Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
Fastening devices composed of steel-tantalum alloys used to close operative wounds, especially of the skin, which minimizes infection by not introducing a foreign body that would connect external and internal regions of the body. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.
Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.
A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.
Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.
Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Surgical formation of an external opening (stoma) into the esophagus.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.
Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)
A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression.
Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.
The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.
Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
The period following a surgical operation.
A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
Devices used to hold tissue structures together for repair, reconstruction or to close wounds. They may consist of adsorbable or non-adsorbable, natural or synthetic materials. They include tissue adhesives, skin tape, sutures, buttons, staples, clips, screws, etc., each designed to conform to various tissue geometries.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Veins which drain the liver.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Congenital abnormality characterized by the lack of full development of the ESOPHAGUS that commonly occurs with TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA. Symptoms include excessive SALIVATION; GAGGING; CYANOSIS; and DYSPNEA.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A twisting in the intestine (INTESTINES) that can cause INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.
The act of dilating.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.
Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Artificial openings created by a surgeon for therapeutic reasons. Most often this refers to openings from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the ABDOMINAL WALL to the outside of the body. It can also refer to the two ends of a surgical anastomosis.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.
Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Methods to repair breaks in abdominal tissues caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions during abdominal surgery.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.

Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (1/1718)

OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion.  (+info)

Is early post-operative treatment with 5-fluorouracil possible without affecting anastomotic strength in the intestine? (2/1718)

Early post-operative local or systemic administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is under investigation as a means to improve outcome after resection of intestinal malignancies. It is therefore quite important to delineate accurately its potentially negative effects on anastomotic repair. Five groups (n = 24) of rats underwent resection and anastomosis of both ileum and colon: a control group and four experimental groups receiving daily 5-FU, starting immediately after operation or after 1, 2 or 3 days. Within each group, the drug (or saline) was delivered either intraperitoneally (n = 12) or intravenously (n = 12). Animals were killed 7 days after operation and healing was assessed by measurement of anastomotic bursting pressure, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content. In all cases, 5-FU treatment from the day of operation or from day 1 significantly (P<0.025) and severely suppressed wound strength; concomitantly, the anastomotic hydroxyproline content was reduced. Depending on the location of the anastomosis and the route of 5-FU administration, even a period of 3 days between operation and first dosage seemed insufficient to prevent weakening of the anastomosis. The effects of intravenous administration, though qualitatively similar, were quantitatively less dramatic than those observed after intraperitoneal delivery. Post-operative treatment with 5-FU, if started within the first 3 days after operation, is detrimental to anastomotic strength and may compromise anastomotic integrity.  (+info)

Right atrial bypass grafting for central venous obstruction associated with dialysis access: another treatment option. (3/1718)

PURPOSE: Central venous obstruction is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo maintenance hemodialysis. We studied the use of right atrial bypass grafting in nine cases of central venous obstruction associated with upper extremity venous hypertension. To better understand the options for managing this condition, we discuss the roles of surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement. METHODS: All patients had previously undergone placement of bilateral temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. Severe arm swelling, graft thrombosis, or graft malfunction developed because of central venous stenosis or obstruction in the absence of alternative access sites. A large-diameter (10 to 16 mm) externally reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex) graft was used to bypass the obstructed vein and was anastomosed to the right atrial appendage. This technique was used to bypass six lesions in the subclavian vein, two lesions at the innominate vein/superior vena caval junction, and one lesion in the distal axillary vein. RESULTS: All patients except one had significant resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. Bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous grafts to provide functional access for 1.5 to 52 months (mean, 15.4 months) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Because no mortality directly resulted from the procedure and the morbidity rate was acceptable, this bypass grafting technique was adequate in maintaining the dialysis access needed by these patients. Because of the magnitude of the procedure, we recommend it only for the occasional patient in whom all other access sites are exhausted and in whom percutaneous dilation and/or stenting has failed.  (+info)

Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula. (4/1718)

Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula.  (+info)

Factors influencing the development of vein-graft stenosis and their significance for clinical management. (5/1718)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of clinical and graft factors on the development of stenotic lesions. In addition the implications of any significant correlation for duplex surveillance schedules or surgical bypass techniques was examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective three centre study, preoperative and peroperative data on 300 infrainguinal autologous vein grafts was analysed. All grafts were monitored by a strict duplex surveillance program and all received an angiogram in the first postoperative year. A revision was only performed if there was evidence of a stenosis of 70% diameter reduction or greater on the angiogram. RESULTS: The minimum graft diameter was the only factor correlated significantly with the development of a significant graft stenosis (PSV-ratio > or = 2.5) during follow-up (p = 0.002). Factors that correlated with the development of event-causing graft stenosis, associated with revision or occlusion, were minimal graft diameter (p = 0.001), the use of a venovenous anastomosis (p = 0.005) and length of the graft (p = 0.025). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the minimal graft diameter was the only independent factor that significantly correlated with an event-causing graft stenosis (p = 0.009). The stenosis-free rates for grafts with a minimal diameter < 3.5 mm, between 3.5-4.5 and > or = 4.5 mm were 40%, 58% and 75%, respectively (p = < 0.05). Composite vein and arm-vein grafts with minimal diameters > or = 3.5 mm were compared with grafts which consisted of a single uninterrupted greater saphenous vein with a minimal diameter of < 3.5 mm. One-year secondary patency rates in these categories were of 94% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A minimal graft diameter < 3.5 mm was the only factor that significantly correlated with the development of a graft-stenosis. However, veins with larger diameters may still develop stenotic lesions. Composite vein and arm-vein grafts should be used rather than uninterrupted small caliber saphenous veins.  (+info)

Cylindrical or T-shaped silicone rubber stents for microanastomosis--technical note. (6/1718)

The ostium of the recipient artery and the orifice of the donor artery must be clearly visualized for the establishment of microvascular anastomosis. Specially designed colored flexible cylindrical or T-shaped silicone rubber stents were made in various sizes (400 or 500 microns diameter and 5 mm length) and applied to bypass surgery in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease such as moyamoya disease and internal carotid artery occlusion. The colored flexible stents facilitated confirmation of the ostium of the artery even in patients with moyamoya disease and allowed precise microvascular anastomosis without problems caused by the stent.  (+info)

Subclavian artery resection and reconstruction for thoracic inlet cancers. (7/1718)

PURPOSE: We previously described an original transcervical approach to resect primary or secondary malignant diseases that invade the thoracic inlet (TI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and long-term results of the resection and revascularization of the subclavian artery (SA). METHODS: Between 1986 and 1998, 34 patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent en bloc resection of TI cancer that had invaded the SA. The surgical approach was an L-shaped transclavicular cervicotomy in 33 patients. In 14 of these patients, this approach was associated with a posterolateral thoracotomy (n = 10) or a posterior midline approach (n = 4). In one patient, the procedure was achieved with a single posterolateral thoracotomy approach. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed in 16 patients. In one patient, a subclavian-left common carotid artery transposition was performed. In one other patient, an end-to-end anastomosis was performed between the proximal innominate artery and the SA. The right carotid artery was transposed into the SA in an end-to-side fashion. In 16 patients, prosthetic revascularization with a polytetrafluoroethylene graft was performed. Thirty-three patients underwent postoperative radiation therapy. RESULTS: There were no cases of perioperative death, neurologic sequelae, graft infections or occlusions, or limb ischemia. There were two delayed asymptomatic polytetrafluoroethylene graft occlusions at 12 and 31 months. The 5-year patency rate was 85%. During this study, 20 patients died: 18 died of tumor recurrence (5 local and systemic and 13 systemic), one of respiratory failure, and one of an unknown cause at 74 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 18%. CONCLUSION: Tumor arterial invasion per se should not be a contraindication to TI cancer resection. This study shows that cancers that invade the SA can be resected through an L-shaped transclavicular cervicotomy, with good results with a concomitant revascularization of the SA.  (+info)

Laparoscopic aortofemoral bypass grafting: human cadaveric and initial clinical experiences. (8/1718)

PURPOSE: Postoperative complications are mainly related to the surgical trauma derived from the extensive abdominal incision and dissection after a conventional aortofemoral bypass grafting procedure. In an attempt to reduce postoperative complications, a concept of video-endoscopic vascular surgery on the infrarenal aortoiliac artery has been developed. On the basis of our experience with the practicability of video-endoscopic vascular surgery in the pelvic region in an animal study and in a pilot study of human cadavers, the purpose of this report was to describe three different methods that we evaluated on human cadavers and that we partly applied to patients. METHODS: In this experimental study, three different approaches were used to perform video-endoscopic aortofemoral bypass grafting. We performed an observational trial on human corpses (n = 24) with the transabdominal-retroperitoneal approach (TARA), the extraperitoneal approach (EPA), and the transabdominal left paracolic approach (TAPA). The EPA also was applied to patients with aortoiliac occlusive diseases. RESULTS: The TARA on cadavers (n = 4) soon was abandoned because it caused a burdensome sliding of the intestine into the operative field adjacent to the renal vessels, particularly in cases with obese subjects. In comparison, the TAPA (n = 6) with right-sided positioning of the patient retained the intestine in the right upper abdomen throughout the procedure. Until a surgeon actually is acquainted with the anatomic landmarks and the laparoscopic preparation technique, the EPA (n = 14) is a challenging procedure that necessitates thorough training. As with the TAPA, the EPA represents a procedure that reveals constant exposure of the operating field, even in cases with obese subjects. In the clinical observational study (n = 7), aortobifemoral bypass grafting was achieved totally laparoscopically with the EPA. The mean operating time was 6.5 hours and ranged from 3 to 10 hours. Blood transfusions were necessary after surgery in three patients (range, 1 to 3 red packed blood cells). One patient, who had had occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery, died of ischemic colitis at postoperative day 10. The other patients had uneventful postoperative courses with minor wound discomfort. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic vascular surgery seems to be a promising procedure to minimize postoperative complications. On the basis of our experience, we do not favor the TARA. Because it necessitates steep Trendelenburg positioning to displace intra-abdominal organs, the TARA is not an appropriate approach, particularly in obese and cardiopulmonary frail cases. Contrarily, the TAPA and the EPA deliver potentially better results in terms of exposing the operative field and thus reducing operating time and perioperative morbidity rates. A prospective cadaveric and clinical trial may be justified to further evaluate the use of these surgical techniques.  (+info)

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

An arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis is a connection or short channel between an artery and a vein that bypasses the capillary bed. In a normal physiological condition, blood flows from the arteries to the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with the surrounding tissues, and then drains into veins. However, in an AV anastomosis, blood flows directly from the artery to the vein without passing through the capillary network.

AV anastomoses can occur naturally or be created surgically for various medical purposes. For example, they may be created during bypass surgery to reroute blood flow around a blocked or damaged vessel. In some cases, AV anastomoses may also develop as a result of certain medical conditions, such as cirrhosis or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). AVMs are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can lead to the formation of an AV anastomosis.

It is important to note that while AV anastomoses can be beneficial in certain medical situations, they can also have negative consequences if they occur inappropriately or become too large. For example, excessive AV anastomoses can lead to high-flow shunts, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Surgical staplers are medical devices used in various surgical procedures to create secure and precise connections between tissues, vessels, or organs. They function by placing sterile, disposable staple cartridges into the device that contain rows of stainless steel staples. The stapler then applies pressure to deform the staples, forming a B-shaped staple line that holds the tissue together.

These devices are often used in place of traditional suturing methods due to their speed, accuracy, and ability to reduce surgical trauma. They can be employed in various types of surgeries, including gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecologic, and orthopedic procedures.

Surgical staplers come in different shapes and sizes, with some designed for specific applications such as linear or circular stapling. Linear staplers are used to create straight lines of staples, while circular staplers form a ring-shaped connection, often used in anastomosis procedures (the joining of two hollow organs or vessels).

It is essential to follow proper techniques and indications when using surgical staplers, as improper usage can lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, leakage, or even tissue necrosis.

Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a type of surgical connection between two parts of the gastrointestinal tract, typically performed during gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. In this procedure, a small pouch is created from the upper stomach, and the remaining portion of the stomach is bypassed. The Roux limb, a segment of the small intestine, is then connected to both the pouch and the bypassed stomach, creating two separate channels for food and digestive juices to mix. This surgical technique helps to reduce the amount of food that can be consumed and absorbed, leading to weight loss.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Surgical stapling is a medical technique that uses specialized staplers to place linear staple lines to close surgical incisions, connect or remove organs and tissues during surgical procedures. Surgical staples are made of titanium or stainless steel and can be absorbable or non-absorbable. They provide secure, fast, and accurate wound closure, reducing the risk of infection and promoting faster healing compared to traditional suturing methods.

The surgical stapler consists of a handle, an anvil, and a cartridge containing multiple staples. The device is loaded with staple cartridges and used to approximate tissue edges before deploying the staples. Once the staples are placed, the stapler is removed, leaving the staple line in place.

Surgical stapling has various applications, including gastrointestinal anastomosis, lung resection, vascular anastomosis, and skin closure. It is widely used in different types of surgeries, such as open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted procedures. The use of surgical stapling requires proper training and expertise to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

An anastomotic leak is a medical condition that occurs after a surgical procedure where two hollow organs or vessels are connected (anastomosed). It refers to the failure of the connection, resulting in a communication between the inside of the connected structures and the outside, which can lead to the escape of fluids, such as digestive contents or blood, into the surrounding tissues.

Anastomotic leaks can occur in various parts of the body where anastomoses are performed, including the gastrointestinal tract, vasculature, and respiratory system. The leakage can cause localized or systemic infection, inflammation, sepsis, organ failure, or even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The risk of anastomotic leaks depends on several factors, such as the patient's overall health, the type and location of the surgery, the quality of the surgical technique, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions that may affect wound healing. Treatment options for anastomotic leaks vary depending on the severity and location of the leak, ranging from conservative management with antibiotics and bowel rest to surgical intervention, such as drainage, revision of the anastomosis, or resection of the affected segment.

Restorative proctocolectomy, also known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), is a surgical procedure used to treat ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. This procedure involves the removal of the colon, rectum, and anal canal while preserving the sphincter muscles that control fecal continence.

After removing the diseased tissues, the surgeon creates a pouch from the end of the small intestine (ileum) and attaches it to the anus, restoring the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. The pouch serves as a reservoir for stool, allowing for more normal bowel movements compared to having a permanent ileostomy.

Restorative proctocolectomy can be performed in one or two stages, depending on the patient's condition and the surgeon's preference. In the two-stage procedure, an initial total colectomy with ileostomy is performed, followed by the creation of the pouch and closure of the ileostomy in a second operation. The single-stage procedure involves removing the colon, creating the pouch, and performing the anastomosis in one surgical setting.

While restorative proctocolectomy significantly improves quality of life for many patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis, potential complications include pouchitis (inflammation of the ileal pouch), anastomotic leakage, small bowel obstruction, and pelvic sepsis. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for these and other potential issues.

Colonic pouches, also known as pouch colon or reservoir, refer to an artificial structure created during a surgical procedure called restorative proctocolectomy. This is often performed in patients with certain types of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

During the surgery, the entire colon and rectum are removed. A pouch is then created using the patient's own small intestine, which is folded back on itself and sewn together to form a reservoir. This pouch is connected to the anus, allowing the patient to have relatively normal bowel movements.

The most common type of colonic pouch is the J-pouch, so named because of its J-shaped design. Other types include the S-pouch and the W-pouch. The choice of pouch depends on various factors, including the patient's anatomy and the surgeon's preference.

The purpose of creating a colonic pouch is to restore intestinal continuity and function after removing the diseased colon and rectum, thereby improving the patient's quality of life. However, it's important to note that living with a colonic pouch also requires significant lifestyle adjustments and ongoing medical management.

In medical terms, sutures are specialized surgical threads made from various materials such as absorbable synthetic or natural fibers, or non-absorbable materials like nylon or silk. They are used to approximate and hold together the edges of a wound or incision in the skin or other tissues during the healing process. Sutures come in different sizes, types, and shapes, each designed for specific uses and techniques depending on the location and type of tissue being sutured. Properly placed sutures help to promote optimal healing, minimize scarring, and reduce the risk of infection or other complications.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

An ileostomy is a surgical procedure in which the end of the small intestine, called the ileum, is brought through an opening in the abdominal wall (stoma) to create a path for waste material to leave the body. This procedure is typically performed when there is damage or removal of the colon, rectum, or anal canal due to conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), cancer, or trauma.

After an ileostomy, waste material from the small intestine exits the body through the stoma and collects in a pouch worn outside the body. The patient needs to empty the pouch regularly, typically every few hours, as the output is liquid or semi-liquid. Ileostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the planned course of treatment. Proper care and management of the stoma and pouch are essential for maintaining good health and quality of life after an ileostomy.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

Pouchitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the ileal pouch, a surgically created reservoir that is connected to the patient's anus in individuals who have undergone proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). This procedure is often performed in patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

Pouchitis can present with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The exact cause of pouchitis remains unclear, but it is thought to be related to changes in the microbiota or an overactive immune response in the ileal pouch.

The diagnosis of pouchitis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination of biopsies taken during endoscopy. Treatment options for pouchitis include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and probiotics, depending on the severity and frequency of the condition.

The anal canal is the terminal portion of the digestive tract, located between the rectum and the anus. It is a short tube-like structure that is about 1 to 1.5 inches long in adults. The main function of the anal canal is to provide a seal for the elimination of feces from the body while also preventing the leakage of intestinal contents.

The inner lining of the anal canal is called the mucosa, which is kept moist by the production of mucus. The walls of the anal canal contain specialized muscles that help control the passage of stool during bowel movements. These muscles include the internal and external sphincters, which work together to maintain continence and allow for the voluntary release of feces.

The anal canal is an important part of the digestive system and plays a critical role in maintaining bowel function and overall health.

A "Heart Bypass, Right" or Right Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (RCA Bypass) is a surgical procedure that aims to improve the blood supply to the right side of the heart. It involves grafting a healthy blood vessel, usually taken from another part of the body, to divert blood flow around a blocked or narrowed section of the right coronary artery (RCA). The RCA supplies blood to the right ventricle and the back of the left ventricle. By creating this bypass, the surgery helps restore adequate oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle, reducing the risk of damage or failure due to insufficient blood supply, and alleviating symptoms such as angina and shortness of breath.

It is important to note that "Heart Bypass, Right" specifically refers to bypass surgery on the right coronary artery, while a standard "Heart Bypass Surgery," also known as Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), typically involves bypassing blockages in multiple coronary arteries.

Surgical wound dehiscence is a medical condition that refers to the partial or complete separation of layers of a surgical incision after a surgical procedure, leading to the disruption of the wound closure. This can occur due to various factors such as infection, poor nutrition, increased tension on the sutures, hematoma or seroma formation, and patient's underlying health conditions like diabetes or immunodeficiency. Dehiscence may result in the exposure of internal tissues and organs, potentially causing severe complications such as infection, bleeding, or organ dysfunction. Immediate medical attention is required to manage this condition and prevent further complications.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

A colostomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening, or stoma, through the abdominal wall to divert the flow of feces from the colon (large intestine) through this opening and into a pouch or bag worn outside the body. This procedure is typically performed when a portion of the colon has been removed due to disease or injury, such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or trauma.

There are several types of colostomies, including end colostomy, loop colostomy, and double-barrel colostomy, which differ in terms of the location and configuration of the stoma. The type of colostomy performed will depend on the individual's medical condition and the specific goals of the surgery.

After a colostomy, patients will need to learn how to care for their stoma and manage their bowel movements using specialized equipment and techniques. With proper care and management, most people are able to lead active and fulfilling lives after a colostomy.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

An esophagostomy is a surgical opening created between the esophagus and the skin of the neck or chest. It is typically performed as an emergency procedure in cases where there is an obstruction or injury to the esophagus that cannot be managed through less invasive means. The esophagostomy provides a temporary or permanent access point for feeding, medication administration, or decompression of the esophagus.

The procedure involves creating an incision in the neck or chest and exposing the esophagus. A small opening is then made in the esophageal wall, and a tube is inserted through the opening and brought out through the skin. The tube may be secured in place with sutures or staples, and a dressing is applied to protect the site from infection.

After surgery, patients with an esophagostomy will require close monitoring and care to ensure proper healing and prevent complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage of digestive fluids. The tube may be removed once the underlying condition has been treated and the esophagus has healed.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis is a surgical procedure in which the internal mammary artery (IMA) is connected to the coronary artery of the heart. This type of surgery, also known as internal thoracic artery-coronary artery bypass grafting (ITA CABG), is performed to improve blood flow to the heart muscle and reduce symptoms of coronary artery disease such as angina and shortness of breath.

The IMA is a small artery that branches off the subclavian artery and runs along the inside of the chest wall. It has several advantages over other conduits used for bypass grafting, including its size, length, and excellent long-term patency rates. The procedure involves harvesting the IMA through a small incision in the chest wall and then sewing it to the coronary artery using fine sutures.

The internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis can be performed as a single bypass graft or in combination with other conduits such as the saphenous vein. The choice of conduit and number of grafts depends on various factors, including the location and severity of coronary artery disease, patient's age and overall health status.

Overall, internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis is a safe and effective surgical procedure that has been shown to improve symptoms, quality of life, and survival in patients with coronary artery disease.

Cerebral revascularization is a surgical procedure aimed at restoring blood flow to the brain. This is often performed in cases where there is narrowing or blockage of the cerebral arteries, a condition known as cerebrovascular disease. The most common type of cerebral revascularization is called carotid endarterectomy, which involves removing plaque buildup from the carotid artery in the neck to improve blood flow to the brain. Another type is extracranial-intracranial bypass, where a new connection is created between an external carotid artery and an intracranial artery to bypass a blockage.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A jejunostomy is a surgical procedure where an opening (stoma) is created in the lower part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. This stoma allows for the passage of nutrients and digestive enzymes from the small intestine into a tube or external pouch, bypassing the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).

Jejunostomy is typically performed to provide enteral nutrition support in patients who are unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, gastroparesis, bowel obstruction, or after certain surgical procedures. The jejunostomy tube can be used for short-term or long-term nutritional support, depending on the patient's needs and underlying medical condition.

Esophagectomy is a surgical procedure in which part or all of the esophagus (the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach) is removed. This surgery is typically performed as a treatment for esophageal cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage to the esophagus from acid reflux or benign tumors.

During an esophagectomy, the surgeon will make incisions in the neck, chest, and/or abdomen to access the esophagus. The affected portion of the esophagus is then removed, and the remaining ends are reconnected, often using a section of the stomach or colon to create a new conduit for food to pass from the throat to the stomach.

Esophagectomy is a complex surgical procedure that requires significant expertise and experience on the part of the surgeon. It carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and complications related to anesthesia. Additionally, patients who undergo esophagectomy may experience difficulty swallowing, chronic pain, and other long-term complications. However, for some patients with esophageal cancer or other serious conditions affecting the esophagus, esophagectomy may be the best available treatment option.

A portacaval shunt is a surgical procedure that creates an alternate pathway for blood flow between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. The portal vein carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and pancreas to the liver. In certain medical conditions, such as severe liver disease or portal hypertension, the blood pressure in the portal vein becomes abnormally high, which can lead to serious complications like variceal bleeding.

In a surgical portacaval shunt procedure, a surgeon creates a connection between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, allowing a portion of the blood from the portal vein to bypass the liver and flow directly into the systemic circulation. This helps reduce the pressure in the portal vein and prevent complications associated with portal hypertension.

There are different types of portacaval shunts, including:

1. Direct portacaval shunt: In this procedure, the surgeon directly connects the portal vein to the inferior vena cava.
2. Side-to-side portacaval shunt: Here, the surgeon creates an anastomosis (connection) between a side branch of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava.
3. H-type shunt: This involves creating two separate connections between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, forming an "H" shape.

It is important to note that while portacaval shunts can be effective in managing complications of portal hypertension, they may also have potential risks and side effects, such as worsening liver function, encephalopathy, or heart failure. Therefore, the decision to perform a portacaval shunt should be made carefully, considering the individual patient's medical condition and overall health.

Choledochostomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening (stoma) into the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. This procedure is typically performed to relieve obstructions or blockages in the bile duct, such as those caused by gallstones, tumors, or scar tissue.

During the choledochostomy procedure, a surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen and exposes the common bile duct. The duct is then cut open, and a small tube (catheter) is inserted into the duct to allow bile to drain out of the body. The catheter may be left in place temporarily or permanently, depending on the underlying condition causing the obstruction.

Choledochostomy is typically performed as an open surgical procedure, but it can also be done using minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopy or robotic-assisted surgery. As with any surgical procedure, choledochostomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. However, these risks are generally low in the hands of an experienced surgeon.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Pancreaticojejunostomy is a surgical procedure that involves connecting the pancreas to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum. This connection is typically created after the head of the pancreas has been removed, as in the case of a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple") procedure. The purpose of this anastomosis is to allow digestive enzymes from the pancreas to flow into the small intestine, where they can aid in the digestion of food.

The connection between the pancreas and jejunum can be created using several different techniques, including a hand-sewn anastomosis or a stapled anastomosis. The choice of technique may depend on various factors, such as the patient's individual anatomy, the surgeon's preference, and the reason for the surgery.

Pancreaticojejunostomy is a complex surgical procedure that requires significant skill and expertise to perform. It carries risks such as leakage of pancreatic enzymes into the abdominal cavity, which can lead to serious complications such as infection, bleeding, or even organ failure. As such, it is typically performed by experienced surgeons in specialized medical centers.

Temporal arteries are the paired set of arteries that run along the temples on either side of the head. They are branches of the external carotid artery and play a crucial role in supplying oxygenated blood to the scalp and surrounding muscles. One of the most common conditions associated with temporal arteries is Temporal Arteritis (also known as Giant Cell Arteritis), which is an inflammation of these arteries that can lead to serious complications like vision loss if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Intestinal obstruction, also known as bowel obstruction, is a medical condition characterized by a blockage that prevents the normal flow of contents through the small intestine or large intestine (colon). This blockage can be caused by various factors such as tumors, adhesions (scar tissue), hernias, inflammation, or impacted feces.

The obstruction can be mechanical, where something physically blocks the intestinal lumen, or functional, where the normal muscular contractions of the bowel are impaired. Mechanical obstructions are more common than functional ones.

Symptoms of intestinal obstruction may include abdominal pain and cramping, nausea and vomiting, bloating, inability to pass gas or have a bowel movement, and abdominal distention. If left untreated, intestinal obstruction can lead to serious complications such as tissue death (necrosis), perforation of the intestine, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves hospitalization, intravenous fluids, nasogastric decompression, and possibly surgery to remove the obstruction.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Rhizoctonia is a genus of saprophytic and facultative parasitic fungi that belong to the order Corticiales. It is widely distributed in soil and on plant debris, and can cause various plant diseases known as "rhizoctonioses." The most common species associated with plant pathogenicity is Rhizoctonia solani. These fungi infect a wide range of plants, including crops, turfgrass, and ornamentals, causing symptoms such as root rot, stem canker, damping-off, and wirestem blight. The fungus can also form sclerotia, which are compact masses of hardened fungal mycelium that can survive in the soil for many years, serving as a source of infection for future plant growth.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

The bronchial arteries are a pair of arteries that originate from the descending thoracic aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the bronchi, bronchioles, and connected tissues within the lungs. They play a crucial role in providing nutrients and maintaining the health of the airways in the respiratory system. The bronchial arteries also help in the defense mechanism of the lungs by delivering immune cells and participating in the process of angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) during lung injury or repair.

Fetofetal transfusion is a medical condition that can occur in pregnancies with multiple fetuses, such as twins or higher-order multiples. It refers to the transfer of blood from one fetus (donor) to another (recipient) through anastomotic connections in their shared placenta.

In some cases, these anastomoses can result in an imbalance in blood flow between the fetuses, leading to a net transfer of blood from one fetus to the other. This situation is more likely to occur when there is a significant weight or size difference between the fetuses, known as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).

In TTTS, the recipient fetus receives an excess of blood, which can lead to high-output cardiac failure, hydrops, and potential intrauterine demise. Meanwhile, the donor fetus may become anemic, growth-restricted, and at risk for hypovolemia and intrauterine demise as well. Fetofetal transfusion can be diagnosed through ultrasound evaluation and managed with various interventions, including laser ablation of anastomotic vessels or fetoscopic surgery, depending on the severity and gestational age at diagnosis.

Esophageal stenosis is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or constriction of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This narrowing can make it difficult to swallow food and liquids, leading to symptoms such as dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), pain or discomfort while swallowing, regurgitation, and weight loss.

Esophageal stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Scarring or fibrosis due to prolonged acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
2. Radiation therapy for cancer treatment
3. Ingestion of corrosive substances
4. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an allergic condition that affects the esophagus
5. Esophageal tumors or cancers
6. Surgical complications

Depending on the underlying cause and severity of the stenosis, treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, dilation procedures to widen the narrowed area, or surgery to remove the affected portion of the esophagus. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any difficulty swallowing or other symptoms related to esophageal stenosis.

Corrosion casting is a specialized technique used in anatomy and pathology to create detailed casts or molds of biological specimens, particularly vascular systems. This method is also known as "acid etching" or "corrosive casting." Here's the medical definition:

Corrosion casting is a process that involves injecting a special resin or plastic material into the vasculature or other hollow structures of a biological specimen, such as an organ or tissue. The injected material thoroughly fills the cavity and then hardens once it has set. After hardening, the surrounding tissues are corroded or dissolved using strong acids or bases, leaving behind only the cast or mold of the internal structures.

This technique results in a detailed three-dimensional representation of the complex internal networks, like blood vessels, which can be used for further study, research, and education. Corrosion casting is particularly useful in visualizing the intricate branching patterns and structural relationships within these systems.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Gastrostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach. This opening, called a stoma or gastrostomy tract, allows for the passage of a tube (gastrostomy tube) that can be used to provide enteral nutrition and hydration directly into the stomach when a person is unable to consume food or fluids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, neurological disorders, or head and neck cancers.

Gastrostomy tubes come in different types and sizes, including percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes, laparoscopic gastrostomy tubes, and open surgical gastrostomy tubes. The choice of the procedure depends on various factors such as the patient's medical condition, anatomy, and overall health status.

The primary purpose of a gastrostomy is to ensure adequate nutrition and hydration for individuals who have difficulty swallowing or are unable to consume enough food or fluids by mouth to meet their nutritional needs. It can also help prevent complications associated with prolonged fasting, such as malnutrition, dehydration, and weight loss.

Rectal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure or function of the rectum, which is the lower end of the large intestine, just above the anus. The rectum serves as a storage area for stool before it is eliminated from the body. Some common rectal diseases include:

1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort.
2. Rectal cancer: Abnormal growth of cells in the rectum that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Anal fissures: Small tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and itching.
4. Rectal prolapse: A condition where the rectum slips outside the anus, causing discomfort, fecal incontinence, and other symptoms.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including the rectum, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
6. Rectal abscess: A collection of pus in the rectum caused by an infection, which can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
7. Fistula-in-ano: An abnormal connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, which can cause drainage of pus or stool.
8. Rectal foreign bodies: Objects that are accidentally or intentionally inserted into the rectum and can cause injury, infection, or obstruction.

These are just a few examples of rectal diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the rectum. If you experience any symptoms related to the rectum, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Hydroxyproline is not a medical term per se, but it is a significant component in the medical field, particularly in the study of connective tissues and collagen. Here's a scientific definition:

Hydroxyproline is a modified amino acid that is formed by the post-translational modification of the amino acid proline in collagen and some other proteins. This process involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the proline residue, which alters its chemical properties and contributes to the stability and structure of collagen fibers. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is a crucial component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. The presence and quantity of hydroxyproline can serve as a marker for collagen turnover and degradation, making it relevant to various medical and research contexts, including the study of diseases affecting connective tissues like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Duodenostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening (stoma) into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This procedure is typically performed to divert the flow of digestive secretions and contents away from a diseased or obstructed area of the gastrointestinal tract.

A duodenostomy may be created as a temporary measure to allow a portion of the intestine to heal or as a permanent solution for conditions such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, or congenital abnormalities. The stoma can be located on the abdominal wall, allowing for the external drainage of digestive secretions and contents into a collection bag.

It is important to note that the specific medical definition and indications for duodenostomy may vary based on individual clinical context and patient needs. Therefore, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional or medical expert for accurate information.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. APC is caused by mutations in the APC gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene that helps regulate cell growth and division. When the APC gene is mutated, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of polyps, which can eventually become cancerous.

Individuals with APC typically develop hundreds to thousands of polyps in their colon and rectum, usually beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. If left untreated, APC can lead to colorectal cancer in nearly all affected individuals by the age of 40.

APC is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, some cases of APC may also occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the APC gene. Treatment for APC typically involves surgical removal of the colon and rectum (colectomy) to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy is also recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps.

Surgical hemostasis refers to the methods and techniques used during surgical procedures to stop bleeding or prevent hemorrhage. This can be achieved through various means, including the use of surgical instruments such as clamps, ligatures, or staples to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. Electrosurgical tools like cautery may also be used to coagulate and seal off bleeding vessels using heat. Additionally, topical hemostatic agents can be applied to promote clotting and control bleeding in wounded tissues. Effective surgical hemostasis is crucial for ensuring a successful surgical outcome and minimizing the risk of complications such as excessive blood loss, infection, or delayed healing.

Tissue adhesions, also known as scar tissue adhesions, are abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that form between two or more internal organs, or between organs and the walls of the chest or abdominal cavity. These adhesions can develop after surgery, infection, injury, radiation, or prolonged inflammation. The fibrous bands can cause pain, restrict movement of the organs, and potentially lead to complications such as bowel obstruction. Treatment options for tissue adhesions may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the adhesions.

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision in the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions such as abdominal trauma, tumors, infections, or inflammatory diseases. The size of the incision can vary depending on the reason for the surgery and the extent of the condition being treated. Once the procedure is complete, the incision is closed with sutures or staples.

The term "laparotomy" comes from the Greek words "lapara," which means "flank" or "side," and "tome," which means "to cut." Together, they describe the surgical procedure that involves cutting into the abdomen to examine its contents.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Defecation is the medical term for the act of passing stools (feces) through the anus. It is a normal bodily function that involves the contraction of muscles in the colon and anal sphincter to release waste from the body. Defecation is usually a regular and daily occurrence, with the frequency varying from person to person.

The stool is made up of undigested food, bacteria, and other waste products that are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus. The process of defecation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion.

Difficulties with defecation can occur due to various medical conditions, including constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. These conditions can cause symptoms such as hard or painful stools, straining during bowel movements, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. If you are experiencing any problems with defecation, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pancreaticoduodenectomy, also known as the Whipple procedure, is a complex surgical operation that involves the removal of the head of the pancreas, the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), the gallbladder, and the distal common bile duct. In some cases, a portion of the stomach may also be removed. The remaining parts of the pancreas, bile duct, and intestines are then reconnected to allow for the digestion of food and drainage of bile.

This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for various conditions affecting the pancreas, such as tumors (including pancreatic cancer), chronic pancreatitis, or traumatic injuries. It is a major surgical operation that requires significant expertise and experience to perform safely and effectively.

An intestinal fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the intestines (or a portion of the intestine) and another organ or the skin surface. This connection forms a tract or passage, allowing the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes, bacteria, and waste materials, to leak into other body areas or outside the body. Intestinal fistulas can develop due to various reasons, including inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn's disease), infections, complications from surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin irritation, and infection. Treatment of intestinal fistulas often involves a combination of medical management, nutritional support, and surgical intervention.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Moyamoya Disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or occlusion (blockage) of the internal carotid artery and its main branches. The name "moyamoya" means "puff of smoke" in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage. Over time, these fragile vessels can become less effective or rupture, leading to transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), strokes, bleeding in the brain, or cognitive decline. The exact cause of moyamoya disease is unknown, but it may be associated with genetic factors and certain medical conditions such as Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and sickle cell anemia. Treatment options include surgical procedures to improve blood flow to the brain.

A pancreatic fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the pancreas and another organ, often the digestive system. It usually occurs as a complication following trauma, surgery, or inflammation of the pancreas (such as pancreatitis). The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes, and when these enzymes escape the pancreas through a damaged or disrupted duct, they can cause irritation and inflammation in nearby tissues, leading to the formation of a fistula.

Pancreatic fistulas are typically characterized by the drainage of pancreatic fluid, which contains high levels of digestive enzymes, into other parts of the body. This can lead to various symptoms, including abdominal pain, swelling, fever, and malnutrition. Treatment may involve surgical repair of the fistula, as well as supportive care such as antibiotics, nutritional support, and drainage of any fluid collections.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

Gastroenterostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an anastomosis (a connection or junction) between the stomach and the small intestine, usually between the stomach's lesser curvature and the jejunum (the second part of the small intestine). This procedure is often performed to bypass a diseased or obstructed portion of the gastrointestinal tract, such as in the case of gastric ulcers, tumors, or other conditions that prevent normal digestion and absorption.

There are different types of gastroenterostomy procedures, including:
1. Billroth I (or "gastroduodenostomy"): The stomach is connected directly to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).
2. Billroth II (or "gastrojejunostomy"): The stomach is connected to the jejunum, bypassing the duodenum.
3. Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy: A more complex procedure in which a portion of the jejunum is separated and reconnected further down the small intestine, creating a Y-shaped configuration. This type of gastroenterostomy is often used in bariatric surgery for weight loss.

The choice of gastroenterostomy technique depends on the specific medical condition being treated and the patient's overall health status.

Operative time, in medical terms, refers to the duration from when an incision is made in the surgical procedure until the closure of the incision. This period includes any additional time needed for re-exploration or reopening during the same operation. It does not include any time spent performing other procedures that may be necessary but are carried out at a later stage. Operative time is an essential metric used in surgery to assess efficiency, plan resources, and determine costs.

Coronary artery bypass, off-pump refers to a surgical procedure used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD), which is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This procedure is also known as off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) or beating heart bypass surgery.

In a coronary artery bypass, off-pump procedure, the surgeon creates a new pathway for blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery using a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body, such as the chest wall (internal mammary artery) or the leg (saphenous vein). This allows oxygen-rich blood to bypass the blockage and reach the heart muscle directly.

The key difference between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery is that in an off-pump procedure, the heart continues to beat during the operation, and no heart-lung machine (cardiopulmonary bypass) is used. This approach has several potential advantages over on-pump CABG, including reduced risks of bleeding, stroke, and kidney failure. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with complex or extensive coronary artery disease.

Overall, coronary artery bypass, off-pump surgery is a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with CAD, and can help improve symptoms, quality of life, and long-term outcomes.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Esophagoplasty is a surgical procedure that involves reconstructing or reshaping the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This procedure may be performed to treat various conditions such as esophageal atresia (a birth defect in which the esophagus does not develop properly), esophageal stricture (narrowing of the esophagus), or esophageal cancer.

During an esophagoplasty, a surgeon may use tissue from another part of the body, such as the stomach or colon, to reconstruct the esophagus. The specific technique used will depend on the individual patient's needs and the nature of their condition.

It is important to note that esophagoplasty is a complex surgical procedure that carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and complications related to anesthesia. Patients who undergo this procedure may require extensive postoperative care and rehabilitation to recover fully.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Jejunal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Some examples of jejunal diseases include:

1. Jejunal inflammation or infection (jejunitis)
2. Crohn's disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract including the jejunum
3. Intestinal lymphoma, a type of cancer that can develop in the small intestine
4. Celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes damage to the small intestine when gluten is consumed
5. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), which can occur due to various reasons including structural abnormalities or motility disorders of the jejunum
6. Meckel's diverticulum, a congenital condition where a small pouch protrudes from the wall of the intestine, usually located in the ileum but can also affect the jejunum
7. Intestinal strictures or obstructions caused by scarring, adhesions, or tumors
8. Radiation enteritis, damage to the small intestine caused by radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

The diagnosis and management of jejunal diseases depend on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, dietary modifications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that forms an "S"-shaped curve before it joins the rectum. It gets its name from its unique shape, which resembles the Greek letter sigma (σ). The main function of the sigmoid colon is to store stool temporarily and assist in the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive waste before it is eliminated from the body.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

Diverticulitis, Colonic is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula in the colon. Diverticula are small, bulging pouches that form in the wall of the colon, usually in older adults. They are caused by increased pressure on weakened areas of the colon wall, resulting in the formation of these sac-like protrusions.

When diverticula become inflamed or infected, it leads to the condition known as diverticulitis. Symptoms of colonic diverticulitis may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, and a decreased appetite. In severe cases, complications such as perforation, abscess formation, or peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity) may occur, requiring hospitalization and surgical intervention.

The exact cause of diverticulitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with a low-fiber diet, obesity, smoking, and lack of exercise. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, a liquid diet to allow the colon to rest, and over-the-counter or prescription pain medications to manage discomfort. In severe cases or in patients who experience recurrent episodes of diverticulitis, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Fetoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows direct visualization of the fetus and the intrauterine environment through the use of a fiber-optic scope. It is typically performed during the second trimester of pregnancy to diagnose or treat various fetal conditions, such as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or spina bifida. The procedure involves inserting a thin tube called a fetoscope through the mother's abdomen and uterus to access the fetus. Fetoscopy can also be used for taking fetal tissue samples for genetic testing.

It is important to note that while fetoscopy can provide valuable information and treatment options, it does carry some risks, including preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, infection, and bleeding. Therefore, the decision to undergo fetoscopy should be made carefully, in consultation with a medical professional, and based on a thorough evaluation of the potential benefits and risks.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Fecal incontinence is the involuntary loss or leakage of stool (feces) from the rectum. It is also known as bowel incontinence. This condition can range from occasional leakage of stool when passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control. Fecal incontinence can be an embarrassing and distressing problem, but there are treatments available that can help improve symptoms and quality of life.

The causes of fecal incontinence can vary, but some common factors include:

* Damage to the muscles or nerves that control bowel function, such as from childbirth, surgery, spinal cord injury, or long-term constipation or diarrhea.
* Chronic digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
* Neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, or spina bifida.
* Aging, which can lead to a decrease in muscle strength and control.

Treatment for fecal incontinence depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Treatments may include:

* Bowel training exercises to improve muscle strength and control.
* Changes in diet to help regulate bowel movements.
* Medications to treat constipation or diarrhea.
* Surgery to repair damaged muscles or nerves, or to create a new opening for stool to exit the body.

If you are experiencing symptoms of fecal incontinence, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider. They can help determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Tissue adhesives, also known as surgical glues or tissue sealants, are medical devices used to approximate and hold together tissues or wounds in place of traditional sutures or staples. They work by creating a bond between the tissue surfaces, helping to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. Tissue adhesives can be synthetic or biologically derived and are often used in various surgical procedures, including ophthalmic, dermatological, and pediatric surgeries. Some common types of tissue adhesives include cyanoacrylate-based glues, fibrin sealants, and collagen-based sealants.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Collateral circulation refers to the alternate blood supply routes that bypass an obstructed or narrowed vessel and reconnect with the main vascular system. These collateral vessels can develop over time as a result of the body's natural adaptation to chronic ischemia (reduced blood flow) caused by various conditions such as atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, or vasculitis.

The development of collateral circulation helps maintain adequate blood flow and oxygenation to affected tissues, minimizing the risk of tissue damage and necrosis. In some cases, well-developed collateral circulations can help compensate for significant blockages in major vessels, reducing symptoms and potentially preventing the need for invasive interventions like revascularization procedures. However, the extent and effectiveness of collateral circulation vary from person to person and depend on factors such as age, overall health status, and the presence of comorbidities.

Intestinal perforation is a medical condition that refers to a hole or tear in the lining of the intestine. This can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or stomach. Intestinal perforation allows the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes and bacteria, to leak into the abdominal cavity, which can lead to a serious inflammatory response known as peritonitis.

Intestinal perforation can be caused by various factors, including:

* Mechanical trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stab wounds)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)
* Diverticulitis
* Appendicitis
* Intestinal obstruction
* Infections (e.g., typhoid fever, tuberculosis)
* Certain medications (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids)
* Radiation therapy
* Ischemic bowel disease (lack of blood flow to the intestines)

Symptoms of intestinal perforation may include sudden abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and decreased bowel movements. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the perforation and remove any damaged tissue. Antibiotics are also administered to prevent infection. In severe cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy may be necessary.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant esophageal neoplasms are typically classified as either squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, depending on the type of cell from which they originate.

Esophageal cancer is a serious and often life-threatening condition that can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and coughing. Risk factors for esophageal neoplasms include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Barrett's esophagus. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

An animal model in medicine refers to the use of non-human animals in experiments to understand, predict, and test responses and effects of various biological and chemical interactions that may also occur in humans. These models are used when studying complex systems or processes that cannot be easily replicated or studied in human subjects, such as genetic manipulation or exposure to harmful substances. The choice of animal model depends on the specific research question being asked and the similarities between the animal's and human's biological and physiological responses. Examples of commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and non-human primates.

The brachiocephalic veins, also known as the innominate veins, are large veins in the human body. They are formed by the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. The resulting vein then carries blood from the upper limbs, head, and neck to the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that returns blood to the heart.

Here's a more detailed medical definition:

The brachiocephalic veins are paired venous structures that result from the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. These veins are located in the superior mediastinum, near the base of the neck, and are typically about 2 to 3 centimeters in length. The brachiocephalic veins receive blood from several sources, including the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic wall. They then transport this blood to the superior vena cava, which is a large vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

It's worth noting that the brachiocephalic veins are subject to various pathological conditions, including thrombosis (blood clots), stenosis (narrowing), and compression by nearby structures such as the first rib or the scalene muscles. These conditions can lead to a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.

The tibial arteries are three major arteries that supply blood to the lower leg and foot. They are branches of the popliteal artery, which is a continuation of the femoral artery. The three tibial arteries are:

1. Anterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the front of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg, as well as to the foot. It becomes the dorsalis pedis artery as it approaches the ankle.
2. Posterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the back of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg. It then branches into the fibular (peroneal) artery and the medial and lateral plantar arteries, which supply blood to the foot.
3. Fibular (peroneal) artery: This artery runs down the outside of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg. It also provides branches that anastomose with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, forming a network of vessels that helps ensure adequate blood flow to the foot.

Together, these arteries play a critical role in providing oxygenated blood and nutrients to the lower leg and foot, helping to maintain their health and function.

The superior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins (also known as the internal jugular and subclavian veins) near the base of the neck. The superior vena cava runs posteriorly to the sternum and enters the upper right portion of the right atrium, just posterior to the opening of the inferior vena cava. It plays a crucial role in the circulatory system by allowing blood returning from the head, neck, upper limbs, and thorax to bypass the liver before entering the heart.

A ureter is a thin, muscular tube that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. In humans, there are two ureters, one for each kidney, and they are typically about 10-12 inches long. The ureters are lined with a special type of cells called transitional epithelium that can stretch and expand as urine passes through them. They are located in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. The ureters play a critical role in the urinary system by ensuring that urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

"Sigmoid diseases" is not a widely recognized medical term. However, the sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine, and it can be affected by various conditions such as:

1. Sigmoid diverticulitis: Inflammation or infection of small pouches (diverticula) that form on the wall of the sigmoid colon.
2. Sigmoid volvulus: Twisting of the sigmoid colon on itself, which can lead to obstruction and ischemia.
3. Sigmoid cancer: Malignant tumor arising from the epithelial cells lining the sigmoid colon.
4. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Chronic inflammation of the intestine, including the sigmoid colon, that can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
5. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits, which can affect the sigmoid colon.

Therefore, "sigmoid diseases" could refer to any of these conditions or others that specifically affect the sigmoid colon.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Polyglactin 910 is a type of synthetic absorbable suture made from copolymers of lactide and glycolide. It is designed to gradually break down and be absorbed by the body over time, typically within 56 to 70 days after being used in surgical wounds. This property makes it an ideal choice for soft tissue approximation and laceration repairs.

Polyglactin 910 sutures are often used in various surgical procedures, including orthopedic, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, and general surgery. They come in different sizes and forms, such as plain, reverse cutting, and braided, to suit various surgical needs.

The gradual absorption of Polyglactin 910 sutures helps minimize scarring and reduces the need for suture removal procedures. However, it is essential to note that inflammation may occur during the degradation process, which could potentially lead to adverse reactions in some individuals. Proper wound care and follow-up with healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure optimal healing and manage any potential complications.

Intestinal atresia is a congenital condition characterized by the absence or complete closure of a portion of the intestine, preventing the passage of digested food from the stomach to the remaining part of the intestines. This results in a blockage in the digestive system, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly after birth. The condition can occur anywhere along the small or large intestine and may affect either a single segment or multiple segments of the intestine.

There are several types of intestinal atresia, including:

1. Jejunal atresia: A closure or absence in the jejunum, a part of the small intestine located between the duodenum and ileum.
2. Ileal atresia: A closure or absence in the ileum, the lower portion of the small intestine that connects to the large intestine (cecum).
3. Colonic atresia: A closure or absence in the colon, a part of the large intestine responsible for storing and eliminating waste.
4. Duodenal atresia: A closure or absence in the duodenum, the uppermost portion of the small intestine that receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach.
5. Multiple atresias: When more than one segment of the intestines is affected by atresia.

The exact cause of intestinal atresia remains unclear, but it is believed to be related to disruptions in fetal development during pregnancy. Treatment typically involves surgical correction to reconnect the affected segments of the intestine and restore normal digestive function. The prognosis for infants with intestinal atresia depends on the severity and location of the atresia, as well as any associated conditions or complications.

"Venae Cavae" is a term that refers to the two large veins in the human body that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

The "Superior Vena Cava" receives blood from the upper half of the body, including the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest, while the "Inferior Vena Cava" collects blood from the lower half of the body, including the abdomen and lower limbs.

Together, these veins play a crucial role in the circulatory system by ensuring that oxygen-depleted blood is efficiently returned to the heart for reoxygenation in the lungs.

Surgical fixation devices are medical implants used in various surgical procedures to provide stability, alignment, and support to fractured or damaged bones, joints, or soft tissues. These devices help promote healing by holding the affected area in the correct position until the body can repair itself. Common types of surgical fixation devices include:

1. Plates: Thin, flat metal pieces contoured to fit against the surface of a bone. They are often held in place with screws and used to stabilize fractures or support weakened bones.
2. Screws: Threaded rods that can be inserted into bones to hold them together or fixate implants such as plates or prosthetic joints.
3. Pins: Smooth or threaded wires used to temporarily or permanently hold bone fragments in place. They are often removed once healing is complete.
4. Intramedullary nails: Long rods placed inside the marrow cavity of a long bone (e.g., femur, tibia) to provide stability and alignment after a fracture.
5. External fixators: Devices attached to the outside of the body with pins or wires that pass through the skin and into the bones. They are used to stabilize complex fractures or injuries when internal fixation is not possible or advisable.
6. Interbody fusion cages: Cylindrical or box-shaped devices placed between two vertebrae during spinal fusion surgery to restore disc height and provide stability while promoting bone growth.
7. Sutures and staples: Used to approximate soft tissue edges (e.g., skin, muscles, ligaments) after surgical repair.

The choice of surgical fixation device depends on various factors, such as the location and severity of the injury, patient age and health status, and surgeon preference.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

Gastric bypass is a surgical procedure that involves creating a small pouch in the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to connect to this pouch, thereby bypassing the majority of the stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for morbid obesity and related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.

The smaller stomach pouch restricts food intake, while the rerouting of the small intestine reduces the amount of calories and nutrients that are absorbed, leading to weight loss. Gastric bypass can also result in hormonal changes that help regulate appetite and metabolism, further contributing to weight loss and improved health outcomes.

There are different types of gastric bypass procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic gastric bypass. The choice of procedure depends on various factors such as the patient's overall health, medical history, and personal preferences. Gastric bypass is generally considered a safe and effective treatment for morbid obesity, but like any surgical procedure, it carries risks and requires careful consideration and preparation.

The Fontan procedure is a type of open-heart surgery used to treat specific types of complex congenital (present at birth) heart defects. It's typically performed on children with single ventricle hearts, where one of the heart's lower chambers (the right or left ventricle) is underdeveloped or missing.

In a normal heart, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns from the body to the right atrium, then flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blue blood to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and turns red. Oxygen-rich (red) blood then returns from the lungs to the left atrium, flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and the left ventricle pumps it out to the body through the aorta.

However, in a single ventricle heart, the underdeveloped or missing ventricle cannot effectively pump blood to the lungs and the body simultaneously. The Fontan procedure aims to separate the blue and red blood circulation to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues.

The Fontan procedure involves two stages:

1. In the first stage, usually performed in infancy, a shunt or a band is placed around the pulmonary artery (the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) to control the amount of blood flowing into the lungs. This helps prevent lung congestion due to excessive blood flow.
2. The second stage, the Fontan procedure itself, takes place when the child is between 18 months and 4 years old. During this surgery, the surgeon creates a connection between the inferior vena cava (the large vein that returns blue blood from the lower body to the heart) and the pulmonary artery. This allows oxygen-poor blood to flow directly into the lungs without passing through the underdeveloped ventricle.

The Fontan procedure significantly improves the quality of life for many children with single ventricle hearts, although they may still face long-term complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and protein-losing enteropathy (a condition where the body loses too much protein in the stool). Regular follow-up care with a pediatric cardiologist is essential to monitor their health and manage any potential issues.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Ileal diseases refer to conditions that primarily affect the ileum, which is the final portion of the small intestine. The ileum plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly vitamin B12 and bile salts. Ileal diseases can cause various symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and malnutrition, depending on their nature and extent. Some common ileal diseases include:

1. Crohn's disease: A type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the ileum. Crohn's disease causes chronic inflammation, which can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue.
2. Celiac disease: An autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. In celiac disease, the immune system attacks the lining of the small intestine, including the ileum, causing inflammation and impaired nutrient absorption.
3. Intestinal tuberculosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the ileum. Intestinal tuberculosis can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
4. Typhlitis: Also known as neutropenic enterocolitis, typhlitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the cecum and terminal ileum, typically in immunocompromised individuals. It can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea.
5. Meckel's diverticulum: A congenital condition characterized by a small pouch protruding from the wall of the ileum. While many people with Meckel's diverticulum do not experience symptoms, it can sometimes become inflamed or bleed, causing abdominal pain and rectal bleeding.
6. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system and can affect any part of the body, including the ileum. Ileal lymphoma can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Esophageal atresia is a congenital condition in which the esophagus, the tube that connects the throat to the stomach, does not develop properly. In most cases, the upper esophagus ends in a pouch instead of connecting to the lower esophagus and stomach. This condition prevents food and liquids from reaching the stomach, leading to difficulty swallowing and feeding problems in newborn infants. Esophageal atresia often occurs together with a congenital defect called tracheoesophageal fistula, in which there is an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the windpipe (trachea).

The medical definition of 'Esophageal Atresia' is:

A congenital anomaly characterized by the absence of a normal connection between the upper esophagus and the stomach, resulting in the separation of the proximal and distal esophageal segments. The proximal segment usually ends in a blind pouch, while the distal segment may communicate with the trachea through a tracheoesophageal fistula. Esophageal atresia is often associated with other congenital anomalies and can cause serious complications if not diagnosed and treated promptly after birth.

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

The renal veins are a pair of large veins that carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood to the heart. The renal veins are formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain blood from different parts of the kidney.

In humans, the right renal vein is shorter and passes directly into the inferior vena cava, while the left renal vein is longer and passes in front of the aorta before entering the inferior vena cava. The left renal vein also receives blood from the gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins, suprarenal (adrenal) veins, and the lumbar veins.

It is important to note that the renal veins are vulnerable to compression by surrounding structures, such as the overlying artery or a tumor, which can lead to renal vein thrombosis, a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.

The mammary arteries are a set of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the mammary glands, which are the structures in female breasts responsible for milk production during lactation. The largest mammary artery, also known as the internal thoracic or internal mammary artery, originates from the subclavian artery and descends along the inner side of the chest wall. It then branches into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the breast tissue. These include the anterior and posterior intercostal arteries, lateral thoracic artery, and pectoral branches. The mammary arteries are crucial in maintaining the health and function of the breast tissue, and any damage or blockage to these vessels can lead to various breast-related conditions or diseases.

Urinary diversion is a surgical procedure that involves the creation of a new way for urine to leave the body, bypassing the native urinary system. This is typically performed in individuals who have damaged or removed urinary systems due to conditions such as cancer, severe trauma, or congenital abnormalities.

There are several types of urinary diversions, including:

1. Ileal Conduit: A segment of the small intestine (ileum) is used to create a passageway for urine to flow from the ureters to an external collection bag or pouch worn on the abdomen.
2. Continent Urinary Reservoir: A pouch-like reservoir is created using a segment of the intestine, which is then connected to the ureters. The patient periodically empties the reservoir through a stoma (opening) in the abdominal wall using a catheter.
3. Orthotopic Neobladder: A pouch-like reservoir is created using a segment of the intestine, which is then connected to the urethra, allowing for normal urination through the native urethral opening.

These procedures can significantly improve the quality of life for patients with severe urinary system damage or disease, although they do come with potential complications such as infections, stone formation, and electrolyte imbalances.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Intestinal volvulus is a serious medical condition that occurs when a segment of the intestine twists around itself, cutting off its blood supply. This can lead to tissue death and perforation of the intestine if not promptly treated. Intestinal volvulus can occur in any part of the intestine but is most common in the colon, particularly in the sigmoid colon.

Volvulus can be caused by a variety of factors, including congenital abnormalities, adhesions from previous surgeries, and conditions that cause the intestines to become mobile or elongated. Symptoms of intestinal volvulus may include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and constipation. In some cases, a physical examination or imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans may be used to diagnose the condition.

Treatment for intestinal volvulus typically involves surgery to untwist the intestine and restore blood flow. In some cases, a portion of the intestine may need to be removed if it has been damaged beyond repair. Preventative measures such as avoiding constipation and seeking prompt medical attention for abdominal pain can help reduce the risk of developing intestinal volvulus.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Surgical equipment refers to the specialized tools and instruments used by medical professionals during surgical procedures. These devices are designed to assist in various aspects of surgery, such as cutting, grasping, retraction, clamping, and suturing. Surgical equipment can be categorized into several types based on their function and use:

1. Cutting instruments: These include scalpels, scissors, and surgical blades designed to cut through tissues with precision and minimal trauma.

2. Grasping forceps: Forceps are used to hold, manipulate, or retrieve tissue, organs, or other surgical tools. Examples include Babcock forceps, Kelly forceps, and Allis tissue forceps.

3. Retractors: These devices help to expose deeper structures by holding open body cavities or tissues during surgery. Common retractors include Weitlaner retractors, Army-Navy retractors, and self-retaining retractors like the Bookwalter system.

4. Clamps: Used for occluding blood vessels, controlling bleeding, or approximating tissue edges before suturing. Examples of clamps are hemostats, bulldog clips, and Satinsky clamps.

5. Suction devices: These tools help remove fluids, debris, and smoke from the surgical site, improving visibility for the surgeon. Examples include Yankauer suctions and Frazier tip suctions.

6. Needle holders: Specialized forceps designed to hold suture needles securely during the process of suturing or approximating tissue edges.

7. Surgical staplers: Devices that place linear staple lines in tissues, used for quick and efficient closure of surgical incisions or anastomoses (joining two structures together).

8. Cautery devices: Electrosurgical units that use heat generated by electrical current to cut tissue and coagulate bleeding vessels.

9. Implants and prosthetics: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged body parts, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or orthopedic implants.

10. Monitoring and navigation equipment: Advanced tools that provide real-time feedback on patient physiology, surgical site anatomy, or instrument positioning during minimally invasive procedures.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of instruments and devices used in modern surgery. The choice of tools depends on various factors, including the type of procedure, patient characteristics, and surgeon preference.

Dilation, also known as dilatation, refers to the process of expanding or enlarging a body passage or cavity. In medical terms, it typically refers to the widening of a bodily opening or hollow organ, allowing for increased flow or access. This can occur naturally, such as during childbirth when the cervix dilates to allow for the passage of a baby, or it can be induced through medical procedures or interventions.

For example, dilation of the pupils is a natural response to darkness or certain medications, while dilation of blood vessels is a common side effect of some drugs and can also occur in response to changes in temperature or emotional state. Dilation of the stomach or intestines may be necessary for medical procedures such as endoscopies or surgeries.

It's important to note that dilation can also refer to the abnormal enlargement of a body part, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, which refers to an enlarged and weakened heart muscle.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

A fibrin tissue adhesive is a type of surgical glue that is used to approximate and secure together cut or wounded tissues in the body during surgical procedures. It is made from fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting, and is often combined with other substances like thrombin and calcium chloride to promote clot formation and enhance adhesion.

Fibrin tissue adhesives work by mimicking the body's natural clotting process. When applied to the wound site, the fibrinogen component of the adhesive is converted into fibrin by the thrombin component, creating a stable fibrin clot that holds the edges of the wound together. This helps to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications such as bleeding or infection.

Fibrin tissue adhesives are commonly used in various surgical procedures, including dermatologic, ophthalmic, orthopedic, and neurologic surgeries. They offer several advantages over traditional suturing methods, such as reduced operation time, less trauma to the tissues, and improved cosmetic outcomes. However, they may not be suitable for all types of wounds or surgical sites, and their use should be determined by a qualified healthcare professional based on individual patient needs and circumstances.

An arterio-arterial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Under normal circumstances, arteries do not directly communicate with each other; instead, they supply blood to capillaries, which then deliver the blood to veins.

An arterio-arterial fistula can result from various causes, including congenital defects, trauma, or as a complication of medical procedures such as arterial catheterization or surgical interventions. The presence of an arterio-arterial fistula may lead to several hemodynamic consequences, depending on the size, location, and chronicity of the communication. These can include altered blood flow patterns, increased pressure in the affected arteries, and potential cardiac complications due to volume overload.

Symptoms of an arterio-arterial fistula may vary widely, from being asymptomatic to experiencing palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, or even congestive heart failure in severe cases. The diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography to visualize the abnormal communication and assess its hemodynamic impact. Treatment options may include observation, endovascular interventions, or surgical repair, depending on the individual case.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

The radial artery is a key blood vessel in the human body, specifically a part of the peripheral arterial system. Originating from the brachial artery in the upper arm, the radial artery travels down the arm and crosses over the wrist, where it can be palpated easily. It then continues into the hand, dividing into several branches to supply blood to the hand's tissues and digits.

The radial artery is often used for taking pulse readings due to its easy accessibility at the wrist. Additionally, in medical procedures such as coronary angiography or bypass surgery, the radial artery can be utilized as a site for catheter insertion. This allows healthcare professionals to examine the heart's blood vessels and assess cardiovascular health.

A laparoscope is a type of medical instrument called an endoscope, which is used to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. Specifically, a laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera attached to it. This device allows surgeons to view the abdominal cavity through small incisions, without having to make large, invasive cuts.

During a laparoscopic procedure, the surgeon will insert the laparoscope through a small incision in the abdomen, typically near the navel. The camera sends images back to a monitor, giving the surgeon a clear view of the organs and tissues inside the body. This allows for more precise and less invasive surgical procedures, often resulting in faster recovery times and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgery.

Laparoscopes are commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, including:

1. Gynecological surgeries (e.g., hysterectomies, ovarian cyst removals)
2. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
3. Gastrointestinal surgeries (e.g., removing benign or malignant tumors)
4. Hernia repairs
5. Bariatric surgeries for weight loss (e.g., gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy)

While laparoscopes provide numerous benefits over open surgery, they still require specialized training and expertise to use effectively and safely.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Replantation is a surgical procedure in which a body part that has been completely detached or amputated is reattached to the body. This procedure involves careful reattachment of bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels to restore function and sensation to the greatest extent possible. The success of replantation depends on various factors such as the level of injury, the condition of the amputated part, and the patient's overall health.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

A surgical stoma, also known simply as a stoma, is a surgically created opening on the surface of the body that allows for the passage of bodily waste. This procedure is typically performed when a person has a malfunctioning or diseased organ in the digestive or urinary system that cannot be effectively treated or repaired.

In a colostomy or ileostomy, which are common types of surgical stomas, a portion of the colon or small intestine is brought through an opening in the abdominal wall to create a new pathway for waste to exit the body. The stoma may be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the success of any additional treatments.

After surgery, patients with a stoma will need to wear a pouching system to collect and contain the waste that is expelled through the stoma. This can take some getting used to, but with proper care and support, most people are able to adjust to life with a stoma and maintain a good quality of life.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

The abdominal wall refers to the group of muscles, fascia (sheaths of connective tissue), and skin that make up the front and sides of the abdomen, extending from the thorax (chest) to the pelvis. It provides protection to the abdominal organs, supports the trunk, and allows for movement of the torso.

The main muscles of the anterior abdominal wall include:

1. Rectus sheaths (Rectus Abdominis): paired vertical muscles running from the pubic symphysis to the xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7.
2. External obliques: thin, irregular muscles that lie over the lower part of the abdomen and run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (pelvic bone) and pubic tubercle.
3. Internal obliques: thicker muscles that lie under the external obliques, running diagonally upward and forward from the iliac crest to the lower ribs.
4. Transverse abdominis: deepest of the abdominal muscles, lying horizontally across the abdomen, attaching from the lower ribs to the pelvis.

These muscles are interconnected by various layers of fascia and aponeuroses (flat, broad tendons), forming a complex structure that allows for both stability and mobility. The linea alba, a fibrous band, runs down the midline of the anterior abdominal wall, connecting the rectus sheaths.

Damage to the abdominal wall can occur due to trauma, surgery, or various medical conditions, which may require surgical intervention for repair.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

The omentum, in anatomical terms, refers to a large apron-like fold of abdominal fatty tissue that hangs down from the stomach and loops over the intestines. It is divided into two portions: the greater omentum, which is larger and hangs down further, and the lesser omentum, which is smaller and connects the stomach to the liver.

The omentum has several functions in the body, including providing protection and cushioning for the abdominal organs, assisting with the immune response by containing a large number of immune cells, and helping to repair damaged tissues. It can also serve as a source of nutrients and energy for the body during times of starvation or other stressors.

In medical contexts, the omentum may be surgically mobilized and used to wrap around injured or inflamed tissues in order to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. This technique is known as an "omentopexy" or "omentoplasty."

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

The Thoracic Arteries are branches of the aorta that supply oxygenated blood to the thoracic region of the body. The pair of arteries originate from the descending aorta and divide into several smaller branches, including intercostal arteries that supply blood to the muscles between the ribs, and posterior intercostal arteries that supply blood to the back and chest wall. Other branches of the thoracic arteries include the superior phrenic arteries, which supply blood to the diaphragm, and the bronchial arteries, which supply blood to the lungs. These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the chest and respiratory system.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

An endoscope is a medical device used for examining the interior of a body cavity or organ. It consists of a long, thin, flexible (or rigid) tube with a light and a camera at one end. The other end is connected to a video monitor that displays the images captured by the camera. Endoscopes can be inserted through natural openings in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through small incisions. They are used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for performing various medical procedures, including biopsies and surgeries. Different types of endoscopes include gastroscopes, colonoscopes, bronchoscopes, and arthroscopes, among others.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Tunica intima, also known as the intima layer, is the innermost layer of a blood vessel, including arteries and veins. It is in direct contact with the flowing blood and is composed of simple squamous endothelial cells that form a continuous, non-keratinized, stratified epithelium. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating the passage of molecules and immune cells between the blood and the vessel wall, as well as contributing to the maintenance of blood fluidity and preventing coagulation.

The tunica intima is supported by a thin layer of connective tissue called the basement membrane, which provides structural stability and anchorage for the endothelial cells. Beneath the basement membrane lies a loose network of elastic fibers and collagen, known as the internal elastic lamina, that separates the tunica intima from the middle layer, or tunica media.

In summary, the tunica intima is the innermost layer of blood vessels, primarily composed of endothelial cells and a basement membrane, which regulates various functions to maintain vascular homeostasis.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

An aortic aneurysm is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal widening or bulging of the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When the aortic wall weakens, it can stretch and balloon out, forming an aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta but are most commonly found in the abdominal section (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the chest area (thoracic aortic aneurysm). The size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health, determine the risk of rupture and associated complications.

Aneurysms often do not cause symptoms until they become large or rupture. Symptoms may include:

* Pain in the chest, back, or abdomen
* Pulsating sensation in the abdomen
* Difficulty breathing
* Hoarseness
* Coughing or vomiting

Risk factors for aortic aneurysms include age, smoking, high blood pressure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair.

Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. This condition usually occurs in the part of the aorta that is just beyond where it arises from the left ventricle and before it divides into the iliac arteries.

In aortic coarctation, the narrowing can vary from mild to severe, and it can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity of the narrowing and the age of the individual. In newborns and infants with severe coarctation, symptoms may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, and weak or absent femoral pulses (located in the groin area). Older children and adults with mild to moderate coarctation may not experience any symptoms until later in life, when high blood pressure, headaches, nosebleeds, leg cramps, or heart failure develop.

Aortic coarctation is typically diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI, and sometimes cardiac catheterization. Treatment options include surgical repair or balloon dilation (also known as balloon angioplasty) to open the narrowed section of the aorta. If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, and rupture or dissection of the aorta.

Airway extubation is a medical procedure in which an endotracheal tube is removed from a patient's airway. The endotracheal tube is typically inserted during intubation, which is performed to maintain a secure airway and ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation of the lungs during surgery or other medical procedures.

Extubation is usually done when the patient is able to breathe on their own and no longer requires mechanical ventilation. The procedure involves carefully removing the tube while ensuring that the patient's airway remains open and protected. This may involve suctioning secretions from the airway, providing oxygen supplementation, and monitoring the patient's vital signs closely.

Extubation can be a routine procedure in some cases, but it can also carry risks such as respiratory distress, laryngospasm, or aspiration of stomach contents into the lungs. As such, it is typically performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled setting, with appropriate monitoring and equipment available to manage any potential complications.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

Hemorheology is the study of the flow properties of blood and its components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Specifically, it examines how these components interact with each other and with the walls of blood vessels to affect the flow characteristics of blood under different conditions. Hemorheological factors can influence blood viscosity, which is a major determinant of peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac workload. Abnormalities in hemorheology have been implicated in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and sickle cell disease.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

The transverse colon is the section of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen, located between the ascending colon and the descending colon. It receives digested food material from the left side of the cecum via the transverse mesocolon, a double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches it to the posterior abdominal wall.

The transverse colon is responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes, and vitamins from the digested food material before it moves into the distal sections of the large intestine. It also contains a large number of bacteria that help in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of certain vitamins, such as vitamin K and biotin.

The transverse colon is highly mobile and can change its position within the abdomen depending on factors such as respiration, digestion, and posture. It is also prone to various pathological conditions, including inflammation (colitis), diverticulosis, and cancer.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

An esophageal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the esophagus (the tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach) and another organ, such as the trachea (windpipe) or the skin. This condition can result from complications of certain medical conditions, including cancer, prolonged infection, or injury to the esophagus.

Esophageal fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and fever. They can also lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia or sepsis, if left untreated. Treatment for an esophageal fistula typically involves surgical repair of the abnormal connection, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Thyroid cartilage is the largest and most superior of the laryngeal cartilages, forming the front and greater part of the larynx, also known as the "Adam's apple" in humans. It serves to protect the vocal cords and provides attachment for various muscles involved in voice production. The thyroid cartilage consists of two laminae that join in front at an angle, creating a noticeable prominence in the anterior neck. This structure is crucial in speech formation and swallowing functions.

Colorectal surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. This can include conditions such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), diverticulitis, and anal fistulas or fissures.

The surgical procedures performed by colorectal surgeons may involve minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery, or more traditional open surgery. These procedures can range from removing polyps during a colonoscopy to complex resections of the colon, rectum, or anus.

Colorectal surgeons also work closely with other medical specialists, such as gastroenterologists, oncologists, and radiologists, to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

The splenic vein is a large, thin-walled vein that carries oxygenated blood from the spleen and pancreas to the liver. It is formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain the upper part of the stomach, the pancreas, and the left side of the colon (splenic flexure). The splenic vein runs along the top border of the pancreas and merges with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein. This venous system allows for the filtration and detoxification of blood by the liver before it is distributed to the rest of the body.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Disposable equipment in a medical context refers to items that are designed to be used once and then discarded. These items are often patient-care products that come into contact with patients or bodily fluids, and are meant to help reduce the risk of infection transmission. Examples of disposable medical equipment include gloves, gowns, face masks, syringes, and bandages.

Disposable equipment is intended for single use only and should not be reused or cleaned for reuse. This helps ensure that the equipment remains sterile and free from potential contaminants that could cause harm to patients or healthcare workers. Proper disposal of these items is also important to prevent the spread of infection and maintain a safe and clean environment.

Cyanoacrylates are a type of fast-acting adhesive that polymerize in the presence of moisture. They are commonly used in medical settings as tissue adhesives or surgical glues to close wounds and promote healing. The most well-known cyanoacrylate is probably "super glue," which is not intended for medical use.

In a medical context, cyanoacrylates are often used as an alternative to sutures or staples to close minor cuts and wounds. They can also be used in certain surgical procedures to help stop bleeding and hold tissue together while it heals. The adhesive forms a strong bond that helps to keep the wound closed and reduce the risk of infection.

It's important to note that cyanoacrylates should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to skin irritation or other complications. Additionally, cyanoacrylates are not suitable for all types of wounds, so it's important to follow your doctor's instructions carefully when using these products.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

Granulation tissue is the pinkish, bumpy material that forms on the surface of a healing wound. It's composed of tiny blood vessels (capillaries), white blood cells, and fibroblasts - cells that produce collagen, which is a protein that helps to strengthen and support the tissue.

Granulation tissue plays a crucial role in the wound healing process by filling in the wound space, contracting the wound, and providing a foundation for the growth of new skin cells (epithelialization). It's typically formed within 3-5 days after an injury and continues to develop until the wound is fully healed.

It's important to note that while granulation tissue is a normal part of the healing process, excessive or overgrowth of granulation tissue can lead to complications such as delayed healing, infection, or the formation of hypertrophic scars or keloids. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to manage the excess tissue and promote proper healing.

Abdominal wound closure techniques refer to the methods used to close and repair surgical incisions in the abdomen. The goal of these techniques is to restore the integrity of the abdominal wall, minimize the risk of infection or dehiscence (wound separation), and promote optimal healing. Several abdominal wound closure techniques are available, and the choice of which one to use depends on various factors such as the size and location of the incision, the patient's individual needs and medical history, and the surgeon's preference. Here are some commonly used abdominal wound closure techniques:

1. Continuous running suture: This technique involves using a continuous strand of suture material to close the wound in a single pass. The suture is inserted through the full thickness of the abdominal wall, including the fascia (the strong connective tissue that surrounds the muscles), and then passed continuously along the length of the incision, pulling the edges of the wound together as it goes. This technique can be faster and more efficient than other methods, but it may increase the risk of infection or wound breakdown if not done properly.
2. Interrupted suture: In this technique, the surgeon uses individual stitches placed at regular intervals along the incision to close the wound. Each stitch is tied separately, which can make the closure more secure and reduce the risk of infection or wound breakdown. However, interrupted sutures can be more time-consuming than continuous running sutures.
3. Mass closure: This technique involves using a large, continuous suture to close the entire length of the incision in one pass. The suture is inserted through the full thickness of the abdominal wall and tied at both ends, pulling the edges of the wound together. Mass closure can be faster and more efficient than other methods, but it may increase the risk of infection or wound breakdown if not done properly.
4. Retention sutures: These are additional sutures that are placed deep within the abdominal wall to provide extra support and strength to the closure. They are often used in high-tension areas or in patients who are at increased risk of wound dehiscence, such as those with obesity or diabetes.
5. Layered closure: In this technique, the surgeon closes the incision in multiple layers, starting with the deepest layer of muscle and fascia and working outward to the skin. Each layer is closed separately using either interrupted or continuous sutures. Layered closure can provide added strength and stability to the closure, but it can be more time-consuming than other methods.
6. Skin closure: The final step in wound closure is to close the skin, which can be done using a variety of techniques, including staples, sutures, or surgical glue. The choice of closure method depends on several factors, including the size and location of the incision, the patient's individual needs and preferences, and the surgeon's experience and expertise.

Overall, the choice of wound closure technique depends on several factors, including the size and location of the incision, the patient's individual needs and preferences, and the surgeon's experience and expertise. The goal is to provide a strong, secure, and cosmetically appealing closure that minimizes the risk of infection, wound breakdown, or other complications.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

Pulmonary circulation refers to the process of blood flow through the lungs, where blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. This is a vital part of the overall circulatory system, which delivers nutrients and oxygen to the body's cells while removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

In pulmonary circulation, deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation returns to the right atrium of the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood then moves into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and gets pumped into the pulmonary artery when the right ventricle contracts.

The pulmonary artery divides into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further branch into a vast network of tiny capillaries in the lungs. Here, oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into the blood, binding to hemoglobin in red blood cells, while carbon dioxide leaves the blood and is exhaled through the nose or mouth.

The now oxygenated blood collects in venules, which merge to form pulmonary veins. These veins transport the oxygen-rich blood back to the left atrium of the heart, where it enters the systemic circulation once again. This continuous cycle enables the body's cells to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients for proper functioning while disposing of waste products.

Thoracic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the thorax, which is the part of the body that lies between the neck and the abdomen and includes the chest cage, lungs, heart, great blood vessels, esophagus, diaphragm, and other organs in the chest cavity. These surgical procedures can be either open or minimally invasive (using small incisions and specialized instruments) and are performed to diagnose, treat, or manage various medical conditions affecting the thoracic organs, such as:

1. Lung cancer: Thoracic surgeons perform lung resections (lobectomy, segmentectomy, wedge resection) to remove cancerous lung tissue. They may also perform mediastinal lymph node dissection to assess the spread of the disease.
2. Esophageal surgery: Surgeries like esophagectomy are performed to treat esophageal cancer or other conditions affecting the esophagus, such as severe GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
3. Chest wall surgery: This includes procedures to repair or replace damaged ribs, sternum, or chest wall muscles and treat conditions like pectus excavatum or tumors in the chest wall.
4. Heart surgery: Thoracic surgeons collaborate with cardiac surgeons to perform surgeries on the heart, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve repair/replacement, and procedures for treating aneurysms or dissections of the aorta.
5. Diaphragm surgery: Procedures like diaphragm plication are performed to treat paralysis or weakness of the diaphragm that can lead to respiratory insufficiency.
6. Mediastinal surgery: This involves operating on the mediastinum, the area between the lungs, to remove tumors, cysts, or other abnormal growths.
7. Pleural surgery: Procedures like pleurodesis or decortication are performed to manage conditions affecting the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lungs), such as pleural effusions, pneumothorax, or empyema.
8. Lung surgery: Thoracic surgeons perform procedures on the lungs, including lobectomy, segmentectomy, or pneumonectomy to treat lung cancer, benign tumors, or other lung diseases.
9. Tracheal surgery: This includes procedures to repair or reconstruct damaged trachea or remove tumors and growths in the airway.
10. Esophageal surgery: Collaborating with general surgeons, thoracic surgeons perform esophagectomy and other procedures to treat esophageal cancer, benign tumors, or other conditions affecting the esophagus.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Facial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII). This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, eyelid movement, and taste sensation in the front two-thirds of the tongue.

There are two main types of facial nerve injuries:

1. Peripheral facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve outside the skull base, usually due to trauma from cuts, blunt force, or surgical procedures in the parotid gland or neck region. The injury may result in weakness or paralysis on one side of the face, known as Bell's palsy, and may also impact taste sensation and salivary function.

2. Central facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve within the skull base, often due to stroke, brain tumors, or traumatic brain injuries. Central facial nerve injuries typically result in weakness or paralysis only on the lower half of the face, as the upper motor neurons responsible for controlling the upper face receive innervation from both sides of the brain.

Treatment for facial nerve injuries depends on the severity and location of the damage. For mild to moderate injuries, physical therapy, protective eyewear, and medications like corticosteroids and antivirals may be prescribed. Severe cases might require surgical intervention, such as nerve grafts or muscle transfers, to restore function. In some instances, facial nerve injuries may heal on their own over time, particularly when the injury is mild and there is no ongoing compression or tension on the nerve.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

Vascular grafting is a surgical procedure where a vascular graft, which can be either a natural or synthetic tube, is used to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased portion of a blood vessel. The goal of this procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the affected area, thereby preventing tissue damage or necrosis due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply.

The vascular graft can be sourced from various locations in the body, such as the saphenous vein in the leg, or it can be made of synthetic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The choice of graft depends on several factors, including the size and location of the damaged vessel, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's preference.

Vascular grafting is commonly performed to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and vasculitis. This procedure carries risks such as bleeding, infection, graft failure, and potential complications related to anesthesia. However, with proper postoperative care and follow-up, vascular grafting can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

A diverticulum of the colon is a small sac or pouch that forms in the wall of the large intestine (colon). These sacs usually develop in areas where the blood vessels pass through the muscle layer of the colon, creating a weak spot that eventually bulges outward. Diverticula can occur anywhere along the length of the colon, but they are most commonly found in the lower part of the colon, also known as the sigmoid colon.

Diverticula themselves are not harmful and often do not cause any symptoms. However, when these sacs become inflamed or infected, it can lead to a condition called diverticulitis, which can cause pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea. Diverticulitis is usually treated with antibiotics and a liquid diet, but in severe cases, surgery may be required.

Risk factors for developing colonic diverticula include aging, obesity, smoking, low fiber intake, and lack of physical activity. Regular screening is recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and prevent complications associated with diverticular disease.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

Artificial pneumoperitoneum is a medical condition that refers to the presence of air or gas in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within the abdomen. This condition is typically created intentionally during surgical procedures, such as laparoscopy, to provide a working space for the surgeon to perform the operation.

During laparoscopic surgery, a thin tube called a trocar is inserted through a small incision in the abdominal wall, and carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the peritoneal cavity to create a pneumoperitoneum. This allows the surgeon to insert specialized instruments through other small incisions and perform the surgery while visualizing the operative field with a camera.

While artificial pneumoperitoneum is generally safe, there are potential complications that can arise, such as injury to surrounding organs or blood vessels during trocar insertion, subcutaneous emphysema (air trapped under the skin), or gas embolism (gas in the bloodstream). These risks are typically minimized through careful technique and monitoring during the procedure.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

Metoclopramide is a medication that is primarily used to manage gastrointestinal disorders. It is classified as a dopamine antagonist and a prokinetic agent, which means it works by blocking the action of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that can slow down stomach and intestine function.

The medical definition of Metoclopramide is:
A synthetic congener of procainamide, used as an antiemetic and to increase gastrointestinal motility. It has a antidopaminergic action, binding to D2 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and stomach, and it may also block 5HT3 receptors at intrapyloric and central levels. Its actions on the gut smooth muscle are mediated via cholinergic muscarinic receptors. (Source: Dorland's Medical Dictionary)

Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, and gastroparesis, which is a condition that affects the normal movement of food through the digestive tract. It can also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Like any medication, Metoclopramide can have side effects, including drowsiness, restlessness, and muscle spasms. In some cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, a condition characterized by involuntary movements of the face, tongue, or limbs. It is important to use Metoclopramide only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Medical illustration is a specialized field of visual art that involves the creation of accurate and detailed images to help communicate medical or scientific information. These illustrations are often used in textbooks, journal articles, educational materials, legal exhibits, and medical marketing materials to clearly and effectively convey complex concepts and procedures related to the human body, health, and disease.

Medical illustrators typically have a strong background in both art and science, with many holding advanced degrees in fields such as biology, anatomy, or medical illustration. They use a variety of traditional and digital media to create their work, including pencils, pens, paint, 3D modeling software, and graphic design tools.

Medical illustrations can depict a wide range of subjects, from the microscopic structure of cells and tissues to the intricate workings of medical devices and procedures. They may also be used to visualize surgical techniques, patient anatomy, or disease processes, making them an essential tool for medical education, research, and communication.

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Surgical Neurology. 46 (5): 424-429. doi:10.1016/s0090-3019(96)00096-1. PMID 8874539. Grady, Denise (December 19, 2006). "With ... In neurosurgery, excimer laser assisted non-occlusive anastomosis (ELANA) is a technique use to create a bypass without ... anastomosis) to create a bypass in or to the brain. The differences involve how the recipient artery is opened. In conventional ...
Treatment is resection and anastomosis. Mortality increases with delay in surgical intervention. Crabtree, TD. "General Surgery ...
This is commonly called the anastomosis of Galen (Latin: ansa galeni), even though anastomosis usually refers to a blood vessel ... Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E (October 14, 2009). Atlas of Endocrine Surgical Techniques. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-1- ... Naidu L, Ramsaroop L, Partab P, Satyapal KS (September 2012). "Galen's "anastomosis" revisited". Clinical Anatomy. 25 (6): 722- ... 35 and is one of several documented anastomoses between the two nerves. As the recurrent nerve hooks around the subclavian ...
End-to-End Anastomosis), surgical repair of left upper abdominal colostomy (13 min). PMF 5002 (1947) - Abdominal Colostomy ... similarity of procedures followed in anastomosis; typical problems and applicable surgical techniques; some WW II developments ... The Surgical Treatment of Carotid Body Sensitivity In Man; Surgical correction of carotid body sensitivity; Comparison of pre- ... The series covered psychiatric, surgical, and tropical medicine, radiation health effects, and other health topics in an ...
"First cephalosomatic anastomosis in a human model". Surgical Neurology International. 8 (276): 50. doi:10.4103/sni.sni_415_17. ... very near towards the successful execution of a human head transplant and detailed out a rough version of the proposed surgical ...
Surgical loop connection relieves the obstruction distally. Roux-en-Y anastomosis "Stump blow-out". The Free Medical Dictionary ... Intravenous fluids should be started and adequate surgical drainage should be provided. Surgery is indicated when there is ...
The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) shunt, or bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis, is a surgical technique used in pediatric ... This is an example of a surgical anastomosis. As a result, the venous blood from the upper body enters the SVC and perfuses the ... experience in surgical management with a modified cavopulmonary anastomosis". Thorax. 27 (1): 111-115. doi:10.1136/thx.27.1.111 ... Creation of a bidirectional shunt reduces the amount of blood volume that the heart needs to pump at the time of surgical ...
Severtsev A. N., Shugurov V. A., Malov U. I. "Modern methods of non-surgical treatment of bleeding from varicose veins of the ... portocaval anastomoses; parenteral nutrition; ERAS (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery). Alexey Nikolaevich Severtsev is a member ... International Surgical Week ISW95. Lisbon, Portugal, August 27 to September 2, 1995. Abstract Book». p. 207 (#825), 1995. ... 5. - p. 4-8. "Portal hypertension" (Severtsev A. N.). "Acute surgical diseases" (manuals for students of fifth-year and sixth- ...
The first surgical approach consists of resection and primary anastomosis. This first stage of surgery is performed on people ... Anastomosis is confirmed by filling the cavity with normal saline and checking for any air bubbles. When excessive inflammation ... After the mesenteric vessels are dissected, the colon is divided with special surgical staplers that close off the bowel while ... The traditional bowel resection is made using an open surgical approach, called colectomy. During a colectomy, the person is ...
Embryology, anatomy, and surgical applications". The Surgical Clinics of North America. 80 (1): 71-84. doi:10.1016/s0039-6109( ... The decisions about potential removal and anastomosis are made. Following this, the hernial opening gets fixed either using ... In cases where a section of the bowel is present, a surgical removal might be warranted, following standard surgical procedures ... Since surgical treatment of most cases is delayed, the obturator hernia potentially has the highest mortality rate of the ...
History of United States Surgical Corporation Brundage Susan I (2001). "Stapled versus Sutured Gastrointestinal Anastomoses in ... who founded the United States Surgical Corporation in 1964 to manufacture surgical staplers under its Auto Suture brand. Until ... Surgical staples are specialized staples used in surgery in place of sutures to close skin wounds or connect or remove parts of ... Modern surgical staplers are either disposable and made of plastic, or reusable and made of stainless steel. Both types are ...
Surgical anastomosis techniques include Linear Stapled Anastomosis, Hand Sewn Anastomosis, End-to-End Anastomosis (EEA). ... Arterial anastomosis includes actual arterial anastomosis (e.g., palmar arch, plantar arch) and potential arterial anastomosis ... such as a surgical anastomosis). The reestablishment of an anastomosis that had become blocked is called a reanastomosis. ... Studies have been performed comparing various anastomosis approaches taking into account surgical "time and cost, postoperative ...
Creation of an end-to-end anastomosis is a basic microsurgical skill that is taught to surgical residents and fellows. Coronary ... veno-venous anastomosis) or between an artery and a vein (arterio-venous anastomosis). Anastomoses between arteries and between ... Portacaval anastomosis, by contrast, is a veno-venous anastomosis between a vein of the portal circulation and a vein of the ... A circulatory anastomosis is a connection (an anastomosis) between two blood vessels, such as between arteries (arterio- ...
Billroth II (BII) reconstruction method: a gastrojejunostomy with end-to-side surgical anastomosis. The gastrocolic ligament of ... Cancer patients' condition is also considered when making surgical decisions. Other surgeries can manage GOO. Surgical ... a gastroduodenostomy with end-to-end or end-to-side surgical anastomosis; the duodenal passage is preserved and remains intact ... Finally, the anastomosis is checked for patency with the thumb and index finger. The position of the stomach tube is also ...
The Surgical Relief of Aortic Stenosis By Means of Apical-aortic Valvular Anastomosis. Circulation 1955; 11:564-74. Cooley DA, ... Apicoaortic Conduit (AAC), also known as Aortic Valve Bypass (AVB), is a cardiothoracic surgical procedure that alleviates ...
ISBN 978-1-4160-4572-4. Suh JG, Choi WS, Paick JS, Kim SW (July 2013). "Surgical Outcome of Excision and End-to-End Anastomosis ... Surgical repair of severe hypospadias may require multiple procedures and mucosal grafting. Preputial skin is often used for ... Many men, whether they have had surgical repair of their hypospadias as a child or not often are very guarded in school ... 1986]. "Chapter 9.1:Surgical Conditions in Older Children". In South M (ed.). Practical Paediatrics, Seventh Edition. Churchill ...
... and advocate excision of the damaged area followed by either a surgical anastomosis of the (now) patent urethral ends, or a ... Prior to discharge from the surgical facility, the patient will be instructed on proper care of the urinary drainage system, ... Urethrotomy is a much simpler operation requiring much less recovery time and that open surgical excision of a simple, short ... "Long-term Follow up for Excision and Primary Anastomosis for Anterior Urethral Strictures" (PDF). Indiana Purdue University ...
SADI-S (Single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy) is a bariatric surgical technique to address metabolic ... The SADI-S is a type of bariatric surgery with a single surgical anastomosis. It has a restrictive component when reducing the ... although the single anastomosis is designed to present less risk overall compared to the multi-anastomosis techniques). In the ... Single Anastomosis Duodenal-Ileal Bypass with Sleeve Gastrectomy/One Anastomosis Duodenal Switch (SADI-S/OADS) IFSO Position ...
... is a surgical technique used in an anastomosis between two portions of the jejunum. It is a type of bypass ... The surgical procedure can lead to complications including infections, hemorrhage, strictures, ulcers, intestinal obstruction, ...
In the procedure, the fistula is ligated at a location slightly proximal to the anastomosis. A bypass to the venous outflow is ... Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) is a surgical treatment for Dialysis-associated Steal Syndrome. RUDI was first proposed by ...
With modern surgical techniques, bronchial anastomoses heal well without bronchial artery reconnection. Largely for this reason ...
The anastomosis is made in front of such an artery if it exists. A ureteric stent is inserted to splint the anastomosis. This ... Other surgical procedures have been described to widen the PUJ without dismembering the ureter from the renal pelvis. Smith, ... There are different types of pyeloplasty depending on the surgical technique and patterns of incision used. These include the Y ... Pyeloplasty is a type of surgical procedure performed to treat an uretero-pelvic junction obstruction if residual renal ...
In 1888 he became director of the surgical clinic at the University of Jena. Riedel was a pioneer in the surgical treatment of ... In 1888 he performed the first choledochoduodenostomy (anastomosis of the common bile duct to the duodenum). His name is lent ... later being appointed chief physician of the surgical department at the Städtisches Krankenhaus in Aachen (1881). ...
Surgical microscopes are used in anastomosis procedures carried out to join blood vessels in vascular surgery. Surgical ... An operating microscope or surgical microscope is an optical microscope specifically designed to be used in a surgical setting ... In Eye (ophthalmic) surgery, there are procedures which routinely utilize a surgical microscope, such as cataract surgery and ...
He created a surgical technique for small vessel anastomosis in arterial surgery and vein patch arterioplasty. Earl U. Bell of ... He devised a surgical procedure for vein valve transplantation and a surgical procedure for venous embolectomy. He also ... He did his surgical training in the General Surgery Residency training program at the Brooklyn Jewish Hospital and Medical ... Rai's videotapes on these surgical procedures is available in the American College of Surgeon Education Library: Infragenicular ...
"Effect of fibrin glue on small and large bowel anastomoses in the rat". European Surgical Research. 30 (1): 8-12. doi:10.1159/ ... Fibrin glue (also called fibrin sealant) is a surgical formulation used to create a fibrin clot for hemostasis, cartilage ... Mücke T, Wolff KD (2009). "Performing microvascular anastomosis with fibrin glue--faster, easier, and more reliable?". ... for the improvement of hemostasis where standard surgical techniques are insufficient or impractical. It is also used for ...
Jameson L. Chassin, et al.: "Errors and Pitfalls in Stapling Gastrointestinal Tract Anastomoses. (Chapter 2 in "The Surgical ... The Surgical Clinics of North America: Symposium on Surgical Stapling Techniques, vol. 64, No. 3. (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders ... The Surgical Clinics of North America: Symposium on Surgical Stapling Techniques, vol. 64, No. 3. (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders ... Chapter 8 in "The Surgical Clinics of North America: Symposium on Surgical Stapling Techniques," vol. 64, No. 3. Mark M. ...
With an ileum-anal anastomosis, the entire colon and rectum were removed. Next a surgical join (anastomosis) was used to ... ileo pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), was a surgical advancement from the ileoanal anastomosis procedure developed in the 1940s. ... The surgical procedure for forming an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) was pioneered by Sir Alan Parks at the London ... It is technically more demanding for a surgeon to perform a hand sewn anal anastomosis than a stapled anal anastomosis. Stapled ...
If the anastomosis occurs outside of the liver, the shunt is considered to be extrahepatic. On the other hand, if the ... However, in instances where spontaneous closure does not occur, radiologic or surgical closure of the CPSS is recommended to ... Once the congenital, and isolated, nature of the shunt has been ascertained, closure by surgical intervention is usually ... It is generally agreed amongst specialists that the majority of CPSSs should be closed by radiological or surgical intervention ...
A surgical anastomosis is a surgical technique used to make a new connection between two body structures that carry fluid, such ... A surgical anastomosis can be created using suture sewn by hand, mechanical staplers and biological glues, depending on the ... For example, an arterial anastomosis is used in vascular bypass and a colonic anastomosis is used to restore colonic continuity ... Fashioning an anastomosis is typically a complex and time-consuming step in a surgical operation, but almost always crucial to ...
... polyposis performed since 1983 carries a much lower rate of rectal cancer and proctectomy than ileorectal anastomosis performed ... a function of available surgical options James Church 1 , Carol Burke, Ellen McGannon, Olivia Pastean, Bryan Clark ... Surveillance of familial adenomatous polyposis patients after ileorectal anastomosis or ileoanal pouch anastomosis. Tytgat GN. ... Outcome of primary and secondary ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and ileorectal anastomosis in patients with familial adenomatous ...
The Castaneda Anastomosis Clamps from Wexler Surgical are made of Stainless Steel. The clamps are small in size with 15mm ... Castaneda Anastomosis Clamps - Small, 15mm Angled Atraumatic jaws, Slightly Curved Shanks, Stainless Steel, 6 (15cm). ... The Castaneda Anastomosis Clamps are made of Stainless Steel. The clamps are small in size with 15mm Angled Atraumatic Jaws and ... Castaneda Anastomosis Clamps - Small, 15mm Angled Atraumatic jaws, Slightly Curved Shanks, Stainless Steel, 6 (15cm). ...
An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. It usually means a connection that is created between tubular ... An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. It usually means a connection that is created between tubular ... The procedure is known as an intestinal anastomosis. ... Examples of surgical anastomoses are:. *Arteriovenous fistula ( ...
Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure to establish communication between two formerly distant portions of the ... Intestinal anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, especially in the emergency setting, and is ... A meta-analysis on delayed coloanal anastomosis determined that if the anastomosis is delayed, a coloanal anastomosis with a ... Stapled anastomosis (eg, gastrojejunostomy, small-bowel anastomosis, colorectal anastomosis, cervical esophagogastric ...
J-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis after low-anterior resection for rectal cancer with regard to functional and surgical ... An alternative method is to use a simple side-to-end anastomosis.. Methods: One-hundred patients with rectal cancer undergoing ... Conclusions: The data from this study show that either a colonic J-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis performed on the ... Surgical results and complications were recorded. Patients were followed with a functional evaluation at 6 and 12 months ...
The surgical indications, operative outcomes, and pathologic findings were analyzed. All 10 lesions were in the neck of the ... Central pancreatectomy without pancreatico-enteric anastomosis for lesions in the neck and proximal pancreas is a safe and ... Morbidity is low because there is no anastomosis. Long term endocrine and exocrine function has been maintained. ... This is a retrospective review of 10 patients who underwent central pancreatectomy without pancreatico-enteric anastomosis ...
C-seal for prevention of anastomotic leakage in colorectal anastomoses Morks AN., Havenga K., Ten Cate Hoedemaker HO., Ploeg RJ ... 2023 Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DU ...
A Glover Anastomosis Clamp is used to join two ends of a blood vessel together during a surgical procedure. The jaw length ( ... A Glover Anastomosis Clamp is used to join two ends of a blood vessel together during a surgical procedure. The jaw length ( ... Scala Surgical Ltd Unit 6, 89 Manor Farm Road Alperton, Middlesex HA0 1BA. UK ...
Anastomosis, Surgical * Catheterization, Central Venous / methods * Catheterization, Central Venous / statistics & numerical ...
Surgical Techniques in Moyamoya Vasculopathy - by Peter Vajkoczy ... Double Anastomosis Using Only One Branch of the Superficial ... Surgical Techniques in Moyamoya Vasculopathy. Peter Vajkoczy. Chapter 13. Double Anastomosis Using Only One Branch of the ... The gelfoam helps in elevating the recipient vessel and surgical field during anastomosis. The second recipient vessel is also ... Ultimately, the anastomosis may need to be opened and revised, or a new anastomosis performed on a different recipient vessel. ...
The surgical technique was as follows. Four or five trocars were used, and the surgeon uses a 2 mm in diameter grasper with the ... Intracorporeal anastomosis was not inferior to extracorporeal anastomosis in terms of the length of the operation and estimated ... We compared the results of the intracorporeal anastomosis with extracorporeal anastomosis, and analyzed the data for ... A laparoscopic linear cutting stapler is deployed through the bowel opening, to form a side-to-side anastomosis. The enterotomy ...
If youve had very low rectal cancer and received Total Mesorectal Excision and a very low colo-anal anastomosis surgery is ... I had very revealing talks with the surgical nurse practitioner and the wound and colostomy nurse. And finally a week after the ... I also thought what would I do, if I get an anastomosis, when Im physically able to take long bike rides or hikes. I imagine, ... Its good to hear this works for someone with a very low anastomosis. Its also great to hear that you are doing well 30 years ...
Anastomosis, Surgical / methods * Aorta / surgery * Aortic Aneurysm / surgery* * Aortic Dissection / surgery* * Aortic Valve* ...
After the second surgical intervention, 210 days after partial cystectomy, it was possible to verify that there was no tumor ... The first stitch was made at the apex of the incision and the rest of the anastomosis was made with single interrupted suture ... The proposed surgical technique was considered viable and a potential treatment option for TCC in bladder trigone, with ... The mass involved the left ureter and bladder neck (Figure 3B). The surgical resection was then chosen, respecting the margin ...
More than 61 surgical techniques of pancreatic anastomosis with a vast number of variations have been published. Moreover, ... The pancreatic anastomosis an overview of different anastomosis technique. 2017. http://​pancreatic-anastomosis.​com/​. Daamen ... The pancreatic anastomosis an overview of different anastomosis technique. 2017. http://​pancreatic-anastomosis.​com/​. ... Technical aspects of pancreatic anastomosis , springermedizin.at Skip to main content Menü Home ...
The available surgical treatment options include the following:. Lymphovenous Anastomosis (LVA) or Lymphovenous Bypass (LVB). ... Most surgical procedures like LVA and VLNT will help to remove symptoms, reduce the size of the affected area, and increase ...
Surgical Procedures, Operative [E04]. *Anastomosis, Surgical [E04.035]. *Heart Bypass, Right [E04.035.410] ... The Effect of the Superior Cavopulmonary Anastomosis on Ventricular Remodeling in Infants with Single Ventricle. J Am Soc ... Impact of the superior cavopulmonary anastomosis on cerebral oxygenation. Cardiol Young. 2020 Apr; 30(4):585-587. ... to those predicted by mathematical modeling following stage 1 palliation just prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. ...
Depiction of surgical anastomosis with air bubbles at SVC-PA junction. (RSCV: right superior cava vein; LSCV: left superior ... The bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis was constructed. The patient was weaned from CPB on dopamine (initially at 5 mcg/kg ... It is not our practice to use TEE for cavopulmonary anastomosis procedures or procedures in which the cardiac chambers are not ... We think residual air from the surgical procedure or air that might have been introduced during CPB, would have long since ...
Techincal Skills Starter Package is a flexible platform for developing basic to advanced technical surgical skills. The ... Bowel anastomosis. Basic Open Surgical Skills (BOSS) Techincal Skills Starter Package Dimensions: 17" x 13" x 4". Weight: 6 lbs ... Basic Open Surgical Skills (BOSS) Techincal Skills Starter Package *A durable multi-use platform that can be used with any ... The Basic Open Surgical Skills (BOSS) Techincal Skills Starter Package is a flexible platform for developing basic to advanced ...
Surgical treatment of resectable esophageal cancers results in 5-year survival rates of 5% to 30%, with higher survival rates ... One approach advocates transhiatal esophagectomy with anastomosis of the stomach to the cervical esophagus. A second approach ... The R0 resection rate was 90% for patients in arm A and 93% for patients in arm B. Surgical morbidity was also comparable, at ... Reed MF, Tolis G, Edil BH, et al.: Surgical treatment of esophageal high-grade dysplasia. Ann Thorac Surg 79 (4): 1110-5; ...
Anastomosis. surgical joining of 2 ducts or blood vessels to allow flow from one or another. ... Types of Surgical Wound Drainage. Sanguineous-bright red, inital drainage w/in few hours Serosanguineous-pink Serous-pale ... elevated WBCs Dehiscence-sudden bursting open of wound Evisceration-protrusion of internal organ through surgical wound. ...
... the global sales of anastomosis devices is currently valued at US$ 3.86 ... Ark Surgical Performs First Hysterectomies in the USA with its FDA-Cleared LapBox for Manual Morcellation. PACKAGING COMPLIANCE ... Anastomosis Devices Demand Are Predicted to Rise at a High CAGR of 6.6% By 2027. October 25th, 2022 Fact.MR Releases ... The need for anastomosis devices is expected to increase over the coming years because of the rising prevalence of ...
Large bowel resection/anastomosis-medical record does not support mechanical obstruction. S177A. S167A. *S177 is only eligible ... Unbundling of surgical fee codes. *The surgical benefit includes the generally accepted surgical components of the procedure. ... The surgical benefit includes the generally accepted surgical components of the procedure. ... The Surgical Preamble says that the benefit for obtaining a bone graft (E551A in this case) is not to be claimed in cases of ...
The traditional anastomotic mode has high tissue tension in the process of anastomosis, which can easily cause tissue tear in ... Introduction The incidence of anastomotic leakage is relatively high (6-26%) in esophagogastrocervical anastomosis. ... Characteristics, surgical data, and outcomes of patients were recorded and retrospectively analyzed. There were 83 patients in ... The traditional anastomotic mode has high tissue tension in the process of anastomosis, which can easily cause tissue tear in ...
SURGICAL EVALUATION AT THE CROSSROADS. MURRAY, GD., Aug 1993, In: British Journal of Surgery. 80, 8, p. 1079-1079 1 p.. ... RECURRENCE OF COLORECTAL-CANCER AFTER SUTURED AND STAPLED LARGE-BOWEL ANASTOMOSES. AKYOL, AM., MCGREGOR, P. G., GALLOWAY, DJ., ... European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO). 18, 4, p. 327-331 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer ...
ECHELON FLEX Powered Plus Stapler-intended for transection, resection, and/or creation of anastomoses. The instruments have ... application in multiple open or minimally invasive general, gynecologic, urologic, thoracic, and pediatric surgical procedures. ...
  • citation needed] Fashioning an anastomosis is typically a complex and time-consuming step in a surgical operation, but almost always crucial to the outcome of the procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Glover Anastomosis Clamp is used to join two ends of a blood vessel together during a surgical procedure. (scalasurgical.co.uk)
  • Laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (LOAGB) is a relatively new procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and related comorbidities. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent publications suggest that dumping syndrome and weight regain might be reduced by placing a silicone ring over the gastric pouch during the procedure, so called laparoscopic banded one anastomosis gastric bypass (LBOAGB). (hindawi.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Adopting IA for colon cancer resulted in similar overall morbidity rates without increasing the duration of the surgical procedure compared to EA. (lu.se)
  • Dr Canavero has named the procedure HEAVEN, which is an acronym for head anastomosis venture. (interface.ru)
  • Each surgeon must, of course, evaluate the appropriateness of the procedure based on their own medical training and experience, and the type of surgical procedure. (medtronic.com)
  • The Implementation of a Standardised Surgical Procedure Counterbalances the Lack of Experience. (researchsquare.com)
  • The purpose of this single center study is to determine, using various parameters and following a well structured and standardised surgical procedure, the adequate number of cases after which a single surgeon qualified in open surgery but with no previous experience of laparoscopic colorectal surgery and without supervision, can acquire proficiency in this technique. (researchsquare.com)
  • Conclusions: Taking into consideration all the parameters, it is our belief that a surgeon acquires proficiency in laparoscopic colorectal surgery after performing at least 50 diverse cases with a well structured and standardised surgical procedure. (researchsquare.com)
  • The program includes the management of pain, infectious risks and aseptic techniques, the choice of sutures, management of haemorrhagic risk and handling of fragile tissues.The analysis of procedures proposed by the participants themselves enriches the discussion about critical points of a surgical procedure and ways to anticipate or limit complications. (norecopa.no)
  • Patients must often have parts of their gut removed and the remaining tissue stitched together - a procedure known as anastomosis. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • An ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (J-pouch) is a surgical procedure to restore the stomach and bowel (gastrointestinal) continuity after the surgical removal of the large bowel (the colon and rectum). (hdkino.org)
  • Therapy following a diagnostic surgical procedure. (aapc.com)
  • Modifier 58 may be used during the global surgical period for the original procedure only. (aapc.com)
  • Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure to establish communication between two formerly distant portions of the intestine. (medscape.com)
  • These surgical procedures can improve esophageal motility and lead to esophageal complications such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Postoperative complications (dynamic ileus, abdominal infection, and pancreatic leakage) occurred in three patients (15%) in the hand-sewn anastomosis group and in four patients (13.3%) in the overlap anastomosis group (anastomotic leakage, anastomotic bleeding, dynamic ileus, and duodenal stump leakage). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Benefits of the new surgical technique are total absence of Roux-en-Y related intestinal complications. (scirp.org)
  • The rate of overall surgical (16% in both groups, p = 1.000) and medical complications (EA: 25 (19%) vs. IA: 27 (14%), p = 0.167) was comparable for both groups. (lu.se)
  • The IPTW analysis indicated that having an IA caused a reduction in the rate of major surgical complications (RRR adjusted = 0.45, 95%CI [0.29-0.69], p = 0.000). (lu.se)
  • The IA technique had a probable protective effect against developing severe surgical complications. (lu.se)
  • In the surgery group, 6 of 37 surgeries were accompanied by major complications: anastomosis dehiscence, intra-abdominal bleeding, fistula, and colostomy occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Of the surgical group, 16% had major surgical complications. (medscape.com)
  • 17-22 This chapter will provide an overview of potential perioperative catastrophes and a philosophy for approaching minimally invasive surgical procedures and their complications. (sls.org)
  • A surgical anastomosis is a surgical technique used to make a new connection between two body structures that carry fluid, such as blood vessels or bowel. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreaticoduodenectomy is considered a massive operation, in part, because it requires three separate anastomoses (stomach, biliary tract and pancreas to small bowel). (wikipedia.org)
  • If medical therapy for active Crohn disease fails, surgical resection of the inflamed bowel, with restoration of continuity, is indicated. (medscape.com)
  • Sealants applied over the closure lines may help in the prevention of leakage by reinforcing the anastomosis during the initial susceptible healing period, allowing the natural healing process additional time by mechanically supporting the bowel edges. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bowel anastomosis after trauma-related resection is associated with a high rate of leakage. (wjgnet.com)
  • Treatment involves diverticulectomy and appendectomy with primary small-bowel anastomosis. (radiologytoday.net)
  • An ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (J-pouch) surgery treats the stomach and bowel. (hdkino.org)
  • Resection and anastomosis is performed based on bowel viability after reduction and enteropexy considered. (vin.com)
  • Indications for intestinal anastomosis can be broadly divided into two categories: restoration of bowel continuity following resection of diseased bowel and bypass of unresectable diseased bowel. (medscape.com)
  • Adequate exposure and access, gentle handling of the bowel, adequate hemostasis, approximation of well-vascularized bowel, absence of tension at anastomosis, good surgical technique, and avoidance of fecal contamination are tenets of good intestinal anastomosis. (medscape.com)
  • The image below depicts a completed small-bowel anastomosis. (medscape.com)
  • Completed small bowel anastomosis. (medscape.com)
  • Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The intraluminal stapler CSC-KOL® is an innovation in low colorectal anastomosis. (bbraun.com)
  • The hand-sewn anastomosis method of esophagojejunostomy under totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy is safe and feasible and is an important supplement to linear and circular stapler anastomosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the increased number of adverse events reported to the FDA, the agency held an open public meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee on May 30, 2019 to discuss reclassification of surgical stapler devices for internal use from Class I to Class II. (fda.gov)
  • How can I report a problem with a surgical stapler or staples? (fda.gov)
  • Before performing the anastomosis in a standard way, the C-Seal (Polyganics BV, Groningen, The Netherlands) was glued to the anvil of the circular stapler. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Song M, Gao L, Liu J, Cao F. Application of reversely connecting circular stapler technique in cervical esophagogastric anastomosis. (termedia.pl)
  • The surgical stapler 1 was invented in 1908 by Hungarian surgeon Hümér Hültl and medical instrument designer Victor Fischer, as a faster and more sterile method of resection, transection, closure, and anastomosis 2 . (easternedge.ca)
  • The multinational that currently dominates surgical and skin stapler production is Covidien. (easternedge.ca)
  • Thousands of patients have suffered severe lifelong injuries as a result of surgical stapler defects and malfunctions. (866attylaw.com)
  • The public records show less than one hundred surgical stapler injuries in 2016 compared to more than ten thousand adverse malfunctions in the secret database. (866attylaw.com)
  • They alleged the stapler did not properly seal the internal surgical site during a gastric bypass operation because the patient's stomach contents spilled out into the intestines. (866attylaw.com)
  • If you or a loved one has been seriously injured by a surgical stapler, contact the F&A Injury Law Firm for a free confidential consultation at (212) 222-1111 or (866) ATTY LAW. (866attylaw.com)
  • Surgical Outcomes of Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis (IPAA) in a Community Based Hospital. (sages.org)
  • In the late 1970s, however, reports of continence-preserving procedures involving ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) began to surface. (medscape.com)
  • The following will help you understand what to expect during an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (J-pouch) surgery. (hdkino.org)
  • Operating time, anastomosis leakage and permeability, were assessed. (sages.org)
  • The incidence of anastomotic leakage is relatively high (6-26%) in esophagogastrocervical anastomosis. (termedia.pl)
  • The traditional anastomotic mode has high tissue tension in the process of anastomosis, which can easily cause tissue tear in the anastomotic area and increase the incidence of anastomotic leakage. (termedia.pl)
  • Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients with malignant tracheal tumours who underwent resection and anastomosis in the period 2005-2009. (journalcra.com)
  • We present a case of severe sigmoid volvulus recurrence at seven month after colon detorsion for volvulus in a patient with Chilaiditi's syndrome who did not respond to medical therapy and required an additional operation by using a single-stage sigmoid resection and anastomosis.METHODS: Routine blood and urine tests were done. (ispub.com)
  • Postoperative hospital stay was 10 days.CONCLUSION: We suppose that single-stage resection and anastomosis appear to be the treatment of choice in Chilaiditi's syndrome in patients with sigmoid volvulus. (ispub.com)
  • Soft tissues handling and repair, intestinal anastomosis. (norecopa.no)
  • Certain pediatric conditions may also require intestinal anastomosis. (medscape.com)
  • Intestinal anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, especially in the emergency setting, and is also commonly performed in the elective setting when resections are carried out for benign or malignant lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. (medscape.com)
  • Rabassa AE, Seaber AV, Urbaniak R. Factors contributing to aneurysm formation in rat microvascular anastomoses . (duke.edu)
  • Most vascular procedures, including all vascular bypass operations (e.g. coronary artery bypass), aneurysmectomy of any type, and all solid organ transplants require vascular anastomoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ERAS protocol has been well established in elective surgery and has been implicated in all possible gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI surgical procedures. (medscape.com)
  • Common procedures include tubal uterine horn anastomosis, tubal anastomosis, and adhesion loosening. (selfgrowth.com)
  • This device is intended for use during procedures when a wound or surgical site must be cleared by non-contact means for improved visibility. (medtronic.com)
  • This device is intended for use during procedures when a wound or surgical site must be cleared by non-contact means to improve visibility at the site. (medtronic.com)
  • Proper surgical procedures are necessarily the responsibility of the medical profession. (medtronic.com)
  • Proper surgical procedures and techniques are necessarily the responsibility of the medical professional. (medtronic.com)
  • Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a US Food and Drug Administration-cleared intraoperative real-time fluorescence-based cellular resolution imaging technology that has been shown to image brain tumor histoarchitecture rapidly in vivo during neuro-oncological surgical procedures. (thejns.org)
  • Surgical staplers are used in many different types of surgeries including gastric, gynecologic, thoracic, and other procedures. (866attylaw.com)
  • In that period, no patient required ring removal or conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. (hindawi.com)
  • Laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB-MGB) was presented for the first time around the turn of the century for the treatment of morbid obesity and its related comorbidities in bariatric surgery [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients were counseled about options for medical (continuous monophasic contraceptive pill use or progestin) and surgical (laparoscopy or laparotomy with disc excision or segmental resection) management. (medscape.com)
  • A surgical anastomosis can be created using suture sewn by hand, mechanical staplers and biological glues, depending on the circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • A suture-free method for anastomosis of the colon to colon or rectum has been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. Braun provides a whole range of specialized suture materials, as well as surgical adhesives, mechanical staplers and endoluminal vacuum therapy. (bbraun.com)
  • This study examined the etiology of aneurysm formation in microarterial anastomoses by defining the contribution from adventitial stripping, suture, and transection. (duke.edu)
  • Comparative outcomes of interest were surgical efficacy and short-term morbidity rates. (lu.se)
  • Characteristics, surgical data, and outcomes of patients were recorded and retrospectively analyzed. (termedia.pl)
  • Background: Modern surgical medicine strives to manage trauma while improving outcomes using functional imaging. (wjgnet.com)
  • Therefore, we recorded the number of patients who underwent TLTG with hand-sewn anastomosis and with overlap anastomosis from January 2017 to January 2020. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The patients successfully underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis combined with encephaloduromyoarteriosynangiosis. (nih.gov)
  • The patient underwent single-stage sigmoid resection with descendo-rectal end-to-side anastomosis.RESULTS: After the operation the patient had abdominal bloating with vomiting and in a period of treatment he passed stool on the 4th day. (ispub.com)
  • citation needed] Microsurgery: The advent of microsurgical technique allowed anastomoses previously thought impossible, such as so-called "nerve anastomoses" (not strictly an anastomosis according to the above definition), and operations to restore fertility after tubal ligation or vasectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvascular anastomosis is a highly skilled surgical technique that requires the assistance of optical magnification via an operating microscope or loupes to be fully visualised and thus accomplished reasonably well. (intechopen.com)
  • The technique for a real transanal end-to-end anastomosis reduces the risk of leakages and stenosis. (bbraun.com)
  • TLTG digestive tract reconstruction can be divided into two categories: instrument anastomosis, which mainly employs a circular anastomosis technique and linear cutting, and hand-sewn anastomosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Roux-en-Y Hepatico-jejunostomy is the standard technique of biliary reconstruction after excision of choledochal cyst. (scirp.org)
  • Here the author describes a new surgical technique of biliary reconstruction using native gall bladder as biliary conduit. (scirp.org)
  • S. Hoque, "A New Surgical Technique of Biliary Drainage," International Journal of Clinical Medicine , Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 400-404. (scirp.org)
  • PURPOSE: The intracorporeal anastomosis (IA) technique possibly results in enhanced recovery and reduced morbidity rates compared to the extracorporeal anastomosis (EA) technique. (lu.se)
  • The VAAFT technique is suitable for the surgical treatment of complex anal fistulas and recurrences. (karlstorz.com)
  • Are there problems associated with surgical staplers? (fda.gov)
  • For patients with sigmoid colon cancer, there must be documentation of either partial proctectomy and/or anastomosis to the rectum. (swog.org)
  • Many conditions, including inflammatory diseases, cancer or infection, may necessitate the complete surgical removal of the colon and rectum. (hdkino.org)
  • It may be more convenient regarding obesity, a relatively high position of the anastomosis, edema of the esophageal wall, and short jejunal mesentery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although hand-sewn anastomosis has more requirements for the operation and a relative longer anastomosis time, its advantages include a good surgical field of view, operation in a narrow space, avoiding excessive traction, and ease in obtaining the pathology of the esophageal cutting edge before anastomosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper describes the surgical and functional results of tracheal resections done in the surgical oncology department of a tertiary care cancer centre. (journalcra.com)
  • She then moved to New York City and completed fellowships in Surgical Oncology at Memorial Sloan. (rochester.edu)
  • She is a member of the Surgery Standing Committee for the National Quality Forum, the American College of Surgeons Performance Measurement Work group, the Society of Surgical Oncology Quality Committee and the planning committee for the Quality Symposium for the American Society of Clinical Oncology. (rochester.edu)
  • Fellowship, Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. (rochester.edu)
  • ERCP cannot be performed if a gastric outlet obstruction or a previous surgical anastomosis (eg, gastrojejunostomy) cannot be crossed. (medscape.com)
  • 23-26 Let us begin our discussion by considering some of the general principles inherent to good surgical practice. (sls.org)
  • Protection of stapled colorectal anastomoses with a biodegradable device: the C-Seal feasibility study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A final order to reclassify surgical staplers for internal use from Class I to Class II medical devices. (fda.gov)
  • The FDA announced that it received over 41,000 reports from 2011 to 2018 concerning surgical staplers for internal use. (866attylaw.com)
  • 2. Surgical methods: Surgical intervention offers fast and effective results. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Yes, the FDA describes problems that have been reported in letters to healthcare providers, issued in March 2019 and October 2021 , in which the FDA also provides several recommendations and new FDA actions regarding the safe use of surgical staplers and staples for internal use. (fda.gov)
  • Use caution when moving the tip of the device near the wound or surgical site. (medtronic.com)
  • To release compressed CO 2 /medical air in a controlled fashion, point tip of device away from the wound or surgical site before turning device on. (medtronic.com)
  • Release compressed CO2/medical air in a controlled fashion, by pointing the tip of device away from the wound or surgical site before turning the device on. (medtronic.com)
  • For example, an arterial anastomosis is used in vascular bypass and a colonic anastomosis is used to restore colonic continuity after the resection of colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report was followed by a few other studies that evaluated the applicability and feasibility of ERAS in emergency surgical settings ranging from simple closure of a perforated peptic ulcer to major abdominal operations. (medscape.com)
  • The term reanastomosis is also used to describe a surgical reconnection usually reversing a prior surgery to disconnect an anatomical anastomosis, e.g. tubal reversal after tubal ligation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestive tract reconstruction in totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy can be divided into two types: instrument anastomosis and hand-sewn anastomosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A. Shimotakahara, A. Yamataka, T. Yanai, H. Kobayashi, T. Okazaki, G. J. Lane and T. Miyano, "Roux-en-Y Hepa tico-Jejunostomy for Biliary Reconstruction during the Surgical Treatment of Choledochal Cyst: Which Is Better? (scirp.org)
  • The beneficial effects of surgical revascularization on rebleeding in moyamoya disease remain unclear. (nih.gov)
  • This report is intended to clarify the effects of surgical revascularization on peripheral artery aneurysms, which represent one of the causes of intracranial bleeding in moyamoya disease. (nih.gov)
  • The results strongly suggest that surgical revascularization potentially improves cerebral circulation and decreases hemodynamic stress on collateral vessels, obliterating peripheral artery aneurysms. (nih.gov)
  • The minimally invasive surgical (MIS) revolution opened new surgical vistas and ushered in an intense interest in rethinking much of conventional surgical dogma. (sls.org)
  • An anastomosis connecting an artery to a vein is also used to create an arteriovenous fistula as an access for hemodialysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study explored the feasibility and safety of hand-sewn sutures in esophagojejunostomy of totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy, compared with instrument anastomosis using an overlap linear cutter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another patient had a collection near the anastomosis which resolved spontaneously. (scirp.org)
  • In both cases, en bloc tumor resection was successfully performed via a simultaneous exoscopic transcranial approach using a 3D-HMD and an endoscopic endonasal approach, eliminating the need to watch a large monitor beside the patient. (thejns.org)
  • 3. What are surgical options for composite abdominal wall reconstruction? (medscape.com)
  • Radical prostatectomy and radical cystectomy both require anastomosis of the bladder to the urethra in order to restore continuity. (wikipedia.org)
  • After sigmoid mobilization, resection of the enormously redundant sigmoid colon and primary end-to-side descendo-rectal anastomosis were performed with interrupted sutures PDS 4/0. (ispub.com)
  • Other important anatomic structures that aid in surgical repair of perineal hernia include the sacrotuberous ligament and internal obturator muscle. (vin.com)
  • Currently, as a consequence of the development of biologic therapies, the need for surgical treatment of pediatric UC is less frequent than was reported in earlier studies. (medscape.com)
  • The only absolute contraindication for surgical treatment of UC is anal sphincter dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • Conservative decompression failed and surgical treatment was applied. (ispub.com)
  • Surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors is generally based on the size and extent of the primary lesion. (radiologytoday.net)
  • A recent parallel cohort study [ 2 ] compared the efficacy of surgical versus medical treatment for colorectal endometriosis. (medscape.com)
  • Symptomatic endometriosis requires treatment (surgical or medical) because it has a significant negative impact on quality of life. (medscape.com)
  • The participants in this study were referred for surgery owing to endometriosis infiltrating the bowels, but a thorough discussion about the pros and cons of medical versus surgical treatment took place before a decision was made. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of perineal hernia by surgical correction is generally accepted by most clinicians as the most successful means of management. (vin.com)
  • Emergency surgical treatment may be necessary in acute intestinal obstruction in which the mass of the parasite obstructs the intestinal lumen or intestinal obstruction develops due to volvulus [11]. (who.int)
  • Treatment is balloon angioplasty with stent placement, or surgical correction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1. Scheduled patients with benign and malignant colorectal diseases undergoing surgical treatment, including the creation of anastomoses (ileocolic, colocolic, colorectal anastomoses), with or without a preventive stoma. (who.int)
  • While an anastomosis may be end-to-end, equally it could be performed side-to-side or end-to-side depending on the circumstances of the required reconstruction or bypass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Kamaly said: "Many people with IBD don't respond to available drugs - a state often worsened by anastomosis surgery. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • What Is an Ileoanal Anastomosis (J-Pouch) Surgery? (hdkino.org)
  • Who needs an Ileoanal anastomosis (J-pouch) surgery? (hdkino.org)
  • Examples include a post-surgical infection, debridement that requires a return to the OR, and hemorrhage after surgery. (aapc.com)
  • Surgical staplers are medical devices used inside and outside of the body during surgery. (866attylaw.com)
  • The clinicopathologic data, short-term survival prognosis, and results of patients in the hand-sewn anastomosis ( n =20) and the overlap anastomosis ( n =30) groups were analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The time available for evaluating, diagnosing, and operating on patients in emergency surgical settings is considerably shorter than that in elective settings. (medscape.com)
  • Patients must have a post-surgical permanent ostomy or anastomosis. (swog.org)
  • Anastomosis patients must have low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score of 21-42 (minor to major symptoms) within 7calendar days prior to registration. (swog.org)
  • Identification of viable tissues is crucial for the surgical management of polytrauma and burn patients presenting with soft tissue and hollow viscus injuries. (wjgnet.com)
  • Surgical staplers and staples for external use are used outside the body to close large wounds or surgical cuts on a patient's skin or scalp. (fda.gov)
  • The choice of surgical method depends on the patient's specific condition, and it aims to resolve the issue of fallopian tube blockage. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The OctoBase retractor rack is intended to provide surgical access by retraction of soft and bony tissue. (medtronic.com)
  • However, the ongoing inflammation in remaining tissue can prevent the surgical wounds healing, worsening symptoms and risking infection. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Anastomosis involves the surgical connecting of two parts. (interface.ru)
  • The operation comprised laparotomy, volvulus detorsion and sigmoid resection with end-to-side anastomosis. (ispub.com)