Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.

Anatomical classification of accessory foramina in human mandibles of adults, infants, and fetuses. (1/16)

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Incidence of C-shaped root canal systems in mandibular second molars in the native Chinese population by analysis of clinical methods. (2/16)

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Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients. (3/16)

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Testicular and color variation in the kissing bug, Rhodnius brethesi, in Amazonas, Brazil. (4/16)

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A technical approach to dissecting and assessing cadaveric veins pertinent to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis. (5/16)

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Associations between kidney position and surplus renal arteries in horseshoe kidney: case report and analysis. (6/16)

We report the anatomical findings of a case of horseshoe kidney, and analyze the associations between kidney position and surplus renal arteries in horseshoe kidneys found in Japanese autopsies in the past. The horseshoe kidney of our case fused at the lower poles of the original kidneys. Its right and left upper poles were at the middle region of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, respectively. The kidney was supplied by eight arteries. Our analysis of the correlation between the ascent of a horseshoe kidney and the number of surplus arteries found no significant association. However, there was a significant association between the region of the kidney where the surplus arteries entered and the location where they diverged from the aorta. Therefore, the ascent of a horseshoe kidney is not necessarily arrested because of the existence of many surplus arteries. After a horseshoe kidney partially ascends, the arteries which might become normal renal arteries are generated. In our case, we observed large splenomegaly, and noted that the left upper pole was the lowest compared with the horseshoe kidneys in the past autopsy reports. We suggest it is necessary to consider additional influences that determine the position of a horseshoe kidney.  (+info)

Oropharyngeal styloids: an unusual presentation. (7/16)

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Variation in buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molars. (8/16)

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An anatomic variation refers to a deviation from the typical or normal anatomical structure, position, or configuration of organs, tissues, or bodily parts. These variations can occur in any part of the body and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life).

Anatomic variations are relatively common and usually do not cause any symptoms or problems. However, in some cases, they may affect the function of adjacent structures, predispose to injury or disease, or complicate medical procedures or surgeries. Therefore, it is essential for healthcare professionals to be aware of these variations during diagnoses, treatment planning, and surgical interventions.

Examples of anatomic variations include:

* Variations in the course or number of blood vessels, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or an accessory renal artery.
* Variations in the position or shape of organs, such as a mobile cecum or a horseshoe kidney.
* Variations in the number or configuration of bones, such as an extra rib or a bifid uvula.
* Variations in the innervation or sensory distribution of nerves, such as a variant course of the brachial plexus or a cross-innervated hand.

Anatomic variations can be detected through various imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound examinations. Sometimes, they are discovered during surgical procedures or autopsies. Understanding anatomic variations is crucial for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and optimal patient outcomes.

Paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities in the skull that surround the nasal cavity. There are four pairs of paranasal sinuses, including the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. These sinuses help to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe. They also contribute to our voice resonance and provide a slight cushioning effect for the skull. The openings of the paranasal sinuses lead directly into the nasal cavity, allowing mucus produced in the sinuses to drain into the nose. Infections or inflammation of the paranasal sinuses can result in conditions such as sinusitis.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Antigenic variation is a mechanism used by some microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, to evade the immune system and establish persistent infections. This occurs when these pathogens change or modify their surface antigens, which are molecules that can be recognized by the host's immune system and trigger an immune response.

The changes in the surface antigens can occur due to various mechanisms, such as gene mutation, gene rearrangement, or gene transfer. These changes can result in the production of new variants of the microorganism that are different enough from the original strain to avoid recognition by the host's immune system.

Antigenic variation is a significant challenge in developing effective vaccines against certain infectious diseases, such as malaria and influenza, because the constantly changing surface antigens make it difficult for the immune system to mount an effective response. Therefore, researchers are working on developing vaccines that target conserved regions of the microorganism that do not undergo antigenic variation or using a combination of antigens to increase the likelihood of recognition by the immune system.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

DNA Copy Number Variations (CNVs) refer to deletions or duplications of sections of the DNA molecule that are larger than 1 kilobase (kb). These variations result in gains or losses of genetic material, leading to changes in the number of copies of a particular gene or genes. CNVs can affect the expression level of genes and have been associated with various genetic disorders, complex diseases, and phenotypic differences among individuals. They are typically detected through techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, or next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Anatomic landmarks are specific, identifiable structures or features on the body that are used as references in medicine and surgery. These landmarks can include bones, muscles, joints, or other visible or palpable features that help healthcare professionals identify specific locations, orient themselves during procedures, or measure changes in the body.

Examples of anatomic landmarks include:

* The anterior iliac spine, a bony prominence on the front of the pelvis that can be used to locate the hip joint.
* The cubital fossa, a depression at the elbow where the median nerve and brachial artery can be palpated.
* The navel (umbilicus), which serves as a reference point for measuring distances in the abdomen.
* The xiphoid process, a small piece of cartilage at the bottom of the breastbone that can be used to locate the heart and other structures in the chest.

Anatomic landmarks are important for accurate diagnosis, treatment planning, and surgical procedures, as they provide reliable and consistent reference points that can help ensure safe and effective care.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

In medical terms, dissection refers to the separation of the layers of a biological tissue or structure by cutting or splitting. It is often used to describe the process of surgically cutting through tissues, such as during an operation to separate organs or examine their internal structures.

However, "dissection" can also refer to a pathological condition in which there is a separation of the layers of a blood vessel wall by blood, creating a false lumen or aneurysm. This type of dissection is most commonly seen in the aorta and can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

In summary, "dissection" has both surgical and pathological meanings related to the separation of tissue layers, and it's essential to consider the context in which the term is used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Population Genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with the genetic composition of populations and how this composition changes over time. It involves the study of the frequency and distribution of genes and genetic variations in populations, as well as the evolutionary forces that contribute to these patterns, such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Population genetics can provide insights into a wide range of topics, including the history and relationships between populations, the genetic basis of diseases and other traits, and the potential impacts of environmental changes on genetic diversity. This field is important for understanding evolutionary processes at the population level and has applications in areas such as conservation biology, medical genetics, and forensic science.

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... presented anatomic variations to have a wide range and significance, and before the use of X-ray technology, anatomic ... "Anatomic variants". Cunningham, DJ (October 1898). "The Significance of Anatomical Variations". Journal of Anatomy and ... The rate of variation considerably differs between single organs, particularly in muscles. Knowledge of anatomical variations ... The use of imaging techniques have defined many such variations. Some variations are found in different species such as ...
An internal pelvic exam may also reveal physical reasons for pain including lesions on the cervix or anatomic variation. When ... Anatomic variations. Hymenal remnants, vaginal septa, thickened undilatable hymen, hypoplasia of the introitus, retroverted ... Anatomic deformities of the penis, such as exist in Peyronie's disease, may also result in pain during coitus. One cause of ... "Anatomic Sites and Associated Clinical Factors for Deep Dyspareunia". Sexual Medicine. 5 (3): e184-e195. doi:10.1016/j.esxm. ...
It shows great interindividual anatomic variations. Dorfer, Christian; Khalaveh, Farjad; Mallouhi, Ammar; Millesi, Matthias; ... Czech, Thomas (20 July 2017). Oyesiku, Nelson M. (ed.). "The Superior Thalamic Vein and its Variations: A Proposed ...
"Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus V: Skeletal Systems: Cranium - Sphenoid Bone". Illustrated ... Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. Retrieved 2006-04-09. Lang J, Maier R, Schafhauser O (1984). "Postnatal enlargement ... Gupta N, Ray B, Ghosh S (2005). "Anatomic characteristics of foramen vesalius". Kathmandu University Medical Journal. 3 (10): ... reassessment of normal variation with high-resolution CT". American Journal of Neuroradiology. 15 (2): 283-91. PMC 8334600. ...
ISBN 978-1-4963-4721-3. "Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus V: Skeletal Systems: Cranium - Sphenoid ... Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. Retrieved 2006-04-10. Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Isolan, Gustavo Rassier; Al- ...
Liapis K, Tasis N, Tsouknidas I, Tsakotos G, Skandalakis P, Vlasis K, Filippou D (March 2020). "Anatomic variations of the ... This literature has been reviewed recently with observations of variation in pelvic vascularization and the close relationship ...
"Anatomic variations of foramen ovale" (PDF). Kathmandu University Medical Journal. 3 (9): 64-68. Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne ... This may suggest, based on radiological images, the presence of morbid changes, which might be the sole anatomical variation in ...
Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. Wiley. pp. 2892-. ISBN 978-1-118-43068-2. v t e (Articles ...
Tubbs, R. Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M.; Loukas, Marios (2016). Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation ...
Park, Min Jung; Namdari, Surena; Yao, Jeffrey (2010-02-01). "Anatomic variations of the palmaris longus muscle". American ... "Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles ... It can be considered a variation of the palmaris longus, however, it may exist in addition to the palmaris longus. If both of ... Palmaris longus muscle List of anatomical variations Anterior compartment of forearm Sahinoglu, K.; Cassell, M. D.; Miyauchi, R ...
Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. Wiley. p. 1456. doi:10.1002/9781118430309. ISBN 978-1-118- ... Regarding the arterial supply M. de Assis et al has suggested an anatomic classification for the origin of the inferior vesical ... "Variation in Origin of the Parietal Branches of internal iliac artery based on a study of 169 Specimens (108 males and 61 ...
Tubbs, Shane (May 2016). Bergmans's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1113. ISBN ... Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data". Annals of Anatomy. 238: 151742. doi:10.1016/j.aanat.2021.151742. PMID ... Eight variations of sural nerve origin have been described with categorical subtyping. The nerves contributing to the formation ... Ikiz, Z Asli Aktan; Uçerler, Hülya; Bilge, Okan (July 2005). "The Anatomic Features of the Sural Nerve With an Emphasis on its ...
Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 450. ISBN 9781118430279. Tauber, M; van ...
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II. Retrieved 29 July 2013. Schuenke M, Schulte, Schumacher U, Ross ... Skandalakis JE (2004). Surgical Anatomy: The Embryologic And Anatomic Basis Of Modern Surgery. Portal: Anatomy (Articles with ...
"Anatomic Variations of Great Vessel Arteriosclerotic Vascular Disease." Exhibit at Oklahoma State Medical Association. ...
2016-07-05). Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation (1 ed.). Wiley. doi:10.1002/9781118430309. ISBN ...
Choi TW, Chung JW, Kim HC, Lee M, Choi JW, Jae HJ, Hur S (August 2021). "Anatomic Variations of the Hepatic Artery in 5625 ...
"Fourteen Variations of Circle of Willis and Related Vessels". Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: ... Considerable anatomic variation exists in the circle of Willis, with classic anatomy seen only in about one-third of people. In ... Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax. Beyhan ... In another variation the anterior communicating artery is a large vessel, such that a single internal carotid supplies both ...
There are eight documented anatomic variations of the sural nerve complex. In 1987, an orthopedic surgeon named Dr. Ortiguela ... Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data". Annals of Anatomy. 238: 151742. doi:10.1016/j.aanat.2021.151742. PMID ... These two variations (type 7 and 8 according to Steele et al.) demonstrate a parallel course for the medial sural cutaneous ... Recent cadaveric research shows that there are potentially six to eight variations of the sural nerve complex. Ramakrishnan et ...
Silverman PM, Cooper C, Zeman RK (1992). "Lateral arcuate ligaments of the diaphragm: anatomic variations at abdominal CT". ...
Maldonado PA, Chin K, Garcia AA, Corton MM (November 2015). "Anatomic variations of pudendal nerve within pelvis and pudendal ... Anatomic abnormalities can result in PNE due to the pudendal nerve being fused to different parts of the anatomy, or trapped ... bicycling and anatomic abnormalities. Vaginal birth may lead to pudendal nerve damage from the stretch during delivery and the ... an approach anatomic-surgical, diagnostic and therapeutic]". Actas Urologicas Espanolas. 34 (6): 500-9. doi:10.1016/s2173-5786( ...
Considerable anatomic variation exists, in terms of length and point of attachment. Despite the classical description, the ... anatomic and radiographic correlation". Abdominal Imaging. 33 (4): 395-397. doi:10.1007/s00261-007-9284-3. PMID 17653583. S2CID ...
It shows some variation in course. Bloodvessels of the eyelids, front view. Erdogmus, Senem; Govsa, Figen (November 2005). " ... "Importance of the Anatomic Features of the Lacrimal Artery for Orbital Approaches". Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 16 (6): ...
2021). "Anatomy of the sural nerve complex: Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data". Annals of Anatomy. 238 ( ... Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data". Annals of Anatomy. 238: 151742. doi:10.1016/j.aanat.2021.151742. PMID ... study identifying eight variations of the sural nerve formation. Types 1 and 7 sural nerve complex formations possess a sural ... "Anatomical variations of the formation and course of the sural nerve: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Annals of Anatomy ...
Anatomic variations and clinical applications". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 197 (6): 658.e1-658.e5. doi: ...
Steele, Robert (November 2021). "Anatomy of the sural nerve complex: Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data". ...
2021). "Anatomy of the sural nerve complex: Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data". Annals of Anatomy. 238 ( ... Two new variations (as of 2021) of the sural nerve complex were observed where the MSCN is observed to travel to the lateral ... "Anatomical variations of the formation and course of the sural nerve: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Annals of Anatomy ...
There is anatomic and physiological evidence for a polyvagal control of the heart. Variation in the beat-to-beat interval is a ... The RR interval variations present during resting conditions represent beat-by-beat variations in cardiac autonomic inputs. ... Variation in the output of these two branches of the autonomic system produces HRV and activity in the prefrontal cortex can ... This heart rate variation is associated with Mayer waves (Traube-Hering-Mayer waves) of blood pressure and is usually at a ...
2021). "Anatomy of the sural nerve complex: Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data". Annals of Anatomy. 238 ( ... "Anatomy of the sural nerve complex: Unaccounted anatomic variations and morphometric data" DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat. ...
Anatomic variations, IVC. Anatomic variations involving the IVC are fairly common in the general population, reflecting ... Imaging and cavography have been used to visualize the IVC for its size, its configuration, and any anatomic variation. Imaging ... Which anatomic variations may alter the placement of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter? ... Allowing for respiratory variation, Greenfield et al readjusted the rate of migration of more than 3 mm to 8%. [4] Filter tilt ...
Anatomic variations, IVC. Anatomic variations involving the IVC are fairly common in the general population, reflecting ... Imaging and cavography have been used to visualize the IVC for its size, its configuration, and any anatomic variation. Imaging ... Which anatomic variations may alter the placement of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter? ... Allowing for respiratory variation, Greenfield et al readjusted the rate of migration of more than 3 mm to 8%. [4] Filter tilt ...
Anatomic variations - unusual location of ovarian tissue, for example Intraoperative bleeding Poor surgical technique - this ... anatomic variations; bleeding during surgery; or poor surgical technique. Treatment is indicated for people with symptoms and ...
Meckels cave anatomic variation. Navarrete Álvaro ML, Puiggròs A, Coscojuela P. Navarrete Álvaro ML, et al. Among authors: ...
... to day anatomic anatomic variations on dose in target and organs at risk. / Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Zinkstok, Roel; Wunderink ... to day anatomic anatomic variations on dose in target and organs at risk. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology ... to day anatomic anatomic variations on dose in target and organs at risk. In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology ... to day anatomic anatomic variations on dose in target and organs at risk, International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology ...
There are five major anatomic variants of EA.. Type Prevalence Variation. A 13% Atresia without a fistula. B 1% Proximal ... Further elucidation of the tracheal and esophageal anatomic defects is typically deferred until the time of surgical repair.. ...
Tubbs, R. S., Shoja, M. M. and Loukas, M. (2016) Bergmans Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. Wiley. ...
Anatomic variations of the obturator nerve in the inguinal region: implications in conventional and ultrasound regional ... The inconsistencies of anatomic course and innervation patterns may account for the lack of consensus technique for ON blocks ... Anatomic study of innervation of the anterior hip capsule: implication for image-guided intervention. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018 ... Broader use of ON block is limited by lack of consensus regarding approach, variability of the nerves anatomic course, concern ...
When reviewing anatomic locations of lesions, we noted that nonindigenous people more frequently have lobomycosis lesions on ... A possible reason is a variation in behavior. Nonindigenous groups tend to carry heavy burdens on their shoulders, but the ... We classified cases as multicentric, skin lesions in ,1 anatomic area (Figure 2); or localized, lesions restricted to 1 ... We could not perform statistical analysis of these data because of variations in follow-up times. ...
Anatomic Variation Vascular System Injuries Median Artery Angiography Ulnar Artery Radial Artery Anastomosis, Surgical ... Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the arterial supply of the hand, including variability of the superficial palmar arch ...
Anatomic variations such as acetabular dysplasia with associated instability, and femoroacetabular impingement with abnormal ... Anatomic variations such as acetabular dysplasia with associated instability, and femoroacetabular impingement with abnormal ... Anatomic variations such as acetabular dysplasia with associated instability, and femoroacetabular impingement with abnormal ... and femoral and acetabular osteoplasties enable correction of anatomic variations that cause mechanical damage to the hip joint ...
Variations of structure and appearance of the oral mucosa. Dent Clin North Am. 2005 Jan. 49 (1):1-14, vii. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... Each anatomic structure should be visually inspected and palpated; possible lesions should be evaluated with respect to size, ... The oral mucosa has traditionally been described as salmon-pink in color; however, great variation exists depending on race, ... Because of the vascularity of this particular anatomic site, perform scalpel incisions in an anterior-posterior direction to ...
27]. This has been shown to result in anatomic variations of the preoperatively planned needle targets [28], [29]. Hence, it is ... subject to anatomical variations of the Nostate position and postoperative edema of the prostate gland. With the described ... variability in the results and thereby lead to non-negligible variations in the estimated force F. The latter can be solved by ... insertion forces can be reduced up to 48%. No considerable variation in the insertion force is observed for frequencies beyond ...
... although these anatomic variations are uncommon. Methodologies for diagnosis and anatomic and functional sizing of a PFO ... This study was designed to ascertain the contents of some heavy metals and then their variations if any in drinking water in ...
Proper knowledge of venous anatomic variations may minimize misdiagnoses of vascular lesions and, more important, may help ... Variations may occur as a result of incomplete involution of those venous structures, lateral and medial. ... Another practical area to benefit from sound anatomic understanding of cerebral venous anatomy is the field of neuromodulation ... Comparative anatomy among species reveals that major evolutionary variations exist in the cranial venous anatomy, especially in ...
... or gross anatomic level compared to primary cancer - as well as the high degree of variation across patients in their disease ... Metastatic cancer presents a core challenge for modern oncology due to the high degree of variation that it can display on a ...
4. Villavicencio AT, Gray L, Kureshi SA, Friedman AH: Three Dimensional CT Angiography for Evaluation Anatomic Variations of ... 5. Villavicencio AT, Gray L, Kureshi SA, Friedman AH: Three Dimensional CT Angiography for Evaluation Anatomic Variations of ...
Bone anatomic variations of the parasellar region and its technical implications in para clinoid and posterior communicating ...
The lack of standardized examination protocols12 and the difficulties in the evaluation of any anatomic variation in venous ... as well as the representation of the anatomic variations of the whole venous tree of the lower limbs. Malgor and Labropoulos12 ... An expert physician in venous mapping performed all of the examinations in order to reduce possible variation in technique. In ... in daily clinical practice by translating the ancient written data report on a 3D map able to better clarify the anatomic and ...
3]. The ratio of benign to malignant mesenchymal tumors at this anatomic location is approximately 1.9:1 [4]. Of the sarcomas, ... Morphologic variations that have been reported include epithelioid areas in at least 2 cases [34,36], and pigmentation in one ... MPNST at all anatomic locations may display minimal to no immunoreactivity for S100. Meaningful follow-up information is only ... another morphologic variation. The latter - osteoclast-like giant cells - are now well-recognized to occasionally occur in both ...
... neurologists are finding that the anatomic and physiological differences underlying ADHD appear to be mere variations in the ...
Palavras-chave : Anatomy.; Dental pulp cavity.; Molars.; Anatomic variation.. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · pdf ... Introduction: The anatomic variations and the complex anatomy of the upper first molar are a constant challenge for the ...
N2 - Purpose Seminal vesicle stones are a rare entity, different associations with anatomic variations like obstruction in ... AB - Purpose Seminal vesicle stones are a rare entity, different associations with anatomic variations like obstruction in ... Purpose Seminal vesicle stones are a rare entity, different associations with anatomic variations like obstruction in ... abstract = "Purpose Seminal vesicle stones are a rare entity, different associations with anatomic variations like obstruction ...
Bergmans Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. Wiley 2016 (ISBN : 978-1-1184-30354) ...
  • Several anatomic variants of sphenoid sinuses have been described in the literature. (scirp.org)
  • There are five major anatomic variants of EA. (sages.org)
  • Variations may occur as a result of incomplete involution of those venous structures, lateral and medial. (ajnr.org)
  • Proper knowledge of venous anatomic variations may minimize misdiagnoses of vascular lesions and, more important, may help prevent surgical complications of hemorrhage, thrombosis, or venous infarction. (ajnr.org)
  • Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the arterial supply of the hand, including variability of the superficial palmar arch, is crucial for the safety and success of hand surgeries. (univalle.edu.co)
  • Anatomic variations - unusual location of ovarian tissue, for example Intraoperative bleeding Poor surgical technique - this may include failure to obtain adequate exposure or restore adequate anatomy, or imprecise choice of incision site Ovarian remnant (ORS) may first be considered in women who have undergone oophorectomy and have suggestive symptoms, the presence of a mass, or evidence of persistent ovarian function (by symptoms or laboratory testing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative anatomy among species reveals that major evolutionary variations exist in the cranial venous anatomy, especially in primates. (ajnr.org)
  • Introduction: The anatomic variations and the complex anatomy of the upper first molar are a constant challenge for the diagnosis and success of endodontic therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Prevalence of low back pain by anatomic location and intensity in an occupational population. (cdc.gov)
  • Low Back Pain (LBP) is a common and costly problem, with variation in prevalence. (cdc.gov)
  • Metastatic cancer presents a core challenge for modern oncology due to the high degree of variation that it can display on a genetic, molecular, or gross anatomic level compared to primary cancer - as well as the high degree of variation across patients in their disease presentation, progression, and outcome. (amazon.com)
  • 4. Evaluate the potential of using parameters of genetic variation as biomarkers for response to treatment. (lu.se)
  • Further elucidation of the tracheal and esophageal anatomic defects is typically deferred until the time of surgical repair. (sages.org)
  • The sternum is a significant bony structure that is of surgical significance due to its anatomical position and variations. (samarpanphysioclinic.com)
  • 3]. The ratio of benign to malignant mesenchymal tumors at this anatomic location is approximately 1.9:1 [4]. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
  • This study documents variations in the origin of the cystic artery and its location in relation to the biliary ducts among 106 Sudanese people and compared the variations between the sexes and races. (who.int)
  • Purpose: This study aimed to determine a normative range of intraocular pressure (IOP) values measured with Icare rebound tonometer in premature infants and evaluate IOP variation over time and its correlation with the progression of postconceptional age (PCA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Laboratories will be required to report probable or confirmed cases of DRSP to their state health departments in a line-listed manner to include the patient's date of birth or age, the anatomic site of specimen collection, the date of specimen collection, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and unique identifiers for the laboratory and the specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • data would include the total number of invasive site isolates tested by age group (less than 6 years of age, 6-17 years, and greater than or equal to 18 years of age) and anatomic collection site (i.e. (cdc.gov)
  • Unusual clinical symptoms and/or unusual physical examination in patients with motor disorders, could be explained by anatomic variations of the musculocutaneous nerve.A total of 106 arms were evaluated, corresponding to 53 fresh male cadavers who were undergoing necropsy. (intjmorphol.com)
  • These variations might, in part, cancers were defined as invasive cancers at anatomic sites with result from geographic disparities in the use of health services, cell types in which HPV DNA frequently is found, including such as cancer screening or vaccination ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Variations upper surface of the neck of the gall bladder, in the origin and position of the cystic artery where it divides into superficial and deep from the nearby vessels were noted and the branches [ 6,7 ]. (who.int)
  • There can be variations between individuals regarding the origin sites for the interspinales thoracis muscles (Tubbs, Shoja and Loukas, 2016). (elsevier.com)
  • Anatomic Variations in Relation to the Origin of the Musculocutaneous Nerve: Absence and Non-Perforation of the Coracobrachialis Muscle. (intjmorphol.com)
  • The most frequent anatomic variations of the musculocutaneous nerve could be divided in two main groups: communicating branches with the median nerve and variations in relation to the origin, which in turn can be subdivided into absence of the nerve and non-perforation of the coracobrachialis muscle. (intjmorphol.com)
  • Statistically significant variations in the origin and position of the cystic artery were found comparing these data with previous studies in Caucasians and Asians. (who.int)
  • Variations in the origin and from the gastroduodenal artery. (who.int)
  • There was no statistically sig- and to compare the variations between the nificant difference in the origin of the cystic sexes and different races. (who.int)
  • This study was designed to ascertain the contents of some heavy metals and then their variations if any in drinking water in different localities of district East of Karachi, Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Variations may suggest different etiological factors related to LBP. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis were intended to provide compressive and up to date evidence on the association between the variations of COW and ischemic stroke using the available studies. (springer.com)
  • There are 18 types of congenital heart defects recognized and ​many additional anatomic variations. (healthychildren.org)
  • In some cases, various congenital or acquired variations in the branching of the PRA occur. (jwmr.org)
  • While the specific cause of the mutation leading to the congenital variations is unknown, it is no longer rare. (jwmr.org)
  • The group set out to develop a three-dimensional (3D) model of the ovary based on its visible structures, describe the organ's microscopic anatomic features, and expand and refine the classification of follicles-the small sacs in the ovaries in which eggs grow and mature. (nih.gov)
  • Our focus is to provide the lay public images of the human anatomy, specifically high resolution color cryosections from NLM's Visible Human Project,3,4 and 3D images of anatomic structures created from these cryosections. (nih.gov)
  • Explore options to segment and label the high resolution VH cross-section images beyond the thorax, the only region currently segmented and labeled, to enable the creation of images of 3D structures from all anatomic regions of the Visible Male and Female datasets. (nih.gov)
  • Pelvic anatomical variations encountered during abdominal hysterectomy can be of clinical interest, given that misidentification of certain structures can lead to iatrogenic injuries and postoperative sequelae. (viamedica.pl)
  • The aim of the present study was to detect and highlight the anatomical structures of interest and their variations to the surgeon performing abdominal hysterectomy for benign conditions. (viamedica.pl)
  • Ureters and the uterine arteries, due to anatomical variations, are the anatomical structures most vulnerable during abdominal hysterectomy. (viamedica.pl)
  • AIRLOCK® Forefoot/Midfoot system is a comprehensive plating system that includes procedure-specific, anatomic plates with monoaxial and polyaxial screw options for osteotomies, fusions and fractures of the foot. (djoglobal.com)
  • Variations in the distribution of RGC+ thickness that are not reflected in our measures warrant further investigation as potential sources of artifacts. (arvojournals.org)
  • This decreased perfusion bient temperature, anatomic variation, and expertise results in diminution or absence of peripheral pulses in palpating peripheral pulses may contribute to vari- and may lead to intermittent claudication (pain on ation in the clinical examination. (nih.gov)
  • Palpation of peripheral pulses has been used as a Because of anatomic variation, absence of the dorsalis clinical tool to assess occlusive LEAD in diabetic and pedis pulse alone may not indicate LEAD. (nih.gov)
  • Although rare, the presence of anatomical variations of the uterine arteries and ureters can increase the possibility of complications should they escape detection. (viamedica.pl)
  • The attention to anatomic detail is further enhanced by deliberate regions of flexibility to accommodate individual anatomic variation without compromising strength. (djoglobal.com)
  • A group of experts led by the National Institutes of Health has proposed a new anatomic model of the ovary and recommended standardized nomenclature to describe its major features. (nih.gov)
  • Research in these areas inform our overall goal which is to explore and implement new and visually compelling ways to bring anatomic images from the Visible Human (VH) dataset to the general public. (nih.gov)
  • MedlinePlus) to include access to anatomic images. (nih.gov)
  • In section 4, we describe ongoing work that should provide the lay public greater access to anatomic images. (nih.gov)
  • However, this view lacks specificity and fails to account for anatomic variations. (nih.gov)
  • We tested the hypothesis that variations in foveal morphology can account for artifacts seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer probability maps. (arvojournals.org)
  • Anatomic evaluation of the circle of Willis: MR angiography versus intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. (ajnr.org)
  • Macular b-scans were analyzed to derive three foveal anatomic parameters: width, depth, and slope. (arvojournals.org)
  • Anatomic LV mass was determined after removing the heart. (nih.gov)
  • This study documents variations in the origin of the cystic artery and its location in relation to the biliary ducts among 106 Sudanese people and compared the variations between the sexes and races. (who.int)
  • There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances. (healthychildren.org)
  • As children have unique physiology and anatomic variations, the techniques for local anesthesia require minor modifications. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Statistically significant variations in the origin and position of the cystic artery were found comparing these data with previous studies in Caucasians and Asians. (who.int)
  • The cystic artery might be doubled, and variations in the position and drainage of the artery have been noted [3-5]. (who.int)