Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Anatomy, Regional: The anatomical study of specific regions or parts of organisms, emphasizing the relationship between the various structures (e.g. muscles, nerves, skeletal, cardiovascular, etc.).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Anatomy, Veterinary: The study of the anatomical structures of animals.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Medicine in ArtReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.SculptureCross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Famous PersonsPaintingsProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Cross Circulation: The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Persia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Cardiac Catheters: Catheters inserted into various locations within the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Mice, Inbred C57BLSchools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Histology, Comparative: The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Anatomic Variation: Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.

Plaque area increase and vascular remodeling contribute to lumen area change after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery: an intravascular ultrasound study. (1/356)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the change in lumen area (LA), plaque area (PLA), and vessel area (VA) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Twenty patients were studied with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) immediately after PTA and at follow-up examination. Multiple corresponding IVUS cross-sections were analyzed at the segments that were dilated by PTA (ie, treated sites; n = 168), including the most stenotic site (n = 20) and the nondilated segments (ie, reference sites; n = 77). RESULTS: At follow-up examination, both the PLA increase (13%) and the VA decrease (9%) resulted in a significant LA decrease (43%) at the most stenotic sites (P =.001). At the treated sites, the LA decrease (15%) was smaller and was caused by the PLA increase (15%). At the reference sites, the PLA increase (15%) and the VA increase (6%) resulted in a slight LA decrease (3%). An analysis of the IVUS cross-sections that were grouped according to LA change (difference >/=10%) revealed a similar PLA increase in all the groups: the type of vascular remodeling (VA decrease, no change, or increase) determined the LA change. At the treated sites, the LA change and the VA change correlated closely (r = 0.77, P <.001). At the treated sites, significantly more PLA increase was seen in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture (P <.05). No relationship was found between the presence of dissection and the quantitative changes. CONCLUSION: At the most stenotic sites, lumen narrowing was caused by plaque increase and vessel shrinkage. Both the treated sites and the reference sites showed a significant PLA increase: the type of vascular remodeling determined the LA change at follow-up examination. The extent of the PLA increase was significantly larger in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis of a lean umbilical cord: a simple marker for the fetus at risk of being small for gestational age at birth. (2/356)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prenatal diagnosis of a 'lean' umbilical cord in otherwise normal fetuses identifies fetuses at risk of being small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and of having distress in labor. The umbilical cord was defined as lean when its cross-sectional area on ultrasound examination was below the 10th centile for gestational age. METHOD: Pregnant women undergoing routine sonographic examination were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were gestational age greater than 20 weeks, intact membranes, and singleton gestation. The sonographic cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord was measured in a plane adjacent to the insertion into the fetal abdomen. Umbilical artery Doppler waveforms were recorded during fetal apnea and fetal anthropometric parameters were measured. RESULTS: During the study period, 860 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 3.6% delivered a SGA infant. The proportion of SGA infants was higher among fetuses who had a lean umbilical cord on ultrasound examination than among those with a normal umbilical cord (11.5% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.05). Fetuses with a lean cord had a risk 4.4-fold higher of being SGA at birth than those with a normal umbilical cord. After 25 weeks of gestation, this risk was 12.4 times higher when the umbilical cord was lean than when it was of normal size. The proportion of fetuses with meconium-stained amniotic fluid at delivery was higher among fetuses with a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (14.6% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.001). The proportion of infants who had a 5-min Apgar score < 7 was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with normal umbilical cord (5.2% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.05). Considering only patients admitted in labor with intact membranes and who delivered an appropriate-for-gestational-age infant, the proportion of fetuses who had oligohydramnios at the time of delivery was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (17.6% versus 1.3%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We conclude that fetuses with a lean umbilical cord have an increased risk of being small for gestational age at birth and of having signs of distress at the time of delivery.  (+info)

Velocity associated characteristics of force production in college weight lifters. (3/356)

OBJECTIVE: To determine velocity specific isokinetic forces and cross sectional areas of reciprocal muscle groups in Olympic weight lifters. METHODS: The cross sectional area of the flexor or extensor muscles of the elbow or knee joint was determined by a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus in 34 college weight lifters and 31 untrained male subjects matched for age. Maximum voluntary force produced in the flexion and extension of the elbow and knee joints was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300 degrees/s. RESULTS: The average cross sectional area was 31-65% higher, and the force was 19-62% higher in weight lifters than in the untrained subjects. The ratio of force to cross sectional area was the same in both groups. The weight lifters showed a lower velocity associated decline in force than untrained subjects in the elbow and knee flexors but not in the extensors. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that for muscle contractions with velocities between 60 degrees/s and 300 degrees/s the difference in isokinetic force between weight lifters and untrained subjects can be primarily attributed to the difference in the muscle cross sectional area. However, the lower velocity associated decline in force implies that weight lifters may have a higher force per cross sectional area than untrained subjects at velocities above 300 degrees/s.  (+info)

Sonographic incidence of tendon microtears in athletes with chronic Achilles tendinosis. (4/356)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and distribution of tendon microtears in asymptomatic controls and athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis or partial thickness tears using high resolution ultrasound. METHODS: The mean number of microtears in three random tendon cross sections were recorded per tendon third in 19 asymptomatic volunteers, 16 athletes with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendinitis, and eight athletes with partial Achilles tendon rupture. RESULTS: Microtears were most numerous in the middle third section of the Achilles tendon. Some 67% of tendons in the control group had no microtears, and 28% showed a single microtear. Only 18% of the athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis and none of the athletes with partial tendon rupture were without microtears in the middle third of their Achilles tendon. Of the tendons with chronic tendinitis, 13% had more than three microtears per section which increased to 87% in tendons exhibiting partial rupture. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be an association between microtear formation and Achilles tendon rupture.  (+info)

Angiographic abnormalities in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: an explanation based on neuropathologic findings. (5/356)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is typically occult at angiography and fails to enhance on MR images. After observing angiographic abnormalities characterized by arteriovenous shunting and pathologic parenchymal blush in patients with AIDS-related PML, often in the absence of contrast enhancement on MR images, we hypothesized that there might be distinct changes in the cerebral microvasculature that account for the reduction in vascular transit time (arteriovenous shunting) in the absence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. METHODS: The imaging studies and neuropathologic specimens of six patients with biopsy-proved PML were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients contrast-enhanced MR imaging and CT, followed by cerebral angiography, were performed before stereotactically directed biopsy. The angiograms were evaluated for the presence of vascular displacement, pathologic parenchymal blush, arteriovenous shunting, and neovascularity. The CT and MR studies were reviewed for the presence of enhancement of the PML lesions. Biopsy specimens were examined for the presence of necrosis, perivascular inflammation, and neovascularity. RESULTS: All patients had oligodendrocytic intranuclear inclusions diagnostic of PML, together with perivascular inflammation and neovascularity to a varying extent; no other neuropathologic processes were identified. Angiographic abnormalities, characterized by a pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting, were identified in four of the six patients. In only one of these cases, however, was abnormal enhancement identified on cross-sectional imaging studies (MR and CT), and this patient had florid perivascular inflammatory infiltrates histologically. CONCLUSION: The pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting seen angiographically in some patients with PML reflect small-vessel proliferation and perivascular inflammatory changes incited by the presence of the JC virus in infected oligodendrocytes.  (+info)

A surgical pathology system for gross specimen examination. (6/356)

The concepts used in the storage of still digital images obtained during gross specimen examination of tissues and organs in surgical pathology using a digital camera are described. We address the technical aspects related with the implementation of a prototype tool to assist the pathologist during the sampling process as well the logic archive support to store the acquired images. We describe, also, the hypermedia concepts that allow the navigation and the efficient examination of the information contained in the stored images. The advantages, the technological and human limitations, and the effects of using images in the documentation of a case are also discussed.  (+info)

Anatomical information in radiation treatment planning. (7/356)

We report on experience and insights gained from prototyping, for clinical radiation oncologists, a new access tool for the University of Washington Digital Anatomist information resources. This access tool is designed to integrate with a radiation therapy planning (RTP) system in use in a clinical setting. We hypothesize that the needs of practitioners in a clinical setting are different from the needs of students, the original targeted users of the Digital Anatomist system, but that a common knowledge resource can serve both. Our prototype was designed to help define those differences and study the feasibility of a full anatomic reference system that will support both clinical radiation therapy and all the existing educational applications.  (+info)

The Virtual Pelvic Floor, a tele-immersive educational environment. (8/356)

This paper describes the development of the Virtual Pelvic Floor, a new method of teaching the complex anatomy of the pelvic region utilizing virtual reality and advanced networking technology. Virtual reality technology allows improved visualization of three-dimensional structures over conventional media because it supports stereo vision, viewer-centered perspective, large angles of view, and interactivity. Two or more ImmersaDesk systems, drafting table format virtual reality displays, are networked together providing an environment where teacher and students share a high quality three-dimensional anatomical model, and are able to converse, see each other, and to point in three dimensions to indicate areas of interest. This project was realized by the teamwork of surgeons, medical artists and sculptors, computer scientists, and computer visualization experts. It demonstrates the future of virtual reality for surgical education and applications for the Next Generation Internet.  (+info)

*Brain morphometry

... or cross-sectional (across brains). Second, brain image data can be acquired using different neuroimaging modalities. Third, ... One such deformation is the right invariant metric of computational anatomy which generalizes the metric of non-compressible ... often combined with cross-sectional approaches and other neuroimaging modalities) of normal brain development in humans. Using ... Grenander, Ulf; Miller, Michael I. (1998-12-01). "Computational Anatomy: An Emerging Discipline". Q. Appl. Math. LVI (4): 617- ...

*Neck

American Head and Neck Society The Anatomy Wiz. An Interactive Cross-Sectional Anatomy Atlas. ... In anatomy, the neck is also called by its Latin names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix ...

*Rod Rohrich

Results of Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Lower Eyelid Fat Pads." Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 29(3):189-193. May/June 2009 Rod J ... Vascular Anatomy and Indications in Breast Reconstruction." [French] Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique, 55(2):87-96 ... Publications from Rohrich and associates have included landmark papers in facial fracture repair, nasal anatomy and concepts of ...

*Sonographer

... s must understand ultrasound physics, cross sectional anatomy, physiology and pathology. Sonographer is the ... or 3D volumes of anatomy and diagnostic data. The requirements for clinical practice vary greatly by country. Sonography ...

*Stereolithography

This data consists of a series of cross sectional images of the human anatomy. In these images different tissues show up as ... Reproduction accuracy". Surgical & Radiologic Anatomy. 19 (3): 193-9. Winder, RJ; Bibb, R (2009). "A Review of the Issues ...

*Orthopedic cast

... the use of ether anaesthesia into Russia and made important contributions to the study of cross-sectional human anatomy. With ...

*Frontal lobe

March 1992). "Quantitative cerebral anatomy of the aging human brain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging ...

*List of MeSH codes (G01)

... anatomy, comparative MeSH G01.100.185 --- anatomy, cross-sectional MeSH G01.100.185.900 --- visible human project MeSH G01.100. ... 216 --- anatomy, regional MeSH G01.100.279 --- anatomy, veterinary MeSH G01.100.433 --- cytology MeSH G01.100.529 --- ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH G01.100.091 --- anatomy, artistic MeSH G01.100.154 --- ...

*Max Brödel

... and attention to the cross-sectional anatomy. Another noticeable feature of his illustrations was the aerial perspective that ... Charles Bardeen as part of the Hopkins Anatomy Department in 1900. The pair realized their similar musical and artistic ... showed the anatomy as seen through a surgeon's eyes. Some of his early illustrations were also for physicians Spalteholz, His ...

*Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

Sectional anatomy, Nervous system, Developmental Anatomy and Comparative Anatomy. Though the specimens and models are ... The museum also displays cross sectional specimens, radiographs, skeletons of human and other vertebrates, radiographs and ... "Museum of Anatomy and Pathology". Manipal University. "Manipal: Renovated Anatomy Museum attracts large number of visitors". ... The museum is divided into two main sections: Anatomy and Pathology. The anatomy section displays specimens of normal human ...

*Visible Human Project

The Visible Human Project is an effort to create a detailed data set of cross-sectional photographs of the human body, in order ... J. Venuti, C. Imielinska, P. Molholt: "New Views of Male Pelvic Anatomy: Role of Computer Generated 3D Images" Clinical Anatomy ... It is used as a tool for the progression of medical findings, in which these findings link anatomy to its audiences. A male and ... By studying the data set, researchers at Columbia University found several errors in anatomy textbooks, related to the shape of ...

*Thyroarytenoid muscle

Cross sectional cut of vocalis muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's ... Anatomy (1918) Anatomy photo:32:st-0605 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Atlas image: rsa4p5 at the University of Michigan ...

*Root canal

... oval or irregular cross-sectional shape) and lateral parts (fins, anastomoses and accessory canals). In fact, this lateral ... Root canal anatomy consists of the pulp chamber and root canals. Both contain the dental pulp. The smaller branches, referred ... Root canals presenting an oval cross-section are found in 50-70% of root canals. In addition, canals with a "tear-shaped" cross ... When rotary nickel titanium (NiTi) files are used in canals with flat-oval or tear-shaped cross sections, a circular bore is ...

*Extensor tendon compartments of the wrist

Cross-sectional drawing showing the locations of the extensor tendon compartments Lateral view of a dissection showing the ... All-in-One Anatomy Exam Review. Vol. 1 Back and Upper Limb) Netter, Frank (2014). Atlas of Human Anatomy (sixth ed.). ...

*Muscle architecture

Muscle volume is determined by the cross-sectional area. Anatomical cross-sectional area is C S A = V l {\displaystyle CSA={\ ... Fiber length is also a key variable in muscle anatomy. Fiber length is the product of both the number of sarcomeres in series ... the anatomical cross-sectional area cannot be used as in parallel fibered muscles. Instead, the physiological cross-sectional ... These muscles are often used for fast or extensive movements and can be measured by the anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA). ...

*Anterior commissure

... that its cross-sectional area is larger in women than in men. Also, a study by Lasco et al. (2002) said: We examined the cross- ... 2002 May 17;936(1-2):95-8. Overview at University of Cambridge "Anatomy diagram: 13048.000-3". Roche Lexicon - illustrated ... sectional area of the AC in postmortem material from 120 individuals, and found no variation in the size of the AC with age, ... commissure corpus callosum This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) ...

*Periodontal curette

Sickle scalers tend to have a stronger tip that is less likely to break off during use due to the triangular cross sectional ... for subgingival scaling and root planing due to the design of the instrument that allows for best adaptation to root anatomy. ... The working end has a rounded back and a rounded toe with a semicircular cross section. This design allows the instrument to be ... Similar to the universal curette, the Gracey curette features a rounded back and toe with a semicircular cross section, which ...

*Spinal cord

... Sectional Anatomy. Animation in the reference. Diagrams of the spinal cord. Cross-section through the spinal cord ... Cross-section of rabbit spinal cord. Cross-section of adult mouse spinal cord: astrocytes (red) and neurons (green) Cross ... Cross-sections of the spinal cord at varying levels. Cervical vertebra A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral ... Anatomy and Physiology, 5th Ed. Le, Tao (10 January 2014). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2014 / Edition 24. McGraw-Hill ...

*Bioarchaeology

... recording protocols for entheseal changes in regards to expressing activity patterns using archival data and cross-sectional ... Lane, W. Arbuthnot (1888-07-01). "Anatomy and Physiology of the Shoemaker". Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. 22 (Pt 4): 592.1 ... Differences in male and female skeletal anatomy are used by bioarchaeologists to determine the biological sex of human ...

*Selective internal radiation therapy

Y-90 microsphere treatment requires patient-individualized planning with cross-sectional imaging and arteriograms. Contrast ... These studies allow for documentation of the gastrointestinal vascular anatomy and flow characteristics. Extrahepatic vessels ...

*Skeletal changes of organisms transitioning from water to land

The tubular lower jaw of the Elginerpeton, compared to the flat-lamina jaw shape of fishes gave it superior cross-sectional ... In the tetrapod and higher clades from the lower-middle Famennian there are several defining changes on the basis of anatomy of ... Transitional feeding changes can be observed by examining cross sectional morphology of a suture in taxa of the fish-tetrapod ...

*Veterinary medicine

... a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals". PeerJ. 4: e1649. doi:10.7717/peerj.1649. PMC 4734056 ... It was the first comprehensive treatise on the anatomy of a non-human species. The first veterinary college was founded in Lyon ... Meanwhile, Carlo Ruini's book Anatomia del Cavallo, (Anatomy of the Horse) was published in 1598. ... Aspinall, Victoria; Cappello, Melanie; Bowden, Sally (2009), Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology Textbook, ...

*Siemens Healthineers

MRI scanners produce high-quality cross-sectional images without exposing patients to radiation. The sectional images displayed ... In doing so, the combination system gives a more detailed image of anatomy and biological function. Time magazine named the ... employee donations to the American Red Cross Disaster Relief Fund. After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, Siemens Healthineers ...

*Pennate muscle

The muscle cross sectional area (blue line in figure 1, also known as anatomical cross section area, or ACSA) does not ... Frederick H. Martini, Fundamentals Of Anatomy And Physiology. Jacob Wilson, Abcbodybuilding, The Journal of HYPERplasia ... This measure is known as the physiological cross sectional area (PCSA), and is commonly calculated and defined by the following ... Assessment of human knee extensor muscles stress from in vivo physiological cross-sectional area and strength measurements. ...

*Max Fürbringer

His evolutionary tree branched in three dimensions which he represented by means of side and cross-sectional views. This ... Zur vergleichenden Anatomie des Brustschulterapparates und der Schultermuskeln ("Comparative anatomy of the breast-shoulder ... Front view of tree Rear view of tree Cross section, lower Cross section, middle Cross section, upper As a defender of Gegenbaur ... Vergleichende Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Excretionsorgane der Vertebraten ("Comparative anatomy and history of ...

*Childbirth

... a cross-sectional study". BMJ Open. 4 (1): e004017. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004017. PMC 3902513 . PMID 24435892. Archived from ... 1973). Gray's Anatomy (35th British ed.). London: Longman. p. 1046. ISBN 978-0-443-01011-8. "Mortality and Burden of Disease ... Medicine administered via epidural can cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of the fetus. Epidural analgesia has no ...

*Triangular interval

When these bands were present, rotation of the shoulder caused a reduction in cross sectional area of the space. Normal resting ... McClelland D, Paxinos A. The anatomy of the quadrilateral space with reference to quadrilateral space syndrome. J Shoulder ... Axillary spaces Quadrangular space Triangular space Photo at tufts.edu Kyung Won Chung (2005). Gross Anatomy (Board Review). ... ISBN 0-7817-5309-0. Krishna, Garg (2010). "7 - Scapula". BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy (Regional and Applied Dissection and ...
... portions and 10.0 cm^2 at the constriction. Water is flowing in the pipe, and the discharge from the pipe is 6.00*10^-3 m^3/s(6.00 L/s). Find (a) the flow speeds at the wide and the narrow portions; (b) the pressure difference between those portions; (c) the difference in height between the mercury columns and the U-shaped tube. ...
Techniques and systems for distracting a spinal disc space and supporting adjacent vertebrae are provided. Trial instruments are insertable into the disc space to determine a desired disc space height and to select a corresponding implant. Implants can be also be self-distracting and the implant providing the desired disc space height can be implanted in the spinal disc space.
This interactive learning module, the eighth in the CT Basics series, covers cross-sectional anatomy as seen on CT images. The course provides the necessary tools for understanding anatomy in three dimensions by demonstrating the location, function and appearance of major structures in the head and neck. The course includes review questions and is suited for technologists who are adding CT to their professional skill set. After successful completion of all 12 for-credit modules, you will receive a recognition of achievement award from the ASRT. ...
Objective: To establish a bedside test with ultrasonography for evaluation of foot muscle atrophy in diabetic patients.. Research Design and Methods: Thickness and cross sectional area of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) and of the muscles of the first interstitium (MIL) were determined in 26 diabetic patients and in 26 matched control subjects using ultrasonography. To estimate the validity findings were related to the total volume of all foot muscles determined at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-FMvol). Furthermore, the relations of ultrasonographic estimates to nerve conduction, sensory perception tresholds and clinical condition were established.. Results: In diabetic patients the ultrasonographic thickness of EDB (U-EDBt) was 6.4 ± 2.1 mm (mean ± SD) vs. 9.0 ± 1.0 mm in controls (p,0.001), thickness of MIL (U-MILt) was 29.6 ± 8.3 mm vs. 40.2 ± 3.6 mm in controls (p,0.001) and the cross sectional area of EDB (U-EDBCSA) was 116 ± 65 mm2 vs. 214 ± 38 mm2 in controls (p,0.001). ...
The extent of luminal narrowing varies with underlying plaque morphology. TCFAs and fibroatheromas have the least luminal narrowing while lesions with acute plaque rupture, haemorrhage, or healed repair sites show the most stenosis. Over 74% of TCFAs have , 75% cross sectional area luminal narrowing (equivalent to , 50% diameter stenosis). Healed and acute plaque ruptures show the greatest luminal narrowing with 46% and 43%, respectively, containing , 75% cross sectional area narrowing. In contrast, only 26% of TCFAs show severe luminal narrowing (fig 3B). In a population where sudden cardiac death is the first manifestation of coronary disease, these morphologic findings strongly suggest that TCFAs are precursors to acute ruptures and healed plaque ruptures are often clinically silent.. TCFAs with ⩽ 50% diameter stenosis may be the ideal candidate lesions one should first attempt to identify and treat as a measure to reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction in high risk patients. If a ...
The present invention relates to a system of modeling a three dimensional target object which is represented by a plurality of cross-sectional images in order to provide a representative corresponding three dimensional model. The invention selects an initial model from a plurality of available initial models. This selection involves identifying an initial model based on physical similarity to the target object and then superimposing an initial model upon the target object, for each of the plurality of cross-sectional images. A determination is then made of an intersection contour of the initial model and a cross-sectional image of the target object and the determined intersection contour is refined in order to more closely delineate the target object. By sub-sampling points which represent the refined determined intersection contour, the invention obtains a sub-sampled contour dataset. The initial model is then adjusted towards the sub-samples contour to obtain a representative three dimensional
A dilator retractor and the dilators that are used for minimally invasive spinal surgery or other surgery are configured to accommodate the anatomical structure of the patient as by configuring the cross sectional area in an elliptical shape, or by forming a funnel configuration with the wider end at the proximate end. In some embodiments the distal end is contoured to also accommodate the anatomical structure of the patient so that a cylindrically shaped, funnel shaped, ovoid shaped dilator retractor can be sloped or tunneled to accommodate the bone structure of the patient or provide access for implants. The dilator retractor is made with different lengths to accommodate the depth of the cavity formed by the dilators.
From all subjects, the means of the greater and lesser orthogonal diastolic diameters in mm were: MPA, 22.9 ± 2.4 (M) and 21.2 ± 2.1 (F), RPA 16.6 ± 2.8 (M) and 14.7 ± 2.2 (F), and LPA 17.3 ± 2.5 (M) and 15.9 ± 2.0 (F), p , 0.0001 between genders in each case. The diastolic diameters increased with BSA and age, and plots are provided for reference. From measurements of minimum diastolic and maximum systolic cross sectional areas, the % systolic distensions were: MPA 42.7 ± 17.2 (M) and 41.8 ± 15.7 (F), RPA 50.6 ± 16.9 (M) and 48.2 ± 14.5 (F), LPA 35.6 ± 10.1 (M) and 35.2 ± 10.3 (F), and there was a decrease in distension with age (p , 0.0001 for the MPA).. ...
During a CT scan, a thin x-ray beam rotates around the patient. Detectors measure the x-rays and a computer creates a cross-sectional image or "slice" of that part of the body. A three-dimensional image can be created by combining the slices. The images interpreted by a radiologist (a doctor specialized in the reading of x-rays), who will report the results to your doctor. Your doctor will then provide you with this information ...
Individual projections create a cross-sectional image of the object as if it had been perfectly cut in half. The process, which functions much like when a doctor takes a CAT scan of a patients brain to look for abnormalities, renders a highly-detailed perspective that allows for unparalleled diagnostic analysis of the object. Even the most minor of structural flaws can be measured for repair or rendered large for study. Multiple X-ray images can be arrayed to create a single, three-dimensional model for a more in-depth consideration.. This technology allows for new possibilities in non-destructive testing:. ...
Computerized Tomography (CT) and MagneticResonance Imaging (MRI) are the gold standard todeliver cross-sectional images of the human body.
With CT scanning, several x-ray beams plus a list of electronic x-ray detectors rotate close to you, measuring the quantity of radiation getting absorbed throughout Ones body. Occasionally, the examination desk will transfer in the course of the scan, so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral route. A Exclusive Laptop or computer system procedures this large volume of data to develop two-dimensional cross-sectional images of The body, which happen to be then shown with a keep an eye on ...
Cross-sectional images of the human fingertip acquired in vivo at different A-line rate with HRES-OCT. Image acquired using HRES-OCT with illumination power of 4.8mW at an A-line rate of 60K Hz, i.e., 117 fps. For details, see Yu et al., Opt. Express 23, 26399-26413 (2015). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intravenous arginine vasopressin on epicardial coronary artery cross sectional area in a swine resuscitation model. AU - Wenzel, Volker. AU - Kern, Karl B. AU - Hilwig, Ronald W.. AU - Berg, Robert A.. AU - Schwarzacher, Severin. AU - Butman, Samuel M.. AU - Lindner, Karl H.. AU - Ewy, Gordon A.. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to be a promising drug during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), concern has been raised about the potential for AVP-mediated vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries. In a prospective, randomized laboratory investigation employing an established porcine model, the effects of AVP on haemodynamic variables, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery cross sectional area employing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and return of spontaneous circulation were studied. During sinus rhythm, the LAD coronary artery cross sectional area was measured by IVUS at baseline, and 90 s and 5 min after AVP ...
A graphical regression between Bankfull cross sectional area and drainage area is typically performed on a log-log plot. Cross-sectional area is measured using techniques discussed earlier, typically at a representative riffle or some average riffle area where Bankfull is readily determined. As would be expected, Bankfull cross-sectional area typically increases with drainage area, but again, deviations exist within and between regions. ...
PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: Muscle cross sectional area is an important determinant of muscle performance. There are several external factors that regulate muscle cross sectional area such as muscle loading, contraction history, and neuronal activity. Each of these factors ultimately regulates cellular programs within muscle to induce changes in muscle size. The purpose of this study was to examine one potential regulator of muscle cross sectional area, the cellular protein kinase Akt, and its activity level following denervation‐induced muscle atrophy. NUMBER OF SUBJECTS: Eight Sprague‐Dawley rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: Diaphragm muscles from Sprague‐Dawley rats were analyzed at days 3, 7, and 14 following phrenic nerve denervation. Muscle protein was extracted and western analysis was performed. Akt activity level was measured by the ratio of phosphorylated Akt to total Akt. RESULTS: We observed a slight increase in Akt activity following 3 days of denervation. Akt activity levels at days 7 and 14 ...
0059] The unit weight of a wireline cable, for example lbs/ft, may be reduced at lower portions by reducing the unit weight of the strength members at the lower portions of the cable. One skilled in the art will appreciate that the unit weight of the strength members is directly proportional to the density of the strength member material and the cross sectional area of the strength members at a location along the cable. By reducing the total cross sectional area of the strength members at a lower location with respect to an upper location, and assuming a substantially constant material density, the unit weight of the cable will be proportionately lighter at the lower location. The technique of tapering the strength members, described above, is one way to accomplish this reduction. FIG. 13A-C show other embodiments wherein the total cross sectional area of the strength members of the cable may be reduced at lower locations. FIG. 13A shows an upper end of cable 1300 having an inner layer 1302 and ...
c) If the cross sectional area of the aorta is partially blocked by plaque build-up on the walls, such that it is 1/2 its normal cross sectional area, what are the frequency and beat frequency received? (All other factors, apart from the decrease in cross sectional area, are considered to be constant ...
During Rutherford cable production the wires are plastically deformed and their initially round shape is distorted. Using X-ray absorption tomography we have determined the 3D shape of an unreacted Nb3Sn 11 T dipole Rutherford cable, and of a reacted and impregnated Nb3Sn cable double stack. State-of-theart image processing was applied to correct for tomographic artefacts caused by the large cable aspect ratio, for the segmentation of the individual wires and subelement bundles inside the wires, and for the calculation of the wire cross sectional area and shape variations. The 11 T dipole cable cross section oscillates by 2% with a frequency of 1.24 mm (1/80 of the transposition pitch length of the 40 wire cable). A comparatively stronger cross sectional area variation is observed in the individual wires at the thin edge of the keystoned cable where the wire aspect ratio is largest ...
|p|This spectacular cross-sectional atlas provides a roadmap of normal sonographic anatomy of the musculoskeletal system with optimized images that emphasize spatial relationships and three-dimensional orientation. The book is designed to help novices acq
Cell count is an important metric in neurological research. The loss in numbers of certain cells like neurons has been found to accompany not only the deterioration of important brain functions but disorders like clinical depression as well. Since the manual counting of cell numbers is a near impossible task considering the sizes and numbers involved, an automated approach is the obvious alternative to arrive at the cell count. In this thesis, a software application is described that automatically segments, counts, and helps visualize the various cell bodies present in a sample mouse brain, by analyzing the images produced by the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope (KESM) at the Brain Networks Laboratory. The process is described essentially in five stages: Image acquisition, Pre- Processing, Processing, Analysis and Refinement, and finally Visualization. Nissl staining is a staining mechanism that is used on the mouse brain sample to highlight the cell bodies of our interest present in the brain, ...
Blood flow in series increases the resistance; blood flow in parallel decreases the resistance (TPR).. By blocking the umbilical veins you have in respect limited the excess flood flow to the placenta.. This reduces the flow in parallel circulation; thus increases the TPR. (MAP = cardiac out put times TPR). This is because the total cross sectional area is reduced. From this, there is an increased pressure in the fetal circulation.. The baroreceptors located immediately distal to the bifurcation of the common carotid artery would sense a high pressure and increase their afferent signal via CN9.. This Reduces the sympathetics and increases the parasympathetics via CN10 (vagus).. Thus, reducing the heart rate!. ...
Suppose we have a PFR with the reaction B + 3C --, 2D, where B, C, and D are gaseous species. We are going to assume that the shear stress at the wall is very small so that the pressure gradient along the tube is very low, in which case the total pressure P is constant at the inlet pressure throughout the reactor. We are also going to assume that the heat of reaction is zero, so that the temperature throughout the reactor is constant at the inlet temperature T. We are going to assume ideal gas behavior, and that B, C, and D comprise the entire flow stream. Let x be the axial position along the reactor, and let v(x) represent the axial velocity a position x. Let A be the cross sectional area of the tube. Let yB(x), yc(x), and yd(x) represent the mole fractions of the three species, and let Mb, Mc, and Md represent the molecular weights of the three species ...
This paper presents the evaluation of a miniature liquid microflow sensor, directly integrated on a PCB. The sensor operation is based on the convective heat transfer principle. The heating and sensing elements are thin Pt resistors which are in direct electrical contact with the external copper tracks of the printed circuit board. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the substrate material, a high degree of thermal isolation is obtained which improves the operating characteristics of the device. The sensor is able to operate under both the hot-wire and the calorimetric principle. In order to fully exploit the temperature distribution in the flowing liquid, multiple sensing elements are positioned in various distances from the heater. A special housing was developed which allowed implementation of the sensor into tubes of various cross sectional areas. The sensor sensitivity and measurement range as a function of the sensing element distance were quantified. A minimum resolution of 3 μL/min and a
A thermal treating apparatus and process providing convection thermal transfer for elevated processing temperatures and chemical treatment. A recirculation plenum for passage of spent treatment fluid from and fresh treatment fluid to a treatment chamber may contain a thermal control source, a chemical control source, and a blower to provide predetermined programmable temperatures and chemical environments to articles in the treatment chamber. Decreasing cross sectional areas along the length of the treatment chamber cause introduction of fresh treatment fluid at different locations along the length of the treatment chamber to achieve desired uniform thermal and chemical treatment of articles along the length of the treatment chamber.
Cross-sectional anatomy of the canine head on CT imaging (brain, face, skull, face, palate, hyoid apparatus, muscles, arteries and veins)
Cross-sectional anatomy of the canine head on CT imaging (brain, face, skull, face, palate, hyoid apparatus, muscles, arteries and veins)
Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. ...
Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. ...
Computed tomography, also called CT or CT scan, is a process that uses X-rays and computer technology to make cross-sectional images of the body. A series…
Boyd-Buchanan showed two things Friday night in its District 5-A boys high school basketball game against Arts & Sciences. The Buccaneers know how to blow a big lead, but they also know how to regroup from it.
The same separation results can be obtained by setting the flow rate and sample quantity in proportion to the column sectional area. ...
Looking for farm fresh produce without the hassle of planting your own? Sign up for a CSAs (Community Supported Agriculture) and youll get produce straight from a local NYC farm.
Anatomical structure that has as its parts two or more multi-tissue structures of at least two different types and which through specific morphogenetic processes forms a single distinct structural unit demarcated by bona fide boundaries from other distinct anatomical structures of different types ...
Background Content: This case study examined the effects of a single Prolotherapy injection series on the left iliolumbar ligament. The ligament measurements were split between medial and lateral portions of the iliolumbar ligament and we hypothesized that growth would occur increasing the cross sectional area and thus provided added stability to the pelvis and lumbar spine.. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to answer two questions: 1) how do you know that the Prolotherapy injectant actually reaches the ligamentous structure you are attempting to heal; and 2) how long does it take for the ligament to recover?. Study Design: Single case study.. Methods: One subject, 32 year-old female with no history of lower back pain (LBP) participated in our study. Her job tasks as a physical therapist required her to twist turn and bend; putting pressure on her pelvis and ligamentous system. The primary author (A.A.) assessed her pelvic ligaments which lead to using a specified Prolotherapy solution for ...
Has anyone got this configured for silant install along with configuration settings deployed? EDIT: Found a working solution after 8 hours digging, (Download and Install QuickTimeInstaller.exe first from Apple Direct) (Configure QuickTime First & Get QuickTime.qts, QuickTime.qtp, com.apple.QuickTime.plist , QTPlayerSession.xml) (Save above Files into one folder) (Unpack QuickTimeInstaller.exe with 7zip) (Delete all files except AppleApplicationSupport.msi , QuickTime.msi, save these files into the same folder created above) (make a batch file with the one below) QuickTime.cmd (For XP) ====================================================================================== @ECHO OFF TITLE QuickTime 7.64.17.73 Installer msiexec /i AppleApplicationSupport.msi /qn /norestart msiexec /i QuickTime.msi /qn /norestart XCOPY /S /E /I /Y QuickTime.qts "%PROGRAMFILES%\QuickTime\QTSystem XCOPY /S /E /I /Y QuickTime.qtp "%USERPROFILE%\Local Settings\Application Data\Apple Computer\QuickTime XCOPY /S /E /I ...
DDD typically begins with small tears in the annulus of the disc (elastic outer ring of collagen fibers) and can lead to a decrease in the water content of the nucleus of the disc (soft gel center). The degenerative cascade of DDD can lead to disc bulging, development of bone spurs (called osteophytes), and loss of disc space height and/or alignment, which can cause nerve impingement. DDD can also lead to degenerative instability, the loss of the ability of the spine under physiologic loads to maintain its pattern of normal movement due to disc degeneration.. ...
The invention provides encircling devices by which anatomical structures, such as blood vessels, fallopian tubes, ureters, vas deferens and outer nerve sheaths are anastomosed. Such an encircling device provides an opening that receives an end of a tubular anatomical structure having a prepared opening, and the tubular structure is anastomosed to a second anatomical structure having a prepared opening by tethering the two structures to the encircling device holding the structures under radial stress in apposition to each other to form a fluid-tight peripheral seal around their openings. Encircling devices are also used to join a tubular anatomical structure to a second anatomical structure having a cavity, e.g., a fallopian tube to a uterus or a uterer to the bladder. The tubular structure is received in the opening of the encircling device and tethered thereto to hold its end open, and then the encircling device is extended through a passageway in the second anatomical structure by means of a trocar,
A catheter includes a plurality of expandable primary leads to deliver energy to a fallopian tube, a vein such as a hemorrhoid or an esophageal varix, or another hollow anatomical structure requiring ligation or occlusion. Each of the primary leads includes an electrode located at the working end of the catheter. Separation is maintained between the primary leads such that the leads can receive power of selected polarity. The primary leads are constructed to expand outwardly to place the electrodes into apposition with a hollow anatomical structure. High frequency energy can be applied from the leads to create a heating effect in the surrounding tissue of the anatomical structure. The diameter of the hollow anatomical structure is reduced by the heating effect, and the electrodes of the primary leads are moved closer to one another.
Looking for Cross-sectional area? Find out information about Cross-sectional area. The area of a section cut transversely to the longitudinal axis of a member. In masonry units, the gross cross-sectional area of a section minus the average... Explanation of Cross-sectional area
ive been lifting weights for a few years, and bike commuting for about 1.5 years, 10 miles each way i hit the gym 2-4 times a week, some weeks more,
The CT (Computed Tomography) scan or the CAT (Computer-Aided Tomography) scan is a diagnostic procedure that takes a detailed cross-sectional x-ray picture of a "slice" of the body.. To get a CT scan, the patient lies very still on a table, which is slowly moved horizontally while the x-ray machine rotates around the patient and takes pictures from many angles. A computer then combines the pictures into a very detailed cross-sectional image. The length of the procedure depends on the areas to be x-rayed. For the chest area, the procedure takes about 20 seconds.. CT scans can show the shape, size and the exact location of organs and tissues in any "slice" of the body more clearly than other diagnostic tools. This technique can help find enlarged lymph nodes, which might contain cancer that has spread from the lung. CT scans are more sensitive than routine chest x-rays in finding early lung cancers. CT scans are also used in detecting masses in the liver, adrenal glands, brain and other internal ...
Computerized Tomography (CT Scan or CT) combines a series of x-ray views taken from many different angles and computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissues inside your body. A CT scanner is a tube (shaped like a donut) surrounded by a giant magnet. The patient is placed on a moveable bed that is inserted into the magnet. Occasionally, patients require injections of liquid intravenously to enhance the images of the study. CT Scanning time depends on the exact area of the body being studied, but ranges from 5 to 30 minutes.. ...
MODEL RELEASED. CT scanning. Doctors examining the results of a computed tomography (CT) scan of a patients chest and head (seen on screen). The patient (upper right) has been passed through the hole in the scanner. CT scanning uses X-rays to produce cross-sectional images of the scanned area, compiled by computer. This allows doctors to view internal body structures and diagnose medical conditions. In this case, the larynx was being examined. Photographed at the Fondation Rothschild, Paris, France. - Stock Image C002/1287
MRI technology uses magnets & radio waves to produce detailed cross-sectional images inside the body. Learn more about MRIs from Breastcancer.org.
QuickTime Components is now a project hosted on xiph.org. You have to write a Quicktime Plugin for the Ogg container and the Xiph Codec Family. qtcomponents provides support for Ogg Vorbis and MNG. This could be used as start. Xiph Quicktime Plugin has to support encoding/decoding for: ...
Does anyone know what anatomical structure does the Thoracic Aorta become the ABD aorta? Also @ what structure does the common iliac become the Fem-po
Class Price & DiscountsPlease contact sponsor for pricing. Class Preparation Preparation for LCFS-FMWe have provided a list of terms below you need to study before attending this course.Be sure you are familiar with the following pathologies / anatomical structures / physiological terms:
We found that in healthy elderly men, preservation of whole brain volume was associated with larger total neck muscle cross-sectional area. Therefore in an elderly cohort, those that have a smaller muscle bulk have undergone more brain atrophy. This finding supports the common cause hypothesis, by demonstrating that the rate of sarcopenia and ARCD may occur in parallel within individuals, driven by core underlying biological processes. However, we found no significant association between total neck muscle CSA and ventricular volume (a different measure of brain atrophy), or hippocampal or cerebellar volumes.. We unexpectedly found that total neck muscle CSA was significantly negatively associated with estimated prior cognitive ability (NART) after adjustment for ICA and age, but we found no significant association between total neck muscle CSA and current cognitive abilities. This suggests that those with lower prior cognitive ability may have larger muscles in old age. Muscle mass in old age is ...
Background. Do pressure dependent tracheal obstructions (PDTO) often seen during bronchoscopy in COPD patients affect pulmonary function tests and breathing symptoms? Method. Model study. A garden hose was compressed from one side to simulate the posterior wall of the trachea bulging into the lumen. For two obstruction lengths - 3 cm and 12 cm, the hose was increasingly compressed in eight steps. Resistance was measured at each step for airflows 1 l/s through 9 l/s, and digital photos of the luminal area were taken which were used by a computer to estimate the cross sectional area reduction and the corresponding distance between the bulging (posterior)and the opposite (anterior) wall (AP-distance).. Patient study. 104 stable COPD patients studied by pulmonary function tests and bronchoscopy. The tracheal obstruction was observed during forced expiration and cough, and the cross sectional area reduction was estimated using the results from the model study. ...
In this article, we are going to describe the cross-sectional anatomy of thorax which is essential in understanding cross-sectional imaging. Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Thorax Level T3: It is the level of superior mediastinum. The trachea lies in the midline with the right brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery anteriorly. The esophagus is seen behind the trachea …. Read More » ...
View Notes - Fatty Acid Synthesis copy from BIOCHEM 1 at SUNY Old Westbury. Kho Kashfi, PhD, MSc, LRSC Fatty Acid Synthesis QuickTime and GIF decompressor are needed to seeathis pictu QuickTime and
Results Thirty stents were deployed. Before stenting, the mean vessel diameter was 3.4±0.21 mm at point A, 3.06±0.18 mm at B, 3.16 ± 0.21 mm at C, 2.67 ± 0.27 mm at D, and 2.56 ± 0.23 mm at E. The deployment of two stents resulted in statistically significant increases in both the average vascular diameter and cross sectional area (CSA) at points C (3.51±0.22 mm and 9.76±1.17 mm2, P= 0.0006 for diameter and 0.001 for CSA, respectively) and E (2.88±0.32 mm and 7.28±1.46 mm2, P= 0.01 for diameter and 0.02 for CSA, respectively) compared with pre-stenting. At angiographic follow-ups compared with before stenting, significant increases were documented at point C (3.42±0.22 mm and 9.42±1.37 mm2, respectively) at first angiographic follow-up but at points A (3.62±0.45 mm and 10.51±2.37 mm2) and B (3.26±0.24 mm and 8.47±1.26 mm2) at second angiographic follow-up. No significant vascular stenosis was demonstrated at double stent segment compared with single stent or native artery segments. ...
A Matlab Simulink model was developed reproducing each vessel section by a distensible compartment. Therefore the cerebral vascular tree was divided into 13 sections from carotid artery to venous sinuses and the pulsatile carotid artery and sinus pressure were inputted as Fourier series. The cross sectional area was varied according to literature data and flow resistance was implemented taking into account the rheological characteristics of blood. The Windkessel function and relaxation properties of vascular walls were integrated by a Voigt model, enabling the variation of wall properties for each section individually. Due to the distensible vessel walls each section interacts with the CSF compartment and autoregulation was implemented by a simple proportional controller. After parameterisation mean pressure and pressure amplitude in the vessel sections showed good accordance with literature values [4]. ...
Several recent clinical studies have suggested that proper vascular stent deployment directly affects clinical outcome, and the rate of re-stenosis. These studies suggest that angiography alone is not sufficient to ensure proper vascular stent deployment, and that re-stenosis rates will decline if proper stent apposition has occurred. The importance of proper stent sizing and apposition is further emphasised with the increasing use of drug eluting stents, the drug effects of which are only realized upon contact with the arterial wall.. Angiometrx Inc. developed the Metricath Arterial Measurement System in response to the need for increased stent sizing and deployment. The Metricath System measures the diameter and cross sectional area of arteries using an intravascular balloon catheter attached to a computerized console. Considering the ease and rapidity of obtaining Metricath results, this technique may form an alternative to evaluate vessel area and stent expansion.. The Metricath System was ...
Introduction: Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an unusual complication in COPD, and a distinct phenotype has been evoked.. Objectives: We evaluated whether computed tomography (CT) can support this hypothesis, by identifying airways and/or small vessels.. Material and Methods: Between 2009 and 2013, 116 COPD patients underwent during a period of disease stability pulmonary function tests (PFT), CT of the chest and right heart catheterization. Among them, 55 subjects had no other condition to explain PH. 20 had severe PH (mean arterial pressure [mPAP]≥40 mmHg) and 35 patients with mild-to-moderate (mPAP≥25; n=20) and without PH (mPAP,25 mmHg; n=15) were chosen as controls. The percentage of total cross sectional area of vessels less than 5 mm2 for the lung area (%CSA,5) and 5 to 10 mm2 (%CSA5-10) were measured on CT examinations (ImageJ) and compared between groups. Correlations were searched between %CSA and PFT values, emphysema (Low Attenuation Area%) and mPAP.. Results: Severe PH ...
Both are twisted multi-conductor products that find use in RF applications but otherwise the two are substantially different. While litz wire may be produced with 15 or fewer individual strands, for high frequency applications the constructions often consist of many bundles with up to 2000 individual strands of ultrafine wire. Litz wire is constructed with a loose lay (,0.25 to 2 twists per inch) to minimize the lineal increase in resistance produced by twisting and individual wires are insulated with single build insulation to maximize the cross sectional area of copper conductor. Polyurethane base insulation is used almost exclusively for the individual wires due to its low RF loss characteristic, wide availability and moderate cost. The constructions of fine and ultrafine strands may be helically wrapped with nylon or other textile yarn to bind and maintain the litz wire in a circular configuration and to protect the thin film insulation coatings from abrasion. In recent years extruded ...
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Long intervals take two minutes or more and are very tiring. In interval training, a runner may run a quarter mile 12 times, averaging 1 minute, with a 110-yard slow jog between each. A weightlifter may lift a heavy weight ten times in a row and then repeat another set of ten. Runners run intervals as fast as they can and recover enough to run the same fast pace several times. Runners need very short recoveries between intervals, usually only about 30 seconds; but weight lifters need much longer recoveries, at least two and a half minutes. Runners become short of breath and feel a burning in their muscles when lactic acid starts to accumulate in muscles, but it takes only a few seconds for a trained athlete to recover between each hard run. On the other hand, weight lifters feel burning caused by tearing of the muscle fibers and it takes a much longer time for the pain to disappear so they can lift very heavy weights again ...
My most immediate reaction to the article was to find out what she looks like. I make no apologies. Im a compassionate progressive, but Im not a politically correct compassionate progressive.. As I suspected, she looks extremely physically fit, but also attractive and traditionally "feminine". I suspected that for a variety of reasons. First of all, the whole situation of being hassled by intimidated sexists for being "masculine" suggests that the woman in question is likely to be attractive. If a less attractive woman succeeded in the same sport, sexists would merely sneer at her appearance rather than getting worked up. Second of all womens weight lifting is pretty heavily drug tested, and although there probably are athletes who test the limits of that testing (as in any relatively major sport), quite bluntly, it would mainly be contenders for the gold from countries with major weight-lifting programs, a group which does not include the UK, who would be most likely to do that. Obviously, ...
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the most favorable imaging modality that often used in coronary artery catheterization procedures and provides cross-sectional images of arterial wall structures and extend of atherosclerosis disease. Although several techniques have been developed to classify atherosclerotic tissues, deploying IVUS radiofrequency (RF) backscattered signals and/or grayscale images their clinical applications have seen limited success. In this paper, we propose a unified methodological framework from data collection, histology preparation, registration, feature extraction, and classification to achieve a reliable in vitro trained tissue characterization classifier for in vivo applications. Finally, the results from proposed algorithm is compared with state of the art virtual histology (VH) technique ...
Thank you very much Forrest for your answer. I dont think I have memory problems (my computer has a 32 GB memory). Here is my code to draw the 100-m buffers with the function buffer (package raster): r1 ,- r ## r is the original raster and has a resolution of 10m r1[(r1[]!=2 & r1[]!=5)]=NA plot(r1) r2 ,- buffer(r1, 10) I also tested the function distance (package raster): r1 ,- r ## r is the original raster and has a resolution of 10m r1[(r1[]!=2 & r1[]!=5)]=NA plot(r1) r3 ,- distance(r1) In the two cases, I stopped the functions afer 5 hours as this was too long ! For the moment, I havent find solutions. Thanks a lot for your time. Have a nice day. Nell ________________________________ De : Forrest Stevens ,r-sig-geo at forreststevens.com, Envoyé : lundi 11 avril 2016 09:09 À : Nelly Reduan; r-sig-geo at r-project.org Objet : Re: [R-sig-Geo] How to reduce the buffering time with the function buffer (package raster) Five million cells isnt all that many, how slow is too slow? Buffering ...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Brain (Head CT Scan, Intracranial CT Scan) Procedure Overview What is a CT or CAT scan of the brain? Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are m ...
Cardiac-computed tomography is an X-ray imaging technique that uses a computer to produce cross-sectional images. Also referred to as computerized axial tomography, or CT, CAT scan, multidetector CT or MDCT, it can be used to examine the heart and blood vessels for problems. It is also used to identify the blood vessels in the brain affected by stroke.. ...
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An abdominal CT scan is an imaging in which X-rays are used to create a cross-sectional image of the abdomen, according to MedlinePlus. It is performed when a physician suspects a medical issue that...
Post-meeting note: A revised version of the CSAs was circulated vide LegCo Paper No. CB(1) 1177/96-97 dated 2 April 1997.) PAS/EM elaborated on the Administration s response to the outstanding issues arising from the discussion on 25 February 1997, as contained in its letter dated 12 March 1997. The Administration accepted that workers working in vehicles in a public place, who were not the drivers nor the passengers, should be protected under the Bill. The CSAs tabled had proposed amendments to this effect. PAS/EM also reported that the Labour Advisory Board (LAB) had met to consider the Bills Committee s suggestion to amend clauses 6, 7 and 8 of the Bill and agreed that general duties provisions similar to those in the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (FIUO) should be included in the Bill. Furthermore, they considered a one-year grace period necessary for the introduction of the penalty clause for breach of the general duties provision by an employer, occupier of premises, and ...
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Beneath many images youll see links to 3D rotations: "Spin" means a 360-frame video loop of the object rotating around a complete circle, "3D" means a larger 72-frame QuickTime VR object you can click and drag in either direction. (Download QuickTime Player ...
It seems like another fairly critical flaw has been discovered in Microsoft Windows. Its serious as it allows remote code execution, which basically means if you get hit with it your machine is owned. It seems DirectX 7, 8 and 9 in Windows 2000, XP and Server 2003 are at…
I agree though we shouldnt let the topic wonder. Although, a big part of getting bigger is getting stronger, too. As a light weight lifter I find it very difficult to get strong and keep my weight roughly the same. Infact as time goes on im starting to think its impossible. But, strength training in a nutshell can be broken down to the following - lift heavy things, whilst in a caloric surplus.... Sounds familiar.... You could argue that you wont get big as quickly, but that depends on the person. If youve stopped making gains on your hypertrophy routine, chances are the best thing you can do is drop the volume, increase the intensity (lift heavier) for a while. Get stronger, basically. Then that would pave the way for size gains when you increase the volume again ...
Benching, bench pressing, powerlifting, what ever you want to call it is a sport that many have taken up. It is the type of sport that gives the performer killer abs, biceps and strength; It is the kind of sport that takes a man from being ordinary to being the bedroom wall paper of some girl in a another continent from the one the man is. it is the dream of many to have the type of strength and abs found especially in people like the rock and Ryan Kennelly. However, the sports takes resilience, courage, knowing that you might get hurt and not caring much about that and a great diet to support the massive work out. The result? A gigantic muscle man whose name everyone will know because of the internet.. After Justin Forsett (The Raven) posted that video of himself lifting 115 lb this year, it got most people wondering, who are the best weight lifters in the world? How much weight have they lifted and what do they look like?. Ryan Kennelly. This is a name you should already be familiar with if ...
Protein powder is frequently marketed to athletes, weight lifters and those looking to shape up and build muscle. Often containing whey, wheat and soy,...
I am a frequent weight lifter, 3-4 times a week. I have been lifting for sometime now but I can never put on weight. I am taking creatine again for
... You are looking on a brand new, fresh, never used or tested, Lancome Lancome Renergie Microli
A computer-implemented method for converting a raster image map to a vector image map includes receiving an electronic raster image that shows an indoor map of a building structure. The method also in
Insurers now able to hedge out interest rate risk beyond one year Indian insurers can now use interest rate derivatives of over one year to hedge exposures but CSAs will be required to transact, according to updated guidelines from the regulator
AnatomyData[entity, property] gives the value of the specified property for the anatomical structure entity. AnatomyData[{entity1, entity2, ...}, property] gives a list of property values for the specified anatomical structure entities. AnatomyData[entity, property, annotation] gives the specified annotation associated with the given property.
by RL Ramos, A Moiseff, & JC Brumberg. Supplemental Matieral : NOTE You must have Quicktime Player 6 installed to watch the movies.. ...
To link to the content of EndoNet use the EndoNet ID that is given on the detail pages in the format ENX0000, where X is a place holder for the type of the component (e. g. R for receptor or C for anatomical structure ...
To link to the content of EndoNet use the EndoNet ID that is given on the detail pages in the format ENX0000, where X is a place holder for the type of the component (e. g. R for receptor or C for anatomical structure ...
21 repeats of OBSID 3620258113 - Large coarse 2-step raster 2x120 2s C II Si IV Mg II h/k Mg II w s Deep x 8 FUV spectrally rebinned x ...
If youre looking for the ultimate lifter to withstand even the most demanding racing conditions, look no further. The COMP Cams Elite Race Lifters feature a host of advantages over competing race lifter designs, including an SAE 8620 stainless steel alloy body that is CNC-machined and REM-finished, SAE 9310 steel alloy wheels that are micro-polished and micro-sized and needles that are made from 52100 bearing steel and micro-sorted with a controlled contour profile.. These lifters feature an exclusive body design that does not include an oil band, maximizing rigidity and reducing lifter bushing wear. While the construction and body design make them incredibly strong, the Elite Race Lifters are also lightweight, with each lifter weighing less than 100 grams individually. All lifter bodies are "tall" and will clear both stock and aftermarket .300" tall lifter bores and will properly fit either 5/16" or 3/8" ball pushrods.. One of the most critical elements of this lifter design is the fact that ...
The CT images used in the app come from nonpathological CT scans. At first we thought of using images from the [U.S. National Library of Medicine] Visible Human Project, and we acquired the relevant permission to do so. However, we soon realized that the Visible Human Project did not contain all parts of the human anatomy, and we wanted our images to have a consistency and continuity. So we decided to go with the option of using real patient scans. Obviously, we were very careful in obtaining copyright and ethical clearance from the patients and the hospital we worked with. Who is the target audience for CT Anatomy, and how do you envision it will be used?. Our primary target, of course, is medical professionals -- especially radiologists and radiologic technologists -- but anyone with an interest in cross-sectional anatomy can use and benefit from the CT Anatomy app. The volume of information in regards to the anatomical structures described and the ease of use in the app goes beyond the strict ...
We examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on connective tissue of tendon and skeletal muscle during immobilisation and re-training in humans. Young men (20-30 years; n=20) were randomly assigned to daily recombinant GH (rhGH)(33-50μg/kg/d) or placebo (Plc), and had one leg immobilised for two weeks followed by six weeks of strength training. Cross sectional area (CSA), maximal muscle strength (MVC) and biomechanical properties of m.quadriceps and patellar tendon were determined. Muscle and tendon biopsies were analysed for mRNA of collagen (COL-1A1/3A1), insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1Ea/Ec), lysyloxidase (LOX), matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and -9), decorin and tenascin-C. Fibril morphology was analysed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) to detect changes in fibril diameter distribution. In muscle the CSA and MVC declined with immobilisation, and recovered with rehabilitation similar in both groups. Likewise, both groups increased in IGF-1Ea/Ec and COL-1A1/3A1 expression in ...
The exact role of the COL1A1 first intron in gene transcription has not been characterized. To study its role in bone metabolism I examined a transgenic mouse with a targeted deletion of the col1A1 first intron (col-Int). I measured, by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, bone mineral density (BMD), geometry and predicted biomechanical properties in wild-type, heterozygous col-Int and homozygous col-Int mice. First intron deletion affected bone geometry independently of BMD. Homozygous col-Int bones had significantly reduced cross sectional area and bone mineral content compared with wild-type bones, however there was no significant difference in total BMD between the genotypes. Examination of heterozygous col-Int mice demonstrated that the genotype affects were allele-dose and age dependent. The COL1A1 Spl polymorphism is associated with reduced BMD and an increased fracture risk. The polymorphism is situated in COL1A1 intron 1 within a Spl exacting element. Using electrophoretic ...
Cribb et al (2007) [29] observed greater improvements on 1RM, lean body mass, fiber cross sectional area and contractile protein in trained young males when resistance training was combined with a multi-nutrient supplement containing 0.1 g/kg/d of creatine, 1.5 g/kg/d of protein and carbohydrate compared with protein alone or a protein carbohydrate supplement without the creatine. These findings were novel because at the time no other research had noted such improvements in body composition at the cellular and sub cellular level in resistance trained participants supplementing with creatine. The amount of creatine consumed in the study by Cribb et al was greater than the amount typically reported in previous studies (a loading dose of around 20 g/d followed by a maintenance dose of 3-5 g/d is generally equivalent to approximately 0.3 g/kg/d and 0.03 g/kg/d respectively) and the length of the supplementation period or absence of resistance exercise may explain the observed transcriptional level ...
Background: Abnormal Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) velocities are detectable even in the pre-hypertrophic phase of Fabry disease (FD) cardiomyopathy.. Hypothesis: Impairment of cardiomyocyte relaxation and contractility is a main determinant of cardiac dysfunction in FD.. Methods: Active and passive tension before and after protein kinase A (PKA) and myofilament protein composition were determined in isolated cardiomyocytes from ventricular biopsies of 8 males (41±11 yrs) with untreated FD. Myofilament structure was analysed by electron microscopy. Cardiomyocyte cross sectional area, percent area occupied by glycosphyngolipids vacuoles and extent of fibrosis were morphometrically evaluated. Controls were ventricular biopsies from donor hearts and from patients with mitral stenosis.. Results: Resting tension was higher in FD cardiomyocytes than in cells from controls (9.2±2.4 vs 3.5±1.7 kN/m2, p, 0.001). Active force was lower (2.4±0.9 vs 20.3±3.0 kN/m2, p,0.001) and correlated with ...
We discuss the design and implementation of forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography (OCT), which require the delivery, scanning, and collection of single-spatial-mode optical radiation. A hand-held surgical probe for use in open surgery can provide cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue before surgical incisions are made. A rigid laparoscope for minimally invasive surgical OCT imaging provides a simultaneous en face view of the area being imaged. OCT imaging is demonstrated on in vitro human specimens.. © 1997 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Similar to a CT scan of internal organs, the OCT instrument uses light to rapidly scan the eye and give high resolution cross-sectional images of the retina. A beam of infrared light is scanned across the retina. The instrument collects the reflected light and measures its "time of flight" delay. That is: light, coming from deeper layers, takes longer to return compared to light from more superficial layers. The light does not interfere with or affect the retina. The various reflections are then built up into an image with computer generated colors. It is neither photography nor an x-ray. ...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a diagnostic technique that produces computerized images of internal body tissue and is based on magnetic vibration of tiny molecules within the body induced by the application of radio waves. With no known side effects, MRI provides cross-sectional images of muscles, nerves, ligaments, tendons, spinal cord, brain, heart and breast
An accurate description of anatomies and dynamics of vessels is crucial to understand their characteristics and improve surgical techniques, thus it is the basis, in addition to surgeon experience, on which stent design and operation procedures rely. The process of producing this description is user intensive, and recent improvement in image processing of medical3D imaging allows for a more automated workflow. However, there is a need to bridge the gap from a processed geometry to a robust mathematical computational grid. By sequentially segmenting a tubular anatomic structure, here defined by a stereo lithographic (STL) surface, an initial centerline is formed by connecting centroids of orthogonal cross-sectional contours along the length of the structure. Relying on the initial centerline, a set of non-overlapping 2D cross sectional contours are defined along the centerline, a centerline which is updated after the 2D contours are produced. After a second iteration of producing 2D contours and updating
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Beneath many images youll see links to 3D rotations: "Spin" means a 360-frame video loop of the object rotating around a complete circle, "3D" means a larger 72-frame QuickTime VR object you can click and drag in either direction. (Download QuickTime Player ...
in the filename is case-sensitive. This player can be used as a stand-alone player for movies that you have downloaded and saved to disk. When downloading the movie, it may have an avi, mov, or mp4 extension. Make sure that it was advertised as a DivX movie as this player will hang if you try to use it to play a Quicktime movie. On my system, Ive made separate directories called DivX and Quicktime, so I remember which movies are which. To get you started on DivX movies, try these sites: http://www.divx.com/movies/ ...
If you are Wilco fan like me, you can listen to their new album, A Ghost Is Born, in Quicktime on their site.. I liked what i heard, but unfortunately, I had a hard time getting the Quicktime to work right.. ...
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Massage is a very effective way to prevent muscle knots-a natural byproduct of fitness training-so personal training and massage therapy go hand in hand and should be performed in tandem on a regular basis. As you work out, your muscles create microtears which are repaired during your rest days, causing the muscle to grow back stronger and more efficient. This is good, but the truth is that without addressing these microtears for what they are-microtrauma-they eventually will grow to become adhesions, which will cause muscle knots. Muscle knots, if left untreated, will cause you to make compensations during exercise and everyday life movements, setting you up for future injury.. By working out your knots on a regular basis, a massage therapist is an incredibly effective "first-wave" of injury prevention. That being said, massage therapists come in all shapes, skill sets and sizes. The truth is, there are a lot of very sub-par masseuses out there who have no training in sports-related therapeutic ...
Two-dimensional echocardiography can provide serial cross-sectional images of the left ventricular cavity. We examined whether such serial images from steady-state ejecting hearts would allow three-dimensional reconstruction and accurate volume estimation without major geometric assumptions. Cross-circulated, paced dog hearts were suspended in a blood-filled tank. Serial cross-sectional images were taken at 3-mm intervals along the vertical axis. Left ventricular cavity and muscle areas of each image were planimetered with a light-pen system and summated for volume: total volume = sigma (areas x 3 mm). Direct left ventricular volume was measured through the cardiac cycle with a volumetric chamber connected to a balloon in the ejecting left ventricle. In six hearts, 67 separate direct volume measurements (range 9.5--54.7 ml) from various points in the cardiac cycle were compared with the simultaneous echo volume measurements. By least squares linear regression, echo volume = 1.01 (direct volume) ...
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of clinical application of magnetic resonance (MR) virtual endoscopy as a presurgical procedure before sialoendoscopy and to evaluate its value in the diagnosis of obstructive salivary gland diseases and preoperative visualization of endoluminal views.. Study Design: This study presents our initial experience to use MR virtual endoscopy for the presurgical visualization of salivary duct lumen and ductal pathologies in comparison to the sialoendoscopy findings in a feasibility study.. Methods: Six consecutive patients with suspected obstructive salivary gland diseases underwent MR sialography with a three-dimensional fast imaging using steady-state acquisition. The three-dimensional MR data were transferred to an independent workstation and were postprocessed with navigator software to generate three-dimensional reconstruction and virtual endoscopic images. The fly-through mode was used to imitate the sialoendoscopic ...

MRAD215 - Cross Sectional Anatomy - NAITMRAD215 - Cross Sectional Anatomy - NAIT

MRAD215 - Cross Sectional Anatomy. https://www.nait.ca/nait/continuing-education/courses/mrad215-cross-sectional-anatomy ... MRAD215 - Cross Sectional Anatomy. With the vast growth in Computed Tomography imaging, the ability of Medical Radiological ... MRAD215 - Cross Sectional Anatomy. With the vast growth in Computed Tomography imaging, the ability of Medical Radiological ... MRAD215 - Cross Sectional Anatomy: With the vast growth in Computed Tomography imaging, the ability of Medical Radiological ...
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CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy - Free Android app | AppBrainCT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy - Free Android app | AppBrain

CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy (CT Atlas) CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy (CT Atlas) ... CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy: Free Android app (4.6 ★, 10,000+ downloads) → ... CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy (CT Atlas) CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy (CT Atlas) ... CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy CT Scan Cross Sectional Anatomy (CT Atlas) ...
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Spinal Cord Segments - Cross-sectional AnatomySpinal Cord Segments - Cross-sectional Anatomy

... this tutorial shows some anatomy, cross section and histology images of the segments in interactive way. Click and start ... Spinal Cord White Matter - Anatomy & Functions. Spinal Cord White Matter (Anatomy & Functions); explained beautifully in an ... In cross-section (c.s.), the segments appear to be divided into two zones. ...
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Arterial supply to the pancreas; variations and cross-sectional anatomy.Arterial supply to the pancreas; variations and cross-sectional anatomy.

Knowledge of pancreatic arterial anatomy and arterial territor ... images were evaluated to clarify the cross-sectional anatomy of ... Anatomy, Cross-Sectional. Angiography, Digital Subtraction. Arteries / anatomy & histology*. Contrast Media / diagnostic use. ... but to read the pancreatic angiography and cross-sectional image. We reviewed 226 selective abdominal angiography and CT scans ... Knowledge of pancreatic arterial anatomy and arterial territory is important not only to perform pancreatic arterial ...
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Cross-sectional Anatomy for Computed Tomography by M Farkas, James D Fix | WaterstonesCross-sectional Anatomy for Computed Tomography by M Farkas, James D Fix | Waterstones

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Step by Step Cross Sectional Anatomy  1st Edition | Rent 9781904798804 | 1904798802Step by Step Cross Sectional Anatomy 1st Edition | Rent 9781904798804 | 1904798802

The analysis of cross-sectional anatomical images is an excellent supplementary method of teaching anatomy to students, and ... Step by Step Cross Sectional Anatomy , published 2006 under ISBN 9781904798804 and ISBN 1904798802. ... In full colour throughout, the book contains a figure and description on each page, of images of normal axial CT anatomy. The ... This book will be valued by students of anatomy as a learning tool and by qualified medical professionals as a handy reference ...
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Re: what are the white lines in cross sectional views in greys anatomyRe: what are the white lines in cross sectional views in greys anatomy

MadSci Network: Anatomy Query: Re: what are the white lines in cross sectional views in greys anatomy. Date: Thu Mar 22 17:55: ... Anatomy archives Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Anatomy. MadSci Home , Information , Search , ... Area of science: Anatomy. ID: 1168648964.An Message:. That one gave me a pause, as I havent thought about an aponeurosis in a ...
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PPT - Cross Sectional Anatomy  Body PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4521940PPT - Cross Sectional Anatomy Body PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4521940

Cross Sectional Anatomy Body. Rad T 270. L1 A. external oblique B. right costal carightilage C. rectus abdominus D. transverse ... Using Matching Techniques with Pooled Cross-sectional Data -What is pooled cross-sectional survey data?. in the repeated cross- ... Cross Sectional Imaging Nuclear Medicine -Www.upei.ca/~vetrad. computed tomography (ct). www.upei.ca/~vetrad. cross sectional ... cross-sectional study -1. . definition. a cross-sectional studies a type of observational or descriptive studythe research has ...
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Cross Sectional Anatomy of the Body: MDCT Atlas - CTisus.com CT ScanningCross Sectional Anatomy of the Body: MDCT Atlas - CTisus.com CT Scanning

Learning Medical Imaging, Cardiac CT to Contrast guides, Unique modules, Quiz of the month, Imaging pearls, Journal Club, Medical Illustrations, CME Courses|CTisus
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BookHq: Atlas of Cross Sectional Anatomy of Human 14 Meridians and Acupoints by  ( 703004617X )BookHq: Atlas of Cross Sectional Anatomy of Human 14 Meridians and Acupoints by ( 703004617X )

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Cross Sectional Anatomy Tutor: An Interactive Course for Anatomy Education and Evaluation  | The Journal of the American...Cross Sectional Anatomy Tutor: An Interactive Course for Anatomy Education and Evaluation | The Journal of the American...

Cross Sectional Anatomy Tutor: An Interactive Course for Anatomy Education and Evaluation The Journal of the American ... Cross Sectional Anatomy Tutor: An Interactive Course for Anatomy Education and Evaluation . J Am Osteopath Assoc 1997;97(12): ... Cross Sectional Anatomy Tutor: An Interactive Course for Anatomy Education and Evaluation ... Cross Sectional Anatomy Tutor: An Interactive Course for Anatomy Education and Evaluation ...
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Thorax of the dog: cross-sectional anatomy on Computed Tomography (CT)Thorax of the dog: cross-sectional anatomy on Computed Tomography (CT)

Cross-sectional anatomy of the canine thorax on CT imaging (lungs, trachea, heart, mediastinum, diaphragma, liver, rib cage, ... Labeled cross-sectional anatomy of the canine thorax on CT. In this module of the animal atlas vet-Anatomy is displayed the ... vet-Anatomy: Cross-sectional anatomy of the canine thorax on CT imaging (lungs, trachea, heart, mediastinum, diaphragma, liver ... vet-Anatomy Labeled cross-sectional anatomy of the canine thorax on CT. ...
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Cross sectional anatomy | KenhubCross sectional anatomy | Kenhub

See labeled cross sections of the human body now at Kenhub. ... Cross sections of the brain, head, arm, forearm, thigh, leg, ... Cross sectional anatomy. Cross-sections are two-dimensional, axial views of gross anatomical structures seen in transverse ... are based on cross sectional anatomy. Therefore, cross-sections are essential for establishing a precise diagnosis, planning ... Cross sectional anatomy: want to learn more about it? Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas ...
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Cross-sectional anatomy of the brainCross-sectional anatomy of the brain

Cross sectional anatomy: MRI of the brain. *An MRI was performed on a healthy subject, with several acquisitions with different ... Download e-Anatomy. Mobile and tablet users, you can download e-Anatomy on Appstore or GooglePlay. ... Anatomy of the encephalon (MRI) in axial slices We have created a brain atlas that which is an interactive tool for studying ... Anatomy of the brain: how to visualize anatomic labels. * This module is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for ...
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An Atlas of Forearm and Hand Cross- Sectional Anatomy with CT and MRI Correlation Hardcover Books - Buy An Atlas of Forearm and...An Atlas of Forearm and Hand Cross- Sectional Anatomy with CT and MRI Correlation Hardcover Books - Buy An Atlas of Forearm and...

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fleckensteins cross sectional anatomy - 27 images - conduction system clinical considerations guws medical, couch cover...fleckensteins cross sectional anatomy - 27 images - conduction system clinical considerations guws medical, couch cover...

... mri cross sectional anatomy images human anatomy learning, couch cover material 28 images target couch covers, mri cross ... sectional anatomy images human anatomy learning, conduction system clinical considerations guws medical, couch cover material ... Fleckensteins Cross Sectional Anatomy. Fleckensteins Cross Sectional Anatomy. Mri Cross Sectional Anatomy Images Human Anatomy ... Gallery of Fleckensteins Cross Sectional Anatomy. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ...
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cross sectional anatomy of spinal cord - 28 images - the nervous system two organ systems control all the other, central...cross sectional anatomy of spinal cord - 28 images - the nervous system two organ systems control all the other, central...

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Cross sectional anatomy labeling... Cross sectional anatomy labeling exercises CT. Go to Collection ...
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Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Cerebrum An interactive lession about the cross-sectional anatomy of the Cerebrum, Diencephalon ... Sectional Anatomy - Labeling Exercises of the Pelvis Sectional Anatomy of the structures of the Pelvis as viewed with CT and MR ... Sectional Anatomy - Labeling Exercises of the Thorax Sectional Anatomy of the structures of the Thorax as viewed with CT and MR ... Sectional Anatomy - Labeling Exercises of the Abdomen Sectional Anatomy of the structures of the Abdomen as viewed with CT and ...
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Cross-sectional, Primary Care-Based Study of the Prevalence of Hypoandrogenemia in Nondiabetic Young Men with Obesity.Cross-sectional, Primary Care-Based Study of the Prevalence of Hypoandrogenemia in Nondiabetic Young Men with Obesity.

Anatomy, Cross-sectional. Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, ... Cross-sectional, Primary Care-Based Study of the Prevalence of Hypoandrogenemia in Nondiabetic Young Men with Obesity.. 08:00 ... Cross-sectional Studies. Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined ... Summary of "Cross-sectional, Primary Care-Based Study of the Prevalence of Hypoandrogenemia in Nondiabetic Young Men with ...
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DUTEC-Diagnostic Ultrasound Classes at Bellevue CollegeDUTEC-Diagnostic Ultrasound Classes at Bellevue College

DUTEC 107 Human Cross-Sectional Anatomy • 7 Cr. Covers the human anatomy from the cross-sectional perspective in longitudinal, ... Presents the anatomy and pathophysiology of small human body parts. Intraoperative scanning focuses on surgical procedures. ... Students focus on anatomy, physiology, pathology, and echocardiographic pattern recognition. Prerequisite: Acceptance into ... Includes PV arterial and venous anatomy, physiology, disease and treatment. Advanced concepts in trans-cranial Doppler will be ...
more infohttps://www.bellevuecollege.edu/classes/All/DUTEC?YearQuarter=All&letter=E

DUTEC-Diagnostic Ultrasound Classes at Bellevue CollegeDUTEC-Diagnostic Ultrasound Classes at Bellevue College

DUTEC 107 Human Cross-Sectional Anatomy • 7 Cr. Covers the human anatomy from the cross-sectional perspective in longitudinal, ... Presents the anatomy and pathophysiology of small human body parts. Intraoperative scanning focuses on surgical procedures. ... Students focus on anatomy, physiology, pathology, and echocardiographic pattern recognition. Prerequisite: Acceptance into ... Includes PV arterial and venous anatomy, physiology, disease and treatment. Advanced concepts in trans-cranial Doppler will be ...
more infohttps://www.bellevuecollege.edu/classes/All/DUTEC?Count=0&Keys=System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary%602%2BKeyCollection%5BSystem.String%2CSystem.Object%5D&Values=System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary%602%2BValueCollection%5BSystem.String%2CSystem.Object%5D

Complications of Interventional Cardiovascular Procedures A Case-Based Atlas-9781936287185|Demos Medical PublishingComplications of Interventional Cardiovascular Procedures A Case-Based Atlas-9781936287185|Demos Medical Publishing

Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Cross-Sectional Anatomy. John C. Cianca MD, Shounuck I. Patel DO ... Imaging Anatomy of the Human Spine. Scott E. Forseen MD, Neil M. Borden MD ...
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The Anatomy of Pelvic Corona Mortis Vessels in Black Africans: A Cadaveric study a descriptive cross sectional study carried...The Anatomy of Pelvic Corona Mortis Vessels in Black Africans: A Cadaveric study a descriptive cross sectional study carried...

The Anatomy of Pelvic Corona Mortis Vessels in Black Africans: A Cadaveric study a descriptive cross sectional study carried ... The Anatomy of Pelvic Corona Mortis Vessels in Black Africans: A Cadaveric study a descriptive cross sectional study carried ... hemipelvices obtained from the Department of Human anatomy at Moi University were used for this descriptive cross sectional ... OBJECTIVE-To study incidence and anatomy of the corona mortis variant in the black African population in relation to side and ...
more infohttp://ir.mu.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/1042
  • Publications from Rohrich and associates have included landmark papers in facial fracture repair, nasal anatomy and concepts of rhinoplasty, body contouring surgery and liposuction, injectable fillers, patient safety initiatives, medical education, and breast surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time they enhance and polish the skills they previously learned, prepare to perform complete sonographic examinations as performed in real clinical settings, and advance their knowledge in recognizing anatomy and disease states using a variety of equipment in the ultrasound scanning suite. (rit.edu)
  • If you remember the anatomy of the neurocranium, the anterior bone of the forehead ( frontal bone ) contains a large cavity ( frontal sinus ). (kenhub.com)
  • Mean cross-sectional area and mean attenuation values are presented across seven defined Hounsfield unit (HU) ranges along with the percent contribution of each region to the total mid-thigh area. (bioportfolio.com)
  • the radiologist must first be knowledgeable The book successfully presents a clear per of the complexities of normal anatomy be spective on the anatomy we see daily in fore he can truly make full use of this tech using cross-sectional imaging techniques. (waterstones.com)
  • Every single cross section is viewed from the feet of the patient in a supine position (lying horizontally on his/her back). (kenhub.com)
  • If you imagine the cross section as an onion, three major 'layers' can be observed, from exterior to interior: external soft tissues, neurocranium and brain. (kenhub.com)
  • This book will be valued by students of anatomy as a learning tool and by qualified medical professionals as a handy reference manualKarthikeyan, D. is the author of 'Step by Step Cross Sectional Anatomy ', published 2006 under ISBN 9781904798804 and ISBN 1904798802. (valorebooks.com)
  • Sign up for your free Kenhub account today and join over 1,170,011 successful anatomy students. (kenhub.com)
  • Therefore, cross-sections are essential for establishing a precise diagnosis, planning therapy and performing radiologically guided interventions. (kenhub.com)