Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.DucksMixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Iritis: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Mice, Inbred NZBImmunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Antibodies, Anticardiolipin: Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)snRNP Core Proteins: The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Serositis: Inflammation of a serous membrane.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous: A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Lupus Vulgaris: A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.Crithidia: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid: A chronic form of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, CUTANEOUS) in which the skin lesions mimic those of the systemic form but in which systemic signs are rare. It is characterized by the presence of discoid skin plaques showing varying degrees of edema, erythema, scaliness, follicular plugging, and skin atrophy. Lesions are surrounded by an elevated erythematous border. The condition typically involves the face and scalp, but widespread dissemination may occur.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Small Cytoplasmic: Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.ArthritisFalse Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.HLA-DR5 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.Arabinonucleotides: Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Hypergammaglobulinemia: An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Mice, Inbred MRL lpr: A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
... especially antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Around 80% of people with DM test positive for ANA and around 30% of people have ... anti-synthetase antibodies), including antibodies against Histidine-tRNA ligase (also called Jo-1); antibodies to signal ... recognition particle (SRP); and anti-Mi-2 antibodies. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful to guide muscle biopsy and to ... myositis-specific autoantibodies which include antibodies to aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases ( ...
The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ... Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... Consequently, if an ANA test is positive, it is often followed up with other tests associated with arthritis and inflammation, ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ...
These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... doi:10.1002/ana.20550. PMID 16049940. Bogdanos DP, Pares A, Baum H, Caballeria L, Rigopoulou EI, Ma Y, Burroughs AK, Rodes J, ... doi:10.1002/ana.20550. PMID 16049940. Mattevi A, Obmolova G, Kalk KH, Teplyakov A, Hol WG (Apr 1993). "Crystallographic ... O'Brien C, Joshi S, Feld JJ, Guindi M, Dienes HP, Heathcote EJ (Aug 2008). "Long-term follow-up of antimitochondrial antibody- ...
The presence of anti-Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies suggests type I RPGN; antinuclear antibodies (ANA) may ... In addition to the anti-GBM antibodies, some cases of type I RPGN are also associated with antibodies directed against the ... The antibodies are directed against a particular protein found in the GBM, type IV collagen, specifically the noncollagenous ... The majority of type I disease, however, features anti-GBM antibodies alone; these cases are considered idiopathic. RPGN caused ...
The development of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) has been found in 10 to 30% of patients under treatment with acebutolol. A ... The incidence of both ANA and symptomatic disease under acebutolol is higher than under Propranolol. Female patients are more ...
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antidouble-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) antibodies have reportedly been observed in ... Autoimmune disease - ANA, antidouble-stranded DNA, rheumatoid factor, thyroid antibodies, C3, and C3NeF. As a confirmatory test ...
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) form the mainstay of serologic testing for ... Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ... The anti-dsDNA antibody titers also tend to reflect disease activity, although not in all cases. Other ANA that may occur in ... These are most commonly anti-nuclear antibodies and they result in inflammation. Diagnosis can be difficult and is based on a ...
The presence of serum autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-lactoferrin antibody, anti-carbonic anhydrase II ... antibody, and rheumatoid factor (RF). Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrates a diffusely enlarged (sausage-shaped) pancreas. Diffuse ...
In this table: ANA = Antinuclear antibodies, CRP = C-reactive protein, ESR = Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, dsDNA = double- ... In these cases, the antibody found is sometimes used in classification, as in ANCA-associated vasculitides. Location of the ... Millet A, Pederzoli-Ribeil M, Guillevin L, Witko-Sarsat V, Mouthon L (2013) Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated ... Other possible findings are elevated antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) levels and hematuria. Other organ functional ...
These are known as anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and have also been observed in concert with multiple sclerosis as part of ... Pattern of Antinuclear Antibody, and Complement-Fixing Antibodies to DNA in Sera from Patients with Systemic Lupus ... S Barned; AD Goodman; DH Mattson (1995). "Frequency of anti-nuclear antibodies in multiple sclerosis". Neurology. 45 (2): 384- ... Antibodies to certain types of chromatin organization, in particular, nucleosomes, have been associated with a number of ...
... focused on the reproducible detections antinuclear antibodies (ANA) with fluorescein labeled antibodies to human IgG. Beutner ... of Microbiology - New York Academy of Sciences (1983) Code of Federal Regulations, Antinuclear antibody immunological test ... Federal law for all diagnostic laboratories that perform ANA tests and manufacturers of ANA kits including labeled antibodies ... Beutner established the first proficiency tests for ANA in United States as a consultant for the studies of Roger Taylor at the ...
Auto-antibodies found in patients with autoimmune hepatitis include the sensitive but less specific anti-nuclear antibody (ANA ... anti-viral antibodies (such as the anti-hepatitis B surface antibody or anti-hepatitis A antibody), or viral DNA/RNA. In early ... Therefore, when a patient is positive for IgG antibody but negative for IgM antibody, he is considered immune from the virus ... and antibodies. The combination of antigen and antibody positivity can provide information about the stage of infection (acute ...
... and may cause eye inflammation in girls with positive anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). Girls younger than eight are more likely ... number of joints involved and the presence of certain antibodies in the blood. Polyarticular arthritis is the first type of ...
WBC differentials anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screens and titers nuclear DNA (nDNA) screens animal differentials urinalysis (UA ...
Testing may include: Antinuclear antibody (ANA) CBC with differential Chest x-ray Serum creatinine Urinalysis Lupus ...
Additional, more specific tests include: Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test can detect an underlying connective tissue disorder, ... Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may highly suggest granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, ... Bosch X, Guilabert A, Espinosa G, Mirapeix E (2007). "Treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis: a ... A systematic review of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positive vasculitis identified best treatments depending on ...
... including antinuclear antibodies like antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-double stranded DNA (ds-DNA) which usually resolve ... doi:10.1002/ana.20464. PMID 15852401. Zhou X, Dimachkie MM, Xiong M, Tan FK, Arnett FC (Jul 2004). "cDNA microarrays reveal ... For instance, a phase I clinical trial of the anti-IFN-α monoclonal antibody MEDI-545 in SLE patients suggested possible ... 2007). "MEDI-545, an anti-interferon alpha monoclonal antibody, shows evidence of clinical activity in systemic lupus ...
... antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA), anti-liver kidney microsomal antibodies (LKM-1, LKM-2, LKM-3), ... positive ANA and SMA, elevated immunoglobulin G (classic form, responds well to low dose steroids); positive LKM-1 (typically ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ... A number of specific antibodies found in the blood ( ... positive antibodies against soluble liver antigen (this group ...
"One of the most common tests looks for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and antibodies to double-stranded DNA (which makes up ... "One of the most common tests looks for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and antibodies to double-stranded DNA (which makes up ... because most XL-CGD carrier females who have been tested for lupus do not have the auto-antibodies used to diagnose lupus or, ... these symptoms as lupus-like because most XL-CGD carrier females who have been tested for lupus do not have the auto-antibodies ...
Anti-citrullinated protein antibody), ANA (Anti-Nuclear Antibody) ) X-rays, Ultrasounds, and other imaging methods of affected ... Scientific research on biologics and clinical trials on monoclonal antibody therapies have added a new dimension to the medical ... monoclonal antibodies, such as infliximab and adalimumab, and the soluble TNF receptor etanercept and Methotrexate for moderate ...
... antinuclear antibody/ANA) are all performed at this stage. Elevated ferritin levels can reveal hemochromatosis, a mimic of RA, ... ACPAs measured as anti-CCP antibodies).[page needed] It is positive in 75-85%, but a negative RF or CCP antibody does not rule ... Binding of an autoreactive antibody to the Fc receptors is mediated through the antibody's N-glycans, which are altered to ... "Anti-MCV Antibody Test for the Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Using a POCT-Immunoassay". American College of Rheumatology, ...
... are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA. Blood ... Serum is incubated with the beads and in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies, or any other ANA, the antibodies will bind and ... Animal tissue was the first substrate for immunofluorescent detection of antinuclear antibodies and has been in use since the ... The first evidence for antinuclear antibodies arose in 1948 when Hargraves, Richmond and Morton discovered the LE cell. These ...
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... antibodies to human antigens are produced. There are many subtypes of ANAs such as anti-Ro antibodies, anti-La antibodies, ... If antibodies are present then they will bind to the antigens on the cells; in the case of ANAs, the antibodies will bind to ...
... p-ANCA without nuclear extension and granulocyte specific-antinuclear antibody (GS-ANA). Classical p-ANCA shows perinuclear ... GS-ANA are antibodies directed to granulocyte specific nuclear antigens. Atypical ANCA are thought to be antigens similar to ... Classical p-ANCA occurs with antibodies directed to MPO. p-ANCA without nuclear extension occurs with antibodies to BPI, ... Sinclair, D; Stevens, JM (Sep 2007). "Role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and glomerular basement membrane antibodies ...
... involves the production of autoimmune anti-nuclear and anti-centromere antibodies, though their cause is not ... Additionally, blood exams can be given to test for a positive ANAs and ACAs or skin biopsies can be given to help confirm a ... It is associated with detectable antibodies against centromeres (a component of the cell nucleus), and usually spares the ...
In the 1990s and 2000s the roles of antibodies in the condition became more clear. SPS patients generally have GAD antibodies, ... Ana Claudia Rodrigues de Cerqueira; José Marcelo Ferreira Bezerra; Márcia Rozentha; Antônio Egídio Nardi, "Stiff-Person ... Anti-thyroid, anti-intrinsic factor, anti-nuclear, anti-RNP, and anti-gliadin are also often present in blood tests. ... It is also unknown whether these antibodies are pathogenic.[25] The amount of GAD antibody titers found in SPS patients does ...
... careful follow-up with extensive immunological screening which then detected Raynauds phenomenon and positivity of antinuclear ... antibodies. After a multidisciplinary discussion (pneumologist, radiologist, pathologist and rheumatologist) a final diagnosis ... The assay of a larger panel of autoantibodies showed only positivity of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), at titer 1/160. The other ... The frequency of circulating antinuclear antibodies in patients with early rheumatic diseases. J Rheumatol. 1991, 18: 1340-1343 ...
... test results for antibodies to most nuclear antigen subsets are negative. ... Although ANAs are present in approximately 40% of patients with RA, ... ANAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?) and What is the significance of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA ... What is the significance of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?. Updated: Feb 07, 2020 ...
ANA Comprehensive Plus Profile. 016354. RNP Antibodies. AI. 29374-6. 164920. ANA Comprehensive Plus Profile. 016362. Smith ... ANA Comprehensive Plus Profile. 016376. Smith/RNP Antibodies. AI. 27048-8. 164920. ANA Comprehensive Plus Profile. 018707. ... ANA Comprehensive Plus Profile. 012581. Antichromatin Antibodies. AI. 51775-5. 164920. ANA Comprehensive Plus Profile. 012701. ... Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) Profile, 11 biomarkers, by Multiplex Immunoassay, dsDNA, RNP, Sm, SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70, Chromatin, ...
ANTI-NUCLEAR ANTIBODY (ANA) Synonym(s):. Synonym(s). ​Anti ANA, Antinuclear Antibody, Anti Nuclear Antibody, ANA, ANF ...
An antinuclear antibody test checks to see if you have an autoimmune disorder, a condition where the immune system attacks ... What is an ANA (antinuclear antibody) test?. An ANA test looks for antinuclear antibodies in your blood. If the test finds ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/ana-antinuclear-antibody-test/ ANA (Antinuclear Antibody) Test. ... Is there anything else I need to know about an ANA test?. Antinuclear antibody levels tend to increase with age. As many as one ...
... Test Overview. An antinuclear antibody (ANA) test measures the amount and pattern of antibodies ... An antinuclear antibody (ANA) test measures the amount and pattern of antibodies in your blood that work against your own body ... An antinuclear antibodies (ANA) test is done to help identify problems with the immune system, such as:. *Rheumatoid arthritis. ... Almost all people with SLE have a positive ANA test. But most people with a positive ANA test do not have SLE. ...
Sometimes antibodies are made in response to healthy cells. Antinuclear antibodies are antibodies made against antigens ( ... Sample Result: Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA). This browser does not support inline PDFs. To view the Sample Results file, click ... This test measures the level of antinuclear antibodies. Antibodies are made by the body to fight infection or other "foreign" ... T3 Total and Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPO). ... The ANA test is used to help evaluate for certain autoimmune ...
ANA) test measures the amount and pattern of antibodies in your blood that work against your own body (autoimmune reaction). ... An antinuclear antibody (ANA) test measures the amount and pattern of antibodies in your blood that work against your own body ... An antinuclear antibody (ANA) test measures the amount and pattern of antibodies in your blood that work against your own body ... An antinuclear antibodies (ANA) test is done to help identify problems with the immune system, such as:. *Rheumatoid arthritis. ...
ANA). Unit: Titre. We ask about your Anti-Nuclear Antibody level in order to learn more about your chemistry-related lab values ... What Causes Elevated Anti-Nuclear Antibody ANA Level?. Elevated anti-nuclear antibody ANA level can have various causes, ... A differential diagnosis of your symptoms and risk factors finds the likely cause of elevated anti-nuclear antibody ANA level: ... We begin by identifying the disease conditions which have "elevated anti-nuclear antibody ANA level" as a symptom. Here are ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Positive Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) Test LabMed. Positive Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) Test. *By ... Sjögren syndrome: common ANA pattern is speckled; less commonly homogenous. Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis: ANA pattern is ... Mixed connective tissue disease: ANA pattern is almost always speckled. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): when ANA positive (about 25- ... For follow-up from a positive ANA test:. *. For SLE: anti Ds DNA, anti-SS-A (Ro), anti-SS-B (La), anti-U1 RNP, anti-Sm, and ...
Standardisation of the quantitative determination of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) with a homogeneous pattern. ... Standardisation of the quantitative determination of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) with a homogeneous pattern. ... The results of antinuclear antibody tests using the indirect immunofluorescence technique may be reported as a description of ...
ANA) Testing Market report explores Scope of the Study as Research Objective, Assumptions and Limitations in-depth. The report ... Anti-nuclear Antibody (ANA) Test is used to detect antinuclear antibodies in blood. Immune system makes antibodies to fight ... Global Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) Testing Market - Segments. Global Anti-nuclear Antibody (ANA) Testing Market has been ... Global Anti-nuclear Antibody (ANA) Testing Market - Study Objectives *To provide detailed analysis of the Global Anti-nuclear ...
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are common in the general population, and are more prevalent in women and older adults. Here we ... Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a representative sample of U.S. women. Christine G. ... Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a representative sample of U.S. women ... Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a representative sample of U.S. women ...
ANA) and other autoantibody testing on a child unless there is strong suspicion or specific signs of autoimmune disease. ... Do not order antinuclear antibody (ANA) and other autoantibody testing on a child unless there is strong suspicion or specific ... Choosing Wisely - Do not order antinuclear antibody (ANA) and other autoantibody testing on a child ... Choosing Wisely Do not order antinuclear antibody (ANA) and other autoantibody testing on a child ...
ANA stands for antinuclear antibodies or autoantibodies. These antibodies form in the blood when the body mistakes its own ... ANA) Antinuclear Antibodies. The CARD Clinic offers a new component to the screening program for asbestos related diseases, ... "Adding ANA testing to the screening program has the potential to help many people and it is a direct result of our communitys ... A positive ANA test indicates that these autoantibodies are present, but it does not necessarily mean that an autoimmune ...
The Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) Comprehensive Profile detects antibodies associated with SLE and mixed connective tissue ... Anticentromere B antibodies; anti-dsDNA; antichromatin antibodies; anti-Jo-1; RNP antibodies; antiscleroderma 70 antibodies; ...
ANA) test is used to evaluate for underlying autoimmune disorder. Your doctor may use this test to help diagnose or rule out ... ANA) test is used to evaluate for underlying autoimmune disorder. Your doctor may use this test to help diagnose or rule out ... The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is used to evaluate for underlying autoimmune disorder. Your doctor may use this test to ... Complete Blood Count (CBC) ESR Glucose, Fasting Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Hepatitis C Antibody TSH Urine Analysis ...
Antinuclear antibody (ANA). An abnormal protein directed against a cells nucleus (the "control center"). The presence of these ...
Also known as: Antinuclear Antibody; Fluorescent Antinuclear Antibody; FANA. Formal name: Antinuclear Antibody. Related tests: ... ENA Panel; Complement; AMA; Autoantibodies; Anti-dsDNA; Anticentromere Antibody; Nucleolar Antibody. Why should I do it?. To ...
... progressively worsen.The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is used as a primary test to help evaluate a person for autoimmune ... The ANA test is ordered when someone shows signs and symptoms that are associated with a systemic autoimmune disorder. People ... Depending on a persons signs and symptoms and the suspected disorder, ANA testing may be used along with or followed by other ... ANA are a group of autoantibodies produced by a persons immune system when it fails to adequately distinguish between "self" ...
2. Antinuclear antibody (ANA). What it tests: This test looks for high levels of antinuclear antibodies, which are compounds ... What it tests: This test looks for a specific auto-antibody called anti-CCP, which is present in an estimated 60 to 80 percent ... This test detects the presence of antibodies that indicate Lyme disease.. Interpreting the results: The presence of Lyme ... What it tests: This test measures the level of RF, which acts as an antibody against gamma globulins in the blood. ...
Your immune system normally makes antibodies to help you fight infection. In contrast, antinuclear antibodies often attack your ... An ANA test detects antinuclear antibodies in your blood. ... Home Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test. Antinuclear antibody (ANA ... Definition of antinuclear antibody (ana) test. An ANA test detects antinuclear antibodies in your blood. Your immune system ... Results of antinuclear antibody (ana) test. The presence of any antinuclear antibodies is a positive test result. But having a ...
The anti-nuclear antibody test detects autoimmune diseases, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. The ANA is a blood test and ...
Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA)- Elisa. View cart "Glucose, Post Prandial (PP), 2 Hours (Post Meal)" has been added to your cart. ... The anti-nuclear antibody test detects autoimmune diseases, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. The ANA is a blood test and ...
  • Although ANAs are very sensitive for SLE, positive ANAs are common, especially in unwell elderly individuals. (bmj.com)
  • This Diagnostic Automation/ Cortez Diagnostics Inc. Human ANA Screen ELISA test kit is based on the principle of ELISA- Indirect assay using allergen coated microwells. (elisatestkits.com)
  • Importantly, the methods for detecting these antibodies are not specified by the ARA, and this article aims to highlight the fact that the particular assay used will crucially influence the interpretation of the test (table 2). (bmj.com)
  • ANA determined by indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) use HEp-2 substrate and IgG-specific conjugate at a screening dilution of 1:80. (aruplab.com)
  • Different assays detect particular antibody properties, which are often quite different, and the clinical importance of this for pathogenesis or diagnosis is rarely fully understood. (bmj.com)
  • High numbers of a particular antibody may persist for months after an invasion. (thefreedictionary.com)