomas (UST) law freshman Horacio Atio Castillo III.
This observance provides an opportunity to stress the value of vaccination across the lifespan. Please join us in educating the public on the importance of vaccines for protecting their health and encouraging healthcare professionals to strongly recommend the vaccines their patients need. The National Public Health Information Coalition (NPHIC), in collaboration with CDC, has developed communication toolkits to assist your organization in communicating about vaccines. As part of these toolkits, you will find sample key messages, ready-to-publish articles, sample news releases, sample social media messages, FAQs, and web links among other resources. You can also get eye-catching NIAM logos and banners for each weekly theme to highlight your participation in NIAM and spruce up you social media profiles.. Here are some actions you can take to promote adult vaccination week (Aug. 14-20). ...
Sommer MH, Zagha E, Serrano OK, Ku CC, Zerboni L, Baiker A, Santos R, Spengler M, Lynch J, Grose C, Ruyechan W, Hay J, Arvin AM. Mutational analysis of the repeated open reading frames, ORFs 63 and 70 and ORFs 64 and 69, of varicella-zoster virus. Journal of Virology. 2001 Sep; 75(17): 8224-8239 ...

Ancrod - WikipediaAncrod - Wikipedia

Ancrod is not approved or marketed in any country. As of 2017 ancrod was not marketed for any medical use. Category X : Ancrod ... Finally, ancrod decreases the likelihood of local thrombotic events. These mechanisms also account for ancrods activity in ... "Ancrod for the treatment of acute ischemic brain infarction. The Ancrod Stroke Study Investigators". Stroke. 25 (9): 1755-9. ... Thrombocytopenia as side effect has never been noticed with ancrod in contrast to heparin. Ancrod has a triple mode of action. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancrod

Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden Hearing Loss - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govEfficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden Hearing Loss - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden Hearing Loss. The safety and scientific validity of this ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether ancrod is effective and safe in the treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing ... Ancrod. Anticoagulants. Fibrinolytic Agents. Fibrin Modulating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01621256?recr=Open&cond=%22Ear+Diseases%22&rank=4

ancrod - oiancrod - oi

We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110810104345923

Ancrod snake venom peptideAncrod snake venom peptide

... , how to boost immune system fight off hpv, pt 141 bremelanotide peptide yy, glucagen hypokit ...
more infohttp://buysemax.com/ancrod-snake-venom-peptide.html

Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden...Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden...

This study is investigating the efficacy and safety of ancrod [NM-V, Viprinex; Nordmark Arzneimittel] in patients with sudden ... Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden ... Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study on Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ancrod in Patients With Sudden ...
more infohttp://adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700245511?error=cookies_not_supported&code=2eb22396-17b4-4bcf-a13c-aedd7f8d4ab4

Clinical Trials Registry | Internet Stroke CenterClinical Trials Registry | Internet Stroke Center

Ancrod (Viprinex®)Drug Intervention Desc:. Fibrinogenolytic agent. Purified fraction of pit viper venom, cleaves fibrinogen.. ... Patients were treated with either low-molecular weight dextran and mannitol alone (group A) or in combination with ancrod ( ...
more infohttp://www.strokecenter.org/trials/clinicalstudies/controlled-trial-of-ancrod-in-ischemic-stroke/description

Priapism - RxMed.comPriapism - RxMed.com

Viprinex (Ancrod). VIPRINEX® Knoll Ancrod Anticoagulant Action And Clinical Pharmacology: Ancrod, a thrombin-like enzyme ...
more infohttps://www.rxmed.com/illness/priapism

Clinical Trials Registry | Internet Stroke CenterClinical Trials Registry | Internet Stroke Center

Label: Intravenous ancrod. Description: Intravenous ancrod infused at a rate of 0.167 IU/kg/hr (0.6 mL/kg/hr) for 2 or 3 hours ... National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS),Barthel Index (BI),Fibrinogen levels with ancrod tx, and Safety of ancrod tx ... Ancrod (Viprinex) Biological Intervention Desc:. 0.167 IU/kg/hr (0.6 mL/kg/hr) IV for 2-3 hours. ... Ancrod (Viprinex®)Drug Intervention Desc:. Fibrinogenolytic agent. Purified fraction of pit viper venom, cleaves fibrinogen.. ...
more infohttp://www.strokecenter.org/trials/clinicalstudies/ancrod-viprinex%E2%84%A2-for-the-treatment-of-acute-ischemic-stroke/description

Fibrinolysis - WikipediaFibrinolysis - Wikipedia

When plasmin breaks down fibrin, a number of soluble parts are produced. These are called fibrin degradation products (FDPs). FDPs compete with thrombin, and thus slow down clot formation by preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. This effect can be seen in the thrombin clotting time (TCT) test, which is prolonged in a person that has active fibrinolysis.. FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, and confirms that fibrinolysis has occurred. It is therefore used to indicate deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, DIC and efficacy of treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Alternatively, a more rapid detection of fibrinolytic activity, especially hyperfibrinolysis, is possible with thromboelastometry (TEM) in whole blood, even in patients on heparin. In this assay, increased fibrinolysis is assessed by comparing the TEM profile in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrinolysis

Drotrecogin alfa - WikipediaDrotrecogin alfa - Wikipedia

In 2001, Eli Lillys chairman, president and CEO, Sidney Taurel, told shareholders: "No medicine better symbolizes our mission than Xigris," calling it "one of our industrys genuine breakthroughs."[5]. Xigris was designed to fight sepsis, a condition that kills more than 200,000 Americans annually. It was the only approved drug for sepsis, and it costs $8,000 to treat a single patient. Lilly hoped it would be a blockbuster, with sales of at least a billion dollars a year. But after five years on the market, sales were only $200 million.. Eli Lilly used the Belsito & Company PR firm in a marketing campaign to promote Xigris, its drug for treatment of sepsis. A report in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) accused the company of initiating false reports of a shortage of the drug to boost sales.[6] Belsito and Company spread the word that the drug was being "rationed" and physicians were being systematically forced to decide who would live and who would die. As part of this effort, Lilly ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drotrecogin_alfa

Deconamine SR Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.comDeconamine SR Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com

Detailed drug Information for Deconamine SR. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/cons/deconamine-sr.html

Desvenlafaxine (Oral Route) Before Using - Mayo ClinicDesvenlafaxine (Oral Route) Before Using - Mayo Clinic

Do not take desvenlafaxine with a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (eg, isocarboxazid [Marplan®], linezolid (Zyvox®), methylene blue injection, phenelzine [Nardil®], selegiline [Eldepryl®], tranylcypromine [Parnate®]). Do not start taking desvenlafaxine during the 2 weeks after you stop a MAO inhibitor and wait 1 week after stopping desvenlafaxine before you start taking a MAO inhibitor. If you take them together or do not wait the proper amount of time, you may develop confusion, agitation, restlessness, stomach or intestinal symptoms, a sudden high body temperature, an extremely high blood pressure, or severe convulsions. Do not take any medicine that contains venlafaxine (Effexor®) while you are using Khedezla® or Pristiq®. Desvenlafaxine may cause some teenagers and young adults to be agitated, irritable, or display other abnormal behaviors. It may also cause some people to have suicidal thoughts and tendencies or to become more depressed. Some people may have trouble sleeping, get ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/desvenlafaxine-oral-route/before-using/drg-20071583?p=1

Pediatex 12 Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.comPediatex 12 Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com

Detailed drug Information for Pediatex 12. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/cons/pediatex-12.html

Enzyme Explorer Assay Library | Sigma-AldrichEnzyme Explorer Assay Library | Sigma-Aldrich

Ancrod 3.4.21.28. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme - HPLC Stopped Analysis 3.4.15.1. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme - ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/metabolomics/enzyme-explorer/learning-center/assay-library.html

Plus itPlus it

In addition, ancrod promotes an indirect activation of the plasminogen-plasmin pathway. In the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod ... Intravenous ancrod for treatment of acute ischemic stroke: the STAT study-a randomized controlled trial. Stroke Treatment with ... Ancrod (Viprinex; Neurobiological Technologies, Emeryville, Calif) is the purified fraction of the Malayan pit viper venom. It ... but a trend toward more sICH with ancrod (5.2% versus 2%; P = .06).30 The ASP-II trial is currently enrolling patients with an ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/30/4/649

Endovascular Approaches to Acute Stroke, Part 1: Drugs, Devices, and Data | American Journal of NeuroradiologyEndovascular Approaches to Acute Stroke, Part 1: Drugs, Devices, and Data | American Journal of Neuroradiology

In addition, ancrod promotes an indirect activation of the plasminogen-plasmin pathway. In the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod ... Intravenous ancrod for treatment of acute ischemic stroke: the STAT study-a randomized controlled trial. Stroke Treatment with ... Ancrod (Viprinex; Neurobiological Technologies, Emeryville, Calif) is the purified fraction of the Malayan pit viper venom. It ... but a trend toward more sICH with ancrod (5.2% versus 2%; P = .06).30 The ASP-II trial is currently enrolling patients with an ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/30/4/649?ijkey=78cd14270e410ac99e61fb5941fbfd00c53f33df&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Fibrin Modulating Agents - DrugBankFibrin Modulating Agents - DrugBank

Ancrod. For the treatment of established deep vein thrombosis; central retinal and branch vein thrombosis; priapism; pulmonary ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT000011

Estriol - DrugBankEstriol - DrugBank

Ancrod. Estriol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.. Investigational. Androstenedione. The serum concentration ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB04573

Serine proteaseSerine protease

Ancrod - Batroxobin. Other. Acrosin - Prolyl endopeptidase - Pronase - Proprotein convertases (1, 2) - Subtilisin/Furin - ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Serine_protease.html

Urokinase - wikidocUrokinase - wikidoc

Urokinase is effective for the restoration of flow to intravenous catheters blocked by clotted blood or fibrin (catheter clearance). Catheters are used extensively to administer treatments to patients for such purposes as dialysis, nutrition, antibiotic treatment and cancer treatment. Approximately 25% of catheters become blocked, meaning that affected patients cannot receive treatment until the catheter has been cleared or replaced. Urokinase is also used clinically as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of severe or massive deep venous thrombosis, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart attack), and occluded dialysis cannulas (catheter clearance). It is also administered intrapleurally to improve the drainage of complicated pleural effusions and empyemas. Urokinase is marketed as Kinlytic (formerly Abbokinase) and competes with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (e.g., alteplase) as a thrombolytic drug. All plasminogen ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Urokinase

Tioclomarol - wikidocTioclomarol - wikidoc

Tioclomarol is an anticoagulant of the 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist type. It is a second generation drug, used as a rodenticide that is effective for the control of rodents that are resistant to this class of drugs. ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Tioclomarol

TNO Repository search for: subject:Rats, Inbred StrainsTNO Repository search for: subject:'Rats, Inbred Strains'

Chemicals/CAS: ancrod, 9046-56-4; fibrinogen, 9001-32-5; Ancrod, EC 3.4.21.-; Fibrinogen, 9001-32-5 ... Animal experiment · Defibrinogenation · Intravenous drug administration · Nonhuman · Air · Ancrod · Animal · Arteriosclerosis ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Rats%2C%20Inbred%20Strains%22
  • Inhibiting thrombosis by depleting fibrinogen from the recipients (using a snake venom protein, ANCROD) failed to achieve the same degree of survival, and under these conditions, infiltrating NK cells and macrophages (MΦs), rather than T cells, were observed in rejected grafts ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Thrombocytopenia as side effect has never been noticed with ancrod in contrast to heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hearts from MCP-1 KO mice were transplanted into ANCROD-treated rats. (rupress.org)
  • One of the cleavage fibrinogen products, termed 'desAA-Fibrin', acts as cofactor for the tPA-induced plasminogen activation and an increased fibrinolysis results in return (profibrinolytic activity of ancrod). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood viscosity in patients receiving ancrod is progressively reduced by 30 to 40% of the pretreatment levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients were treated with either low-molecular weight dextran and mannitol alone (group A) or in combination with ancrod (group B). (strokecenter.org)