Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Reproducibility of Results
Atlases as Topic
Terminology as Topic
Sensitivity and Specificity
Education, Medical, Undergraduate
Heart Defects, Congenital
Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Visible Human Projects
Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular
Coronary Vessel Anomalies
Molecular Sequence Data
Analysis of Variance
Circle of Willis
Tomography, Spiral Computed
Transposition of Great Vessels
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Predictive Value of Tests
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Plaque area increase and vascular remodeling contribute to lumen area change after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery: an intravascular ultrasound study. (1/356)OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the change in lumen area (LA), plaque area (PLA), and vessel area (VA) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Twenty patients were studied with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) immediately after PTA and at follow-up examination. Multiple corresponding IVUS cross-sections were analyzed at the segments that were dilated by PTA (ie, treated sites; n = 168), including the most stenotic site (n = 20) and the nondilated segments (ie, reference sites; n = 77). RESULTS: At follow-up examination, both the PLA increase (13%) and the VA decrease (9%) resulted in a significant LA decrease (43%) at the most stenotic sites (P =.001). At the treated sites, the LA decrease (15%) was smaller and was caused by the PLA increase (15%). At the reference sites, the PLA increase (15%) and the VA increase (6%) resulted in a slight LA decrease (3%). An analysis of the IVUS cross-sections that were grouped according to LA change (difference >/=10%) revealed a similar PLA increase in all the groups: the type of vascular remodeling (VA decrease, no change, or increase) determined the LA change. At the treated sites, the LA change and the VA change correlated closely (r = 0.77, P <.001). At the treated sites, significantly more PLA increase was seen in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture (P <.05). No relationship was found between the presence of dissection and the quantitative changes. CONCLUSION: At the most stenotic sites, lumen narrowing was caused by plaque increase and vessel shrinkage. Both the treated sites and the reference sites showed a significant PLA increase: the type of vascular remodeling determined the LA change at follow-up examination. The extent of the PLA increase was significantly larger in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture. (+info)
Prenatal diagnosis of a lean umbilical cord: a simple marker for the fetus at risk of being small for gestational age at birth. (2/356)OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prenatal diagnosis of a 'lean' umbilical cord in otherwise normal fetuses identifies fetuses at risk of being small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and of having distress in labor. The umbilical cord was defined as lean when its cross-sectional area on ultrasound examination was below the 10th centile for gestational age. METHOD: Pregnant women undergoing routine sonographic examination were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were gestational age greater than 20 weeks, intact membranes, and singleton gestation. The sonographic cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord was measured in a plane adjacent to the insertion into the fetal abdomen. Umbilical artery Doppler waveforms were recorded during fetal apnea and fetal anthropometric parameters were measured. RESULTS: During the study period, 860 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 3.6% delivered a SGA infant. The proportion of SGA infants was higher among fetuses who had a lean umbilical cord on ultrasound examination than among those with a normal umbilical cord (11.5% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.05). Fetuses with a lean cord had a risk 4.4-fold higher of being SGA at birth than those with a normal umbilical cord. After 25 weeks of gestation, this risk was 12.4 times higher when the umbilical cord was lean than when it was of normal size. The proportion of fetuses with meconium-stained amniotic fluid at delivery was higher among fetuses with a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (14.6% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.001). The proportion of infants who had a 5-min Apgar score < 7 was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with normal umbilical cord (5.2% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.05). Considering only patients admitted in labor with intact membranes and who delivered an appropriate-for-gestational-age infant, the proportion of fetuses who had oligohydramnios at the time of delivery was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (17.6% versus 1.3%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We conclude that fetuses with a lean umbilical cord have an increased risk of being small for gestational age at birth and of having signs of distress at the time of delivery. (+info)
Velocity associated characteristics of force production in college weight lifters. (3/356)OBJECTIVE: To determine velocity specific isokinetic forces and cross sectional areas of reciprocal muscle groups in Olympic weight lifters. METHODS: The cross sectional area of the flexor or extensor muscles of the elbow or knee joint was determined by a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus in 34 college weight lifters and 31 untrained male subjects matched for age. Maximum voluntary force produced in the flexion and extension of the elbow and knee joints was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300 degrees/s. RESULTS: The average cross sectional area was 31-65% higher, and the force was 19-62% higher in weight lifters than in the untrained subjects. The ratio of force to cross sectional area was the same in both groups. The weight lifters showed a lower velocity associated decline in force than untrained subjects in the elbow and knee flexors but not in the extensors. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that for muscle contractions with velocities between 60 degrees/s and 300 degrees/s the difference in isokinetic force between weight lifters and untrained subjects can be primarily attributed to the difference in the muscle cross sectional area. However, the lower velocity associated decline in force implies that weight lifters may have a higher force per cross sectional area than untrained subjects at velocities above 300 degrees/s. (+info)
Sonographic incidence of tendon microtears in athletes with chronic Achilles tendinosis. (4/356)OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and distribution of tendon microtears in asymptomatic controls and athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis or partial thickness tears using high resolution ultrasound. METHODS: The mean number of microtears in three random tendon cross sections were recorded per tendon third in 19 asymptomatic volunteers, 16 athletes with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendinitis, and eight athletes with partial Achilles tendon rupture. RESULTS: Microtears were most numerous in the middle third section of the Achilles tendon. Some 67% of tendons in the control group had no microtears, and 28% showed a single microtear. Only 18% of the athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis and none of the athletes with partial tendon rupture were without microtears in the middle third of their Achilles tendon. Of the tendons with chronic tendinitis, 13% had more than three microtears per section which increased to 87% in tendons exhibiting partial rupture. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be an association between microtear formation and Achilles tendon rupture. (+info)
Angiographic abnormalities in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: an explanation based on neuropathologic findings. (5/356)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is typically occult at angiography and fails to enhance on MR images. After observing angiographic abnormalities characterized by arteriovenous shunting and pathologic parenchymal blush in patients with AIDS-related PML, often in the absence of contrast enhancement on MR images, we hypothesized that there might be distinct changes in the cerebral microvasculature that account for the reduction in vascular transit time (arteriovenous shunting) in the absence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. METHODS: The imaging studies and neuropathologic specimens of six patients with biopsy-proved PML were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients contrast-enhanced MR imaging and CT, followed by cerebral angiography, were performed before stereotactically directed biopsy. The angiograms were evaluated for the presence of vascular displacement, pathologic parenchymal blush, arteriovenous shunting, and neovascularity. The CT and MR studies were reviewed for the presence of enhancement of the PML lesions. Biopsy specimens were examined for the presence of necrosis, perivascular inflammation, and neovascularity. RESULTS: All patients had oligodendrocytic intranuclear inclusions diagnostic of PML, together with perivascular inflammation and neovascularity to a varying extent; no other neuropathologic processes were identified. Angiographic abnormalities, characterized by a pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting, were identified in four of the six patients. In only one of these cases, however, was abnormal enhancement identified on cross-sectional imaging studies (MR and CT), and this patient had florid perivascular inflammatory infiltrates histologically. CONCLUSION: The pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting seen angiographically in some patients with PML reflect small-vessel proliferation and perivascular inflammatory changes incited by the presence of the JC virus in infected oligodendrocytes. (+info)
A surgical pathology system for gross specimen examination. (6/356)The concepts used in the storage of still digital images obtained during gross specimen examination of tissues and organs in surgical pathology using a digital camera are described. We address the technical aspects related with the implementation of a prototype tool to assist the pathologist during the sampling process as well the logic archive support to store the acquired images. We describe, also, the hypermedia concepts that allow the navigation and the efficient examination of the information contained in the stored images. The advantages, the technological and human limitations, and the effects of using images in the documentation of a case are also discussed. (+info)
Anatomical information in radiation treatment planning. (7/356)We report on experience and insights gained from prototyping, for clinical radiation oncologists, a new access tool for the University of Washington Digital Anatomist information resources. This access tool is designed to integrate with a radiation therapy planning (RTP) system in use in a clinical setting. We hypothesize that the needs of practitioners in a clinical setting are different from the needs of students, the original targeted users of the Digital Anatomist system, but that a common knowledge resource can serve both. Our prototype was designed to help define those differences and study the feasibility of a full anatomic reference system that will support both clinical radiation therapy and all the existing educational applications. (+info)
The Virtual Pelvic Floor, a tele-immersive educational environment. (8/356)This paper describes the development of the Virtual Pelvic Floor, a new method of teaching the complex anatomy of the pelvic region utilizing virtual reality and advanced networking technology. Virtual reality technology allows improved visualization of three-dimensional structures over conventional media because it supports stereo vision, viewer-centered perspective, large angles of view, and interactivity. Two or more ImmersaDesk systems, drafting table format virtual reality displays, are networked together providing an environment where teacher and students share a high quality three-dimensional anatomical model, and are able to converse, see each other, and to point in three dimensions to indicate areas of interest. This project was realized by the teamwork of surgeons, medical artists and sculptors, computer scientists, and computer visualization experts. It demonstrates the future of virtual reality for surgical education and applications for the Next Generation Internet. (+info)
In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:
1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.
In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.
Types of congenital heart defects include:
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.
Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.
There are several types of vascular malformations, including:
1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
2. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels that can cause redness, swelling, and other skin changes.
3. Venous malformations (VMs): These are abnormalities in the veins that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
4. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the lymphatic system that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
Vascular malformations can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation, and may include surgery, embolization, or sclerotherapy.
In summary, vascular malformations are abnormalities in the blood vessels that can cause a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed using imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation.
There are several types of heart septal defects, including atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, and mitral valve defects. Ventricular septal defects are the most common type and occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles.
Symptoms of heart septal defects can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the defect may not cause any symptoms at all until later in life.
Diagnosis of heart septal defects is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication to manage symptoms, surgery to repair the defect, or catheter procedures to close the opening. In some cases, heart septal defects may be treated with a procedure called balloon atrial septostomy, in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the abnormal opening and inflated to close it.
Prognosis for patients with heart septal defects depends on the severity of the defect and the presence of any other congenital heart defects. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocardrial infection.
In summary, heart septal defects, ventricular type, are congenital heart defects that occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart. Symptoms can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. Diagnosis is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication, surgery, or catheter procedures. Prognosis is generally good for patients with heart septal defects if they receive early diagnosis and treatment.
1. Accessory coronary arteries: These are extra coronary arteries that arise from the aortic sinus or the pulmonary trunk and supply blood to the heart muscle.
2. Coronary artery fistula: This is an abnormal connection between two coronary arteries or between a coronary artery and another cardiac structure, such as the left atrium or ventricle.
3. Coronary artery malformations: These are abnormalities in the origin, course, or termination of the coronary arteries.
4. Coronary atherosclerosis: This is the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle and increase the risk of heart attack.
5. Coronary vasospasm: This is a temporary narrowing of the coronary arteries, often triggered by stress or certain medications.
Coronary vessel anomalies can be diagnosed using various imaging tests such as angiography, CT scans, and MRI. Treatment options for these anomalies depend on the severity of the condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions. It is important to identify and address coronary vessel anomalies to prevent or manage cardiac conditions such as heart attack, heart failure, and arrhythmias.
The symptoms of situs inversus totalis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the specific organs involved. Some common symptoms include:
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fatigue or weakness
* Swelling in the legs or feet
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
The exact cause of situs inversus totalis is not known, but it is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition is usually diagnosed during fetal development, and it can be detected through ultrasound imaging.
Treatment for situs inversus totalis typically involves surgery to correct the inverted organs. In some cases, a heart-lung transplant may be necessary. Medications such as antibiotics and pain relievers may also be prescribed to manage symptoms.
The prognosis for situs inversus totalis varies depending on the severity of the condition and the specific organs involved. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications. However, the condition can be life-threatening, and some individuals with situs inversus totalis may not survive beyond infancy or childhood.
In summary, situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital condition where all the major organs in the chest and abdomen are inverted or mirrored from their normal positions. Symptoms can include chest pain, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, nausea, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves surgery to correct the inverted organs, and medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms. The prognosis varies depending on the severity of the condition and the specific organs involved.
In a normal heart, the aorta arises from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the right ventricle. In TGV, the positions of these vessels are reversed, with the aorta arising from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arising from the left ventricle. This can lead to a variety of complications, including cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), and difficulty breathing.
TGV is often diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, and treatment typically involves surgery to repair the defect. In some cases, a procedure called an arterial switch may be performed, in which the aorta and pulmonary artery are surgically reversed to their normal positions. In other cases, a heart transplant may be necessary. With proper treatment, many individuals with TGV can lead active and healthy lives. However, they may require ongoing monitoring and care throughout their lives to manage any potential complications.
There are several types of heart septal defects, including:
1. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
2. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
3. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): A connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery that should close shortly after birth but fails to do so.
4. Atresia: The absence of an opening between the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart, which can lead to a lack of oxygenation of the body.
Heart septal defects can be caused by genetic factors or environmental factors such as maternal viral infections during pregnancy. They are often diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, and treatment options may include medication, surgery, or catheter-based procedures to close the abnormal opening or hole.
Untreated heart septal defects can lead to complications such as heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and lung damage. However, with timely and appropriate treatment, many individuals with heart septal defects can lead normal, active lives with minimal long-term effects.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
An abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, back pain, and difficulty breathing if it ruptures. It can also be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for an abdominal aortic aneurysm include watchful waiting (monitoring the aneurysm for signs of growth or rupture), endovascular repair (using a catheter to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel), or surgical repair (open surgery to repair the aneurysm).
Word Origin and History
The word 'aneurysm' comes from the Greek words 'aneurysma', meaning 'dilation' and 'sma', meaning 'a vessel'. The term 'abdominal aortic aneurysm' was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe this specific type of aneurysm.
Prevalence and Incidence
Abdominal aortic aneurysms are relatively common, especially among older adults. According to the Society for Vascular Surgery, approximately 2% of people over the age of 65 have an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms increases with age, and men are more likely to be affected than women.
Several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm, including:
* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
* Family history of aneurysms
* Previous heart attack or stroke
* Marfan syndrome or other connective tissue disorders.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Abdominal aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience symptoms such as:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Weakness or fatigue
* Shortness of breath
If an abdominal aortic aneurysm is suspected, several diagnostic tests may be ordered, including:
* Computed tomography (CT) scan
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Treatment and Management
The treatment of choice for an abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on several factors, including the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:
* Watchful waiting (for small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms)
* Endovascular repair (using a stent or other device to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel)
* Open surgical repair (where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm)
In some cases, emergency surgery may be necessary if the aneurysm ruptures or shows signs of impending rupture.
Complications and Risks
Abdominal aortic aneurysms can lead to several complications and risks, including:
* Rupture (which can be life-threatening)
* Blood clots or blockages in the blood vessels
* Kidney damage
* Heart problems
There is no guaranteed way to prevent an abdominal aortic aneurysm, but several factors may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (including a balanced diet and regular exercise)
* Not smoking
* Managing high blood pressure and other medical conditions
* Getting regular check-ups with your healthcare provider
Prognosis and Life Expectancy
The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysms depends on several factors, including the size of the aneurysm, its location, and whether it has ruptured. In general, the larger the aneurysm, the poorer the prognosis. If treated before rupture, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy. However, if the aneurysm ruptures, the survival rate is much lower.
In conclusion, abdominal aortic aneurysms are a serious medical condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of an aneurysm, and to seek medical attention immediately if any are present. With proper treatment, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy.
Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:
1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.
It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
Visible Embryo Project
Coronary artery bypass surgery
Tensor vastus intermedius muscle
Visible Human Project
2022 in archosaur paleontology
List of MeSH codes (H01)
List of MeSH codes (G01)
Origin of speech
Sex differences in human physiology
List of Ig Nobel Prize winners
Cobb-Douglas production function
History of medicine
Union City High School (New Jersey)
Root canal treatment
Feminine beauty ideal
Anterior cruciate ligament
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- This course also includes the advanced modalities of bone densitometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, mammography and nuclear medicine with an introduction to cross-sectional anatomy. (ccp.edu)
- All Access to Pocket Atlas Of Sectional Anatomy Computed Tomography And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Vol 2 Thorax Abdomen And Pelvis PDF. (gov.vn)
- Free Download Pocket Atlas Of Sectional Anatomy Computed Tomography And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Vol 2 Thorax Abdomen And Pelvis PDF or Read Pocket Atlas Of Sectional Anatomy Computed Tomography And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Vol 2 Thorax Abdomen And Pelvis PDF on The Most Popular Online PDFLAB. (gov.vn)
- Only Register an Account to DownloadPocket Atlas Of Sectional Anatomy Computed Tomography And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Vol 2 Thorax Abdomen And Pelvis PDF. (gov.vn)
- A cross-sectional type of study. (banglajol.info)
- The study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, from January 2010 to December 2010. (banglajol.info)
- In winter 2007-2008, a cross-sectional serologic study was conducted in France along a transect perpendicular to the epizootic wave. (cdc.gov)
- Prevalence and distribution of incidental thoracic disc herniation, and thoracic hypertrophied ligamentum flavum in patients with back or leg pain: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Cross-Sectional Study. (spine-health.com)
- The present study examines levels of satisfaction and perceptions of the students taking the blended anatomy course in Turkish Higher Education System. (ejmste.com)
- As a factor promoting learning, this study makes suggestions for taking advantage of the opportunities in a blended anatomy course successfully. (ejmste.com)
- Blended learning' as an effective teaching and learning strategy in clinical medicine: a comparative cross-sectional university-based study. (ejmste.com)
- Ten healthy adults participated in a cross-sectional study. (biomedcentral.com)
- Color Atlas Of Anatomy A Photographic Study Of The Human. (gov.vn)
-  Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. (wikidoc.org)
-  Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes , which includes histology (the study of the organisation of tissues),  and cytology (the study of cells). (wikidoc.org)
- Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology ), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs . (wikidoc.org)
- Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily seen from the contours or the surface of the body. (wikidoc.org)
- Human anatomy, including gross human anatomy and histology, is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. (wikidoc.org)
- In a cross-sectional study in 2010, 276 men and 281 women were recruited at pre-marital counselling courses and completed a 33-item anonymous questionnaire in private. (who.int)
- A panel of 10 experts who were public health and can significantly In this cross-sectional study, a consecu- specialized in SRH issues investigated influence general well-being and tive sample of 600 men and women the content validity of the question- the overall quality of life of all men who were engaged to be married and naire and reviewed the test specifica- and women . (who.int)
- a cross-sectional study was conducted with professionals from various neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in public and private hospitals in the state of São Paulo, based on an online questionnaire that assessed health professionals' knowledge about the position of premature newborns. (bvsalud.org)
- Online edition (thoroughly revised) of the classic 1918 publication of Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body. (sfbayradiological.org)
- Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Gray's Anatomy . (wikidoc.org)
- The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy , has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format,   in line with modern teaching methods. (wikidoc.org)
- Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. (wikidoc.org)
- The goal of this website is to help students learn the cross-sectional anatomy of the distal thoracic limb of the horse and to introduce cross-sectional imaging modalities including ultrasound, CT, an. (bvsalud.org)
- Such the reflected waves are digitalized and thousands of abnormalities include osteochondrodysplasia, club such measurements generate an ultrasound cross- foot, arthrogryposis and other limb anomalies sectional image which is then recorded on the associated with congenital or chromosomal monitor and can be interpreted.2 abnormalities (fig 1a & b). (who.int)
- When a thoracic herniated disc compresses or irritates a nearby nerve root as it branches off the spinal cord en route to exiting the central canal, it can cause thoracic radiculopathy. (spine-health.com)
- calls for sound knowledge of cross-sectional Indications For Ultrasound In Orthopaedic anatomy and dynamic imaging for proper and Practice accurate diagnosis. (who.int)
- Learn the anatomy and physiology of structures located close to the body's surface. (fvi.edu)
- Human anatomy , physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. (wikidoc.org)
- Human Anatomy & Physiology Society A society to promote communication among teachers of human anatomy and physiology in colleges, universities, and related institutions. (wikidoc.org)
- Knowledge and understanding of general anatomy, physiology and medical terminology. (mvmedicalcenter.com)
-  that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. (wikidoc.org)
- It includes more than 350 axial CT views with anatomy, as well as more than 700 anatomical structures along with descriptions, according to developer iCat Medical Software, a U.K.-based mobile app firm. (auntminnie.com)
- Comparative anatomy relates to the comparison of anatomical structures (both gross and microscopic) in different animals. (wikidoc.org)
- In some of its facets anatomy is closely related to embryology , comparative anatomy and comparative embryology ,  through common roots in evolution . (wikidoc.org)
- Home Basic Medical Sciences Anatomy Cunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy VOL 2 16th Edition PDF Free Download. (usmlebooksdownload.com)
- In this article, we are sharing with our audience the high-definition PDF download of Cunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy VOL 2 16th Edition PDF using direct links which can be found at the end of this blog post. (usmlebooksdownload.com)
- Now before that we share the free PDF download of Cunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy VOL 2 16th Edition PDF with you, let's take a look into few of the important details regarding this ebook. (usmlebooksdownload.com)
- The new 16th edition of Cunningham's has been thoroughly revised for the modern-day anatomy student. (usmlebooksdownload.com)
- Alright, now in this part of the article, you will be able to access the free PDF download of Cunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy VOL 2 16th Edition PDF using our direct links mentioned at the end of this article. (usmlebooksdownload.com)
- Basic atlas of cross-sectional anatomy / Walter J. Bo, Isadore Meschan, Wayne A. Krueger. (who.int)
- The site provides a sectional atlas of the normal canine lumbosacral spine in three planes: transverse, sagittal, and dorsal. (bvsalud.org)
- Mar 18th, 2023Anatomy A Photographic Atlas Color Atlas Of Anatomy A ...Pdf Free. (gov.vn)
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- Pdf Anatomy A Photographic Atlas 8e Ebook Free Download. (gov.vn)
- Dog Anatomy A Coloring Atlas Pdf. (gov.vn)
- Anatomy A Photographic Atlas By Rohen 9781451193183. (gov.vn)
- This Pocket Atlas Is Your Best Way To Reference Anatomy On The Go! (gov.vn)
- 3D Anatomy Atlas. (gov.vn)
- Atlas Of Human Anatomy Imaging Atlas Of Human …Atlas Of Human Anatomy E-Book - Digital EBook The Only Anatomy Atlas Illustrated By Physicians, Atlas Of Human Anatomy, 7th Edition, Brings You World-renowned, Exquisitely Clear Views Of The Human Body With A Clinical Perspective. (gov.vn)
- Cross-sectional images allow medical professionals to identify abnormalities not visible from the outside. (fvi.edu)
- We chatted recently with George Michalopoulos, a software developer and iCat's CEO, to learn more about CT Anatomy. (auntminnie.com)
- The purpose of this research was to enable anyone to learn the sectional anatomy of the head anywhere, anytime by presenting software to browse sectioned images on a Google Android mobile device. (intjmorphol.com)
- and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies). (wikidoc.org)
- Sound knowledge of anatomy and careful frequency sound energy of 1 - 10 mHz in the dynamic imaging are needed for proper and accurate diagnosis and management of a variety of disorders. (who.int)
-  With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians or veterinary surgeons gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures. (wikidoc.org)
- A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors , especially surgeons , and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology . (wikidoc.org)
- Possesses a high level of knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy. (mvmedicalcenter.com)
- Both men and women had low scores on knowledge of genital anatomy, sexually transmitted infections and contraceptive use. (who.int)
- the questionnaire and provided useful ing basic knowledge of the anatomy feedback. (who.int)
- There are few cross-sectional studies that assess this relationship. (cdc.gov)
- Sectional Anatomy of the structures of the Abdomen as viewed with CT and MR imaging. (merlot.org)
- With CT Anatomy, the user can follow an anatomical structure through its course and understand better its relationship with other adjacent structures. (auntminnie.com)
- The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. (wikidoc.org)
- By learning normal CT anatomy, you are taking the first step toward correct diagnosis. (auntminnie.com)
- 3D Modeled By Physicians And Anatomy Experts. (gov.vn)
- Anatomy of basilar artery and its branches are very complex and variable. (banglajol.info)
- Many universities are already using CT Anatomy for training purposes by using the QuizMe mode in the app. (auntminnie.com)
- The mobile version of the software will aid medical students and doctors in learning sectional anatomy. (intjmorphol.com)
- Based on the results, the medical students' views on the blended anatomy course were classified into 8 categories: 1) visuality 2) content 3) effective learning 4) expectations from blended learning 5) accessibility 6) motivation 7) new perspective for the students and 8) continuity. (ejmste.com)
- However, we soon realized that the Visible Human Project did not contain all parts of the human anatomy, and we wanted our images to have a consistency and continuity. (auntminnie.com)
- Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. (bvsalud.org)
- Contains basic anatomy of the entire body using cadaveric, MRI, and CT images. (sfbayradiological.org)
- Deals largely with basic anatomy of the skull and vertebrae. (sfbayradiological.org)
- A CT Anatomy app can't deviate much from its intended purpose, which is to demonstrate the anatomy of the human body. (auntminnie.com)
- They are often involved in teaching anatomy, and research into certain systems, organs, tissues or cells. (wikidoc.org)
- Kocaeli University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy (2011). (ejmste.com)
- For example, we had an email from a radiologist who is using the app for educating patients and showing them what normal anatomy looks like. (auntminnie.com)
- In this installment, we take a look at CT Anatomy, an iOS app that offers a cross-sectional guide of normal anatomy as seen on CT. (auntminnie.com)
- CT Anatomy helps educate the user on normal human anatomy as seen on the CT. (auntminnie.com)
- Normal infraspinatus muscle as shown on the CT Anatomy iOS app. (auntminnie.com)
- Contains sections on anatomy (including echocardiography), imaging findings, tutorial on different imaging technologies, and extensive case index. (sfbayradiological.org)
- Online Anatomy Lab (OAL): A Self-Regulated Approach to the Instruction of Human Anatomy. (ejmste.com)
- It requires a positive and classes provide information regarding to identify unclear or vague questions respectful approach to sexuality and genital anatomy, STI, contraceptive and to give comments on terms that sexual relationships, as well as the pos- use and sexual relationships of couples. (who.int)
- Development of Instructional, Interactive, Multimedia Anatomy Dissection Software: A Student-Led Initiative. (ejmste.com)
- AuntMinnie: Could you share some background on iCat Medical Software, the company that developed CT Anatomy? (auntminnie.com)
- We thought that displaying drawings or illustrations of the human anatomy has no practical use in the day-to-day work environment -- you're never going to see any illustrations in real-life CT scans! (auntminnie.com)
- It is a general term that includes human anatomy , animal anatomy ( zootomy ) and plant anatomy (phytotomy). (wikidoc.org)
- Anatomy (from the Greek Template:Polytonic anatomia , from Template:Polytonic ana: separate, apart from, and temnein , to cut up, cut open) is a branch of biology that is the consideration of the structure of living things . (wikidoc.org)
- Of the 20 questions presented, the average number of correct answers was 83% (16), the ones related to the nest method and the kangaroo position were all correct, the question regarding the anatomy of the premature presented the greatest error, 81% of the participants wrongly stated that epiglottis of the premature is shorter compared to that of the adult. (bvsalud.org)