A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
##### Not a valid request: I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maine" is a state in the northeastern United States and not a medical term or condition with a specific definition in the healthcare context.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

Emergence of Anaplasma marginale antigenic variants during persistent rickettsemia. (1/194)

Anaplasma marginale is an ehrlichial pathogen of cattle, in the order Rickettsiales, that establishes persistent cyclic rickettsemia in the infected host. Within each rickettsemic cycle, A. marginale expressing antigenically variant major surface protein 2 (MSP2) emerge. By cloning 17 full-length msp2 transcripts expressed during cyclic rickettsemia, we determined that emergent variants have a single, central hypervariable region encoding variant B-cell epitopes. The N- and C-terminal regions are highly conserved among the expressed A. marginale variants, and similar sequences define the MSP2 homologues in the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). This is in contrast to the MSP2 homologues in ehrlichial genogroup I pathogens, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Cowdria ruminantium, that have multiple hypervariable regions. By defining the variable and conserved regions, we were able to show that the single hypervariable region of A. marginale MSP2 encodes epitopes that are immunogenic and induce variant-specific antibody responses during persistent infection. These findings demonstrate that the MSP2 structural variants that emerge during each cycle of persistent rickettsemia are true antigenic variants, consistent with MSP2 antigenic variation as a mechanism of A. marginale persistence.  (+info)

Strain composition of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale within persistently infected cattle, a mammalian reservoir for tick transmission. (2/194)

Tick-borne ehrlichial pathogens of animals and humans require a mammalian reservoir of infection from which ticks acquire the organism for subsequent transmission. In the present study, we examined the strain structure of Anaplasma marginale, a genogroup II ehrlichial pathogen, in both an acute outbreak and in persistently infected cattle that serve as a reservoir for tick transmission. Using the msp1alpha genotype as a stable strain marker, only a single genotype was detected in a disease outbreak in a previously uninfected herd. In contrast, a diverse set of genotypes was detected in a persistently infected reservoir herd within a region where A. marginale is endemic. Genotypic diversity did not appear to be rapidly generated within an individual animal, because only a single genotype, identical to that of the inoculating strain, was detected at time points up to 2 years after experimental infection, and only a single identical genotype was found in repeat sampling of individual naturally infected cattle. Similarly, only a single genotype, identical to that of the experimentally inoculated St. Maries or South Idaho strain, was identified in the bloodmeal taken by Dermacentor andersoni ticks, in the midgut and salivary glands of the infected ticks, and in the blood of acutely infected cattle following tick transmission. The results show that mammalian reservoirs harbor genetically heterogeneous A. marginale and suggest that different genotypes are maintained by transmission within the reservoir population.  (+info)

Sensitivity and specificity of the complement fixation test for detection of cattle persistently infected with Anaplasma marginale. (3/194)

The complement fixation (CF) test commonly is used to identify cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale prior to interstate or international movement. Estimates of the accuracy of the CF test in detecting animals persistently infected with A. marginale vary widely. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of the CF test for detection of carrier animals was determined using serum from 232 cattle previously defined as A. marginale positive or negative by nested polymerase chain reaction methods and hybridization. Considering results from 2 independent laboratories and interpreting a 1:5 suspect reaction as positive, the best estimate of CF test sensitivity was 20%, with a specificity of 98%. Using a 1:10 cutoff, sensitivity decreased to 14% and specificity increased to 99%. Results of this study indicate that the CF test is ineffective for identifying cattle persistently infected with A. marginale and thus is inadequate for anaplasmosis regulatory and surveillance programs.  (+info)

Selective in vivo depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody during acute infection of calves with Anaplasma marginale. (4/194)

To investigate the in vivo role of CD4(+) T lymphocytes during acute anaplasmosis, thymectomized calves were selectively depleted of CD4(+) T lymphocytes by treatment with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and were then infected with the Florida strain of Anaplasma marginale in two sequential experiments (experiments 1 and 2). Treatment of thymectomized calves with a total of 5.0 mg of anti-CD4 MAb/kg of body weight during the 1st week followed by 0.3-mg/kg doses administered twice weekly for 7 weeks resulted in significant depletion of CD3(+) CD4(+) and CD4(+) CD45R(+) (naive) T lymphocytes from blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes for the duration of the 8-week study, compared to the results for thymectomized control calves treated with a subclass-matched MAb. All calves became parasitemic and pyretic following experimental infection with A. marginale, and decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) coincided with peak parasitemia. No significant differences in PCV or parasitemia were observed between treatment groups. Thymectomized calves treated with anti-CD4 MAb were able to mount an anti-A. marginale antibody response, although in experiment 2, anti-CD4 MAb-treated calves had four- to sixfold lower immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and no detectable IgG2 anti-A. marginale major surface protein 2-specific antibody titers compared to thymectomized control calves treated with a subclass-matched MAb. At the level of CD4(+)-T-lymphocyte depletion achieved and experimental anaplasmosis induced, thymectomized anti-CD4 MAb-treated calves were able to control acute anaplasmosis. This was in contrast to the prediction that significant depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes would abrogate resistance to acute infection.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of antibodies that react with Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, in different populations in Westchester County, New York. (5/194)

We determined the frequencies of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), in different groups of adults and children from Westchester County, New York. The groups included 159 adult blood donors and 215 children who were seronegative for Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, 118 adult patients and 57 children who were seropositive for B. burgdorferi antibodies, and 42 adult patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans. Eighteen (11.3%) of the blood donors and 11 (5.1%) of the B. burgdorferi-seronegative children were found to have A. phagocytophila antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Nine of 42 (21.4%) patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans tested at the baseline visit, 42 of 118 (35.6%) adults, and 3 of 57 (5.3%) children whose sera were reactive for B. burgdorferi antibodies also tested positive for A. phagocytophila antibodies. The geometric mean titer ranged from 219 to 315 for all groups, and the differences in titers among the groups were not statistically significant. Only one-third of the healthy blood donors reactive by IFA were confirmed to be positive by immunoblotting. We conclude that a significant proportion of adults and children without clinical evidence of HGE will test positive for A. phagocytophila antibodies when the conventional cutoff titer of 80 is used in the IFA. This information must be considered in interpretation of test results.  (+info)

Superoxide anion production during Anaplasma phagocytophila infection. (6/194)

Anaplasma phagocytophila persists within neutrophils and prevents the respiratory burst by inhibiting gp91(phox). Mutations in gp91(phox) result in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is diagnosed by use of the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and Fc-Oxyburst assays that examine whether cells produce O2-. This study assessed whether the NBT and Fc-Oxyburst assays could detect a respiratory burst during A. phagocytophila infection. O2- production was inhibited in HL-60 cells and neutrophils infected with A. phagocytophila. In a mouse model of A. phagocytophila infection, 15%+/-4% (mean+/-SD) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from infected mice had an ineffective respiratory burst compared with 1%+/-1% (mean+/-SD) of the neutrophils from uninfected animals. A population of neutrophils that did not produce O2- was also detected in 2 patients with A. phagocytophila infection. These data demonstrate respiratory burst inhibition by A. phagocytophila in vivo and on an individual cell basis by use of assays designed to evaluate CGD.  (+info)

Analysis of sequences and loci of p44 homologs expressed by Anaplasma phagocytophila in acutely infected patients. (7/194)

Anaplasma phagocytophila is an obligatory intragranulocytic bacterium that causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Immunodominant 44-kDa outer membrane proteins of A. phagocytophila are encoded by a p44 multigene family. In the present study, expression profiles of p44 genes in the blood of acutely infected patients in the year 2000 were characterized. A single p44 gene was predominantly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes from one patient, while up to 17 different p44 genes were transcribed without a single majority in the other two patients. The cDNA sequences of the central hypervariable region of several p44 genes were identical among the isolates from the three patients and a 1995 A. phagocytophila isolate. A. phagocytophila was isolated by cell culture from all of the three 2000 patients. Genomic Southern blot analysis of the three 2000 and two 1995 A. phagocytophila isolates with probes specific to the most dominant p44 transcript in each patient showed that the p44 loci in the A. phagocytophila genome were conserved. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences of 43 different p44 genes including 19 new sequences found in the present study, revealed that five amino acids were absolutely conserved. The hypervariable region was subdivided into five domains, including three extremely hypervariable central domains. These results suggest that variations in the sequences of p44 are not random but are restricted. Furthermore, several p44 genes are not hypermutatable in nature, based on the conservation of gene sequences and loci among isolates obtained 5 years apart.  (+info)

Serologic and molecular detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent) in Korean patients. (8/194)

Sera from 491 Korean patients with acute febrile diseases were tested for Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blotting, and TaqMan real-time PCR. Overall, 0.4% of sera reacted with E. chaffeensis, and 1.8% reacted with A. phagocytophila in IFAs. This is the first report of detection of antibodies to A. phagocytophila and E. chaffeensis in Korea and suggests the presence of A. phagocytophila and E. chaffeensis or antigenically similar species.  (+info)

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States and western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in the western United States.

The bacterium infects and reproduces within certain white blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills that typically appear within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Other possible symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, and a rash (although a rash is uncommon).

Anaplasmosis can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against the bacterium or the DNA of the organism itself. It is usually treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline, which are most effective when started early in the course of the disease.

Preventing tick bites is the best way to avoid anaplasmosis and other tick-borne diseases. This can be done by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors. If a tick is found, it should be removed promptly using fine-tipped tweezers, grasping the tick as close to the skin as possible and pulling straight upwards with steady pressure.

'Anaplasma phagocytophilum' is a gram-negative bacterium that causes Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease in humans. It infects and survives within granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and chills. In severe cases, it can cause complications like respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the United States and the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) in Europe. Proper diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing this infection.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with Ehrlichia bacteria. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms of ehrlichiosis can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If left untreated, ehrlichiosis can cause serious complications, including damage to the central nervous system and other organs. It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have been exposed to ehrlichiosis and are experiencing symptoms of the disease. A healthcare provider can diagnose ehrlichiosis through laboratory tests and can recommend appropriate treatment, which typically involves antibiotics. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can help reduce the risk of ehrlichiosis and other tick-borne diseases.

Anaplasma is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infect and parasitize the white blood cells of various animals, including humans. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. The most common species that infect humans are Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tick-borne disease characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and leukopenia. It infects granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, and can cause severe complications such as respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death in some cases.

Anaplasma platys causes canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, a disease that affects dogs and is characterized by recurring low platelet counts. It infects platelets, another type of blood cell involved in clotting, and can cause bleeding disorders in affected animals.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma infections typically involves the detection of antibodies against the bacteria or the direct identification of the organism through molecular methods such as PCR. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against both species of Anaplasma. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas and using insect repellents and protective clothing to reduce the risk of tick bites.

'Anaplasma marginale' is a gram-negative bacterium that infects red blood cells in various species of animals, including cattle. It is the causative agent of Anaplasmosis, which is a tick-borne disease that can lead to severe anemia, abortion, and even death in infected animals. The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected ticks or through contaminated blood transfusions, needles, or surgical instruments.

The bacterium has a unique life cycle, where it infects and replicates within the red blood cells, causing them to rupture and release more bacteria into the bloodstream. This results in the characteristic symptoms of Anaplasmosis, such as fever, weakness, icterus (yellowing of the mucous membranes), and anemia.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmosis can be confirmed through various laboratory tests, including blood smears, PCR assays, and serological tests. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which can help to reduce the severity of symptoms and clear the infection. Preventive measures include the control of tick populations, the use of protective clothing and insect repellents, and the implementation of strict biosecurity protocols in veterinary practices and farms.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maine" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually the name of a state, the 23rd state to join the United States of America. Maine is located in the northeastern part of the country and is known for its rocky coastline, maritime history, and natural beauty. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Bovine trypanosomiasis, also known as Nagana, is a parasitic disease that affects cattle and other animals. It is caused by various species of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma, which are transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.).

The disease is characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss, decreased milk production, abortion in pregnant animals, and eventually death if left untreated. The parasites invade the bloodstream and lymphatic system, causing damage to various organs and tissues.

Bovine trypanosomiasis is a major constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, where it affects millions of animals and causes significant economic losses to farmers and pastoralists. Control measures include the use of trypanocidal drugs, insecticide-treated cattle, and the reduction or elimination of tsetse fly populations through various methods such as trapping and habitat modification.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Dermacentor is a genus of ticks that includes several species known to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Some of the notable species in this genus are:

1. Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick): This species is widely distributed across western North America and can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and tularemia.
2. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick): Found throughout the United States, this tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and human ehrlichiosis.
3. Dermacentor reticulatus (Ornate cow tick or Marsh tick): This species is distributed in Europe and parts of Asia and can transmit diseases like tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, and babesiosis.
4. Dermacentor marginatus (Marginated tick): Found primarily in Europe, this tick transmits various pathogens causing diseases such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and rickettsialpox.
5. Dermacentor nitens (Brazilian pampas tick): This species is native to South America and can transmit Rickettsia rickettsii, the bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Dermacentor ticks are known for their hard, shield-like structures called scutums on their backs and their long mouthparts called hypostomes, which they use to feed on the blood of their hosts. They typically prefer large mammals as hosts but will also feed on humans and other animals if necessary.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Ehrlichia is a genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that infect and replicate within the vacuoles of host cells. These bacteria are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropods, such as ticks. Infection with Ehrlichia can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some species of Ehrlichia, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are known to cause human disease, including ehrlichiosis.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that can range in severity from mild to severe and can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as neurological problems, respiratory failure, or kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you may have been infected with Ehrlichia, as early treatment can help prevent serious complications. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

'Ehrlichia chaffeensis' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that causes human ehrlichiosis, a tick-borne disease. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). The bacteria infect and replicate within white blood cells, causing symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, ehrlichiosis can cause damage to organs and may be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antibiotics.

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is named after Dr. William A. Ehrlich, who first described the bacterium in 1937, and Fort Chaffee in Arkansas, where the tick vector was first identified.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

HL-60 cells are a type of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. They are named after the hospital where they were first isolated, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) and the 60th culture attempt to grow these cells.

HL-60 cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, such as granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, when exposed to certain chemical compounds or under specific culturing conditions. This makes them a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

HL-60 cells are also often used in toxicity studies, drug discovery and development, and research on cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. They can be easily grown in the lab and have a stable genotype, making them ideal for use in standardized experiments and comparisons between different studies.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

'Borrelia burgdorferi' is a species of spirochete bacteria that is the primary cause of Lyme disease in humans. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern, midwestern, and eastern parts of the United States; Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast).

The bacterium was first identified and named after Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the spirochete in the mid-1980s. The infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Antibiotic treatment is usually effective in eliminating the bacteria and resolving symptoms, especially when initiated early in the course of the disease. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms even after treatment, a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The exact cause of PTLDS remains unclear, with ongoing research investigating potential factors such as residual bacterial infection, autoimmune responses, or tissue damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

"Anaplasmosis , ALDF". www.aldf.com. Retrieved 2019-04-02. "Keep a watchful eye out for anaplasmosis in cattle herds - Division ... Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease affecting ruminants, dogs, and horses, and is caused by Anaplasma bacteria. Anaplasmosis ... Anaplasmosis can be transmitted through mechanical and biological vector processes. Anaplasmosis can also be referred to as " ... The most common Anaplasmosis-causing tick is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or the deer tick. Ticks who ...
If anaplasmosis is suspected, treatment should not be delayed while waiting for a definitive laboratory confirmation, as prompt ... "Human Anaplasmosis Basics - Minnesota Dept. of Health". Archived from the original on 2018-03-14. Retrieved 2009-04-13. Holden ... Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate ... "Statistics , Anaplasmosis , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-08. CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases for more information ...
Kreier JP, Ristic M (1963). "Anaplasmosis. XII. The growth and survival in deer and sheep of the parasites present in the blood ...
"Anaplasmosis - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2020-10-26. "Anaplasmosis - Circulatory ... Anaplasmosis is also known to be a production limiting disease resulting in decreased milk production and weight loss. Other ... In the early 1900s, many other members of this genus were described and determined to be the causative agent of Anaplasmosis in ... Tetracycline antibiotics are typically used to treat clinical anaplasmosis. Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, et al. (2001). " ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis. Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii ...
Human ewingii ehrlichiosis Human granulocytic anaplasmosis Monocyte Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. ( ... December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1828-34 ... Compared to human granulocytic anaplasmosis, rash is more common. Laboratory abnormalities include thrombocytopenia, leukopenia ...
It causes anaplasmosis in sheep and cattle, also known as tick-borne fever and pasture fever, and also causes the zoonotic ... "Human Anaplasmosis Information for Health Professionals: Diagnostic tests". Diseases. Minnesota Department of Health. Archived ... It causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which is a tick-borne rickettsial disease. Because this bacterium invades ... A. phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). This disease was first identified in 1990, although this ...
Little, Susan E. (2010). "Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis in Dogs and Cats". Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal ...
Eremeeva ME, Dasch GA (2014). "Rickettsial (Spotted & Typhus Fevers) & Related Infections (Anaplasmosis & Ehrlichiosis)". CDC ...
Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F. (1995). "Molecular basis for vaccine development against anaplasmosis and babesiosis". ...
Kuttler, KL (1980). "Pharmacotherapeutics of drugs used in treatment of anaplasmosis and babesiosis". Journal of the American ...
"Human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the United States from 2008 to 2012: a summary of national surveillance data". Am J Trop Med ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. phagocytophilum is endemic to New England and the north- ... "Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and ehrlichiosis". Expert Review of Anti- ...
... and Anaplasmosis - United States. A Practical Guide for Health Care and Public Health Professionals" (PDF). Centers for Disease ... "Guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in Europe". Parasites & Vectors. 8 (1): 75. doi: ...
... symptoms resemble those of two other tick-borne infections ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. The reservoir host is unknown, but ... is through the elimination of other causes of infectious diseases with related symptoms like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis or ...
May 2006). "Serological evidence for tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia". ... human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". ... which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), respectively. Among people with early Lyme ...
Thomas RJ, Dumler JS, Carlyon JA (August 2009). "Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ... November 2006). "The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and ...
Buss B, Kearnery C.B., Coleman, C., Henning, J.D. (December 2016). "Detection of Lyme disease and anaplasmosis pathogens via ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a Gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that causes anaplasmosis, has been detected in L ...
anaplasmosis Infection with Anaplasma, a genus of Sporozoa that infests red blood cells. anasa wilt A wilt disease of cucurbits ...
... species reside in host blood cells and lead to the disease anaplasmosis. The disease most commonly occurs in areas ... "Novel Chronic Anaplasmosis in Splenectomized Patient, Amazon Rainforest - Volume 28, Number 8-August 2022 - Emerging Infectious ... the Sparouine anaplasmosis, detected only in French Guiana, South America. This disease was described from a clandestine gold ... see human granulocytic anaplasmosis) Anaplasma platys in dogs The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare ...
... and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia". Int J Med Microbiol. 296 (Suppl 40): 69-75. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2006.01.031. ...
Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... "Australian frozen vaccines for the control of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle-A review". Tropical Animal Health and ...
Ixodes ticks are also the primary vector in the spread of babesiosis and anaplasmosis. B. miyamotoi causes Borrelia miyamotoi ...
... may refer to: African tick fever; see Spirochaeta duttoni Bovine Babesiosis Ruminant Anaplasmosis Colorado tick ...
Jakowska S, Nigrelli RF (1956)Some protozoan diseases of man and animals: Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Toxoplasmosis. Annal NY ...
". "Chapter 5 - Rickettsial (Spotted and Typhus Fevers) and Related Infections (Anaplasmosis and Ehrlichiosis) - 2010 Yellow ...
The Haematopinus tuberculatus is suspected to be involved in the transmission of diseases, such as anaplasmosis. The parasites ...
... pusio is considered to be the vector for anaplasmosis, bovine mastitis, and Haemophilus spp. which cause bacterial ...
He also studies the ecology of other tick-borne diseases, including babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and Powassan viral encephalitis. ...
... it can cause anaplasmosis, that is thought to damage red blood cells. It can spread by ticks or other biological vectors and ...
Heartwater Ehrlichiosis (canine) Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (now called human granulocytic anaplasmosis) Human monocytic ...
Human anaplasmosis (human granulocytic anaplasmosis). Yes. -. -. Yes. Yes. Abbreviations: IFA = indirect immunofluorescence ... Human anaplasmosis (human granulocytic anaplasmosis). 5-14 days. Fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, chills. Rash rare, in ,10% ... Most anaplasmosis cases occur during June-November. The seasonality of anaplasmosis is bimodal, with the first peak during June ... Anaplasmosis. Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis). Pathophysiology. A. phagocytophilum is an obligate, ...
"Anaplasmosis , ALDF". www.aldf.com. Retrieved 2019-04-02. "Keep a watchful eye out for anaplasmosis in cattle herds - Division ... Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease affecting ruminants, dogs, and horses, and is caused by Anaplasma bacteria. Anaplasmosis ... Anaplasmosis can be transmitted through mechanical and biological vector processes. Anaplasmosis can also be referred to as " ... The most common Anaplasmosis-causing tick is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or the deer tick. Ticks who ...
Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Anaplasmosis occurs in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic states, upper Midwest, and West Coast of the United States. Anaplasmosis ... Symptoms of Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis Symptoms of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are similar. Symptoms usually begin about ... Symptoms of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are similar, but anaplasmosis is less likely to cause a rash. ...
Access Anaplasmosis case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Dengue virus infections; Diphtheria; Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis. (7). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.). ... Dengue virus infections; Diphtheria; Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis" , no. 7 (2019). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Dengue virus infections; Diphtheria; Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis Corporate Authors(s) : Centers for Disease Control and ... Dengue virus infections; Diphtheria; Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis" , no. 7, 2019. Export RIS Citation Information.. ...
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is also called human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). It is caused by the rickettsial ... Human monocytic ehrlichiosis; HME; Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis; HGE; Human granulocytic anaplasmosis; HGA ... Ehrlichia chaffeensis (human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis), ...
This session will describe a recent analysis of the occurrence of anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease, in Ontario. This will be ... Describe serological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. *Identify areas of Ontario with ... PHO Rounds: The Occurrence of Anaplasmosis and Passive Tick Surveillance Options in Ontario. ... PHO Rounds: The Occurrence of Anaplasmosis and Passive Tick Surveillance Options in Ontario ...
Anaplasmosis incidence by age. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. View Media Gallery ... Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), is caused by Anaplasma ... The primary target cell for HME is the macrophage, and the primary target for human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is the ... Expansion of the midwestern focus for human granulocytic anaplasmosis into the region surrounding la crosse, wisconsin. J Clin ...
Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious disease of cattle that causes destruction of red blood cells and is initiated by the ...
Dive into the research topics of Molecular diagnosis of granulocytic anaplasmosis and infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia by ... Molecular diagnosis of granulocytic anaplasmosis and infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia by PCR-RFLP. ...
OMAFRA received confirmation of a positive case of bovine anaplasmosis in a cow-calf herd, the ag ministry announced on Aug. 23 ... This most recent confirmation is Ontarios fourth case of bovine anaplasmosis. The others came in 1996, 2013 and 2016. ... Cows can contract bovine anaplasmosis in multiple ways, said Dr. Jessica Retterath, a veterinarian with Metzger Veterinary ...
9, 2023) Rosslyn Biggs, OSU Extension beef cattle specialist, explains why anaplasmosis is so hard to control in cattle herds. ...
Anaplasmosis. Severe and life-threatening illness is less common with anaplasmosis compared to other rickettsial diseases, such ... Where is it found? Anaplasmosis is most frequently reported from the Upper Midwest and northeastern United States in areas that ...
Anaplasmosis and other less common tick-borne infections (Dr. Gerald Evans). Home > Anaplasmosis and other less common tick- ... Anaplasmosis and other less common tick-borne infections (Dr. Gerald Evans). Posted at 08:09h in by Jasmine Liu 0 Comments ...
Jonsson, N.N., Bock, R.E. and Jorgensen, W.K. (2008) Productivity and health effects of anaplasmosis and babesiosis on Bos ... Productivity and health effects of anaplasmosis and babesiosis on Bos indicus cattle and their crosses, and the effects of ... Acaricides; anaplasmosis; babesiosis; Bos indicus; cattle; Rhipicephalus microplus; tick control; tick fever; vaccination. ... The effects of acaricide application on the probability of clinical disease due to anaplasmosis and babesiosis are ...
Undetermined ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis. (Export Data). (PDF). Giardiasis. (Export Data). (PDF). Gonorrhea. (Export Data). (PDF) ...
Undetermined ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis. (Export Data). (PDF). Giardiasis. (Export Data). (PDF). Gonorrhea. (Export Data). (PDF) ...
Bovine anaplasmosis in Jamaica. Tropical Animal Health & Production. 20:42-44.. *Hugh-Jones, M.E.; Busch, D.; Raby, C.; Jones, ... Incidence of clinical anaplasmosis in cattle in the Red River Plains and South-east areas of Louisiana. Veterinary Research ... Cost of anaplasmosis in the Red River plains and southeast areas of Louisiana. Veterinary Research Communications. 13:349-358. ... Seroprevalence of anaplasmosis in the Red River Plains and South-east areas of Louisiana. Veterinary Research Communications. ...
Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Hemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis, or other bacterial infections were among the differentials considered for the serosal inflammation seen histologically. Chagas disease and encephalomyocarditis (EMCV) virus were among the differentials considered for the myocardial lesions. However, serologic tests for Chagas disease and EMCV were negative for these individuals. For other herd mates tested, all were seronegative for antibodies to Hemophilus parasuis, and one animal in the herd had a positive Mycoplasma antibody titer. All herd animals tested had Streptococcus suis antibody titers, but these results are equivocal in relation to necropsy findings because most adult domestic swine (Sus scrofa) test positive for this commensal organism.. The high incidence of antibody titers to vesicular exanthema of swine virus and the closely related San Miguel sea lion virus suggests that one or more caliciviruses (which share antigenic qualities) is circulating in the population. ...
Human granulocytic anaplasmosisï¼›Anaplasma phagocytophilum ï¼›Spotted fever group rickettsiae. File. MOHW107-CDC-C-315-112302.pdf ...
Known to transmit babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Credit: Dr. J. Ostojic, Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine. ...
Ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis means human infections caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis (formerly ... Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis - by culture, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection ...
Guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in Europe. Parasites & Vectors , v.8, n.75, p.1- ... Guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in Europe. Parasites & Vectors , v.8, n.75, p.1- ... Guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in Europe. Parasites & Vectors , v.8, n.75, p.1- ...
If old enough, they will be vaccinated for Rabies and blood tested for Heartworm, Lymes, Anaplasmosis and Erlichiosis. Dogs and ...
TURKEY] *Dogs receive 4D SNAP tests - which include: Heartworm, Ehrlichiosis, Leishmania and Anaplasmosis. ##1971714## ...
Anaplasmosis: An emerging tick-borne disease of importance in Canada. Uminski, Kelsey; Kadkhoda, Kamran; Houston, Brett L; ...
  • Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne bacterial infections that cause fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, a general feeling of illness (malaise), and sometimes a rash. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are similar, but anaplasmosis is less likely to cause a rash. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are treated with an antibiotic. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are similar. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis may cause widespread blood clotting ( disseminated intravascular coagulation ), severe malfunction (failure) of several organs, seizures, and coma. (merckmanuals.com)
  • NAAT uman granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a can be performed to detect A. phagocytophilum in tickborne infection caused by the intracellular whole blood or buffy coat and is the preferred test bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum ( 1 ), an emerging during the first 2 weeks of illness ( 9 , 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • and 5) anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum ( 2 ), also called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease affecting ruminants, dogs, and horses, and is caused by Anaplasma bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare zoonosis, the Sparouine anaplasmosis, detected only in French Guiana, South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two major species that cause anaplasmosis in ruminants include Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which infect granulocytes. (medscape.com)
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) was first reported in the United States of America in 1994, 2 and since then Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been considered an emerging pathogen of public health importance. (who.int)
  • Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is also called human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acute myopericarditis due to human granulocytic anaplasmosis. (nih.gov)
  • Overview of Rickettsial Infections Rickettsial infections and related infections (such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and Q fever) are caused by an unusual type of bacteria that can live only inside the cells of another organism. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Severe and life-threatening illness is less common with anaplasmosis compared to other rickettsial diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) or E. chaffeensis ehrlichiosis. (grandviewoutdoors.com)
  • Classic signs and symptoms of anaplasmosis will not occur until 3-6 weeks after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of acaricide application on the probability of clinical disease due to anaplasmosis and babesiosis are unpredictable and dependent on the prevalence of infection in ticks and in cattle at the time of application. (qld.gov.au)
  • Biological vector transmission is through ticks that carry a blood parasite able to cause anaplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • If people who may have been exposed to infected ticks have typical symptoms, treatment for ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis is usually started before test results are available. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Once infected with anaplasmosis, the cattle will always be a carrier of the infectious disease, and calves born from carriers will also carry the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dec. 9, 2023) Rosslyn Biggs, OSU Extension beef cattle specialist, explains why anaplasmosis is so hard to control in cattle herds. (okstate.edu)
  • As a consequence, herds of B. indicus cattle are less likely than herds of B. taurus cattle to have high levels of population immunity to babesiosis or anaplasmosis. (qld.gov.au)
  • The erythema chronicum migrans rash may be seen with anaplasmosis as it is co-transmitted in 10% of Lyme disease cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rash may develop on the torso, arms, and legs in some people with ehrlichiosis but is uncommon in people with anaplasmosis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • More commonly, it is associated with a febrile illness and can be confused with atypical Lyme disease (without a rash), ehrlichiosis , or anaplasmosis. (medscape.com)
  • Known to transmit babesiosis and anaplasmosis. (iastate.edu)
  • The most common symptoms of anaplasmosis include fever, a decreased number of white blood cells, platelets in the bloodstream, and abnormally elevated levels of liver enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few people have developed anaplasmosis after they had a blood transfusion from a person who had been recently infected or who was infected but had no symptoms. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Many different tick species can carry the bacteria that cause anaplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Case of bovine anaplasmosis confirmed in Ont. (farms.com)
  • OMAFRA received confirmation of a positive case of bovine anaplasmosis in a cow-calf herd, the ag ministry announced on Aug. 23. (farms.com)
  • Cows can contract bovine anaplasmosis in multiple ways, said Dr. Jessica Retterath, a veterinarian with Metzger Veterinary Services in Linwood, Ont. (farms.com)
  • This most recent confirmation is Ontario's fourth case of bovine anaplasmosis. (farms.com)
  • Anaplasmosis can also be referred to as "yellow bag" or "yellow fever" because the infected animal can develop a jaundiced look. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasmosis is an infectious but not contagious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common Anaplasmosis-causing tick is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or the deer tick. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasmosis is most frequently reported from the Upper Midwest and northeastern United States in areas that correspond with the known geographic distribution of Lyme disease and other Ixodes scapularis -transmitted diseases. (grandviewoutdoors.com)
  • Clinicians should pay attention to what they think might be Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, or anaplasmosis, which may indeed represent some of these alternative infections. (medscape.com)
  • Tetracycline drugs are the most common treatment for anaplasmosis, and can provide the animal with immunity for a period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are no current live or inactivated vaccines effective for all strains of A. marginale approved by the USDA for anaplasmosis, there are other means of prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unless anaplasmosis is con- tiorgan failure and death occur predominantly in sidered when the patient is first seen, a whole blood elderly and immunocompromised patients or when specimen is rarely available. (cdc.gov)
  • This session will describe a recent analysis of the occurrence of anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease, in Ontario. (ncceh.ca)
  • No vaccine is available to prevent anaplasmosis. (vin.com)
  • Because morulae are present in only 25%-75% of Whole blood is the optimal specimen for anaplasmosis cases, microscopy lacks sensitivity ( 6 , 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 10% of cases) in patients with anaplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Once the host is infected with anaplasmosis, the immune system will try to fight off and kill the infected red blood cells, but will also kill healthy red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasmosis organisms enter the bloodstream and live in the animal's white blood cells, which normally aid in fighting infections. (vin.com)