Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Comparative Effectiveness Research: Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. (hhs.gov/recovery/programs/cer/draftdefinition.html accessed 6/12/2009)Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Anatomy, Regional: The anatomical study of specific regions or parts of organisms, emphasizing the relationship between the various structures (e.g. muscles, nerves, skeletal, cardiovascular, etc.).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Anatomy, Veterinary: The study of the anatomical structures of animals.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Medicine in ArtSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.PrimatesSculptureHead: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.PaintingsJaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Histology, Comparative: The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Famous PersonsSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Persia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.

Evolution of the ventricles. (1/130)

We studied the evolution of ventricles by macroscopic examination of the hearts of marine cartilaginous and bony fish, and by angiocardiography and gross examination of the hearts of air-breathing freshwater fish, frogs, turtles, snakes, and crocodiles. A right-sided, thin-walled ventricular lumen is seen in the fish, frog, turtle, and snake. In fish, there is external symmetry of the ventricle, internal asymmetry, and a thick-walled left ventricle with a small inlet chamber. In animals such as frogs, turtles, and snakes, the left ventricle exists as a small-cavitied contractile sponge. The high pressure generated by this spongy left ventricle, the direction of the jet, the ventriculoarterial orientation, and the bulbar spiral valve in the frog help to separate the systemic and pulmonary circulations. In the crocodile, the right aorta is connected to the left ventricle, and there is a complete interventricular septum and an improved left ventricular lumen when compared with turtles and snakes. The heart is housed in a rigid pericardial cavity in the shark, possibly to protect it from changing underwater pressure. The pericardial cavity in various species permits movements of the heart-which vary depending on the ventriculoarterial orientation and need for the ventricle to generate torque or spin on the ejected blood- that favor run-off into the appropriate arteries and their branches. In the lower species, it is not clear whether the spongy myocardium contributes to myocardial oxygenation. In human beings, spongy myocardium constitutes a rare form of congenital heart disease.  (+info)

Chordate evolution and the origin of craniates: an old brain in a new head. (2/130)

The earliest craniates achieved a unique condition among bilaterally symmetrical animals: they possessed enlarged, elaborated brains with paired sense organs and unique derivatives of neural crest and placodal tissues, including peripheral sensory ganglia, visceral arches, and head skeleton. The craniate sister taxon, cephalochordates, has rostral portions of the neuraxis that are homologous to some of the major divisions of craniate brains. Moreover, recent data indicate that many genes involved in patterning the nervous system are common to all bilaterally symmetrical animals and have been inherited from a common ancestor. Craniates, thus, have an "old" brain in a new head, due to re-expression of these anciently acquired genes. The transition to the craniate brain from a cephalochordate-like ancestral form may have involved a mediolateral shift in expression of the genes that specify nervous system development from various parts of the ectoderm. It is suggested here that the transition was sequential. The first step involved the presence of paired, lateral eyes, elaboration of the alar plate, and enhancement of the descending visual pathway to brainstem motor centers. Subsequently, this central visual pathway served as a template for the additional sensory systems that were elaborated and/or augmented with the "bloom" of migratory neural crest and placodes. This model accounts for the marked uniformity of pattern across central sensory pathways and for the lack of any neural crest-placode cranial nerve for either the diencephalon or mesencephalon. Anat Rec (New Anat) 261:111-125, 2000.  (+info)

Evolution of the basal ganglia: new perspectives through a comparative approach. (3/130)

The basal ganglia (BG) have received much attention during the last 3 decades mainly because of their clinical relevance. Our understanding of their structure, organisation and function in terms of chemoarchitecture, compartmentalisation, connections and receptor localisation has increased equally. Most of the research has been focused on the mammalian BG, but a considerable number of studies have been carried out in nonmammalian vertebrates, in particular reptiles and birds. The BG of the latter 2 classes of vertebrates, which together with mammals constitute the amniotic vertebrates, have been thoroughly studied by means of tract-tracing and immunohistochemical techniques. The terminology used for amniotic BG structures has frequently been adopted to indicate putative corresponding structures in the brain of anamniotes, i.e. amphibians and fishes, but data for such a comparison were, until recently, almost totally lacking. It has been proposed several times that the occurrence of well developed BG structures probably constitutes a landmark in the anamniote-amniote transition. However, our recent studies of connections, chemoarchitecture and development of the basal forebrain of amphibians have revealed that tetrapod vertebrates share a common pattern of BG organisation. This pattern includes the existence of dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems, reciprocal connections between the striatopallidal complex and the diencephalic and mesencephalic basal plate (striatonigral and nigrostriatal projections), and descending pathways from the striatopallidal system to the midbrain tectum and reticular formation. The connectional similarities are paralleled by similarities in the distribution of chemical markers of striatal and pallidal structures such as dopamine, substance P and enkephalin, as well as by similarities in development and expression of homeobox genes. On the other hand, a major evolutionary trend is the progressive involvement of the cortex in the processing of the thalamic sensory information relayed to the BG of tetrapods. By using the comparative approach, new insights have been gained with respect to certain features of the BG of vertebrates in general, such as the segmental organisation of the midbrain dopaminergic cell groups, the occurrence of large numbers of dopaminergic cell bodies within the telencephalon itself and the variability in, among others, connectivity and chemoarchitecture. However, the intriguing question whether the basal forebrain organisation of nontetrapods differs essentially from that observed in tetrapods still needs to be answered.  (+info)

Evolutionary anticipation of the human heart. (4/130)

We have studied the comparative anatomy of hearts from fish, frog, turtle, snake, crocodile, birds (duck, chicken, quail), mammals (elephant, dolphin, sheep, goat, ox, baboon, wallaby, mouse, rabbit, possum, echidna) and man. The findings were analysed with respect to the mechanism of evolution of the heart.  (+info)

Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. (5/130)

This paper reports the results of a literature search for information about the soft-tissue anatomy of the extant non-human hominoid genera, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates, together with the results of a phylogenetic analysis of these data plus comparable data for Homo. Information on the four extant non-human hominoid genera was located for 240 out of the 1783 soft-tissue structures listed in the Nomina Anatomica. Numerically these data are biased so that information about some systems (e.g. muscles) and some regions (e.g. the forelimb) are over-represented, whereas other systems and regions (e.g. the veins and the lymphatics of the vascular system, the head region) are either under-represented or not represented at all. Screening to ensure that the data were suitable for use in a phylogenetic analysis reduced the number of eligible soft-tissue structures to 171. These data, together with comparable data for modern humans, were converted into discontinuous character states suitable for phylogenetic analysis and then used to construct a taxon-by-character matrix. This matrix was used in two tests of the hypothesis that soft-tissue characters can be relied upon to reconstruct hominoid phylogenetic relationships. In the first, parsimony analysis was used to identify cladograms requiring the smallest number of character state changes. In the second, the phylogenetic bootstrap was used to determine the confidence intervals of the most parsimonious clades. The parsimony analysis yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram that matched the molecular cladogram. Similarly the bootstrap analysis yielded clades that were compatible with the molecular cladogram; a (Homo, Pan) clade was supported by 95% of the replicates, and a (Gorilla, Pan, Homo) clade by 96%. These are the first hominoid morphological data to provide statistically significant support for the clades favoured by the molecular evidence.  (+info)

Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue. (6/130)

Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species.  (+info)

Comparative morphology of Astraea latispina (Philippi, 1844) and Astraea olfersii (Philippi, 1846) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Turbinidae). (7/130)

The present study examines comparatively the soft parts of turbinids Astraea latispina and Astraea olfersii. The characters of soft parts of these species, in agreement with Trochoidea organization, allow a differential diagnosis on the cefalic lappets, appendix of eye-stalk, hypobranchial glands, jaws, radulae, and stomach spiral caecum, which information will be helpful in taxonomic studies.  (+info)

FINE STRUCTURE OF THE PINEAL ORGANS OF THE ADULT FROG, RANA PIPIENS. (8/130)

Frontal organs and epiphyses of the pineal system from the adult frog, Rana pipiens, were fixed in s-collidine-buffered osmium tetroxide, embedded in Epon 812, and examined by electron microscopy. Epiphyseal material was also fixed in a variety of ways and subjected to a series of cytochemical tests for light microscopy. An ultrastructure resembling that of lateral eye retina is confirmed in this species. Photoreceptor cells of the epiphysis and frontal organ display many cytological features similar to those of retinal rods and cones in the arrangement of their outer and inner segments and synaptic components. However, in these pineal organs the outer segments are disoriented relative to each other and may display a disarranged internal organization unlike normal retinal photoreceptors. Furthermore, other pineal outer segments often appear degenerate. Since immature stages in the development of new outer segments also appear to be present, adult pineal photoreceptors are probably engaged in a constant renewal of outer segment membranes. The evidence further suggests that macrophages are involved in phagocytosis of degenerated outer segments. Postulated photoreceptor activities and the possibility of secondary pineal functions, such as secretion, are discussed in view of current morphological and cytochemical findings.  (+info)

*Karl Friedrich Meyer

He was greatly fostered by Heinrich Zangger, professor of comparative anatomy (and later the first professor of Medical Law in ... Meyer had to teach pathology and comparative pathology at the Veterinary School of Pennsylvania. He soon got into arguments ... histopathology and morbid anatomy, link from HathiTrust J. Schachter. Karl F. Meyer, the Scientist Dedicated to Service, Bull. ...

*Brain morphometry

One such deformation is the right invariant metric of computational anatomy which generalizes the metric of non-compressible ... Three principal sources exist for comparative evolutionary investigations: Fossils, fresh-preserved post-mortem or in vivo ... Grenander, Ulf; Miller, Michael I. (1998-12-01). "Computational Anatomy: An Emerging Discipline". Q. Appl. Math. LVI (4): 617- ... variations in macroscopic brain anatomy (i.e., at a level of detail still discernible by the naked human eye) are sufficiently ...

*Comparative anatomy

... is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. It is closely related to ... Comparative Anatomy, pre-1800s Löw, Péter et al. (2016). Atlas of Animal Anatomy and Histology. Springer, [1]. Wake, M.H. (ed ... Comparative anatomy has long served as evidence for evolution, now joined in that role by comparative genomics; it indicates ... Three major concepts of comparative anatomy are: Homologous structures - structures (body parts/anatomy) which are similar in ...

*William Charles Osman Hill

Primates-Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. Volume 8. Cynopithecinae" (PDF). Journal of Anatomy. 110 (1): 127. PMC 1271036 . Day ... Osman Hill is best known for writing Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, an eight-volume series that aimed to include ... His first paper, which discussed the comparative anatomy of the pancreas, was published in 1926. In all, his works, which ... He is best known for his nearly completed eight-volume series, Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, which covered all ...

*Comparative Anatomy (band)

Comparative Anatomy also has a mysterious entity referred to as 'On the Box', a "deranged" koala that is supposedly sexless and ... Comparative Anatomy started as an experiment in 2009 between the two main members, Sir Puffers Rabbinald the Third (University ... Comparative Anatomy focuses primarily on word-play and themes relating specifically to animals, often with an odd, absurdist ... During live performances, Comparative Anatomy is known for wearing costumes, which were at first simple designs made with ...

*Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy

The Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy is a natural history museum that is part of University College London in ... He set the precedent that the Chair of Zoology at UCL (then the University of London) was also the curator of the comparative ... and Queen Mary University of London in addition to material from London Zoo and various London hospital comparative anatomy ...

*A Laboratory Manual for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

... is a textbook written by Libbie Hyman in 1922 and released as the first ... It is also called and published simply as Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. In 1942 Hyman released the second edition as a ... The Laboratory Manual for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy still remains the same without revisions, and is used by universities ...

*Robert Edmond Grant

Geoffroy's comparative anatomy featured the comparison of the same organ or group of bones through a range of animals. He ... Outlines of Comparative Anatomy. Balliere, London. Works written by or about Robert Edmond Grant at Wikisource "Rocky Road: ... Grant then became Professor of Comparative Anatomy at University College London, a post he held from 1827 until his death in ... Grant held the UCL chair of comparative anatomy for life (1827-1874); he was elected FRS in 1836; he became Fullerian Professor ...

*Acetylcholinesterase

Journal of Comparative Anatomy. 100 (1): 211-35. doi:10.1002/cne.901000108. PMID 13130712. Bartels CF, Zelinski T, Lockridge O ... Journal of Anatomy. 94 (Pt 1): 74-81. PMC 1244416 . PMID 13808985. Koelle GB (1954). "The histochemical localization of ...

*Demodex

Arachnida". Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 252. Yong, Ed (August 31, 2012). " ...

*Robert Wiedersheim

... professor of anatomy and succeeded Alexander Ecker as the director of Freiburg's Institute of Anatomy and Comparative Anatomy. ... WN (Trans.) Comparative anatomy of vertebrates. Macmillan and Co., Ltd, London. 1907. Wiedersheim, R. (1893) The Structure of ... He became an expert in comparative anatomy and published a number of relevant textbooks. He also collected early photographs ... WN (Trans.) Elements of the comparative anatomy of vertebrates. Macmillan and Co., Ltd, New York. 1897. Wiedersheim. R, ...

*Tongue

ISBN 0-03-910284-X. Kingsley, John Sterling (1912). Comparative anatomy of vertebrates. P. Blackiston's Son & Co. pp. 217-220. ... "taste bud , anatomy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Fiore, Mariano; Eroschenko, Victor (2000). Di Fiore's atlas of histology with ... ISBN 0-02-864558-8. Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Mitchell, Adam W. M. (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia, ... Atkinson, Martin E. (2013). Anatomy for Dental Students (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199234462. the tongue is ...

*Buccal cirri

Kardong, Kenneth (2015). Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy: A Laboratory Dissection Guide. New York, New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 11 ... Kardong, Kenneth V. (2015). Vertebrates Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. New York, New York: McGraw Hill Education. p ... Fishbeck, Dale (2008). Manual of Vertebrate Dissection: Comparative Anatomy. Morton Publishing Company. pp. 21-22. ISBN ... Peyer, Bernhard (1968). Comparative Odontology. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. p. 15. "cirrus". The Free ...

*Intromittent organ

Kardong, Kenneth V. (1995). Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers. pp. ... The anatomy of the penis varies widely according to species. All male mammals have a penis. Insectivores, bats, rodents, ... These however are generalisations, and insect genitalia vary enormously in anatomy and in application. For example, some ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) "Urogenital Anatomy of the Dogfish Shark". Maricopa Community Colleges. ...

*Stomochord

Kardong, Kenneth V. (1995). Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution. McGraw-Hill. pp. 55, 57. ISBN 0-697-21991-7 ...

*Cephalochordate

doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00536.x. Fishbeck, D. Sebastiani, A. (2015). Comparative Anatomy: manual of dissection. Morton ... doi:10.1007/s00227-006-0271-y. V., Kardong, Kenneth (2015-01-01). Vertebrates : comparative anatomy, function, evolution. ...

*Actinopterygii

Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 99-100. ISBN 978-0-07-802302-6. (Davis, Brian ...

*Common mudpuppy

Kardong, Kenneth (2015). Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy: A laboratory Dissection Guide. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 71 ... Kardong, Kenneth (1995). Vertebrate: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. New York: McGraw-HIll. pp. 215-225. ISBN ... Chiasson, Richard B (1969). Laboratory Anatomy of Necturus. 3rd ed. Dubuque: Wm C. Brown. Petranka, James W. (1998). ...

*Pharyngeal slit

Kardong KV (2003). "Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution". Third edition. New York (McGraw Hill). Depew MJ, ... Comparative molecular biology has revealed that the Pax1/9 genes (which encode for transcription factors) are expressed in ... Comparative developmental and genetic studies of these pharyngeal structures between hemichordates and urochordates have ...

*Tonic (physiology)

Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. 5th edition. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. ISBN 978-0-07-304058- ...

*Uncinate processes of ribs

Kardong, Kenneth V. (1995). Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution. McGraw-Hill. pp. 55, 57. ISBN 0-697-21991-7 ...

*Stapedius muscle

Kardong, Kenneth V. (1995). Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution. McGraw-Hill. pp. 55, 57. ISBN 0-697-21991-7 ... ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, A. M. R. (2013-02-13). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. ... Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. ...

*Meninges

Kardong, Kenneth V. (1995). Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Funuction, Evolution. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers. p. ... "Scalp Anatomy: Structure, Nerve Supply, Arterial Supply". 20 June 2017. Entry "pia mater" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ... In the early 1900s, Giuseppe Sterzi an Italian anatomist carried out comparative studies on the meninges from the lancelet to ...

*Sternum

Kardong, Kenneth V. (1995). Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution. McGraw-Hill. pp. 55, 57. ISBN 0-697-21991-7 ... The sternum, in vertebrate anatomy, is a flat bone that lies in the middle front part of the rib cage. It is endochondral in ... ISBN 978-0-07-352569-3. Dyce, Keith M.; Sack, Wolfgang O.; Wensing, C. J. G. (2009-12-03). Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy. ... ISBN 978-0-7817-7055-2. Agur, Anne M.R.; Dalley, Arthur F. II (2009). Grant's Atlas of Anatomy, Twelfth Edition. Philadelphia, ...

*Crested capuchin

In Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. (Vol. IV: Cebidae Part A, pp. 483-485). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ... Hill,W. (1960). "Cebus Apella". Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. Vol. IV: Cebidae Part A. Forbes, H. A Hand-Book to ... Comparative Perspectives In The Study of Behaviour, Econogy, and Conservation. Developments In Primatology: Progress and ...

*Friedrich Blochmann

In 1891 he succeeded Maximilian Braun as professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at the University of Rostock. In 1898 he ...

*Postorbital bar

"Comparative anatomy of the orbit". Br J Physiol Optics. 10: 144-154. Prince, J. H. (1956). "Comparative anatomy of the eye". ...
This thesis describes the implementation of an interface for querying established correspondences between anatomical structures across species. I was the main developer of this query engine, called the Comparative Anatomy Information System. My work involved developing methods to query the knowledge base, perform the specified comparison, display the anatomical hierarchies and results, and implement features to make the application user-friendly. The comparisons are based on the Structural Difference Method (SDM) for finding similarities and differences, developed in previous work. Since the CAIS knowledge base is sparsely populated, it has thus far been difficult to conduct extensive user testing, but I include two usage scenarios proposed by one of my mentors that outline some proposed uses of the application. These scenarios reflect the need for a system like CAIS that communicates anatomical correspondences to researchers who work on animal modeling of disease with a background other than ...
Looking for comparative anatomy? Find out information about comparative anatomy. see anatomy anatomy , branch of biology concerned with the study of body structure of various organisms, including humans. Comparative anatomy is concerned... Explanation of comparative anatomy
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. It is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny (the evolution of species). Comparative anatomy has long served as evidence for evolution, now joined in that role by comparative genomics; it indicates that various organisms share a common ancestor. Also, it assists scientists in classifying organisms based on similar characteristics of their anatomical structures. A common example of comparative anatomy is the similar bone structures in forelimbs of cats, whales, bats, and humans. All of these appendages consist of the same basic parts; yet, they serve completely different functions. The skeletal parts which form a structure used for swimming, such as a fin, would not be ideal to form a wing, which is better-suited for flight. One explanation for the forelimbs similar composition is descent with modification. Through random mutations and natural selection, each organisms anatomical ...
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Comparative Anatomy are another group that I have liked for many years. Their 2010 CD Mammalian is really good. I have been waiting ever since for a follow-up album, which never seems to come.. They are an experimental drum & bass band from Charlottesville, Virginia. Known for their elaborate costumes, absurd humor, simple but diverse textures and unique sound, the band has become known in the experimental and noise rock scenes for their outlandish performances. Their early work has been referred to by reviewers as a "patchwork, cut-up style" similar to bands like Mr. Bungle, but recently they have created their own unique sound with robotic sounding bass lines, frenzied loops of animal samples, and beat-focused drums. To date, they are the only band to consistently use animals for vocals, recording their sounds in a variety of settings and programming them to the music, often altering the sounds and layering them in their more recent work.. Comparative Anatomy started as an experiment in 2009 ...
Evolutionary biology gives context to human embryonic digestive organs, and demonstrates how structural adaptations can fit changing environmental requirements. Comparative anatomy is rarely included in the medical school curriculum. However, its concepts facilitate a deeper comprehension of anatomy and development by putting the morphology into an evolutionary perspective. Features of gastrointestinal development reflect the transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments, such as the elongation of the colon in land vertebrates, allowing for better water reabsorption. In addition, fishes exhibit ciliary transport in the esophagus, which facilitates particle transport in water, whereas land mammals develop striated and smooth esophageal musculature and utilize peristaltic muscle contractions, allowing for better voluntary control of swallowing. The development of an extensive vitelline drainage system to the liver, which ultimately creates the adult hepatic portal system allows for the evolution of
Buy the Paperback Book A System Of Anatomy And Physiology, With The Comparative Anatomy Of Animals Compiled From The… by See Notes Multiple Contributors at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Health and Well Being books over $25!
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/The_comparative_anatomy_of_the_nervous_s.html?id=M57wAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe comparative anatomy of the nervous system of vertebrates, including man ...
... is to make a comparative study of the anatomy of an organ in different groups of vertebrates and try to derive the evolutionary significance
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Finden Sie alle Bücher von Yasuda, Atsushi - On the Comparative Anatomy of the Cucurbitaceae, Wild and Cultivated, in Japan (1903). Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 1120663431
Læs om Comparative Anatomy and Physiology - Illustrated with 229 Engravings. Udgivet af CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Bogens ISBN er 9781539398233, køb den her
Marie Dauenheimer is a Board Certified Medical Illustrator working in the Washington, DC Metropolitan area. She specializes in creating medical illustrations and animations for educational materials, including posters, brochures, books, websites and interactive media. Since 1997 Marie has organized and led numerous "Art and Anatomy Tours" throughout Europe for the Vesalius Trust. Past tours have explored anatomical museums, rare book collections and dissection theatres in Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Scotland and England. In addition to illustrating Marie teaches drawing, life drawing and human and animal anatomy at the Art Institute of Washington. Part of Maries anatomy class involves study and drawing from cadavers in the Gross Anatomy Lab at Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, DC. More on all and ticketing info can be found here ...
Last volume of an authoritative, detailed monograph on the cerebellum, completed by Dr. Jansen from Dr. Larsells original manuscript, with additional material: embryology, gross anatomy, topology, histology. Includes an atlas of electron microscopy. The addendum to Part II includes bibliographic references published in 1969 and 1970.. A fundamental text in the neurosciences. Should be in libraries of all medical schools, neurological research institutes, and individuals with academic interests in the central nervous system. ...
The morphology of the lower jaw and teeth of the legless lizard Pseudopus apodus (Anguimorpha, Anguidae, Anguinae) from Eurasia are described in detail and compared with those of other species of the subfamily Anguinae. The lower jaw anatomy of Pseudopus, especially the dentary and teeth, clearly differs from the genera Ophisaurus and Anguis. Even so, Ophisaurus is largely uniform in its lower jaw morphology across species. The teeth of North American Ophisaurus are slender cylinders, the shafts are mesiodistally compressed and bulge lingually; the apices are curved lingually and posteriorly and have weakly developed cutting edges. Southeast Asian and North African Ophisaurus present conical teeth, with broadened bases, apices more distinctly curved lingually and posteriorly, and cutting edges that are distinctly developed. The lingual surfaces of the tooth apices are striated in Ophisaurus and Pseudopus. The lower jaw of Ophisaurus is in many respects similar to that in Anguis, however, the ...
A classic title designed to be used as an instruction guide and a study guide, for laboratory courses in comparative vertebrate anatomy. Organisms include protochor-dates, lampry, dogfish shark, mud puppy, and cat.Saul Wischnitzer is the author of Atlas and Dissection Guide for Comparative Anatomy, published 2006 under ISBN 9780716769590 and ISBN 071676959X. [read more] ...
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VENOUS SYSTEM OF FROG (AMPHIBIAN) AND RABBIT (MAMMAL) - SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES Rabbit - Venous system Frog - Venous system 1. Coronary veins col...
But, in any case, its clear to me that you lack the knowledge in comparative anatomy to understand any evolutionary description here that I could give. For example, if I mention something that youve not heard of (e.g., haemal arches in larval hagfish), you make the immediate assumption that I must be mistaken because you know nothing about this ---- rather than realise that youre talking to somebody who keeps up with the current scientific literature, and who is an expert in vertebrate comparative anatomy. Youre simply not equipped for a debate about this topic, as all you know about (or, at least, can copy and paste about) is the human condition ...
The Homo genus originated in Africa around 2-3 million years ago (mya), as the lineage split from the Australopithecine line (Henke and Hardt 2011), the following wide-spread dispersal lead to the colonisation of almost every habitat on Earth as we see today. It is thought that Australopethicines adaptations were confined to habitats in Africa by ecological, physical or climatic reasons, and the adaptations of the Homo species were able to overcome this (Henke and Hardt 2011).. ...
Striking differences between carnivores and herbivores are seen in these organs. Carnivores have a capacious simple (single-chambered) stomach. The stomach volume of a carnivore represents 60-70% of the total capacity of the digestive system. Because meat is relatively easily digested, their small intestines (where absorption of food molecules takes " The saliva of carnivorous animals does not contain digestive enzymes. Human saliva contains the carbohydrate-digesting enzyme, salivary amylase. This enzyme is responsible for the majority of starch digestion. The dentition of herbivores is quite varied depending on the kind of vegetation a particular species is adapted to eat. Although these animals differ in the types and numbers of teeth they possess, the various kinds of teeth when present, share common structural features. The incisors are broad, flattened and spade-like. Canines may be small as in horses, prominent as in hippos, pigs and some primates (these are thought to be used for ...
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This year sensation from Utah might well be another ceratopsian, Nasutuceratops titusi, known from an almost complete skull and an associated left forelimb, as well as skull fragments from two other individuals. Some skin impressions were also found with the forelimb. Nasutuceratops is still a nomen nudum ("naked name"), meaning it has not been officially and formally described in a published scientific journal yet. It has been named by Eric Karl Lund (advisor: Scott Sampson) in his Master of Science Geology thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of Utah in 2010. In a comprehensive phylogenetical analysis, this short snouted long horned centrosaurine ceratopsian was found to be closely related to the contemporary Avaceratops lammersi from Montana ...
A New Taxon of Basal Ceratopsian from China and the Early Evolution of Ceratopsia. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Data on pollen aperture and wall ultrastructure are reviewed for the monocots. New ultrastructural data on 30 taxa representing 18 monocot families are also presented. The evolutionary trends of apert
Represent activities of the animal while alive, rather than part of the dead creature Dinosaur fossils have been weathering out of the rock since LONG before humans evolved, yet "Dinosauria" was not recognized until 1842. Why did it take this long? Before scientists could recognize the existence of dinosaurs, they had to recognize that fossils were the remains of dead (not alive), unknown, extinct (not living anywhere) organisms. Baron Georges Cuvier (France) "father of comparative anatomy" examined many fossils in the late 1700s/early 1800s: ...
Natural bone. Use these disarticulated bones to study adult equine forelimb skeletal anatomy in detail. They are ideal for agricultural and veterinary courses and comparative anatomy labs. The hoof capsule is included.
A quick divergence from my usual dinosaurs, and I shall talk about big cats today. This is because to my greatest delight, I had discovered today a wonderful book. It is called The Felidæ of Rancho La Brea (Merriam and Stock 1932, Carnegie Institution of Washington publication, no. 422). As the title suggests it goes into details of felids from the Rancho La Brea, in particular Smilodon californicus (probably synonymous with S. fatalis), but also the American Cave Lion, Panthera atrox. The book is full of detailed descriptions, numerous measurements and beautiful figures. However, what really got me excited was, in their description and comparative anatomy of P. atrox, Merriam and Stock (1932) provide identification criteria for the Lion and Tiger, a translation of the one devised by the French palaeontologist Marcelin Boule in 1906. I have forever been looking for a set of rules for identifying lions and tigers and ultimately had to come up with a set of my own with a lot of help fro ...
E volution Thursday 10/24/13. Charles Darwin influences on his thinking // decent with modification evolution by natural selection overview Evidence of Evolution fossil record biogeography comparative anatomy // embryology molecular biology Slideshow 2207701...
The larynx () is a musculocartilaginous organ guarding the entrance to the trachea, which serves as an air passageway, aids vocalization, and prevents the inspiration of foreign material. The valvular function of the larynx, by means of the epiglottis, is vital, because it is across its inlet that all substances swallowed must pass in their course from the oral pharynx through the laryngeal pharynx to the esophagus. Negus (1949) has described and illustrated the comparative anatomy of the larynx from fish through mammals, and Piérard (1965) studied the dog and other carnivores. The larynx is located directly caudal to the root of the tongue, oral pharynx, and the soft palate, ventral to the atlas. It is approximately 6 cm long in a medium-sized dog, nearly half of this length being occupied by the epiglottic cartilage, which lies at the laryngeal opening. The intrinsic muscles of the larynx control the size of the laryngeal inlet, the size and shape of the glottis, and the positions of the ...
Pedal mass in a crossbred dog; Generalised scaling in a donkey; Crusting and exudation in a Welsh pony; Pedal ulceration in a 12-year-old long-haired cat; etc.. Advances in Equine Nutrition: download pdf http://chillerheat.ecolific.com/?library/advances-in-equine-nutrition-v-1. Students will read and analyze the works of such major poets as A , source: Endocrine Causes of Seasonal and Lactational Anestrus in Farm Animals: A Seminar in the CEC Programme of Co-ordination of Research on Livestock ... 1984 (Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine) download for free. Anatomy faculty oversee or participate in many aspects of the innovative WR2 curriculum of the CWRU School of Medicine, particularly Block 7, a longitudinal block during the first two years that focuses on anatomy, histopathology, and radiology. The CWRU Department of Anatomy has a long history of research in comparative anatomy and paleontology that includes strong links to the nearby Cleveland Museum of Natural History , source: A Colour ...
For the students who ask, "Do we get to dissect in Biology?" or those who ask "Do we have to dissect in Biology?", the Frog Sandwich lets students choose how they will learn some comparative anatomy. The Frog Sandwich is a 5 page frog-shaped booklet of drawings depicting frog exterior dorsal view, skeletal system, internal organs, ventral muscles, and exterior ventral view. On each page, students color and label the organs, then cut out the parts and assemble their Frog Sandwich booklet. Students exchange frogs to check, correct, and "sign off" each others work. After completing their Frog Sandwiches, students choose to either personally dissect a frog, or to observe the anatomy of a pre-dissected frog. Models, laser disc, and Internet Frog dissection are also available for study. Students are allowed to use their own Frog Sandwiches as an aid to identification on a Lab Station Practical Exam, and they submit their frogs as part of the exam. Since they already know organ location, relative size ...
First-year standing in College of Veterinary Medicine or .... COMPARATIVE ANATOMY DISSECTION FETAL PIG - ... download human anatomy and physiology study course guws ... veterinary medicine flashcards create study and share, ... Veterinary Physiology. A veterinary technicians work schedule depends on the type and place of employment. For instance, those working at 24-hour facilities may work evenings, weekends and/or holidays. In private clinics, technicians are more likely to have regular business hours, although they may occasionally need to stay late or through lunch to work on a sick patient; come in some evenings and/or weekends to feed and care for hospitalized patients; or come in early to admit early-morning hospital or surgery patients The Horse (Color Atlas of Veterinary Anatomy, Vol 2) (v. 2). A grade of C or better is required for graduation in the AVMA accredited programs. This course is a continuation of the experiences in VTSC2902. As part of the second year of the Veterinary ...
Dr William Charles Osman Hill FRSE FZS FLS FRAI (13 July 1901 - 25 January 1975) was a British anatomist, primatologist, and a leading authority on primate anatomy during the 20th century. He is best known for his nearly completed eight-volume series, Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, which covered all living and extinct primates known at the time in full detail and contained illustrations created by his wife, Yvonne. Schooled at King Edward VI Camp Hill School for Boys in Birmingham and University of Birmingham, he went on to publish 248 works and accumulated a vast collection of primate specimens that are now stored at the Royal College of Surgeons of England. William Charles Osman Hill was born on 13 July 1901 the son of James Osman Hill and his wife Fanny Martin. He was educated first at King Edward VI Camp Hill School for Boys in Birmingham, and later obtained his degrees from the University of Birmingham. During medical school, also at the University of Birmingham, he won three ...
The cat skull model is flexibly mounted making demonstration of natural feline movement possible. This cat skull replica is perfect for mammal and comparative anatomy studies.
PLATTEVILLE-Its a case where the dead teach the living. University of Wisconsin-Platteville biology majors and pre-professional students are learning more about the human body than textbooks or models could possibly provide. Four cadavers, two of each gender, are providing practical experience in Russell Hall.. Eight UWP students are doing independent study dissecting the cadavers this semester under the tutelage of biology department chair Wayne Weber and Amanda Trewin, assistant professor of biology.. "This is a unique opportunity that will help students work in greater depth," said Trewin, who teaches anatomy and physiology and comparative anatomy. "Its unusual for a school of this size.". Trewin, who earned her Ph.D. at UW-Milwaukee, did her undergraduate work at UWP. Cadavers would have facilitated learning, had they been available, said Trewin. "They provide hands-on, real world experience.". Weber and Trewin, who worked with College of Business, Industry, Life Science and Agriculture ...
Eugène Dubois was born in the Dutch city of Eijsden, into the family of Jean Joseph Balthasar Dubois and Maria Catharina Floriberta Agnes Roebroeck. Dubois father, a pharmacist, encouraged his sons interest in natural history. At that time, important scientific progress had been made in the world of archaeology and anthropology: in Germany, the remains of an early hominid (later named Neanderthal) were found in the Neander Valley, and Charles Darwin had just published his The Origin of Species.. Dubois was an excellent student, and graduated as a medical doctor in 1884. He married the same year and was appointed a lecturer in anatomy at the University of Amsterdam in 1886. He studied comparative anatomy of the larynx in vertebrates, and soon became an assistant to the Dutch morphologist, Max Furbringer. However, Dubois life then took an unusual change in direction. Probably because of dissatisfaction with his teaching duties and some conflicts with Furbringer, Dubois shifted toward the ...
Edme Vulpian (1826-1887). 1889 illustration of the French neurologist Edme Felix Alfred Vulpian. Vulpian discovered the chromaffin system of the adrenal gland, and studied the action of drugs such as curare, strychnine and nicotine. He taught and researched neurophysiology and in 1862 took over the running of the Salpetriere mental hospital, Paris, France, with fellow neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. In 1867, he was appointed professor of pathological anatomy at the faculty of medicine and, in 1872, took the chair of experimental and comparative anatomy. - Stock Image C036/0190
Last week in G9 Biology we dissected Fred the Frankenstein Frog to review the functions of the alimentary canal in digestion and discuss comparative anatomy. We compared how the frogs digestive system as similar to our own and how it is different. For example, the frogs teeth have a similar function to our own but a different structure due to the type of food a frog eats. We then discovered the frogs last meal as we followed the frogs digestive system. To extend the dissection, we then looked at the frogs nervous and muscular system. As the frog was still "fresh" we were able to stimulate the frogs muscles by sprinkling salt on the exposed tissue. The muscles twitched as the salt simulated the muscles as activated nerve fibres would do when the frog was alive. The students were amazed and a little creeped out as the frogs legs twitched (danced) on their own. We will refer back to this dissection when we study the nervous system next year.. ...
The tract put out by Dr. John Howitt of Canada, entitled "Evolution" not only has very much packed into a small booklet, but also is very helpful. This has already been put out in 15 editions. It is printed in England and is distributed by the International Christian Crusade of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... This booklet defines evolution and also discusses theistic evolution. Then it brings in the evidence from comparative anatomy, embryonic recapitulation, geological record. It shows the absence of pre-Cambrian fossils and the absence of intermediate forms. It gives the supposed evolutionary series. In discussing blood precipitation tests, Howitt points out that there is much variation in blood among humans and animals, and the fact that some similarity can be found between the blood of a human and a bat or a whale does not prove anything. Sometimes whole blood from one human to another, even from one close relative to another, can be fatal. This shows how little an argument we can derive from ...
* Sir E. Home, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, vol. i. p. 225. (2312). The rest of the alimentary canal in most quadrupeds, like that of Man, is divisible into the small and the large intestines, ...
A new genetic analysis has shaken up the tree of life, dispelling the common assumption that sea sponges or comb jellies are the original ancestors of all animals. That original animal, also referred to as the "ur-animal," is thought to have given rise to both the "lower" animals (Cnidaria), such as coral and jellyfish, and "higher" animals (Bilataria), such as insects and humans. Based on the new study, researchers are now putting forth a new classification, which would place sponges among the "lower" animals, leaving an open spot for the original animal. "Its a question that has plagued animal biologists for a couple hundred years: What could be the mother of all animals?" said [researcher] Rob DeSalle… "Weve turned it upside down" [Wired Science]. Taxonomy has come a long way since the Linnaean system, based largely on comparative anatomy, was introduced in 1735. The research team fed morphological data on the appearance of animals from 24 taxa together with genetic information into a ...
Many people are under the false impression that evolution is just a guess or a belief, when in reality, it is one of the most well-supported concepts in all of science. The evidence for it is overwhelming and comes from many different disciplines such as paleontology, comparative anatomy, biogeography, and perhaps most significantly, genetics. Indeed,…
Many people are under the false impression that evolution is just a guess or a belief, when in reality, it is one of the most well-supported concepts in all of science. The evidence for it is overwhelming and comes from many different disciplines such as paleontology, comparative anatomy, biogeography, and perhaps most significantly, genetics. Indeed,…
Simon Henry Gage was born on May 20, 1851 in Milford Township, Otsego County, New York. At the time, this was a forested area surrounding Lake Crumhorn. The family moved from this pioneering area to the village of Worcester in order to be nearer to schools. Young Gage attended Charlottesville Seminary and the State Normal School at Albany. To obtain a financial start for college he worked as an itinerant tent-photographer, in the process learning photographic skills that he would later use in research and teaching.. Gage entered Cornell University in 1873, originally planning on becoming a physician. To help support himself, he became student assistant to Dr. Burt Green Wilder, who was Head of the Anatomical Department, which then included the subjects of physiology and hygiene, zoology, and comparative anatomy; he continued in this position throughout his undergraduate years. While still an undergraduate, Gage began teaching other students in the newly introduced biology courses. In the Autumn ...
Morphbank :: Biological Imaging is a continuously growing database of images that scientists use for international collaboration, research and education. Images deposited in Morphbank :: Biological Imaging document a wide variety of research including: specimen-based research in comparative anatomy, morphological phylogenetics, taxonomy and related fields focused on increasing our knowledge about biodiversity. The project receives its main funding from the Biological Databases and Informatics program of the National Science Foundation (Grant DBI-0446224). Morphbank :: Biological Imaging was established in 1998 by a Swedish-Spanish-American group of entomologists and is currently housed at the School of Computational Science (SCS) at Florida State University. The project has grown immensely since its beginnings and presently includes a team of 15 biologists, computer scientists, and information scientists who are working on developing the software. Morphbank :: Biological Imaging is dedicated to ...
A view of how an animal embryo is specified to develop and differentiate into a wide spectrum of cell types, and how the spatial patterns and axes of embyros are determined. The course will focus on genetic and molecular approaches, but will also cover the comparative anatomy of developing embryos to the extent necessary to understand the conserved aspects of embryonic patterning. Special emphasis will be placed on organisms with particular advantages for the study of embryonic development: e.g., mouse, frog, zebrafish, and Drosophila. The first half of the course will cover cell fate restrictions, cloning animals using nuclear transfer, stem cell biology, formation of the embryonic axes in vertebrates and Drosophila, and patterning of the neural tube and mesodermal tissues. The second half of the course will focus on emerging ideas and findings in the field, with emphasis on analysis of original literature ...
From: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, 1910-1911. HAECKEL ERNST HEINRICH (1834- ), German biologist, was born at Potsdam on the 16th of February 1834. He studied medicine and science at Würzburg, Berlin and Vienna, having for his masters such men as Johannes Müller, R. Virchow and R. A. Kölliker and in 1857 graduated at Berlin as M.D. and M. Ch. At the wish of his father he began to practise as a doctor in that city, but his patients were few in number, one reason being that he did not wish them to be many, and after a short time he turned to more congenial pursuits. In 1861, at the instance of Carl Gegenbaur, he became Privatdozent at Jena in the succeeding year he was chosen extraordinary professor of comparative anatomy and director of the Zoological Institute in the same university, in 1865 he was appointed to a chair of zoology which was specially established for his benefit. This last position he retained for 43 years, in spite of repeated invitations to migrate to more important ...
On the 3rd of December 1861, Dr. Otto von Hopstein, Regius Professor of Comparative Anatomy of the University of Buda-Pesth, and Curator of the Academical Museum, was foully and brutally murdered within a stone-throw of the entrance to the college quadrangle.. Besides the eminent position of the victim and his popularity amongst both students and townsfolk, there were other circumstances which excited public interest very strongly, and drew general attention throughout Austria and Hungary to this murder. The Pesther Abendblatt of the following day had an article upon it, which may still be consulted by the curious, and from which I translate a few passages giving a succinct account of the circumstances under which the crime was committed, and the peculiar features in the case which puzzled the Hungarian police.. "It appears," said that very excellent paper, "that Professor von Hopstein left the University about half-past four in the afternoon, in order to meet the train which is due from Vienna ...
BLUMENBACH, blōōmen-bȧG, Johann Friedrich (1752-1840). A German naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist, born in Gotha. He studied in Jena and in Göttingen, where he graduated with the degree of M.D. in 1776. He began to teach in Göttingen in 1776, became a professor in 1778, and exercised the greatest influence as a teacher for more than fifty years. He founded the science of anthropology. His Collectio Craniorum Diversarum Gentium (1790-1828) gave the results of observations upon the skulls of different races. He advocated the theory of the unity of the human race, and divided it into five types - Caucasian, Mongolian, Malay, American, and Ethiopian. His Handbuch der Naturgeschichte (1780) has gone through many editions. He was the first to place comparative anatomy on a thoroughly scientific basis, and in 1805 published his Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie. He speculated on the power of generation and regeneration, and imagined that a nisus formativus, or formative tendency, ...
The School of Dentistry does not require a particular major. However, applicants must have successfully completed at least 90 semester hours at a United States or Canadian fully accredited college or university. Consideration will be given to those students who take 15 semester hours or more each semester at their primary institution.Strong preference is given to applicants who will have completed all requirements for a baccalaureate degree prior to entering the School of Dentistry. In addition, all applicants must meet the following minimum requirements:Required CoursesNumber of CoursesNotesEnglish2 semesters / 3 quartersInorganic Chemistry2 semesters / 3 quartersMust include labOrganic Chemistry2 semesters / 3 quartersMust include labPhysics2 semesters / 3 quartersMust include labGeneral Biology or Zoology (I and II)2 semesters / 3 quartersMust include labAdvanced Biology or ChemistryOne course must include one of the following: microbiology, comparative anatomy, or biochemistry2 semesters / 3
Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a common (in the USA it is the fifth most common form of cancer in males and tenth most common form of cancer in females) malignan- cy and one in which noninvasive staging by imaging plays such an important role. This book presents a complete approach to MR imaging of carcinoma of the urinary bladder from a detailed discussion of the value of MRI in the diagnosis of the urinary bladder to the history of the procedure. The technical discussion of the general principles of MRI including the optimal pulse sequences to be used and factors that influence the quality of images are included in this book. The safety factors are also presented along with contraindications. The application of a double surface coil with the field strength of O.5T provides the fine quality of the illustrations. The atlas of comparative anatomy by MRI on normal volunteers and post-mortem specimens as well as MR images on patients with bladder tumors and post-surgery specimens is unique. The
Video exposure assessments were conducted in a comparative anatomy laboratory using formaldehyde-preserved sharks and cats. Work in the facility using time-integrated samplers indicated personal and area concentrations generally below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit. However, complaints about room air quality were frequent and routine. Using a photoionization detector with an integral
This book is the first and definitive reference in the growing field of ultrasonography in pain medicine. Each chapter details all you need to know to perform a specific block. Comparative anatomy and sonoanatomy of the various soft tissues are featured, and tips and tricks for correct placement
This beautiful article in The Atlantic by Alexis Madrigal talks about the eyes of cetaceans or whales and has some beautiful imagery from photographer Bryant Austin. More importantly, the article asks: "So, what does the world look like to a whale?" which is a fundamental question in comparative anatomy. The really unusual thing about this article […]. ...
(1862-1915) German zoologist Boveri was born in Bamberg, Germany, and graduated in medicine from Munich in 1885. He remained at Munich to do cytological research until his appointment as professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Würzburg in
Cuvier definition, Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert [zhawrzh ley-aw-pawld krey-tyan frey-dey-reek da-gaw-ber] /ʒɔrʒ leɪ ɔˈpɔld kreɪˈtyɛ̃ freɪ deɪˈrik da gɔˈbɛr/ (Show IPA), Baron, 1769-1832, French naturalist: pioneer in the fields of paleontology and comparative anatomy. See more.
Each term has an is_a parent in the Uberon Ontology, which has a linkage to an another entity and FANTOM5 samples.Libraries were grouped into mutually exclusive facets according to the FANTOM5 sample ontology mapping to UBERON ontologies ...
Each term has an is_a parent in the Uberon Ontology, which has a linkage to an another entity and FANTOM5 samples.Libraries were grouped into mutually exclusive facets according to the FANTOM5 sample ontology mapping to UBERON ontologies ...
The nature and properties of the plant cell; plant cell structure, plant cell components: Cell wall interfaces; morphological and biochemical. Comparative morphology, chemistry and physiology of bacterial, fungal higher and lower plant cell walls. Cell wall growth, development and differentiation. Plant cell membranes; membrane models, organelle membranes; cytology of plant organelles, organelles turnover. Comparative plant cell cytology; mitochondria, plastids, nucleus, nucleolus; endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, lysosomes, Golgi complex, microbodies, dictyosomes, ribosomes. Membranes composition and structure; membrane vesicles, membrane lipid, proteins and carbohydrates. Filamentous structures of the cytoplasm of plant cells. Secretory products of plant cells. Membranes energy transformations, dynamics, structure and function of lonophores in plants membranes physiology and molecular biology of membrane ATPASES. Chromosomal structure, cytokinesis, the cell cycle, ploidy and karyotype. ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Polymorphism among species of medium stomach worms complicates the process of identification, diagnosis, and definition of faunal diversity among these pathogenic nematodes in North American ruminants. Although most polymorphic species have been documented in detail, and occur with some regularity in specific ruminant hosts, until recently Ostertagia kasakhstanica the postulated minor morphotype of O. bisonis had eluded detection. We present the first descriptions of the diagnostic characters useful in identification and differentiation of O. kasakhstanica from other medium stomach worms in wild and domestic ruminants from western North America. Basic information is provided to accurately identify O. kasakhstanica that will be useful to scientists working on the pathogens and parasites of cattle, deer, and other wild ruminants that share common pastures. These studies also serve to reinforce the concept that comparative morphology remains one of the most ...
There has long been interest in understanding the genetic basis of human adaptation. To what extent are phenotypic differences among human populations driven by natural selection? With the recent arrival of large genome-wide data sets on human variation, there is now unprecedented opportunity for progress on this type of question. Several lines of evidence argue for an important role of positive selection in shaping human variation and differences among populations. These include studies of comparative morphology and physiology, as well as population genetic studies of candidate loci and genome-wide data. However, the data also suggest that it is unusual for strong selection to drive new mutations rapidly to fixation in particular populations (the hard sweep model). We argue, instead, for alternatives to the hard sweep model: in particular, polygenic adaptation could allow rapid adaptation while not producing classical signatures of selective sweeps. We close by discussing some of the likely ...
Animal parasites of man, and domestic and wild animals; systematics, comparative morphology, life history, pathology, treatment, control. Pre: BIOL 275. DB. ...
CPC 274, a new centrosaurine specimen from Mexico, was unearthed in northern Coahuila from 2007-2011. The majority of elements that were found with CPC 274 were surface scanned using a Polhemus FastSCAN system in order to allow readers the ability to manipulate the bones in a 3D environment to assess features directly. The files are .obj files and can be visualized in MeshLabTM, which can be downloaded for free (MeshLab, Visual Computing Lab - ISTI - CNR http://meshlab.sourceforge.net/).
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Abstract. Natural populations of Carpinus orientalis Mill. Shrub lands occur mainly in high and middle altitudes of the Hyrcanian forests, N. Iran, particularly on steep rocks and forest outcrops. There are some discrepancies on the intra-specific delimitation of this important woody species. The aim of the current study was to examine the anatomical variation of stems and leaves of sixteen populations of Carpinus orientalis collected in four north and northeastern provinces of Iran for the first time. Also this study show that anatomical characters of stem showed the highest correlation to climatic factors include temperature, altitude and precipitation and midrib anatomical characters did not show any relationship.
Prior to this study, Nanaloricus mysticus was the only species within family Nanaloricidae studied at the myoanatomical level, though a few transmission electron micrographs of the head region of Armorloricus elegans are available in the literature (cf. [12, 20, 25]; see Table 1). The musculature of Nanaloricus sp. described here differs somewhat from that of N. mysticus revealed by ultrastructural examination. For instance, the radial muscles attached to the furcal base of the mouth cone of N. mysticus (see Figure six in [20]) were not found during this study in Nanaloricus sp. Otherwise, the 8 mouth cone retractors found in Nanaloricus sp. seem to correspond to the 8 homonymous muscles found inside the ridges of the mouth cone of N. mysticus, as well as in Pliciloricus enigmaticus, P. pedicularis, P. diva and Rugiloricus doliolius[10, 11, 16, 20].. In the head, N. mysticus possesses 5 inner and 15-24 outer longitudinal muscles (named head retractors) and 2-3 circular muscles surrounding the ...
The Upper Cretaceous (middle-late Campanian) Wahweap Formation of southern Utah contains the oldest diagnostic evidence of ceratopsids (to date, all centrosaurines) in North America, with a number of specimens recovered from throughout a unit that spans between 81 and 77 Ma. Only a single specimen has been formally named, Diabloceratops eatoni, from the lower middle member of the formation. Machairoceratops cronusi gen. et sp. nov., a new centrosaurine ceratopsid from the upper member of the Wahweap Formation, is here described based on cranial material representing a single individual recovered from a calcareous mudstone. The specimen consists of two curved and elongate orbital horncores, a left jugal, a nearly complete, slightly deformed braincase, the left squamosal, and a mostly complete parietal ornamented by posteriorly projected, anterodorsally curved, elongate spikes on either side of a midline embayment. The fan-shaped, stepped-squamosal is diagnostic of Centrosaurinae, however, this ...
Summary Morphologically, the three species of Trichomonas of man are distinct, although T. vaginalis and T. tenax resemble each other more than either resembles T. hominis. T. vaginalis is much the larger, the other two being about the same length. T. vaginalis is more robust in shape and T. tenax is more slender. T. vaginalis and T. tenax normally have a single compound blepharoplast which may occasionally appear as two approximately equal elements. In T. hominis there are characteristically two blepharoplasts of unequal size, the smaller being ventral in position. The oral and vaginal species have regularly four anterior flagella. T. hominis has a variable number, usually four or five, but more characteristically five. One of these is attached to the smaller ventral blepharoplast and the other four to the larger one. The undulating membrane of T. tenax is relatively longer than that of T. vaginalis, although typically less than body length in both and without an extension of the marginal filament into
MorphBank is an open web repository of biological images documenting specimen-based research in comparative anatomy, morphological phylogenetics, taxonomy and related fields focused on increasing our knowledge about biodiversity. The project receives its main funding from the Biological Databases and Informatics program of the National Science Foundation. MorphBank is developing cyber infrastructure to support a wide array of biological disciplines such as taxonomy, systematics, evolutionary biology, plant science and animal science. MorphBank serves as a permanent archive allowing storage and sharing of digital images. At the same time, it is a collaborative platform supporting large international groups of scientists. Among other things, MorphBank tools allow scientists to share specimen images, add information to existing images by annotating them, remotely curate natural history collections based on images of their specimens, build phylogenetic character matrices based on images, and create
MorphBank is an open web repository of biological images documenting specimen-based research in comparative anatomy, morphological phylogenetics, taxonomy and related fields focused on increasing our knowledge about biodiversity. The project receives its main funding from the Biological Databases and Informatics program of the National Science Foundation. MorphBank is developing cyber infrastructure to support a wide array of biological disciplines such as taxonomy, systematics, evolutionary biology, plant science and animal science. MorphBank serves as a permanent archive allowing storage and sharing of digital images. At the same time, it is a collaborative platform supporting large international groups of scientists. Among other things, MorphBank tools allow scientists to share specimen images, add information to existing images by annotating them, remotely curate natural history collections based on images of their specimens, build phylogenetic character matrices based on images, and create
MorphBank is an open web repository of biological images documenting specimen-based research in comparative anatomy, morphological phylogenetics, taxonomy and related fields focused on increasing our knowledge about biodiversity. The project receives its main funding from the Biological Databases and Informatics program of the National Science Foundation. MorphBank is developing cyber infrastructure to support a wide array of biological disciplines such as taxonomy, systematics, evolutionary biology, plant science and animal science. MorphBank serves as a permanent archive allowing storage and sharing of digital images. At the same time, it is a collaborative platform supporting large international groups of scientists. Among other things, MorphBank tools allow scientists to share specimen images, add information to existing images by annotating them, remotely curate natural history collections based on images of their specimens, build phylogenetic character matrices based on images, and create
Which reveals the reason for any interest in this subject and the motivation behind promoting claims of ancient races of giants: purely religious. And it also illustrates the cause of so much creationist dishonesty: theyll use anything they can and distort and lie about anything they can in order to support their creationist theology, regardless of how false that theology is.. Other participants here have already pointed out much of this. In Message 7 Sci Cat shows someone holding an elephant femur when looks very similar to a human femur (except its much thicker as expected from that comparative anatomy page quoted above). The origin of many fantastic giant beasts and human giants in ancient mythology was undoubtedly finding such bones. In Message 6 Coyote points out that all search hits on "race of giants" are on religious sites. In Message 4 Phat, a Christian, points out that there is a lot of fake "information" on the Internet and that you must be wary of it. In Message 9 Taq mentions the ...
I have written about quadrupedal launch on other web resources previously, so I wont belabor the point here. In short, takeoff acceleration in animals tends to be generated mostly by the walking limbs, rather than the wings. As such, takeoff is really a form of running or leaping (usually the latter). The strengths of the limb bones in bending and torsion, particularly with regards to the moments sustained for leaping, are therefore highly indicative of launch mode. Pterosaurs turn out to be much more bat-like in this regard than bird-like: they had forelimbs which were much stronger than the hind limbs across a wide range of body sizes. By contrast, large birds have stronger hind limb elements (particularly the femur) when compared with the forelimb elements. Giant pterosaurs, such as Quetzalcoatlus, had very long, thin hind limb elements, which argues against a bird-like launch. However, because pterosaurs walked on their folded wings, as well, the incredibly robust forelimb musculature and ...
The ground plan and comparative morphology of the nymphal head of Membracoidea are presented with particular emphasis on the position of the clypeus, frons, epistomal suture, and ecdysial line. Differences in interpretation of the head structu...
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Burst into Flame and Flame Bolts: The armor may burst into flames up to three times daily and has a duration of 12 minutes each time. While the armor is flaming, unlimited fire bolts can be thrown. Burst into Flame ability is similar to the fire warlock spell of the same name. The magical flame adds an addition 100 S.D.C. (M.D.C. in Rifts) which all damage is taken from first. The armors A.R. Rating is also increased by two points for an A.R. Rating of 20. Punches, Kicks, and attacks from the built in forearm claws inflict an additional 3D6 S.D.C. (M.D.C. in Rifts) and any else that attempts to make physical contact (Touch, grab, punch, or kick) on the blazing armor will have 3D6 S.D.C. (M.D.C. in Rifts) inflicted on them unless they are impervious to fire. In addition, there is a 50% that the armor will set on fire any combustibles that it touches. The wearer of the magic armor is unaffected by the magic flames and can see clearly. The ability to throw Fire Bolts can be done as long as the ...
The study of the last hadrosaurs that lived in the Iberian Peninsula has been possible thanks to the discovery by the Aragosaurus-IUCA Group of the University of Zaragoza, led by Jose Ignacio Canudo, of the first articulated hadrosaur skull found in southern Europe, from the archeological sites of Arén, in Huesca, Spain. The skull belongs to an Arenysaurus ardevoli, a lambeosaurine (hadrosaur with a hollow cranial crest), whose description was recently published in the French journal Comptes Rendus Palevol, and was part of the Spanish fossil record. According to paleontologists, the new lambeosaurine lived between 65.5 and 68 million years ago, had a very prominent frontal dome, and its biogeographical relationships suggest a paleobiogeographical connection between Asia and Europe during the Late Cretaceous.. Researchers have found, in addition to the partially articulated skull, the mandibular remains and postcranial elements such as vertebrae, girdle and limb bones.. The Spanish ...
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Then we have Manuscript B: the dreaded undergrad thesis. I have been working on this thing for a few years, and I really want to see it through, but its getting harder and harder to stay motivated. Its on something completely unrelated to what Im working on now (I looked at skull morphology in Centrosaurus to be exact), which makes it hard. Ive started working on it again, and I need to re-learn all the ceratopsian skull terminology. Met with my former supervisor and co-author last week, and he decided that I need to do a phylogenetic analysis, which Ive never done before outside of an assignment. Thanks to Andy Farke, I have a matrix to work with, and Im slowly combining a few different matrices. Im slowly learning how annoying it is when people use slightly different characters (like one paper uses one character as 0-75% and others use 0-80%. Why you have to be so difficult!), or switch around the character states. All in all, its not too bad, just time consuming ...
A contoured, all-fabric, lightweight, body armor garment for the protectionf the torso of a woman against small arms missiles and spall comprises a contoured front protective armor panel composed of a plurality of superposed layers of ballistically protective plies of fabric made of aramid polymer yarns, the front protective armor panel being contoured by providing overlapping seams joining two side sections to a central section of the panel so as to cause the front protective armor panel to be contoured to the curvature of the bust of a female wearer of the body armor garment to impart good ballistic protection and comfort to the wearer.
Congrats to Collin VanBuren for successfully defending his MSc thesis, which he handed in last week. Collins thesis was entitled The Function and Evolution of the Syncervical in Ceratopsian Dinosaurs with a Review of Cervical Fusion in Tetrapods (see abstract below). This work should result in three papers, two of which we are working on…
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Monoclonius, a primitive ceratopsian dinosaur was a large, short-frilled herbivore with a beak, a nose horn, and two smaller horns near the top of its frill.
Chasmosaurus, 17 feet (5.8 m) long, three horned, frilled ceratopsian dinosaur, lived late in the late Cretaceous period, about 76 to 70 million years ago.
ceratopsian monsieur searchant whaledom Oestridae hyperdelicacy pato spongoid pungapung goodlike deceive Nance solvolysis preses overtechnical democratically recrement vaginoperineal Holcus unswelled adenographical uninquisitively ...
This page describes the best practices and guidelines for using EQ syntax to consistently and accurately represent phenotypes from the systematic literature. The guidelines are an evolving set of standards created to improve annotation consistency for the use cases and goals of the Phenoscape project. We provide examples of character types commonly encountered in the systematics literature, and provide discussion of special cases and issues in their annotation. The Entity-Quality (EQ) formalism combines Entity terms from an anatomical ontology, in our case [http://uberon.github.io/ Uberon], with Quality descriptors from the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO). Spatial and positional terms from the Biological Spatial Ontology (BSPO) are also used to represent phenotypes. == PATO terms used to annotate systematic characters == Below is a simplified graph showing a subset of quality terms from the [http://obofoundry.org/wiki/index.php/PATO:Main_Page Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO)] used to ...
by Woodsbum. Now that I have body armor and have been wearing it around a bit to see how well it wears, a thought kept creeping into my head, "Is this expense really fit properly and am I wearing it correctly?". When I was in the military we wore flak jackets. Considering it was simply a vest that you put on, it was quite difficult to wear it incorrectly. Even the new military armor systems are difficult to wear incorrectly because they are also vest type construction that offers very little adjustment.. Here is the article that Gunguy found and sent to me:. ******************************************************************************. Body armor is meant to keep you in the fight. It should protect the vital organs which, if hit, would quickly take you down and prevent you from putting rounds on target. The possibility of saving your life is a secondary benefit of body armor. With this purpose in mind we must understand those structures we need to protect which we can realistically protect ...
by Woodsbum. Now that I have body armor and have been wearing it around a bit to see how well it wears, a thought kept creeping into my head, "Is this expense really fit properly and am I wearing it correctly?". When I was in the military we wore flak jackets. Considering it was simply a vest that you put on, it was quite difficult to wear it incorrectly. Even the new military armor systems are difficult to wear incorrectly because they are also vest type construction that offers very little adjustment.. Here is the article that Gunguy found and sent to me:. ******************************************************************************. Body armor is meant to keep you in the fight. It should protect the vital organs which, if hit, would quickly take you down and prevent you from putting rounds on target. The possibility of saving your life is a secondary benefit of body armor. With this purpose in mind we must understand those structures we need to protect which we can realistically protect ...
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Exponential Armor is the exciting new armor paradigm in the game. Each additional level of armor reduces damage taken by 10%. This means, if you have an armor tech (e.g., Silver Shields) that adds +1 pierce armor to all units, it will reduce the...
This is the earliest dated armor from the royal workshops at Greenwich, which were established in 1515 by Henry VIII (reigned 1509-47) to produce armors for himself and his court. It is also the earliest surviving Greenwich garniture, an armor made with a series of exchange and reinforcing pieces by which it could be adapted for use in battle and in different forms of the tournament
David Marjanovic wrote: , It is absolutely counterintuitive that an animal would first grow horns , and then shrink them to fairly blunt knobs. But, on a smaller scale, the , same thing happens to the epoccipitals of ceratopsids (which I frankly , expect to turn out one day to be homologous to pachycephalosaur spikes). , Perhaps more importantly, the horns of *Triceratops* (even when , *Torosaurus* is not included) _change curvature_ during ontogeny, from , backward-pointing to forward-pointing. The only way to change the , curvature of a bone is to deposit bone on one side and _remove it_ from , the other. Here we have the large-scale absorption the pachy-lumper , scenario requires. , Another ceratopsid case of metaplasia: the postorbital and nasal horns of young Pachyrhinosaurus are indeed horns, but as they aged the postorbital horns get resorbed and remodeled into pits and the nose horn into the distinctive mound. -- Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. Email: [email protected] Phone: 301-405-4084 Office: ...
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The] requirement is a comprehensive family of systems in a combat armor suit where we bring together an exoskeleton with innovative armor, displays for power monitoring, health monitoring, and integrating a weapon into that - a whole bunch of stuff that RDECOM is playing heavily in," said. Lt. Col. Karl Borjes, an RDECOM science advisor assigned to SOCOM ...
April, 2016 Archive: Illustrated Anatomy of The Head and Neck PDF[.] Anatomy Kidney Location Human Body[.] Anatomy of The Pancreas System Human Body[.] Medical Anatomy Posters For Students[.] 3d Anatomy Software Free Download Reviews[.] Plantar Fascia Anatomy Of The Foot[.] Dog Skull Anatomy Animals Images Gallery[.] Anatomy Skeleton Models Picture For Sale[.] Anatomy of a Murder Images Gallery Download[.] Free Anatomy Course Online Download[.] Anatomy Muscle Chart Diagram Tables[.] Atlas of Clinical Gross Anatomy Color Human[.] Dance Anatomy and Kinesiology Online[.] Anatomy Flash Cards Printable Pdf Download[.] 3d Anatomy Model Free Download Images[.] Head and Neck Anatomy for Dental Medicine Pdf[.] Comparative Anatomy Fishbeck Download[.] Anatomy Parts Bones Quiz Images Gallery[.] Grays Anatomy for Students Free Download[.] Moore Essential Clinical Anatomy Pdf[.] Carolyn Myss Anatomy of The Spirit Download[.] Illustrated Anatomy Of The Head And Neck Fehrenbach,Margaret Fehrenbach,Illustrated Anatomy
... allintitle: Google Web Sarches filetype:ppt. 49,722 Total for Life Sciences 0 for Aerobiology. 17,700 for Anatomy. 5 for Animal communication. 1,430 for Biochemistry. 1,990 for Bioinformatics. 927 for Biological systematics OR taxonomy. 8,640 for Biology. 46 for Biophysics. 99 for Botany. 251 for Cell biology. 2 for Chronobiology. 16 for Comparative anatomy. 0 for Cryobiology. 0 for Cryptozoology 29 for Developmental biology. 3,010 for Ecology. 98 for Embryology. 88 for Endocrinology. 93 for Entomology. 15 for Ethnobotany. 17 for Ethology. 19 for Evolutionary biology. 3,950 for Genetics. 8 for Herpetology. 348 for Human anatomy. 47 for Human biology 14 for Human ecology. 82 for Human physiology 8 for Ichthyology. 30 for Landscape ecology. 287 for Life sciences. 15 for Limnology. 0 for Linnaean taxonomy. 62 for Marine biology. 1,180 for Microbiology. 449 for Molecular biology. 1 for Molecular virology. 36 for Mycology. 564 for Neuroscience. 4,140 for Nutrition. 0 for Oology. 6 for ...
Biological Investigation; Introductory Biology for Majors (171, 172, 173); Summer field course (Geology/Biology); Molecular Ecology. Research Interests: I am deeply curious about patterns and processes that shape organismal diversity. I am interested in the evolution of morphological diversity in plants (e.g., plant architecture), historical biogeography and aspects of evolutionary ecology, such as habitat preferences, pollinator-mediated hybridization and introgression. My approaches have included developmental and comparative morphology, molecular systematics, population genetics and field pollination biology. My primary study system has been the small tribe Montieae (Portulacaceae), but additional systems have included Loasaceae and more recently Asclepias (Apocynaceae). With my research, I aim to synthesize evidence in a phylogenetic framework from diverse fields to understand plant species diversity.. Research opportunities for students are the central focus of my research agenda. I frame ...
Open Access (267) the Searching for Lost Frogs (5) Worlds Smallest Frogs (2) 1800s (3) 1910s (2) 1930s (2) 1940s (1) 1950s (2) 1960s (5) 1970s (3) 1980s (19) 1991 (6) 1992 (2) 1993 (5) 1994 (6) 1995 (12) 1996 (8) 1997 (13) 1998 (18) 1999 (30) 2000 (19) 2001 (25) 2002 (34) 2003 (38) 2004 (41) 2005 (68) 2006 (68) 2007 (78) 2008 (107) 2009 (127) 2010 (156) 2011 (196) 2012 (237) 2013 (366) 2014 (381) 2015 (417) 2016 (663) 2017 (830) 2018 (2) Abelisaur (6) Abelisauridae (6) Acanthaceae (4) Acanthuridae (1) Acanthuriformes (1) Accipitridae (4) Acoustics (36) Acta Phytotax. Geobot. (1) Actinopterygii (56) Advertisement Call (15) Aepyornithidae (1) Aetiocetidae (1) Aetosaur (1) Afghanistan (1) Africa (301) African Amphibian (33) African Bird (18) African Botany (15) African Fish (23) African Great Lakes (1) African Invertebrates (6) African Mammal (37) African Reptile (46) Afromontane (9) Afrotheria (1) Afrotropic (26) Agamidae (54) Agaricales (1) Akysidae (3) Alligatoridae (1) Allosaur (1) ...
From: Ben Creisler [email protected] A new paper not yet mentioned on the DML. (The pdf is free.) Rachel Zheng, Andrew A. Farke & Gy-Su Kim (2011) A Photographic Atlas of the Pes from a Hadrosaurine Hadrosaurid Dinosaur. PalArchs Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 8(7) (2011), 1-12. ISSN 1567-2158. http://www.palarch.nl/ Hadrosaurid dinosaurs are abundantly represented in terrestrial deposits from the Late Cretaceous, as isolated elements, associated specimens, and articulated skeletons with soft tissue. However, identifi cation of isolated elements can be diffi cult in the absence of adequate reference material. Here we present a photographic atlas of the complete pes from a hadrosaurine hadrosaurid (possibly Edmontosaurus annectens) collected in the Hell Creek Formation of Montana ...
Abdominal field blocks are commonly used as part of multimodal analgesia for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Conventionally, transversus abdominis plane block is used, but has the disadvantage of limited spread only to T10-T12 segments, providing only partial pain relief. The new quadratus lumborum (QL) block has the advantage of providing wider sensory block from T6 to L1 and thus has an evolving role in opioid-free anaesthesia. Opioid-induced cough depression, urinary retention, and drowsiness can be problematic in patients with Prune belly syndrome, who have deficient abdominal muscles and myriad of genitourinary problems ...
Background The morphology of human pollical distal phalanges (PDP) closely reflects the adaptation of human hands for refined precision grip with pad-to-pad contact. The presence of these precision grip-related traits in the PDP of fossil hominins has been related to human-like hand proportions (i.e. short hands with a long thumb) enabling the thumb and finger pads to contact. Although this has been traditionally linked to the appearance of stone tool-making, the alternative hypothesis of an earlier origin-related to the freeing of the hands thanks to the advent of terrestrial bipedalism-is also possible given the human-like intrinsic hand proportion found in australopiths. Methodology/Principal Findings We perform morphofunctional and morphometric (bivariate and multivariate) analyses of most available hominin pollical distal phalanges, including Orrorin, Australopithecus, Paranthropous and fossil Homo, in order to investigate their morphological affinities. Our results indicate that the thumb
Jason Poole, who oversees the lab and has participated in dinosaur digs around the world, says the fossils were unearthed in Wyoming in 2011 by a team from the New Jersey State Museum in Trenton. Scientists already know the fossils belong to a 25-foot-long, duck-billed, plant-eating dinosaur that lived 67 to 70 million years ago. Its of the hadrosaur family, the same family as the famous Hadrosaurus foulkii, the worlds first nearly complete dinosaur, which the Academy displayed in 1868 as the worlds first mounted dinosaur.. But scientists wont know what species of hadrosaur the mystery dinosaur is until they can fully see and examine the fossils. Even though they have found only a small portion of the dinosaur, scientists are confident they will be able to identify it, especially since they have parts of the skull, which often is not recovered.. "From neck to tail, all hadrosaurids look alike," Poole says. "But we have a good bit of the skull, which makes it a lot easier to identify the ...

Implementing a comparative anatomy information system for the foundational model of anatomy and the mouse anatomy ontologyImplementing a comparative anatomy information system for the foundational model of anatomy and the mouse anatomy ontology

... ... I was the main developer of this query engine, called the Comparative Anatomy Information System. My work involved developing ... to researchers who work on animal modeling of disease with a background other than traditional comparative anatomy. ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/undergraduate_thesis_or_projects/jh343v41c

Comparative anatomy | Britannica.comComparative anatomy | Britannica.com

Comparative anatomy, the comparative study of the body structures of different species of animals in order to understand the ... zoology: Anatomy or morphology. …great extent the rise of comparative anatomy. During the latter part of the 15th century and ... Comparative anatomy, the comparative study of the body structures of different species of animals in order to understand the ... anatomy. Comparative anatomy, the other major subdivision of the field, compares similar body structures in different species ...
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Comparative AnatomyComparative Anatomy

... , the science which treats of the structure and relations of organs in the various branches of the animal ... Comparative Anatomy. Comparative Anatomy, the science which treats of the structure and relations of organs in the various ... Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology." - History of Comparative Anatomy. Though the philosophers of Greece had some idea of ... The comparative anatomy of the brain has been sufficiently given under the title Beain. - Nervous System. The vertebrate ...
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Comparative Anatomy and HistologyComparative Anatomy and Histology

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Comparative anatomy | Define Comparative anatomy at Dictionary.comComparative anatomy | Define Comparative anatomy at Dictionary.com

Comparative anatomy definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... comparative anatomy in Medicine Expand. comparative anatomy com·par·a·tive anatomy (kəm-pārə-tĭv). n. The investigation and ... It is, so to speak, those variations of a great plan which give such a charm to the study of comparative anatomy. ... This is the basis of comparative anatomy, which is only an accurate study of facts that are superficially obvious to everyone. ...
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Vertebrates : Comparative Anatomy, | eCampus.com MarketplaceVertebrates : Comparative Anatomy, | eCampus.com Marketplace

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NMAH | Artificial Anatomy | History | Comparative AnatomyNMAH | Artificial Anatomy | History | Comparative Anatomy

Medical and natural history museums developed popular anatomical exhibits comparing the differences between human and veterinary structures. Auzouxs factory in Paris produced many different animal models, including insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and wild and domestic mammals. A popular way to exhibit the development of the human embryo was to show how a chick develops inside an egg ...
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Comparative Anatomy Study ResourcesComparative Anatomy Study Resources

Find comparative Anatomy course notes, answered questions, and comparative Anatomy tutors 24/7. ... Course Hero has thousands of comparative Anatomy study resources to help you. ... Most Recent Comparative Anatomy Documents Uploaded All Recent Comparative Anatomy Study Resources Documents * 10 Pages ... Comparative Anatomy Homework Help View All Comparative Anatomy Study Resources Homework Help * 13 Pages ...
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Free Anatomy Flashcards about Comparative anatomyFree Anatomy Flashcards about Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy. Circulatory system. Question. Answer. What is transported?. oxygen,co2,nutrients,water,hormones,nitrogen ... variable in anatomy,flexability(transplant a vein,it will act like an artery,tie off part,other parts enlarge,five fold ...
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Comparative AnatomyComparative Anatomy

... код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в блог. Ширина: (. aвто. ). ... Comparative Anatomy Integument Note Set 6 Chapter 6 Integument Figure 8.1 пЃ® Epidermis derived from ectoderm пЃ® пЃ® Gives ... Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Figure 8.9- http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/342notes2.htm ... Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. McGraw Hill, 2002. Figure 8.4- http://markmlucas.com/Amphibgallery%20frogs.htm Figure ...
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Comparative anatomy - definition of comparative anatomy by The Free DictionaryComparative anatomy - definition of comparative anatomy by The Free Dictionary

comparative anatomy synonyms, comparative anatomy pronunciation, comparative anatomy translation, English dictionary definition ... Noun 1. comparative anatomy - the study of anatomical features of animals of different species anatomy, general anatomy - the ... comparative anatomy - the study of anatomical features of animals of different species. anatomy, general anatomy - the branch ... Comparative anatomy - definition of comparative anatomy by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/comparative+ ...
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CARTA: Bipedalism and Human Origins-Comparative Anatomy from Australopithecus to Gorillas - YouTubeCARTA: Bipedalism and Human Origins-Comparative Anatomy from Australopithecus to Gorillas - YouTube

Jeremy DeSilva and Matt Tocheri that compare different aspects of hominid anatomy and their relation to bipedalism. Series: " ...
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Comparative anatomy: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia ArticleComparative anatomy: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article

Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy. Anatomy ... It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy... ... commonly regarded as the founder of modern comparative anatomy, which compares the anatomy between species.... ... Comparative anatomy has long served as evidence for evolution. Evolution. Evolution is any change across successive generations ...
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Lectures on Comparative Anatomy - Robert Edmond Grant - Google BooksLectures on Comparative Anatomy - Robert Edmond Grant - Google Books

Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. ... Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. Robert Edmond Grant. Keine Leseprobe verf gbar - 2015. ... branchial calcareous carnivorous cartilaginous cavity cephalopods cetacea cilia classes of animals colour Comparative Anatomy ...
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Lectures on Comparative Anatomy - Robert Edmond Grant - Google BooksLectures on Comparative Anatomy - Robert Edmond Grant - Google Books

Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. ... Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. Robert Edmond Grant. Keine Leseprobe verf gbar - 2015. ... branchial calcareous carnivorous cartilaginous cavity cephalopods cetacea cilia classes of animals colour Comparative Anatomy ...
more infohttps://books.google.ch/books?id=eCRtDhZE-PIC&dq=editions:OCLC11204181&hl=de

Comparative anatomy - WikipediaComparative anatomy - Wikipedia

Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. It is closely related to ... Comparative Anatomy, pre-1800s Löw, Péter et al. (2016). Atlas of Animal Anatomy and Histology. Springer, [1]. Wake, M.H. (ed ... Comparative anatomy has long served as evidence for evolution, now joined in that role by comparative genomics; it indicates ... Three major concepts of comparative anatomy are: Homologous structures - structures (body parts/anatomy) which are similar in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_anatomy

Comparative Wood Anatomy | SpringerLinkComparative Wood Anatomy | SpringerLink

Comparative Wood Anatomy lucidly introduces dicotyledon wood in terms of cell types and their variations, pertinent literature, ... Diagnostically illustrated with light and scanning electron micrographs, Comparative Wood Anatomy lucidly introduces ... Anatomie Holz Holzanatomie, ökologische Physiologie, Holz anatomy ecological ecology evolution growth physiology physiology, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-662-21714-6

Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution 7th edition (9780078023026) - Textbooks.comVertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution 7th edition (9780078023026) - Textbooks.com

Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution 7th edition (9780078023026) by Kenneth Kardong for up to 90% off at Textbooks.com. ... Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution - 7th edition. Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution - ... Other Editions of Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution ... Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. Expertly curated help for Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, ...
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Comparative Anatomy (band) - WikipediaComparative Anatomy (band) - Wikipedia

Comparative Anatomy also has a mysterious entity referred to as On the Box, a "deranged" koala that is supposedly sexless and ... Comparative Anatomy started as an experiment in 2009 between the two main members, Sir Puffers Rabbinald the Third (University ... Comparative Anatomy focuses primarily on word-play and themes relating specifically to animals, often with an odd, absurdist ... During live performances, Comparative Anatomy is known for wearing costumes, which were at first simple designs made with ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_Anatomy_(band)

Elements of the comparative anatomy of the vertebrate animals. - Biodiversity Heritage LibraryElements of the comparative anatomy of the vertebrate animals. - Biodiversity Heritage Library

The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
more infohttps://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33840005

Elements of the comparative anatomy of the vertebrate animals. - Biodiversity Heritage LibraryElements of the comparative anatomy of the vertebrate animals. - Biodiversity Heritage Library

The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
more infohttps://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33840037

Comparative functional anatomy of the Nandidae (Pisces: Teleostei)Comparative functional anatomy of the Nandidae (Pisces: Teleostei)

The BookReader requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please check that your browser supports JavaScript and that it is enabled in the browser settings. You can also try one of the other formats of the book. ...
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Comparative Anatomy of the Domestic Chicken Interactive for 6th - 12th Grade | Lesson PlanetComparative Anatomy of the Domestic Chicken Interactive for 6th - 12th Grade | Lesson Planet

This Comparative Anatomy of the Domestic Chicken Interactive is suitable for 6th - 12th Grade. Are chickens and crocodiles ... This Comparative Anatomy of the Domestic Chicken interactive also includes:. * Comparative Anatomy of the Domestic Chicken ... and comparative anatomy. Each facet of the argument is explored. This can be used in a high school... ... Read the background information so you dont have to wing it when it comes to the anatomy of a chicken. Prepare cooked chicken ...
more infohttps://www.lessonplanet.com/teachers/comparative-anatomy-of-the-domestic-chicken

Monkeying Around- Comparative Anatomy Art Workshop age 7+ Tickets, Thu 18 Jul 2019 at 12:00 | EventbriteMonkeying Around- Comparative Anatomy Art Workshop age 7+ Tickets, Thu 18 Jul 2019 at 12:00 | Eventbrite

Comparative Anatomy Art Workshop age 7+ - Thursday, 18 July 2019 at Surgeons Hall Museums, Edinburgh, Scotland. Find event and ... Monkeying Around- Comparative Anatomy Art Workshop age 7+ at Surgeons Hall Museums Nicolson Street, Edinburgh, EH8 9DW, United ... Monkeying Around- Comparative Anatomy Art Workshop age 7+. by Surgeons Hall Museums ... In this workshop you will cut and colour a pop-up comparative anatomy model of a chimpanzee and human to take home with you! ...
more infohttps://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/monkeying-around-comparative-anatomy-art-workshop-age-7-tickets-60874008799?aff=erelexpmlt
  • These scenarios reflect the need for a system like CAIS that communicates anatomical correspondences to researchers who work on animal modeling of disease with a background other than traditional comparative anatomy. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Darwin made extensive use of comparative anatomy in advancing his theory, and it in turn revolutionized the field by explaining the structural differences between species as arising out of their evolutionary descent by natural selection from a common ancestor. (britannica.com)
  • His own team's work, presented in September at the Symposium on Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy in Birmingham, UK, have found that hatchling fossils of two other pterosaur species do look flight-ready, with bones that appear robust and have high bending strength. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparative Anatomy Integument Note Set 6 Chapter 6 Integument Figure 8.1 пЃ® Epidermis derived from ectoderm пЃ® пЃ® Gives rise to glands Dermis derived from mesoderm Figure 8.2: Poisonous Dart Frog. (docme.ru)
  • Rubens likely saw a pair of stuffed hippopotami while he was traveling in Italy, and Margocsy states that the artist relied on "his knowledge of comparative anatomy to recreate the musculature of the animal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In April of the same year, after working on their image to further flesh out their goofy approach, Comparative Anatomy performed their first show in Charlottesville, Virginia at a small venue called The Outback Lodge in an effort to see how their sound was taken by local crowds. (wikipedia.org)