Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.MaineArachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred NZBRhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.NebraskaSouth DakotaNevadaPsychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Aeromonas salmonicida: A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the family Aeromonadaceae. It is strictly parasitic and often pathogenic causing FURUNCULOSIS in SALMONIDS and ulcer disease in GOLDFISH.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksArchivesLa Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Emergence of Anaplasma marginale antigenic variants during persistent rickettsemia. (1/194)

Anaplasma marginale is an ehrlichial pathogen of cattle, in the order Rickettsiales, that establishes persistent cyclic rickettsemia in the infected host. Within each rickettsemic cycle, A. marginale expressing antigenically variant major surface protein 2 (MSP2) emerge. By cloning 17 full-length msp2 transcripts expressed during cyclic rickettsemia, we determined that emergent variants have a single, central hypervariable region encoding variant B-cell epitopes. The N- and C-terminal regions are highly conserved among the expressed A. marginale variants, and similar sequences define the MSP2 homologues in the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). This is in contrast to the MSP2 homologues in ehrlichial genogroup I pathogens, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Cowdria ruminantium, that have multiple hypervariable regions. By defining the variable and conserved regions, we were able to show that the single hypervariable region of A. marginale MSP2 encodes epitopes that are immunogenic and induce variant-specific antibody responses during persistent infection. These findings demonstrate that the MSP2 structural variants that emerge during each cycle of persistent rickettsemia are true antigenic variants, consistent with MSP2 antigenic variation as a mechanism of A. marginale persistence.  (+info)

Strain composition of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale within persistently infected cattle, a mammalian reservoir for tick transmission. (2/194)

Tick-borne ehrlichial pathogens of animals and humans require a mammalian reservoir of infection from which ticks acquire the organism for subsequent transmission. In the present study, we examined the strain structure of Anaplasma marginale, a genogroup II ehrlichial pathogen, in both an acute outbreak and in persistently infected cattle that serve as a reservoir for tick transmission. Using the msp1alpha genotype as a stable strain marker, only a single genotype was detected in a disease outbreak in a previously uninfected herd. In contrast, a diverse set of genotypes was detected in a persistently infected reservoir herd within a region where A. marginale is endemic. Genotypic diversity did not appear to be rapidly generated within an individual animal, because only a single genotype, identical to that of the inoculating strain, was detected at time points up to 2 years after experimental infection, and only a single identical genotype was found in repeat sampling of individual naturally infected cattle. Similarly, only a single genotype, identical to that of the experimentally inoculated St. Maries or South Idaho strain, was identified in the bloodmeal taken by Dermacentor andersoni ticks, in the midgut and salivary glands of the infected ticks, and in the blood of acutely infected cattle following tick transmission. The results show that mammalian reservoirs harbor genetically heterogeneous A. marginale and suggest that different genotypes are maintained by transmission within the reservoir population.  (+info)

Sensitivity and specificity of the complement fixation test for detection of cattle persistently infected with Anaplasma marginale. (3/194)

The complement fixation (CF) test commonly is used to identify cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale prior to interstate or international movement. Estimates of the accuracy of the CF test in detecting animals persistently infected with A. marginale vary widely. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of the CF test for detection of carrier animals was determined using serum from 232 cattle previously defined as A. marginale positive or negative by nested polymerase chain reaction methods and hybridization. Considering results from 2 independent laboratories and interpreting a 1:5 suspect reaction as positive, the best estimate of CF test sensitivity was 20%, with a specificity of 98%. Using a 1:10 cutoff, sensitivity decreased to 14% and specificity increased to 99%. Results of this study indicate that the CF test is ineffective for identifying cattle persistently infected with A. marginale and thus is inadequate for anaplasmosis regulatory and surveillance programs.  (+info)

Selective in vivo depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody during acute infection of calves with Anaplasma marginale. (4/194)

To investigate the in vivo role of CD4(+) T lymphocytes during acute anaplasmosis, thymectomized calves were selectively depleted of CD4(+) T lymphocytes by treatment with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and were then infected with the Florida strain of Anaplasma marginale in two sequential experiments (experiments 1 and 2). Treatment of thymectomized calves with a total of 5.0 mg of anti-CD4 MAb/kg of body weight during the 1st week followed by 0.3-mg/kg doses administered twice weekly for 7 weeks resulted in significant depletion of CD3(+) CD4(+) and CD4(+) CD45R(+) (naive) T lymphocytes from blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes for the duration of the 8-week study, compared to the results for thymectomized control calves treated with a subclass-matched MAb. All calves became parasitemic and pyretic following experimental infection with A. marginale, and decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) coincided with peak parasitemia. No significant differences in PCV or parasitemia were observed between treatment groups. Thymectomized calves treated with anti-CD4 MAb were able to mount an anti-A. marginale antibody response, although in experiment 2, anti-CD4 MAb-treated calves had four- to sixfold lower immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and no detectable IgG2 anti-A. marginale major surface protein 2-specific antibody titers compared to thymectomized control calves treated with a subclass-matched MAb. At the level of CD4(+)-T-lymphocyte depletion achieved and experimental anaplasmosis induced, thymectomized anti-CD4 MAb-treated calves were able to control acute anaplasmosis. This was in contrast to the prediction that significant depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes would abrogate resistance to acute infection.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of antibodies that react with Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, in different populations in Westchester County, New York. (5/194)

We determined the frequencies of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), in different groups of adults and children from Westchester County, New York. The groups included 159 adult blood donors and 215 children who were seronegative for Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, 118 adult patients and 57 children who were seropositive for B. burgdorferi antibodies, and 42 adult patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans. Eighteen (11.3%) of the blood donors and 11 (5.1%) of the B. burgdorferi-seronegative children were found to have A. phagocytophila antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Nine of 42 (21.4%) patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans tested at the baseline visit, 42 of 118 (35.6%) adults, and 3 of 57 (5.3%) children whose sera were reactive for B. burgdorferi antibodies also tested positive for A. phagocytophila antibodies. The geometric mean titer ranged from 219 to 315 for all groups, and the differences in titers among the groups were not statistically significant. Only one-third of the healthy blood donors reactive by IFA were confirmed to be positive by immunoblotting. We conclude that a significant proportion of adults and children without clinical evidence of HGE will test positive for A. phagocytophila antibodies when the conventional cutoff titer of 80 is used in the IFA. This information must be considered in interpretation of test results.  (+info)

Superoxide anion production during Anaplasma phagocytophila infection. (6/194)

Anaplasma phagocytophila persists within neutrophils and prevents the respiratory burst by inhibiting gp91(phox). Mutations in gp91(phox) result in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is diagnosed by use of the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and Fc-Oxyburst assays that examine whether cells produce O2-. This study assessed whether the NBT and Fc-Oxyburst assays could detect a respiratory burst during A. phagocytophila infection. O2- production was inhibited in HL-60 cells and neutrophils infected with A. phagocytophila. In a mouse model of A. phagocytophila infection, 15%+/-4% (mean+/-SD) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from infected mice had an ineffective respiratory burst compared with 1%+/-1% (mean+/-SD) of the neutrophils from uninfected animals. A population of neutrophils that did not produce O2- was also detected in 2 patients with A. phagocytophila infection. These data demonstrate respiratory burst inhibition by A. phagocytophila in vivo and on an individual cell basis by use of assays designed to evaluate CGD.  (+info)

Analysis of sequences and loci of p44 homologs expressed by Anaplasma phagocytophila in acutely infected patients. (7/194)

Anaplasma phagocytophila is an obligatory intragranulocytic bacterium that causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Immunodominant 44-kDa outer membrane proteins of A. phagocytophila are encoded by a p44 multigene family. In the present study, expression profiles of p44 genes in the blood of acutely infected patients in the year 2000 were characterized. A single p44 gene was predominantly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes from one patient, while up to 17 different p44 genes were transcribed without a single majority in the other two patients. The cDNA sequences of the central hypervariable region of several p44 genes were identical among the isolates from the three patients and a 1995 A. phagocytophila isolate. A. phagocytophila was isolated by cell culture from all of the three 2000 patients. Genomic Southern blot analysis of the three 2000 and two 1995 A. phagocytophila isolates with probes specific to the most dominant p44 transcript in each patient showed that the p44 loci in the A. phagocytophila genome were conserved. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences of 43 different p44 genes including 19 new sequences found in the present study, revealed that five amino acids were absolutely conserved. The hypervariable region was subdivided into five domains, including three extremely hypervariable central domains. These results suggest that variations in the sequences of p44 are not random but are restricted. Furthermore, several p44 genes are not hypermutatable in nature, based on the conservation of gene sequences and loci among isolates obtained 5 years apart.  (+info)

Serologic and molecular detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent) in Korean patients. (8/194)

Sera from 491 Korean patients with acute febrile diseases were tested for Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blotting, and TaqMan real-time PCR. Overall, 0.4% of sera reacted with E. chaffeensis, and 1.8% reacted with A. phagocytophila in IFAs. This is the first report of detection of antibodies to A. phagocytophila and E. chaffeensis in Korea and suggests the presence of A. phagocytophila and E. chaffeensis or antigenically similar species.  (+info)

  • In acute anaplasmosis, cattle will be febrile and anemic with increased heart and respiratory rates. (agweb.com)
  • Abortions are common in pregnant cattle with acute anaplasmosis. (agweb.com)
  • Necropsy examination of cattle that die from anaplasmosis reveals either pale and anemic or icteric depending on stage of disease. (agweb.com)
  • Cattle, bison and elk producers in Alberta will have to contact their herd veterinarian to examine animals that are showing clinical signs suggestive of anaplasmosis. (alberta.ca)
  • All breeding cattle, feeder cattle and bison imported from US into Canada will not be required to be tested for Anaplasmosis. (alberta.ca)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease that causes loss of production and abortion in beef cattle and significant decreases in milk production in dairy cattle. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Anaplasmosis causes direct cattle death, loss of calves due to aborted pregnancies, lost milk production in dairy cows, lost ability to export cattle and increased cost of herd management because of the need for vaccines or antibiotic treatment, Coetzee said. (tscra.org)
  • In endemic areas where cattle first become infected with A marginale early in life, losses due to anaplasmosis are minimal. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • However, these chronically infected cattle may relapse to anaplasmosis when immunosuppressed (eg, by corticosteroids), when infected with other pathogens, or after splenectomy. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease that can infect humans, canines, and ruminant animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. (tickcontrolllc.com)
  • Prevalence of anaplasmosis in cattle in Iraq detected by microscopy and PCR. (onljvetres.com)
  • Prevalence of anaplasmosis in cattle in Iraq detected by microscopy and PCR, Onl J Vet Res. (onljvetres.com)
  • Note: Dogs with anaplasmosis may also be infected with other tick-borne organisms ( Ehrlichia , Borrelia , etc.), so infected dogs should be screened for those diseases also. (vin.com)
  • The number of anaplasmosis cases reported to CDC has increased steadily since the disease became reportable, from 348 cases in 2000, to a peak of 5,762 in 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • The global market for anaplasmosis treatment is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 6.3% during the forecast period 2017-2023. (medgadget.com)
  • More rarely, the bacteria that cause anaplasmosis can spread through direct contact with infected animals. (medgadget.com)
  • The bacteria that cause anaplasmosis commonly infect the white-footed mouse, deer, and other animals in the wild. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • Post-tick bite antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended to prevent anaplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • There are no foods or nutrients that can particularly prevent anaplasmosis, but there are foods and nutrients that can be used as remedies for tick bites . (naturalpedia.com)
  • How do I Prevent Anaplasmosis? (petmd.com)
  • ARDS is a very rare presentation of human anaplasmosis. (rcjournal.com)
  • Two big causes seen in our area in the fall, however, are Anaplasmosis and Potomac Horse Fever. (bwfurlong.com)
  • Although cases of anaplasmosis can occur during any month of the year, the majority of cases reported to the CDC have an illness onset during the summer months and a peak in cases typically occurs in June and July. (cdc.gov)
  • Anaplasmosis can be a serious illness if not treated promptly and correctly. (penbaypilot.com)
  • Less than 1 percent of anaplasmosis cases are fatal, but experts say without early treatment, the illness can become worrisome. (healthline.com)
  • Figure 3 - Annual reported incidence (per million population) for anaplasmosis - United States, 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • Several types of tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are available to help your veterinarian diagnose anaplasmosis. (vcahospitals.com)
  • In order to confirm a case of Anaplasmosis, tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), may be utilized by your veterinarian. (tickzapper.com)
  • The most sensitive test for detection of Anaplasmosis that is routinely run is a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test which typically takes 3-4 days for results. (bwfurlong.com)
  • Mainers are more at risk of anaplasmosis, experts say, for a number of reasons. (pressherald.com)
  • What can livestock producers do to reduce the risk of Anaplasmosis? (alberta.ca)
  • Each individual case of anaplasmosis is estimated to cost about $400 per animal, and the total cost to the industry is estimated to be above $300 million in the U.S. (beefmagazine.com)
  • In 2016, areas where anaplasmosis was expected to have a particularly significant rise included Northern California, New York, western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. (petmd.com)
  • Rifampin has been used successfully in several pregnant women with anaplasmosis, and studies suggest that this drug appears effective against A . phagocytophilum . (cdc.gov)
  • Once it goes away, you'll need to go to the doctor who will diagnose anaplasmosis. (simplyhealth.today)
  • Occasionally, anaplasmosis cases are reported in other parts of the United States, including southeastern and south-central states where the pathogen has not been commonly found. (cdc.gov)
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