Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Comparative Effectiveness Research: Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. ( accessed 6/12/2009)Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Anatomy, Regional: The anatomical study of specific regions or parts of organisms, emphasizing the relationship between the various structures (e.g. muscles, nerves, skeletal, cardiovascular, etc.).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Anatomy, Veterinary: The study of the anatomical structures of animals.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Medicine in ArtSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.PrimatesSculptureHead: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.PaintingsJaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Histology, Comparative: The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Famous PersonsSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Persia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.

Evolution of the ventricles. (1/130)

We studied the evolution of ventricles by macroscopic examination of the hearts of marine cartilaginous and bony fish, and by angiocardiography and gross examination of the hearts of air-breathing freshwater fish, frogs, turtles, snakes, and crocodiles. A right-sided, thin-walled ventricular lumen is seen in the fish, frog, turtle, and snake. In fish, there is external symmetry of the ventricle, internal asymmetry, and a thick-walled left ventricle with a small inlet chamber. In animals such as frogs, turtles, and snakes, the left ventricle exists as a small-cavitied contractile sponge. The high pressure generated by this spongy left ventricle, the direction of the jet, the ventriculoarterial orientation, and the bulbar spiral valve in the frog help to separate the systemic and pulmonary circulations. In the crocodile, the right aorta is connected to the left ventricle, and there is a complete interventricular septum and an improved left ventricular lumen when compared with turtles and snakes. The heart is housed in a rigid pericardial cavity in the shark, possibly to protect it from changing underwater pressure. The pericardial cavity in various species permits movements of the heart-which vary depending on the ventriculoarterial orientation and need for the ventricle to generate torque or spin on the ejected blood- that favor run-off into the appropriate arteries and their branches. In the lower species, it is not clear whether the spongy myocardium contributes to myocardial oxygenation. In human beings, spongy myocardium constitutes a rare form of congenital heart disease.  (+info)

Chordate evolution and the origin of craniates: an old brain in a new head. (2/130)

The earliest craniates achieved a unique condition among bilaterally symmetrical animals: they possessed enlarged, elaborated brains with paired sense organs and unique derivatives of neural crest and placodal tissues, including peripheral sensory ganglia, visceral arches, and head skeleton. The craniate sister taxon, cephalochordates, has rostral portions of the neuraxis that are homologous to some of the major divisions of craniate brains. Moreover, recent data indicate that many genes involved in patterning the nervous system are common to all bilaterally symmetrical animals and have been inherited from a common ancestor. Craniates, thus, have an "old" brain in a new head, due to re-expression of these anciently acquired genes. The transition to the craniate brain from a cephalochordate-like ancestral form may have involved a mediolateral shift in expression of the genes that specify nervous system development from various parts of the ectoderm. It is suggested here that the transition was sequential. The first step involved the presence of paired, lateral eyes, elaboration of the alar plate, and enhancement of the descending visual pathway to brainstem motor centers. Subsequently, this central visual pathway served as a template for the additional sensory systems that were elaborated and/or augmented with the "bloom" of migratory neural crest and placodes. This model accounts for the marked uniformity of pattern across central sensory pathways and for the lack of any neural crest-placode cranial nerve for either the diencephalon or mesencephalon. Anat Rec (New Anat) 261:111-125, 2000.  (+info)

Evolution of the basal ganglia: new perspectives through a comparative approach. (3/130)

The basal ganglia (BG) have received much attention during the last 3 decades mainly because of their clinical relevance. Our understanding of their structure, organisation and function in terms of chemoarchitecture, compartmentalisation, connections and receptor localisation has increased equally. Most of the research has been focused on the mammalian BG, but a considerable number of studies have been carried out in nonmammalian vertebrates, in particular reptiles and birds. The BG of the latter 2 classes of vertebrates, which together with mammals constitute the amniotic vertebrates, have been thoroughly studied by means of tract-tracing and immunohistochemical techniques. The terminology used for amniotic BG structures has frequently been adopted to indicate putative corresponding structures in the brain of anamniotes, i.e. amphibians and fishes, but data for such a comparison were, until recently, almost totally lacking. It has been proposed several times that the occurrence of well developed BG structures probably constitutes a landmark in the anamniote-amniote transition. However, our recent studies of connections, chemoarchitecture and development of the basal forebrain of amphibians have revealed that tetrapod vertebrates share a common pattern of BG organisation. This pattern includes the existence of dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems, reciprocal connections between the striatopallidal complex and the diencephalic and mesencephalic basal plate (striatonigral and nigrostriatal projections), and descending pathways from the striatopallidal system to the midbrain tectum and reticular formation. The connectional similarities are paralleled by similarities in the distribution of chemical markers of striatal and pallidal structures such as dopamine, substance P and enkephalin, as well as by similarities in development and expression of homeobox genes. On the other hand, a major evolutionary trend is the progressive involvement of the cortex in the processing of the thalamic sensory information relayed to the BG of tetrapods. By using the comparative approach, new insights have been gained with respect to certain features of the BG of vertebrates in general, such as the segmental organisation of the midbrain dopaminergic cell groups, the occurrence of large numbers of dopaminergic cell bodies within the telencephalon itself and the variability in, among others, connectivity and chemoarchitecture. However, the intriguing question whether the basal forebrain organisation of nontetrapods differs essentially from that observed in tetrapods still needs to be answered.  (+info)

Evolutionary anticipation of the human heart. (4/130)

We have studied the comparative anatomy of hearts from fish, frog, turtle, snake, crocodile, birds (duck, chicken, quail), mammals (elephant, dolphin, sheep, goat, ox, baboon, wallaby, mouse, rabbit, possum, echidna) and man. The findings were analysed with respect to the mechanism of evolution of the heart.  (+info)

Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. (5/130)

This paper reports the results of a literature search for information about the soft-tissue anatomy of the extant non-human hominoid genera, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates, together with the results of a phylogenetic analysis of these data plus comparable data for Homo. Information on the four extant non-human hominoid genera was located for 240 out of the 1783 soft-tissue structures listed in the Nomina Anatomica. Numerically these data are biased so that information about some systems (e.g. muscles) and some regions (e.g. the forelimb) are over-represented, whereas other systems and regions (e.g. the veins and the lymphatics of the vascular system, the head region) are either under-represented or not represented at all. Screening to ensure that the data were suitable for use in a phylogenetic analysis reduced the number of eligible soft-tissue structures to 171. These data, together with comparable data for modern humans, were converted into discontinuous character states suitable for phylogenetic analysis and then used to construct a taxon-by-character matrix. This matrix was used in two tests of the hypothesis that soft-tissue characters can be relied upon to reconstruct hominoid phylogenetic relationships. In the first, parsimony analysis was used to identify cladograms requiring the smallest number of character state changes. In the second, the phylogenetic bootstrap was used to determine the confidence intervals of the most parsimonious clades. The parsimony analysis yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram that matched the molecular cladogram. Similarly the bootstrap analysis yielded clades that were compatible with the molecular cladogram; a (Homo, Pan) clade was supported by 95% of the replicates, and a (Gorilla, Pan, Homo) clade by 96%. These are the first hominoid morphological data to provide statistically significant support for the clades favoured by the molecular evidence.  (+info)

Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue. (6/130)

Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species.  (+info)

Comparative morphology of Astraea latispina (Philippi, 1844) and Astraea olfersii (Philippi, 1846) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Turbinidae). (7/130)

The present study examines comparatively the soft parts of turbinids Astraea latispina and Astraea olfersii. The characters of soft parts of these species, in agreement with Trochoidea organization, allow a differential diagnosis on the cefalic lappets, appendix of eye-stalk, hypobranchial glands, jaws, radulae, and stomach spiral caecum, which information will be helpful in taxonomic studies.  (+info)


Frontal organs and epiphyses of the pineal system from the adult frog, Rana pipiens, were fixed in s-collidine-buffered osmium tetroxide, embedded in Epon 812, and examined by electron microscopy. Epiphyseal material was also fixed in a variety of ways and subjected to a series of cytochemical tests for light microscopy. An ultrastructure resembling that of lateral eye retina is confirmed in this species. Photoreceptor cells of the epiphysis and frontal organ display many cytological features similar to those of retinal rods and cones in the arrangement of their outer and inner segments and synaptic components. However, in these pineal organs the outer segments are disoriented relative to each other and may display a disarranged internal organization unlike normal retinal photoreceptors. Furthermore, other pineal outer segments often appear degenerate. Since immature stages in the development of new outer segments also appear to be present, adult pineal photoreceptors are probably engaged in a constant renewal of outer segment membranes. The evidence further suggests that macrophages are involved in phagocytosis of degenerated outer segments. Postulated photoreceptor activities and the possibility of secondary pineal functions, such as secretion, are discussed in view of current morphological and cytochemical findings.  (+info)

  • This volume of the series Handbook of Zoology deals with the anatomy of the gastrointestinal digestive tract - stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon - in all eutherian orders and suborders. (
  • The human gluteus maximus is a distinctive muscle in terms of size, anatomy and function compared to apes and other non-human primates. (
  • Diagnostically illustrated with light and scanning electron micrographs, Comparative Wood Anatomy lucidly introduces dicotyledon wood in terms of cell types and their variations, pertinent literature, taxonomic distribution of features, terminology, and methods for preparation. (
  • Modern comparative anatomy dates from the work of Pierre Belon , who in 1555 showed that the skeletons of humans and birds are constructed of similar elements arranged in the same way. (
  • A common example of comparative anatomy is the similar bone structures in forelimbs of cats, whales, bats, and humans. (
  • Following, NYU's Chris Muller will give a reprise of his "Comparative Anatomy: Animals and the Fundamentals of Drawing" class (second image) in which, with the use of several skeletons and other resources, students will learn to recognize and depict the basic shared forms between humans and other animals. (
  • see anatomy anatomy , branch of biology concerned with the study of body structure of various organisms, including humans. (
  • To test hypotheses about GM function during locomotion in humans, it is useful to begin with a comparison of the muscle's anatomy and function in humans versus our closest relatives, the great apes. (
  • In order to simplify the subject, and to make this article especially referable to human anatomy, the whole division of the invertebrata will be left out, for consideration under its separate branches and classes. (
  • Up until that point, Galen and his teachings had been the authority on human anatomy. (
  • It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy. (
  • In this workshop you will cut and colour a pop-up comparative anatomy model of a chimpanzee and human to take home with you! (
  • Comparative developmental studies have revealed distinct features in the early compartments of the developing macaque brain, drawing our attention to the limitations of some of the current model systems for understanding human developmental abnormalities of the cortex. (
  • But I don't think such kind of books really improve the understanding of the Anatomy of the human body in any way in students. (
  • Ideally, students should use this book in combination with Atlas of Human Anatomy by Frank H. Netter for best understanding of the topic. (
  • It included some anatomical images and explanations which I had never seen in any other anatomy atlas and giving views of the human body from so many angles is amazing. (
  • To highlight the relevance of comparative anatomy analysis to differentiate human and non-human remains. (
  • Generally, teeth and bones are the non-human materials most referred to the laboratories of the Forensic Anthropology and the use of comparative anatomy techniques can be extremely useful for the inclusion or exclusion of a material of human specimen. (
  • In this context, the present study aimed to report a forensic case in which it is demonstrated the importance of the application of techniques of comparative anatomy for the differentiation between human and non-human remains, when a biological material of bone and dental nature is found in a presumed crime scene of concealment of corpse. (
  • Comparative studies and genetic analyses both demonstrate the differential origin and migratory pattern of the two basic neuron types of the cerebral cortex. (
  • Further advances in comparative anatomy were achieved by the French biologists P. Latreille, M. Savigny, and H. Milne-Edwards, by the Germans J. Müller, J. Meckel, and C. Carus, by the Russian scientist K. M. Ber (who discovered the law of embryonic similarity), and by the English scientist R. Owen (who systematized some general concepts and standardized the terminology for vertebrate bones). (
  • In a class taking place in another room at the same time, students will have the opportunity to dissect and draw Didelphis virginiana -the North American opossum, a "living fossil" whose anatomy has remained virtually unchanged over the past 70 million years--in a dissection and drawing workshop led by physical anthropologist Samuel Strong Dunlap, PhD (third image). (
  • Reconstructing pectoral appendicular muscle anatomy in fossil fish and tetrapods over the fins-to-limbs transition. (
  • This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. (
  • The foundation of comparative anatomy was laid in the fourth century B.C . by Aristotle, who attributed the development of organs to a striving to reach the final goal of the performance of specific functions (teleological explanation). (
  • Comparative aspects of cerebral cortical development. (
  • CARTA brings you foremost experts to explore the many facets of these questions in this fascinating series - starting with presentations from Steven Churchill, Jeremy DeSilva and Matt Tocheri that compare different aspects of hominid anatomy and their relation to bipedalism. (