Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Darkness: The absence of light.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mice, Inbred C57BLPattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Housing, AnimalPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.BrazilHost-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.

*Flourishing

Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and Sociobiology, 11, 375-424. Fredrickson, B. L. ( ... Keyes collaborated with Carol Ryff in testing her Six-factor Model of Psychological Well-being, and in 2002 published his ... Positive affect Negative affect (low) Life satisfaction High psychological well-being, defined by 4 of 6 scale scores on ... Psychological Science, 3, 23-27. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1990). The past explains the present: ...

*Psychology

This perspective suggests that psychological adaptations evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. ... Gregory, Psychological Testing (2011), p. 41-42. Gregory, Psychological Testing (2011), p. 42-43. Gregory, Psychological ... All researched psychological traits are influenced by both genes and environment, to varying degrees. These two sources of ... Gregory, Psychological Testing (2011), p. 45-46. Gregory, Psychological Testing (2011), p. 50-56. Guthrie, Even the Rat was ...

*Psychology

This perspective suggests that psychological adaptations evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. ... Main articles: Psychological research and List of psychological research methods. Quantitative psychological research lends ... Chin & Chin, Psychological Research in Communist China (1969), pp. 18-24. *^ a b c d e f g h Wade Pickren & Raymond D. Fowler ... Chin & Chin, Psychological Research in Communist China (1969), pp. 5-9. *^ Chin & Chin, Psychological Research in Communist ...

*Basic science (psychology)

... behavior is the cumulative result of psychological adaptations that evolved to solve problems in human ancestral environments. ... involves the application of psychological principles and theories yielded up by the basic psychological sciences; these ... A goal of evolutionary psychology is to explain psychological traits and processes such as memory, perception, or language in ... Neuropsychology involves the study of the structure and function of the brain as it relates to specific psychological processes ...

*Evolutionary psychology and culture

... cultural behaviors are the result of psychological mechanisms which were selected for in ancestral environments. The difference ... Emotional Adaptations and the Structure of Ancestral Environments". Ethology and Sociobiology. 11: 375-424. doi:10.1016/0162- ... determined by species-typical psychological adaptations. Considerable work, though, has been done on how these adaptations ... on how behavior may result from species-typical psychological programs which led to greater fitness in ancestral environments, ...

*Zero-sum thinking

... be understood to be a psychological adaptation that facilitated successful resource competition in the environment of ancestral ... Related to experiences with resource-scarce environments is the belief that a resource is scarce or finite. For example, the ... However, unlike the game theory concept, zero-sum thinking refers to a psychological construct-a person's subjective ... and natural universes-their total environment-as one in which all of the desired things in life such as land, wealth, health, ...

*History of evolutionary psychology

... between ancestral and modern environments. For example, our ancestrally developed desires for fat, sugar and salt often lead to ... EP attempts to identify underlying psychological adaptations (including emotional, motivational and cognitive mechanisms), and ... Buss, D. M. (1995). Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 1-30. ... According to its proponents, evolutionary psychology now occupies a central place in psychological science. Evolutionary ...

*Natural selection

... a field that attempts to explain features of human psychology in terms of adaptation to the ancestral environment. The most ... Social and psychological theory[edit]. The social implications of the theory of evolution by natural selection also became the ... Richard Lenski's classic E. coli long-term evolution experiment is an example of adaptation in a competitive environment, (" ... have been hypothesised to have similar origins as adaptations to the early environment in which modern humans evolved. By ...

*Sociobiological theories of rape

However, he encourages such evidence to be obtained: "Whether human males possess psychological adaptations for rape will only ... He also describes some conditions in the ancestral environment during which the reproductive gains from rape may have ... Vandermassen also notes two problems with the data cited by Thornhill and Palmer regarding the psychological trauma caused by ... Such theories are highly controversial, as traditional theories typically do not consider rape to be a behavioral adaptation. ...

*Evolutionary approaches to depression

Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments". Ethology and Sociobiology. 11 (4-5): 375-424. doi:10.1016/ ... which may be viewed as an argument for an environmental versus genetic psychological adaptation. While certain mental disorders ... The subject will not attempt to cope with problems, even when placed in a stressor-free novel environment. Should their rare ... Thus depression may be a social adaptation especially useful in motivating a variety of social partners, all at once, to help ...

*Evolutionary aesthetics

The East African savanna is the ancestral environment in which much of human evolution is argued to have taken place. There is ... Such traits are generally seen as being adaptations to the environment during the Pleistocene era and are not necessarily ... Evolutionary musicology is a subfield of biomusicology that grounds the psychological mechanisms of music perception and ... Humans are argued to have strong aesthetical preferences for landscapes which were good habitats in the ancestral environment. ...

*Prejudice from an evolutionary perspective

Emotional Adaptations and the Structure of Ancestral Environments" (PDF). Ethology and Sociobiology. 11: 375-424. doi:10.1016/ ... Although there is psychological variation among individuals, the majority of our psychological mechanisms should be adaptations ... Adaptations should function similarly, erring on the side of caution. False alarms may be common, but overall costs are ... Thus, we do not have adaptations specific to race. However, we did have recurrent encounters with groups that were not our own ...

*Adaptive memory

It has been suggested that calorie-dense foods are an important resource to be able to gather in an ancestral environment, and ... or psychological adaptations), for example, a mating mechanism, fear and phobia mechanism, cheater detection mechanism, etc. ... The survival advantage means that information that is more salient, or relevant, to survival in an ancestral environment has a ... These experiments present a problem for the assumption of the importance of the ancestral environment because retention was ...

*Biosocial criminology

In some cases in the ancestral environment there may have been benefits from future interactions with the offender which some ... As such humans are argued to have developed a range of psychological mechanisms for handling this. Punishment can be a ... Such theories are highly controversial, as traditional theories typically do not consider rape to be a behavioral adaptation. ... Punishment of exploitative behaviors harmful to the group was likely a recurring problem in the ancestral environment. ...

*Altruism

... or more of altruistic acts were beneficial for the altruist in the ancestral environment; if the benefits from helping the ... Psychological altruism is contrasted with psychological egoism, which refers to the motivation to increase one's own welfare.[ ... scientists such as David Sloan Wilson that natural selection can act at the level of non-kin groups to produce adaptations that ... Psychological Inquiry. 17: 1-29. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1701_01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-14.. ...

*Altruism

... or more of altruistic acts were beneficial for the altruist in the ancestral environment; if the benefits from helping the ... such as a person's environment and values. The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences defines psychological altruism ... scientists such as David Sloan Wilson that natural selection can act at the level of non-kin groups to produce adaptations that ... Psychological altruism is contrasted with psychological egoism, which refers to the motivation to increase one's own welfare. ...

*John Tooby

Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and Sociobiology, 11, 375-424. Cosmides, L. & Tooby ... Psychological Inquiry 11:1 (2000), p. 42: "For a young science barely a decade old, evolutionary psychology has achieved a ... J. (1992) Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: ...

*Antti Revonsuo

A mass of evidence indicates that threat simulation is a function of dreaming, an evolved psychological adaptation selected for ... implying that it was not innate but rather came to be in response to the multitude of threats experienced by human ancestral ... consciousness with a virtual reality simulation decoupled from or only indirectly informed by a brain's external environment. ... FOULKES, D, (1985) Dreaming: A Cognitive-Psychological Analysis (Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Rrlbaum). MALCOLM, N, (1956) Dreaming ...

*Differential susceptibility hypothesis

Diathesis-stress model Endophenotype Gene-environment interaction Gene-environment correlation Genotype Highly sensitive person ... Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 885-908. Monroe, S. M., & Simons, A. D. (1991). Diathesis-stress theories in the context of ... Belsky offers that ancestral parents, just like parents today, could not have known (consciously or unconsciously) which ... an adaptation of Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn's (2007) Figure 1). A fundamentally different, even if not competing ...

*Modularity of mind

On this view, much modern human psychological activity is rooted in adaptations that occurred earlier in human evolution, when ... One example being that in the ancestral environment it is unlikely that males during development learn that infidelity (usually ... Psychological Review, 113, 628-647. Full text. *Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1984). Computation and cognition: Toward a foundation for ... Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). Cognitive Adaptations for Social Exchange. In Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby 1992, 163-228. ...

*Parental investment

Psychological Review, 100(2), 204. *^ a b c d Lopez, McDermott, Petersen.2011. "States in Mind: Evolution, Coalitional ... For example, the male can find food as in the example of balloon flies.[23] He may find a safe environment for the female to ... Lack, D. L. (1968). Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. *^ Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate ... in the ancient past has been passed on to modern times causing men to partly think and behave as they have during ancestral ...

*Mood disorder

These are events that signal a loss of reproductive ability or potential, or that did so in humans' ancestral environment. A ... "Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders." Psychology. ; Second Edition. N.p.: Worth, Incorporated, 2010. 564-65. Print. The ICD-10 ... A number of authors have also suggested that mood disorders are an evolutionary adaptation. A low or depressed mood can ... Nesse R (2000). "Is Depression an Adaptation?" (PDF). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 57 (1): 14-20. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.1.14. PMID ...

*Parental investment

Another study looked at psychological/social stress in the developmental environment, the age of first menarche and the age of ... Among other adaptations, men's psychology has also developed to directly aid men in such intra-sexual competition. One ... in the ancient past has been passed on to modern times causing men to partly think and behave as they have during ancestral ... He may find a safe environment for the female to feed or lay her eggs as exemplified in many birds. He may also protect the ...

*Evolutionary models of human drug use

Ancestral Women and Conditions: In the environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA), selection pressures shaping avoidance of ... Some evolutionary psychological theories concerning drug use suggest individuals consume drugs to increase reproductive ... For example, in the environment of evolutionary adaptation, humans would feel positive euphoric emotions in response to a ... Evidence from evolutionary anthropology suggest ancestral women, similar to women in extant hunter gatherer populations, ...

*List of atheists in science and technology

John B. Watson (1878-1958): American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.[349][350][351] ... Sir Howard Dalton FRS (1944-2008): British microbiologist, Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK's Department for Environment, ... To find the answer to this we have to go right back to our ancestral origins." Desmond Morris, The Naked Ape, p.178-179, ... but I part company with the New Atheists because I believe that religion is an adaptation that generally works quite well to ...
Detail záznamu - Long-term adaptation to high doses of morphine causes desensitization of micro-OR- and delta-OR-stimulated G-protein response in forebrain cortex but does not decrease the amount of G-protein alpha subunits - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds is the most current and comprehensive account of research on avian reproduction. It develops two unique themes: the consideration of female avian r...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Hedonic Pricing Method relates differences in property prices (house and land prices) to variables in the surrounding environment. The basic principle is that property prices are affected to some extent by the characteristics of a particular environment effect. The environment effect can then be given a price tag based on house prices. An environment effect can be seen as positive (proximity to a recreational area, nice view) or negative (water pollution, risk of flooding). It may be to do with differences in time (time series data: prices in 1970 compared to prices in 2005 related to a change in the environment effect). It is also possible to analyse differences between areas with the same type of property but with one important difference in environment variable (cross-section data: the same type of housing in comparable environments with and without the environment effect). ...
The predicted climate change causes deep concerns on the effects of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns on species viability and, in turn, on biodiversity. Models of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) provide a powerful tool to assess the risk of species extinction. However, most PVA models do not take into account the potential effects of behavioural adaptations. Organisms might adapt to new environmental situations and thereby mitigate negative effects of climate change. To demonstrate such mitigation effects, we use an existing PVA model describing a population of the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari. This model does not include behavioural adaptations. We develop a new model by assuming that the birds enlarge their average territory size to compensate for lower amounts of precipitation. Here, we found the predicted increase in risk of extinction due to climate change to be much lower than in the original model. However, this ...
Lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow ...
Here, lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to ...
Neuronal adaptation is the intrinsic capacity of the brain to change, by various mechanisms, its dynamical responses as a function of the context. Such a phenomena, widely observed in vivo and in...
Response options to mitigate these threats or to adapt to changing environs are needed to ensure a sustainable biosphere for all forms of life. To that end, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change provides a forum to encourage the conceptualization, critical examination and debate on environmental change response options. Moreover, the aim of this journal is to provide a forum to review, analyze and stimulate the development, testing and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies at regional, national and global scales. One of the primary goals of the journal is to contribute to real-time policy development as environmental treaties and agreements are discussed and promulgated. Examples of mitigation and adaptation strategies, policies and technical topics considered by this journal include emerging environmental technologies, restoration and reclamation ecology, non- renewable energy conservation, renewable and alternative energy ...
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) is the most widely used nanomaterial for environmental remediation. The impacts of nZVI on terrestrial organisms have been recently reported, and in particular, plant growth was promoted by nZVI treatment in various concentrations. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the detailed physiological and biochemical responses of plants toward nZVI treatment for agricultural application. Here, the effects of nZVI on photosynthesis and related biochemical adaptation of soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana were examined. After treatment with 500 mg nZVI/kg soil, the plant biomass increased by 38% through enhanced photosynthesis, which was confirmed by the gas-exchange system, carbon isotope ratio and chlorophyll content analysis. Besides, the iron uptake of the plant increased in roots and leaves. The magnetic property measurements and transmission electron microscopy showed that the transformed particles were accumulated in parts of the plant tissues. The ...
Beetles which develop boring tunnels inside and feed on seasoned wood present morphological and physiological adaptations related to the specific activities of their larvae in such a peculiar substrate. As far as protection of antiquarian goods made of wood is concerned, we are dealing mainly with three Coleoptera families, namely Lyctidae, Anobiidae, and Cerambycidae, which include species with wood-boring larvae. The adaptation to wood-boring and wood-feeding activities in beetle larvae was reached independently by phyletic lines not closely related, as a convergent evolution due to feeding behaviour. Among these adaptations, the following are examined with reference to the three families mentioned above. The conformation and activity of the larval mandibles and their possible correlations with the characteristics of the wood attacked are considered together with the presence of body structures for anchoring the larvae to the wood substrate inside the ...
Intestinal adaptation following massive loss of absorptive surface area is an important process that results in enhanced intestinal function to compensate for reduced absorptive capacity. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are known to enhance this adaptive process in adult animal models, and data from our lab indicates that butyrate (Bu) results in marked changes in glucose transport in the intestine within minutes. We hypothesized that SCFA and Bu would enhance glucose transport and transporter gene expression in a neonatal pig model of massive small bowel resection. Two-day-old neonatal pigs underwent 80% jejunoileal massive small bowel resection, and were fed via total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Piglets were randomized to receive the following treatments: (1) control TPN; and isoenergetic, isonitrogenous TPN supplemented with; (2) SCFA (36 mM acetate, 15 mM propionate, 9 mM Bu, for a total of 60 mM SCFA); (3) 9 mM Bu (9Bu); or (4) 60 mM Bu (60Bu). Piglets were further randomized to examine ...
Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. AU - Antoni, Michael H. AU - Lechner, Suzanne C. AU - Diaz, Alain. AU - Vargas, Sara. AU - Holley, Heather. AU - Phillips, Kristin. AU - McGregor, Bonnie. AU - Carver, Charles S. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Background: A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Methods: Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a ...
We examined the neuromuscular adaptations following 3 and 6 weeks of 80 vs. 30% one repetition maximum (1RM) resistance training to failure in the leg extensors. Twenty-six men (age = 23.1 ± 4.7 years) were randomly assigned to a high- (80% 1RM; |i|n|/i| = 13) or low-load (30% 1RM; |i|n|/i| = 13) re …
Taken together, the evidence strongly supports the notion that the inverted retina and its major consequence (the positioning of the photoreceptors in the outer section of the retina where they are in intimate contact with the choriocapillaris) is a specific adaptation designed to deliver abundant quantities of oxygen to the photoreceptor cells commensurate with their high energy demands--especially in metabolically active groups such as the birds and mammals. Rather than being a case of maladaptation, the inverted retina is probably an essential element in the overall design of the vertebrate visual system.. This conclusion is reinforced by the difficulty of envisaging alternative means of delivering the required amounts of oxygen to the photoreceptor cell layer if the retina had the typical non-inverted design of the sort that might appeal to a tidy-minded engineer. Blood absorbs light strongly, as witnessed by the fact that in the area centralis or macular region--which ...
Learning and adaptation are considered to be stochastic in nature by most modern psychologists and by many engineers. Markov chains are among the simplest and best understood models of stochastic processes and, in recent years, have frequently found application as models of adaptive processes. A number of new techniques are developed for the analysis of synchronous and asynchronous Markov chains, with emphasis on the problems encountered in the use of these chains as models of adaptive processes. Signal flow analysis yields simplified computations of asymptotic success probabilities, delay times, and other indices of performance. The techniques are illustrated by several examples of adaptive processes. These examples yield further insight into the relations between adaptation and feedback ...
Influence of host resistance on viral adaptation: hepatitis C virus as a case study Anne Plauzolles,1 Michaela Lucas,2,3 Silvana Gaudieri41Centre for Forensic Science, 2School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Harry Perkins Institute, 3School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 4School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: Genetic and cellular studies have shown that the hosts innate and adaptive immune responses are an important correlate of viral infection outcome. The features of the hosts immune response (host resistance) reflect the coevolution between hosts and pathogens that has occurred over millennia, and that has also resulted in a number of strategies developed by viruses to improve fitness and survival within the host (viral adaptation). In this review, we discuss viral adaptation to host immune pressure via protein-protein interactions and sequence-specific mutations. Specifically, ...
Most currently available cochlear implant devices are designed to reflect the tonotopic representation of acoustic frequencies within the cochlea. Unfortunately, the electrode array cannot cover the entire cochlea due to physical limitations or patient-related factors. Therefore, CI patients generally listen to spectrally up-shifted and/or distorted speech. Acute studies suggest that speech performance is best when the acoustic input is spectrally matched to the cochlear place of stimulation; performance deteriorates as the spectral mismatch is increased. However, many CI users are able to somewhat adapt to spectrally shifted and distorted speech as they gain experience with their device. Motivated by both the theoretical and clinical implications of CI users perceptual adaptation, the present study explores perceptual adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels using behavioral studies and an acoustic analysis framework. Normal-hearing subjects are tested while listening to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin remodeling regulates catalase expression during cancer cells adaptation to chronic oxidative stress. AU - Glorieux,Christophe. AU - Sandoval,Juan Marcelo. AU - Fattaccioli,Antoine. AU - Dejeans,Nicolas. AU - Garbe,James C.. AU - Dieu,Marc. AU - Verrax,Julien. AU - Renard,Patricia. AU - Huang,Peng. AU - Calderon,Pedro Buc. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from ...
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