Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Anaplasma centrale: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Anaplasma ovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.PolandBabesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Bites and StingsRodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)

Cytokine gene expression by peripheral blood leukocytes in horses experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophila. (1/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), a tick-borne zoonosis, is caused by an obligatory intragranulocytic bacterium, the HGE agent, a strain of Anaplasma phagocytophila. The equine model of HGE is considered valuable in understanding pathogenic and immune mechanisms of HGE. In the present study, cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) in horses was examined during the course of infection by intravenous inoculation of A. phagocytophila or by allowing feeding by infected ticks. The p44 genes encoding the major outer membrane protein P44s of A. phagocytophila were detected by PCR in PBLs of all four horses from 4 to 20 days postexposure. During the 20-day infection period, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression was upregulated in PBLs of all four horses, and IL-8 mRNA expression was upregulated in three horses. Gamma interferon, IL-10, and IL-12 p35 mRNAs were weakly expressed in only one horse each. IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 mRNA expression, however, could not be detected in the PBLs of any of the four horses. These results suggest that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 generation during A. phagocytophila infection has a primary role in HGE pathogenesis and immunomodulation.  (+info)

Repression of rac2 mRNA expression by Anaplasma phagocytophila is essential to the inhibition of superoxide production and bacterial proliferation. (2/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophila, the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, is an emerging bacterial pathogen that invades neutrophils and can be cultivated in HL-60 cells. Infected neutrophils and HL-60 cells fail to produce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), which is partially attributable to the fact that A. phagocytophila inhibits transcription of gp91(phox), an integral component of NADPH oxidase. cDNA microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of the gene encoding Rac2, a key component in NADPH oxidase activation, was down-regulated in infected HL-60 cells. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that rac2 mRNA expression was reduced 7-fold in retinoic acid-differentiated HL-60 cells and 50-fold in neutrophils following A. phagocytophila infection. Rac2 protein expression was absent in infected HL-60 cells. Rac1 and Rac2 are interchangeable in their abilities to activate NADPH oxidase. HL-60 cells transfected to express myc-tagged rac1 and gp91(phox) from the CMV immediate early promoter maintained the ability to generate O(2)(-) 120 h postinfection. A. phagocytophila proliferation was severely inhibited in these cells. These results directly attribute the inhibition of rac2 and gp91(phox) transcription to the loss of NADPH oxidase activity in A. phagocytophila-infected cells and demonstrate its importance to bacterial intracellular survival.  (+info)

Roles of neutrophil beta 2 integrins in kinetics of bacteremia, extravasation, and tick acquisition of Anaplasma phagocytophila in mice. (3/299)

Tick saliva contains anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive substances that facilitate blood feeding and enhance tick-vectored pathogen transmission, including Anaplasma phagocytophila an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis. As such, inflammation at a tick-feeding site is strikingly different than that typically observed at other sites of inflammation. Up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 occurs in host granulocytes following interaction or infection with A phagocytophila, and the absence of CD11b/CD18 results in early increases in bacteremia. We hypothesized that beta 2 integrin-dependent infection kinetics and leukocyte extravasation are important determinants of neutrophil trafficking to, and pathogen acquisition at, tick-feeding sites. A phagocytophila infection kinetics were evaluated in CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, and CD18 knock-out mice using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood, ticks, and skin biopsies in conjunction with histopathology. A marked increase in the rate of A phagocytophila infection of neutrophils and pathogen burden in blood followed tick feeding. Infection kinetics were modified by beta 2 integrin expression and systemic neutrophil counts. Significant neutrophil-pathogen trafficking was observed to both suture and tick sites. Despite the prominent role for beta 2 integrins in neutrophil arrest in flowing blood, successful pathogen acquisition by ticks occurred in the absence of beta 2 integrins. Establishment of feeding pools that rely less on leukocyte trafficking and more on small hemorrhages may explain the ready amplification of A phagocytophila DNA from ticks infested on CD11/CD18-deficient mouse strains.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. (4/299)

We tested the antibiotic susceptibilities of eight strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) collected in various geographic areas of the United States, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and New York. The results are homogeneous and show that doxycycline, rifampin, and levofloxacin are the most active antibiotics against these strains in vitro.  (+info)

Seasonal dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophila in a rodent-tick (Ixodes trianguliceps) system, United Kingdom. (5/299)

We investigated the reservoir role of European wild rodents for Anaplasma phagocytophila using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of blood collected from individually tagged rodents captured monthly over 2 years. The only tick species observed in the woodland study site was Ixodes trianguliceps, and ruminant reservoir hosts were not known to occur. A. phagocytophila infections were detected in both bank voles and wood mice but were restricted to periods of peak nymphal and adult tick activity. Most PCR-positive rodents were positive only once, suggesting that rodent infections are generally short-lived and that ticks rather than rodents may maintain the infection over winter. Bank voles were more likely to be PCR positive than wood mice, possibly because detectable infections are longer lived in bank voles. This study confirms that woodland rodents can maintain A. phagocytophila in Great Britain in the absence of other reservoir hosts and suggests that I. trianguliceps is a competent vector.  (+info)

Comparison of PCR assays for detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (6/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging infectious disease in the United States and Europe, and PCR methods have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of acute infections. Numerous PCR assays and primer sets have been reported in the literature. The analytical sensitivities (limits of detection) of 13 published PCR primer sets were compared using DNA extracted from serial dilutions of Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected HL-60 cells. The specificity of the assays that were able to detect +info)

Expression of multiple outer membrane protein sequence variants from a single genomic locus of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (7/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States and Europe. The organism causes a febrile illness accompanied by other nonspecific symptoms and can be fatal, especially if treatment is delayed. Persistence of A. phagocytophilum within mammalian reservoir hosts is important for ensuring continued disease transmission. In the related organism Anaplasma marginale, persistence is associated with antigenic variation of the immunoprotective outer membrane protein MSP2. Extensive diversity of MSP2 is achieved by combinatorial gene conversion of a genomic expression site by truncated pseudogenes. The major outer membrane protein of A. phagocytophilum, MSP2(P44), is homologous to MSP2 of A. marginale, has a similar organization of conserved and variable regions, and is also encoded by a multigene family containing some truncated gene copies. This suggests that the two organisms could use similar mechanisms to generate diversity in outer membrane proteins from their small genomes. We define here a genomic expression site for MSP2(P44) in A. phagocytophilum. As in A. marginale, the msp2(p44) gene in this expression site is polymorphic in all populations of organisms we have examined, whether organisms are obtained from in vitro culture in human HL-60 cells, from culture in the tick cell line ISE6, or from infected human blood. Changes in culture conditions were found to favor the growth and predominance of certain msp2(p44) variants. Insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the region of the genomic expression site encoding the central hypervariable region matched sequence polymorphisms in msp2(p44) mRNA. These data suggest that, similarly to A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum uses combinatorial mechanisms to generate a large array of outer membrane protein variants. Such gene polymorphism has profound implications for the design of vaccines, diagnostic tests, and therapy.  (+info)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum reduces neutrophil apoptosis in vivo. (8/299)

Ovine neutrophils spontaneously underwent apoptosis during culture in vitro, as assessed by morphological changes and exposure of annexin V binding sites on their cell surfaces. The addition of conditioned medium from concanavalin A-treated ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could partially protect against this progression into apoptosis, but dexamethasone and sodium butyrate could not. Actinomycin D accelerated the rate at which ovine neutrophils underwent apoptosis. Neutrophils isolated from sheep experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed significantly delayed apoptosis during culture ex vivo, and the addition of conditioned medium from PBMC to these cells could not delay apoptosis above the protective effects observed after in vivo infection. The ability of neutrophils from A. phagocytophilum-infected sheep to activate a respiratory burst was increased compared to the activity measured in neutrophils from uninfected sheep, but chemotaxis was decreased in neutrophils from infected sheep. These data are the first demonstration that in vivo infection with A. phagocytophilum results in changes in rates of apoptosis of infected immune cells. This may help explain how these bacteria replicate in these normally short-lived cells.  (+info)

*Ticks of domestic animals

Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) is a bacterium of deer that spreads to sheep where it causes tick ... Anaplasma centrale tends to infect the central region of red blood cells, and is sufficiently closely related to An. marginale ... Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... However, some microbes, such as Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale, can also be transmitted by biting flies, or by blood on ...

*Dermacentor variabilis

... may also carry Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of HGE (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a Coastal Region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...

*Anaplasma phagocytophilum

... HZ Genome Page Anaplasma phagocytophilum at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a small, obligate, intracellular bacterium with a Gram-negative cell wall. It is 0.2-1.0 μm and ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum binds to fucosylated and sialylated scaffold proteins on neutrophil and granulocyte surfaces. A type ...

*Canine vector-borne disease

Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis. Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii ...

*Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis

December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1828-34 ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a coastal region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...

*Human granulocytic anaplasmosis

E. phagocytophilum and E. equi were reclassified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection Ticks of domestic ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Massung RF, Courtney JW, Hiratzka SL, Pitzer VE, Smith G, Dryden RL (October 2005). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white-tailed ... Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate ...

*Anaplasmosis

... prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ehrlichia sp.), Wolbachia sp., Rickettsia sp., and Babesia sp. in Southern Germany". ... Anaplasma centrale - found mainly in South America, Africa and the Middle East. Sheep and goats: Anaplasma ovis - found ... In 2005, Anaplasma ovis was found in reindeer populations in Mongolia. This pathogen and its associated syndrome (characterized ... In Australia, bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is only found in the northern and eastern parts of Australia ...

*Secretion

Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Cellular Microbiology. 12 (9): 1213-21 ... T4SS has two effector proteins: firstly, ATS-1, which stands for Anaplasma translocated substrate 1, and secondly AnkA, which ...

*Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection

Like Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infects neutrophils. ...

*SP110

2007). "Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilum for infection of human promyelocytic cells". ...

*Ehrlichia ewingii

Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko (2003-09-01). "Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum lack genes for lipid A ... It is also closely related to Wolbachia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia bacteria, with Rickettsia as a more distant genus. ... unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions ...

*Ehrlichiosis

Anaplasma phagocytophilum (which causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis,). A. phagocytophilum is endemic to New England and the ... genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. These obligate intracellular bacteria infect and kill white blood cells. The average reported ...

*Ixodes scapularis

... such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic ... birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...

*Feline infectious anemia

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. Prevalence of Infectious Agents and Anti-Erythrocyte ...

*Ehrlichia canis

... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: Results of a national clinic-based serologic survey". Veterinary ...

*Lyme disease

... such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic ...

*Rifampicin

... as an alternative treatment for infections by the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum when ...

*Lipoptena cervi

L. cervi flies are not only a nuisance, but also represent a newly discovered vector for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a Gram- ...

*List of clinically important bacteria

... baumannii Actinomyces israelii Agrobacterium radiobacter Agrobacterium tumefaciens Anaplasma Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...

*Tick-borne disease

... renamed to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, see Human granulocytic anaplasmosis for another example) Vector: Lone star tick ( ...

*Anaplasma

... phagocytophilum Anaplasma platys Anaplasmosis Parte, A.C. "Anaplasma". www.bacterio.net. Anaplasmas reviewed and ... Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma mesaeterum and Anaplasma ovis in sheep and goats Anaplasma ... Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Anaplasma Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Anaplasma Genomes (at DOE's IMG system). ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.440.040.050.575 --- Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.440.040.050.600 --- Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH ... Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.575 --- Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.600 --- Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... Anaplasma MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.100 --- Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.500 --- ... Anaplasma MeSH B03.440.040.050.100 --- Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.440.040.050.500 --- ...

*Ehrlichia

... and their closely related species Anaplasma show extreme diversity in the structure and content of their genomes. ... phagocytophilum is spread by the Ixodes scapularis tick in the Upper Midwest. 1,518 cases of E. chaffeensis were recorded in ... "Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants". Molecular ...
Infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern Norway. Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in lambs, but epidemiological links between infections in red deer and sheep have yet to be established. To address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting sympatric red deer and sheep. Blood from 32 lambs grazing on tick-infested pasture, and blood and tissues from 8 red deer shot in proximity to these pastures were collected during the summer and autumn of 2007. The presence of A. phagocytophilum in these samples was determined by PCR-based methods, and genotyping of detected strains was performed using comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and msp4 fragments. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 12 lambs and 7 red deer, 11 and 4
We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected.
A 36-year-old woman acquired severe human granulocytic anaplasmosis after blood transfusion following a cesarean section. Although intensive treatment with mechanical ventilation was needed, the patient had an excellent recovery. Disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was confirmed in 1 blood donor and in the transfusion recipient.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases affect animal and human health worldwide. A vector of many diseases in Europe and Slovenia is Ixodes ricinus [1]. It can be found in the forest, in shrubby or wooded pastures and on surfaces with low vegetation [2]. Ticks feeding cycle includes three stages: larva, nymph and adult. I. ricinus feeds on livestock, deer, dogs and a wide variety of other species, including humans [2]. I. ricinus is a confirmed vector of the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum [3]. The tick becomes infected as it feeds on an infected host. Anaplasmae are transmitted from stage to stage as the tick moults (trans-stadially), but not transovarially. No anaplasmae have been detected in unfed larvae so far [4]. A. phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, was formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent (HGE agent), Ehrlichia phagocytophila and E. equi [5]. A. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts from asymptomatic to ...
A TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the Anaplasma citrate synthase gene, gltA, was developed and used for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 765 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and cats in northern Norway (n = 669) and Telemark county in southern Norway (n = 96). Among the ticks from northern Norway the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 3.0 %, while the prevalence in southern Norway was 2.1 % (p = 0.63). The gltA PCR assay showed a high analytical sensitivity (30 genomic units) and efficiency (98.5 %), and its utility in clinical diagnostics should be evaluated in future studies. This is the first report of A. phagocytophilum occurrence in ticks collected north of the Arctic Circle in Norway. The prevalence is comparable to that found in Telemark county in southern Norway.
Avhandlingar om HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC ANAPLASMOSIS. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
In recent years, some tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis became widespread worldwide, threatening the health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 102 opossums (Didelphis spp.) and 44 owned free-ranging dogs in southeastern Mexico using a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. E. canis was only present in 7% of dogs, while we didnt detect E. chaffeensis in any host. We report the first evidence of infections of A. phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in Mexico. The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of this pathogen than opossums. Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is the second most common tick-borne disease in the United States. The causative agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is an obligat...
Tick-borne pathogens cause emerging zoonoses, and include fastidious organisms such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Because of their obligate intracellular nature, methods for mutagenesis and transformation have not been available. To facilitate genetic manipulation, we transformed A. phagocytophilum (Ap) to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the Himar1 transposase system and selection with the clinically irrelevant antibiotic spectinomycin. These transformed bacteria (GFP/Ap) grow at normal rates and are brightly fluorescent in human, monkey, and tick cell culture. Molecular characterization of the GFP/Ap genomic DNA confirmed transposition and the flanking genomic insertion locations were sequenced. Three mice inoculated with GFP/Ap by intraperitoneal injection became infected as demonstrated by the appearance of morulae in a peripheral blood neutrophil and re-isolation of the bacteria in culture.
The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability ...
The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER
A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by polymer
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and experimental studies to have different host tropisms. In this review we compare the known ecologies of these two bacterial complexes in the far western USA and find remarkable similarities, which will help us understand evolutionary histories and coadaptation among vertebrate host, tick vector, and bacteria. For both complexes, sensu stricto genospecies (those that infect humans) share a similar geographic range, are vectored mainly by ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-complex, utilize mainly white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) as a reservoir in the eastern USA and tree squirrels in the far west, and tend to be generalists, infecting a wider variety of vertebrate host species. Other sensu lato genospecies within
The abundance of cattle is the primary influence on the prevalence of two tick-borne pathogens, according to a paper in the April Applied and Environmental Microbiology. One of these, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and the other, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme disease.
A tick-borne illness that presents with undifferentiated flu-like symptoms similar to those seen in patients with Lyme disease and other such ailments is cropping up in the Northeastern United States. According to a recent Annals of Internal Medicine article, two patients -- one a 61-year-old man in Massachusetts and the other an 87-year-old New Jersey man -- presented with signs and symptoms suggesting human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which is caused by the rickettsia-like bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum carried by deer ticks in that region. The presumptive diagnosis proved false, however.
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Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium of neutrophils....
Abstract. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. This is the first case to suggest that crust tissue at the tick-bite site may be useful for early HGA diagnosis in patients who have already been treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis cause emerging potentially fatal infectious diseases human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and human monocyt...
DISCUSSION. A. phagocytophilum, capable of infecting granulocytes, and so far neutrophils and eosinophils (7), frequently cause an acute febrile systemic illness, namely CGA. In an attempt to make precise diagnostic tests for CGA microscopic detection of specific morulae, anti-Anaplasma IgM and IgG antibody detection and PCR analysis, which is most reliable for early diagnosis (8).. Recent exposure to A. phagocytophilum may be determined in dogs and human by acute and convalescent serologic testing, to those of IFA assays (9). IgG class antibodies primarily are detectable following 8 days after first exposure, corresponding to 2-5 days after morulae presence. It is therefore may be suggested that antibody detection may not be possible during acute infection (7). Seronegative dogs could probably have been recently infected; indeed a seropositive case could have been exposed to the etiological agent preceeding months, in association with elimination of infection thorugh immunity (10). Polymerase ...
Clinical. Epidemiological elements + Clinical signs. Laboratory. Direct. Using light microscopy on peripheral stained blood smears, the diagnosis relies on the observation of a typical morula of Anaplasma platys in the platelets for thrombocytic anaplasmosis and the observation of a typical morula of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the neutrophils for granulocytic anaplasmosis.. Infection is confirmed by PCR detection of bacterial DNA on tissues or blood.. Indirect. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays to determine serum antibody against Anaplasma spp. available in veterinary laboratories.. Fast diagnosis at patient-side, based on an multivalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is available for the detection of antibodies to E. canis, E. ewingii, A. phagocytophilum and A. platys.. Differential. Other tick-borne pathogens: Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp.. Co-infection with other vector-borne pathogens is reported, especially co-infection with B. burgdorferi and A. ...
Ticks are important vectors of disease and transmit an extensive array of bacterial, viral and protozoan diseases to both humans and dogs within a com
Compliance Statement B: This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by ARUP Laboratories. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved or cleared this test; however, FDA clearance or approval is not currently required for clinical use. The results are not intended to be used as the sole means for clinical diagnosis or patient management decisions ...
George Garrity, Don J. Brenner, James T. Staley, Noel R. Krieg, David R. Boone, Paul De Vos, Michael Goodfellow, Fred A. Rainey, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, ...,Bergeys Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, lk 123,2005,Googlei raamat veebiversioon (vaadatud 21.01.2014) (inglise keeles) ...
There is a paucity of data on human exposure to tick-borne pathogens in the western United States. This study reports prevalence of antibodies against three clinically important tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.) among 249 people in five counties in northern California. Individuals from Humboldt County were recruited and answered a questionnaire to assess risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens. Samples from other counties were obtained from a blood bank and were anonymized. Seventeen (6.8%) samples were seropositive for antibodies against at least one pathogen: five for A. phagocytophilum, eight for B. burgdorferi, and four for Rickettsia spp. Women and people aged 26-35 had higher seroprevalence compared to other demographic groups. Santa Cruz County had no seropositive individuals, northern Central Valley counties had three seropositive individuals (all against A. phagocytophilum), and Humboldt County had 14 (all three pathogens), a ...
Citation: Gatewood, A.G., Rollend, L., Papero, M., Carroll, J.F., Daniels, T., Mather, T.N., Schulze, T.L., Stafford, K.C., Fish, D. 2009. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatement of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 9:431-437. Interpretive Summary: Blacklegged ticks (deer ticks) are the principal vectors of the pathogen causing Lyme disease and also transmit human granulocytic anaplasmosis (ehrlichiosis). Most cases of Lyme disease in humans are due to being bitten by infected blacklegged tick nymphs. The efficacy of 4-poster deer self-treatment devices, developed by researchers at the USDA, ARS Knipling-Bushland U. S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory , Kerrville, TX, was tested in field trials at locations in five states. Host-seeking blacklegged ticks collected from treatment and control sites annually were tested for the presence of Borrelia ...
The aim of the study was to establish the role of forest birds as reservoirsof Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in Wielkopolski National Park. A total of 108 birds from9 species were collected between May-September 2002. Blood samples were taken from 84 specimens and 442individuals of...
Disease transmission of is the most dramatic consequence of tick infestation in humans or animals in Europe. Tick-borne diseases are due to bacteria (Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella sp., Rickettsia sp etc.), parasites (protozoa Babesia canis sp, Hepatozoon canis and helminths Cercopithifilaria sp etc.) and viruses (Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE) virus etc.). Ticks can also cause secondary skin lesions such as bacterial dermatitis and necrosis.. Some tick species (especially Australian Ixodes Holocyclus) can cause severe paralysis.. Learn more about the transmitted diseases: Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis, Hepatozoonosis, Lyme Borreliosis.. ...
BLOT kit for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the recombinant antigens of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGA) in human serum and plasma.
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Caramel is spayed (January-23-2018), up to date with routine shots, micro-chipped, de-wormed and tested negative for heartworm.. Blood Test December-29-2017, January-28-2018. Excessive drooling with warmer temperature, blood work on electrolytes and calcium revealed potassium in electrolytes lower resulting in slight liver inflammation, anti-inflammatory prescribed along with potassium supplements. X-Rays January-23-2018. Please note that x-rays only reflect when they were taken. Since shes still growing, hips and joints will be more fully developed when reaches the age of 1 for a more accurate assessment. Patellar Luxation Examination January-23-2018. Idexx SNAP® 4Dx® (November-29-2017). Tested negative for Heartworm, Lyme, Ehrlichia Canis, and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Test (December-05-2017). Tested negative for Babesia spp. (B. Canis and B. Gibsoni), Ehrlichia spp. (E. Canis and Anaplasma Platys), Haemobartonella Canis, and Borrelia Burgdorferi. ...
Nango is neutered (April-12-2015), up to date with routine shots, micro-chipped, de-wormed and tested negative for heartworm.. Was likely abandoned as a puppy, when found collar outgrew causing neck laceration: Debridement and suture performed 04-13-2015 with full recovery. Blood Test January-25-2018. X-Rays January-25-2018. Patellar Luxation Examination January-25-2018. Dental Cleaning January-25-2018. Idexx SNAP® 4Dx® (April-11-2015). Tested negative for Heartworm, Lyme, Ehrlichia Canis, and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Test (May-14-2015). Tested negative for Babesia spp. (B. Canis and B. Gibsoni), Ehrlichia spp. (E. Canis and Anaplasma Platys), Haemobartonella Canis, and Borrelia Burgdorferi. ...
BLOT kit for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the recombinant antigens of Borrelia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGA) in serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.
PMN are endowed with a highly efficient adhesion and migratory apparatus that supports their primary function of rapid antimicrobial response during host defense. They have evolved a capacity for rapid activation of integrins that support the transition from cell rolling to arrest and transmigration on inflamed endothelium under the hydrodynamic shear of blood flow. One such process involves recognition of sLex-decorated receptors including L-selectin and PSGL-1 that redistribute and cluster at the trailing edge of a rolling PMN (36). This in turn triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events including calcium flux, phosphorylation of MAPK, an upshift in integrin affinity, and shear-resistant adhesion (2, 3, 19). In this study, we demonstrated that rapid binding of A. phagocytophilum to PMN in a shear flow channel results in rapid PMN arrest that correlates with a small calcium flux and an upshift in CD18 affinity. Despite this response to binding A. phagocytophilum, PMN failed to fully ...
Obligatory intracellular, human ehrlichiosis agents Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have remarkable abilities to parasitize first-line immune defensive cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, respectively. As newly discovered pathogens, the bacterial or host components, the signaling pathways required for their internalization and proliferation, and how these bacteria inhibit the microbicidal activities in host cells remain vastly unknown. In this study, we found that the entry of E. chaffeensis into THP-1 cells rapidly induces the following essential signaling events: protein cross-linking by transglutaminase, tyrosine phosphorylation, phospholipase C (PLC)-?2 activation, IP 3 production, and an increase in cytosolic free calcium levels. The entry and proliferation of these pathogens involve caveolae-mediated endocytosis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. Furthermore, caveolar marker protein caveolin-1, tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, and PLC-?2 are ...
En taxonomía, Anaplasma es un género de bacterias perteneciente al orden de los rickettsiales. Anaplasma bovis (Donatien and Lestoquard 1936) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001. Anaplasma caudatum (Kreier and Ristic 1963) Ristic & Kreier 1984. Anaplasma centrale (ex Theiler 1911) Ristic & Kreier 1984. Anaplasma marginale Theiler 1910. Anaplasma ovis Lestoquard 1924. Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie 1951) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001. Anaplasma platys (French and Harvey 1983) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001. MeSH: Anaplasma (en inglés) Anaplasma Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Anaplasma Genomes (at DOEs IMG system ...
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans.
Anaplasma é um gênero de bactérias gram-negativas da família Anaplasmataceae. Anaplasma bovis (Donatien and Lestoquard 1936) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001 Anaplasma caudatum (Kreier and Ristic 1963) Ristic & Kreier 1984 Anaplasma centrale (ex Theiler 1911) Ristic & Kreier 1984 Anaplasma marginale Theiler 1910 Anaplasma ovis Lestoquard 1924 Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie 1951) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001 Anaplasma platys (French and Harvey 1983) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001 GARRITY, G.M. (ed.). Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology - The Proteobacteria Part C. 2 ed. Nova Iorque: Springer, 2005 ...
Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humans and in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3 pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma...
Establishing a Protocol for the Long-term Sampling and Analysis of Tick-borne Pathogens in the Lehigh Valley Rachel Heist1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Lehigh Valley Health Network Abstract The blackedlegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, transmits several human pathogens including the spirochete that causes Lyme disease (Borellia burgdorferi), which is endemic to the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Additional tick-borne diseases have also been emerging in the region including tick-borne relapsing fever (caused by Borrelia miyamotoi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and human babesiosis (caused by Babesia microti). The dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, is capable of transmitting Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (caused by Rickettsia rickettsii). To determine the entomological risk of infection by a tick-borne pathogen, a protocol was established to gather data for a long-term study. Eleven collection sites were screened and selected for analysis
Human anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a rickettsial organism transmitted to humans by bites from Ixodes scapularis (the blacklegged tick or deer tick). In Minnesota, the same tick vector also transmits the etiologic agents of Lyme disease, babesiosis, one form of human ehrlichiosis, and a strain of Powassan virus. A. phagocytophilum can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. In 2012, 507 confirmed or probable anaplasmosis cases (9.5 cases per 100,000 population) were reported (Figure 1). The median number of 317 cases (range, 139 to 782 cases) reported from 2004 through 2012 is also considerably higher than the median number of cases reported annually from 1996 to 2003 (median, 56 cases; range, 14 to 149). Three hundred eleven (61%) cases reported in 2012 were male. The median age of cases was 56 years (range, 1 to 99 years), 17 years older that are endemic to other tick-borne diseases transmitted by I. scapularis. POW ...
I graduated with a BS in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology from UC Santa Cruz in 2008. I completed my Masters degree through the graduate group in Comparative Pathology at UC Davis. I am especially interested in emerging wildlife infectious diseases, their population effects, and therapeutic management. I aim to pursue a career in disease ecology and conservation medicine-themed projects. Ive already had the privilege of being involved with field projects in California, Alaska, Costa Rica, and the Virgin Islands, and hope to work in many other habitats throughout my career.. My thesis research contributes to the Foley Labs vector-borne surveillance efforts by including avian hosts, which may be reservoirs for various pathogens and spread of ticks. My research focused on the zoonotic pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, which are associated with debilitating and potentially fatal human and veterinary diseases. I investigated the ecological role of avian hosts by ...
Anaplasma species infection mimics many other conditions, including other chronic infections. If you are experiencing hard-to-diagnose chronic symptoms and have had a recent tick attachment or live in a region endemic for Anaplasma species in ticks, you should consider testing for Anaplasma infection. Symptoms can range from mild to serious illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, confusion, myalgia, nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, acute weight loss, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, neurological problems and other conditions that may require immediate medical attention. This zoonotic infection is primarily transmitted to humans by Ixodes ticks, but can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. Clinical presentations may be more severe when co-infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens.. Tests Offered. Anaplasma species PCR test is designed to detect all pathogenic Anaplasma species. Positive results are confirmed by DNA sequencing to identify the infecting species. It is ...
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne transmitted infection. Its clinical expression include fever, cytopenia and hepatitis.This infection was initially described in United States. In Europe, its epidemiology is not well known. Some isolated cases have been diagnosed in several country, were the tick Ixodes ricinus is known to transmitted another infection :the Lyme borreliosis.The purpose of our study is to look systematically for Anaplasmosis, in patient living in Eastern France, and presenting with compatible clinical symptoms using a new diagnosis tool : PCR in blood samples. So we will have new data about epidemiology in our country and the clinical symptoms that are associated with Anaplasmosis ...
Anaplasmosis: on an epidemiological point of view, it was not immediately clear if our patient had been exposed to tick infested in rural areas or had been in contact with pets or wild animals. Nevertheless, his stay in town parks and night cohabitation with homeless people could well have exposed him to ticks. The absence of acute phase reactants in a highly febrile patient was another intriguing point. Actually, Anaplasma phagocytophylum has as virulence factor the escape from neutrophil phagocytosis, through the inhibition of phagolysosome fusion. Although it is a potent inducer of -- INF, at the same time it behaves as an inhibitor suppressing the expression of -- INF membrane receptors and inhibiting the proinflammatory action in favour of bacterial multiplication withi n neutrophils (5- 6). The apparent failure of the appropriate treatment for anaplasmosis was another point of doubt since, despite the abatement of fever, the clinical course tended toward a greater severity. Limited ...
July 11, 2017 01:43 PM. Cases of the tick-borne illness, anaplasmosis, are increasing in Columbia and Greene Counties. NewsChannel 13 reported a significant increase in the number of cases of anaplasmosis in Rensselaer County on Friday.. The Columbia County Health Department says theyve seen 36 cases of anaplasmosis so far this year. Thats up from 24 cases at this time last year. There are also 71 cases of Lyme disease. This time last year, there were just 24.. ...
anaplasmosis definition: an ailment of ruminants brought on by disease using the Anaplasma bacterium, usually sent by hard ticks.; a disease of cattle this is certainly sent by cattle ticks; comparable…
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I. persulcatus ticks transmit Lyme disease, babesiosis, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib) and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE) tick-borne encephalitis,[1][4] and probably human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well.[5] A recent study of the northernmost tick-borne encephalitis focus in Simo, Finnish Lapland, found I. persulcatus ticks in scattered foci along the western coast, including the Kokkola archipelago and Närpes municipality, demonstrating a northward movement of foci and an unusual combination of the TBEV-Eur strain and I. persulcatus ticks in an area with no evidence of cocirculation of tick species or TBEV subtypes.[1] ...
Evaluation of patients with suspected human monocytic ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, or Borrelia miyamotoi infection. Evaluation of patients with a history of, or suspected, tick exposure who are presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, nausea, and other nonspecific symptoms. ...
Anaplasmosis is transmitted by the black-legged tick, which is the same tick that spreads Lyme disease, and the most common tick found in Vermont. As of September, 133 cases of anaplasmosis have been reported, only six fewer than were reported for all of 2015.. Although anaplasmosis cases peak in the spring and summer, a second surge in illnesses occurs in the autumn. That is when adult ticks are hungry and looking for another blood meal before winter arrives.. "Anaplasmosis is a serious illness, and were seeing more of it in Vermont," said Bradley Tompkins, infectious disease epidemiologist. According to Tompkins, over one-third of the anaplasmosis cases reported to the Health Department are sick enough to be hospitalized, compared to 3 percent for Lyme disease. Symptoms can include fever, headache, chills and muscle aches. Anaplasmosis can be successfully treated with antibiotics, especially if treatment is given early.. Tompkins urges people to not drop their guard just because summer is ...
Twenty-six calves which had not previously grazed tick-infested pasture were divided into two equal groups. On May 26, 1988 (day 0) they were turned out into a field of rough grazing where cases of redwater fever had occurred the previous spring. Seven, 14, 21 and 28 days after the start of the trial the animals in one group each received an intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg bodyweight of long-acting oxytetracycline. During the 60 days of the trial the animals received a severe tick-borne fever challenge, in some cases combined with a redwater fever challenge. An unforeseen complicating factor was the presence of animals persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus, present in almost equal numbers in both groups. At the end of the trial the treated group weighed on average 16 kg more than the control group, a difference which was attributed to the suppression of tick-borne fever by oxytetracycline.. ...
High seroprevalence rates for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.8%), Coxiella burnetii (6.4%), Bartonella henselae (9.6%), and Rickettsia typhi (4.1%) in 365 farm workers near Tianjin, Peoples Republic of China, suggest that human infections with these zoonotic bacteria are frequent and largely unrecognized. Demographic features of seropositive persons suggest distinct epidemiology, ecology, and risks ...
I am a research technician in the lab at UC Davis. I received my Masters in comparative pathology here at UC Davis in 2002 and then worked in Seattle for a year helping to identify an outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Seattle homeless shelters using PFGE. I took a few years break to have two children and then started back to work in Janets lab in 2009. My interests are in molecular and microbiology, mostly in infectious diseases. In addition to providing laboratory daily administrative and research needs, I manage several different projects from Anaplasma phagocytophilum to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. I particularly enjoy troubleshooting assays!. Click here to download Joys CV (PDF) ...
Typically, cases of anaplasmosis increase in late summer and fall as insect vectors increase. Therefore, control of vectors is key to preventing anaplasmosis. If necessary herd treatment with oxytetracycline injection every 3 to 4 weeks during high risk times may be necessary will prevent clinical disease but animals can become carriers ...
Alpharma Animal Health Shares Expert Panel Findings Bridgewater, N.J., May 25, 2010 - Alpharma Animal Health has launched an online webinar that discusses the current status of anaplasmosis in cattle in the U.S. The webinar is based on an expert ...
Glossary of Conditions and Terms Anaplasmosis: An often fatal infectious disease of cattle caused by a microscopic parasite of red blood...
Aim: Anaplasma marginale is a rickettsial pathogen responsible for progressive anemia in ruminants leading to huge economic losses. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of anaplasmosis and therapeutic evaluation of traditional line of treatment.. Materials and Methods: A total of 168 cattle presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar during the period of 3 months (July-September, 2014) with history of fever, anorexia, reduced milk yield and tick infestation were analyzed for prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases using classical giemsa stained thin blood smear parasitological method.. Results: Out of these 168 animals, 7 (4.17%) were found to be suffering from anaplasmosis on the basis of presence of dense, rounded, intra-erythrocytic bodies situated on or near the margin of the erythrocytes. Overall prevalence of theileriosis and babesiosis were found to be 42.9% and 1.8%, ...
If you develop signs or symptoms of a tick-related illness after spending time in areas where deer ticks are found, you should seek medical attention right away.. Not all deer ticks carry the organisms that cause Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, or babesiosis. If an infected deer tick bites you, it needs to be attached at least 12-24 hours to transmit the human anaplasmosis bacteria and 24-48 hours to transmit the Lyme disease bacteria. Not every person who is infected with these organisms will develop symptoms.. ...
Heparinized whole blood, heavily parasitized with Anaplasma marginale, was collected from 3 splenectomized oxen. Buffered lactose peptone (BLP) was added in equal volumes as a stabilizer and the mixture lyophilized in 2 ml aliquots after rapid freezing. The dried material was reconstituted with 2 ml sterile water and inoculated without delay. The product remained infective for at least 6 months when stored in an ordinary household deep-freeze unit ...
Introduction. Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia Anaplasma marginale and is an endemic condition in tropical and subtropical areas. Ticks are the biological vector, but transmission may also occur mechanically by mosquitoes and bloodsucking flies (YERUHAM; BRAVERMAN, 1981). In endemic areas, calves are infected during the first months of life. Acute infections develop into a clinical disease characterized by anemia and weight loss (CORRIER; GUZMAN, 1977; RIBEIRO; REIS, 1981), and death can occur in 36% (PALMER, 1989). Animals that survive the clinical disease remain persistent carriers with low rickettsemia. They may be a source of infection for other susceptible animals that become infected through mechanical and biological vectors (SCHILF, 1971). Animal susceptibility increases with age, and younger animals are more resistant to the first infection, and have less severe clinical symptoms (ROBY et al., 1961; JONES et al., 1968).. Over the past 30 years no new ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; Anaplasmataceae; Anaplasma; Anaplasma ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; Anaplasmataceae; Anaplasma; Anaplasma ...
Information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on spotted and typhus fevers, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis, their transmission, occurrence and risk for travellers. ...
stoutheartedness stearic anaplasmosis slish anosphresia nonexamination hideosity coresidual germinally persistent knapper perfervid [email protected] ...
Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi), and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 28248955. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar;11(3):e0005416. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but data about their presence in western Europe are scarce. Ixodes ricinus ticks, the most abundant and widespread tick species in western Europe, were collected and tested for the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in western France, a region never previously explored in this context. There was a high tick abundance with a mean of 4 females, 4.5 males, and 23.3 nymphs collected per hour per collector. Out of 622 tested ticks, specific PCR amplification showed the presence of tick symbionts as well as low prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (0.8%), Bartonella spp. (0.17%), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.09%). The most prevalent pathogen was Rickettsia helvetica (4.17%). This is the first time that this bacteria has been detected in ticks in this region, and this result raises the possibility that bacteria other than those classically implicated may be ...
The incidence of arthropod-borne infections is increasing worldwide and Fennoscandia is no exception. In the last decades, infections transmitted by ticks are being diagnosed more frequently in people living in the Nordic countries. Ixodes ricinus, the sheep or castor bean tick, which is the most common tick in North-Western Europe, is widely distributed in Finland. Ixodes ticks are vectors of a broad spectrum of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, such as Babesia spp., Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Bartonella spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Francisella tularensis. To date, there is limited information regarding the prevalence of many vector borne diseases in companion animals in Finland, and therefore the majority of available data come from human medicine studies. Infections caused by Bartonella species are considered an emerging zoonosis. One peculiarity of this genus of bacteria is its ability to cause long lasting bacteremia in reservoir hosts. ...
1)A case of acute quadriplegia complicating Mediterranean spotted fever Rickettsia conorii caused mediterranean spotted fever and this was considered to be a benign disease. However, about 10% of the patients with severe symptom are neurologic involved. A case of a 80 year old man was studied with R. conorii infection. A characterisitic of tache noire was diagnosed on the lateral region of the thigh. After running a immunofluorescence test, elevated IgM antibody was detected against R conorii and it was talked about it in this research paper. 2)Serological and molecular evidence of exposure to arthropod-borne organisms in cats from northeastern Spain This research paper talks about tests from cats for IgG antibodies to "Rickettsia conorii (Rc), Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) and Bartonella henselae (Bh) antigens using IFA and for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody by ELISA"[2 under current research column of reference]. PCR testing was performed and Bh antibodies were detected ...
Effects of adding phenol to sera used for the card-agglutination test (CAT) and for the micro-complement-fixation test (CFT) for bovine anaplasmosis were studied. Sera were obtained from 14 recently infected cattle, 17 cattle vaccinated with a killed anaplasmosis vaccine, 5 cattle in the carrier phase of the disease, and 45 cattle of unknown anaplasmosis status. Aliquots of sera were tested with and without phenol (0.25% final concentration). Phenol adversely affected the CAT by causing false-negative results. The CAT reactions of nonphenolized sera from recently infected cattle were all positive 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas CAT reactions of phenolized sera were not all positive until 10 weeks after inoculation. Nine non-phenolized sera from vaccinated cattle that were CAT-positive were CAT-negative after being phenolized. Phenolized sera from carrier cattle and from cattle of unknown anaplasmosis status were less reactive on the CAT than were nonphenolized sera. Effects of phenol on the CFT were
Shared and unique antigens were identified and partially characterized for two morphologically and antigenically distinct isolates of Anaplasma, A. marginale (Florida) (FAM) and A. caudatum (Illinois) (IAC). Crude CA-like antigens were prepared from the parasitemic blood of each calf, separated by SDS-PAGE, electroblotted onto nitrocellulose, and detected using immune bovine sera and an avidin-biotin-peroxidase assay with biotinylated rabbit anti-goat IgG (cross-reacted with cattle, sheep and deer antibodies). IAC antigens were 200 kilodalton (kd), 100 kd, 96 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-IAC and anti-FAM sera. FAM antigens were 108 kd, 100 kd, 96 kd, 91 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-FAM sera and, except for the 91 kd, with anti-IAC sera. The 91 kd is an FAM isolate-specific antigen. The 108 kd, 100 kd, and 96 kd are group-specific antigens of A. marginale and A. centrale. The 43 to 38 kd is genus-specific. The 96, 91, and 75 kd ...
Classification of bacteria is challenging due to the lack of a theory-based framework. In addition, the adaptation of bacteria to ecological niches often results in selection of strains with diverse virulence, pathogenicity and transmission characteristics. Bacterial strain diversity presents challenges for taxonomic classification, which in turn impacts the ability to develop accurate diagnostics and effective vaccines. Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, has become apparent. The extent of A. marginale strain diversity, formerly underappreciated, has contributed to the challenges of classification which, in turn, likely impacts the design and development of improved vaccines. Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for strain identity, is both an adhesin necessary for infection of cells and an immuno-reactive protein and is ...
Anaplasmosis in cattle is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria known as Anaplasma marginale. The disease is common in Missouri. Clinical cases can occur at any time of the year, but the majority of cases are seen in late summer and fall. The economic impact of the disease to the state is unknown, but nationwide it is estimated to exceed $300 million a year.1 Economic losses are due to reduced production, treatment costs, death loss and abortion.. Anaplasma marginale causes disease by infecting red blood cells. The immune systems recognizes the infected cells as abnormal and removes them, thereby creating anemia. The severity of disease is related to the number of infected red blood cells and subsequent red blood cell loss. In mild cases, animals may exhibit symptoms such as elevated temperature, depression and pale mucous membranes. In severe cases, animals may be jaundiced, the most obvious symptom of which is a yellow tinge to the mucous membranes around the eyes; exhibit severe ...
Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne pathogen of cattle. It is transmitted by ixodid ticks. Symptoms of acute disease are anemia, weight loss, and often death. A.marginale establishes life-long persistent infection in animals that survive disease. These animals are clinically healthy but serve as reservoirs for transmission of the pathogen. Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale (Anaplasma centrale (strain Israel)) is a naturally occurring attenuated strain has been used as a live vaccine to prevent severe disease due to A. marginale senso stricto strains for 100 years. A. marginale subsp. centrale contains 10 putative genes not found in the genomes of senso stricto strains, while 18 genes found in senso stricto strains are absent from A. marginale subsp. centrale. As inoculation with purified outer membrane protein (OMP) complexes provides immunity against A. marginale, it is important to identify OMPs that differ among A,marginale to identify further vaccine candidates. ...
Anaplasma spp. are widely spread rickettsial bacteria transmitted by ticks and placing high impacts on veterinary and public health. A limited number of studies have been carried out on Anaplasmosis in the central part of Iraq. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp. in cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. A total of 400 blood specimens were collected from cattle suffering from heavy tick infestation. Cattle were blood-sampled from four hyper-endemic areas with ticks. Blood samples were screened using microscopic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Diff-quick stained blood smears revealed Anaplasma-like inclusion bodies in 254 (63.5%) samples. According to the 16S rRNA-gene-based PCR analysis, Anaplasma spp. was detected in 124 of the 400 (31%) samples, divided as 96/254 (37.8%) among the microscopical positive samples and 28/146 (19.17%) among the microscopical negative samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of ...
Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Immunization with purified outer membranes of this organism induces protection against acute anaplasmosis. Previous studies, with proteomic and genomic approach identified 21 proteins within the outer membrane immunogen in addition to previously characterized major surface protein1a-5 (MSP1a-5). Among the newly described proteins were VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu). VirB9, VirB10 are considered part of the type IV secretion system (TFSS), which mediates secretion or cell-to-cell transfer of macromolecules, proteins, or DNA-protein complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. EF-Tu can be located in the bacterial surface, mediating bacterial attachment to host cells, or in the bacterial cytoplasm for protein synthesis. However, the roles of VirB9, VirB10, and TFSS in A. marginale have not been defined. VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu have not been explored as vaccine ...
Shop Major surface protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Major surface protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
I wanted to pass a little information to you all that cache with your pets, and also to make you aware of this as it can also affect humans. My dog was in serious joint pain and overall tenderness this week, lack of energy, and shivering at times. My first thought was lyme disease, as she has already experienced that quite a few years ago. Off to the vet we go, only to find out after blood work and testing in the office, that it is not lyme, but another tick issue called anaplasma. This is
(34) Grouped under this heading are chlamydia, mycoplasma and other bacteria generally. Chlamydia These and anaplasma used to be classified separately from bacteria but are now...
Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infection that affects various mammals, including mice, cattle, dogs, deer, horses, sheep, goats, and humans. Includes its epidemiology, presentation, differential diagnosis, investigation, management, prognosis and prevention. ...
OVERVIEW: Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the most important feline pathogen among these rickettsial organisms, and coinfections are possible. Little information is available on the pathogenesis of these agents in cats. Clinical signs are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific, consisting of fever, anorexia and lethargy. Joint pain may occur. Infection in humans: Some rickettsial species ( A phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis) are of zoonotic concern. Direct contact with cat saliva should be avoided because of potential contamination by R felis. Infected cats are sentinels of the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks and fleas in a given ...
INTRODUCTION Anaplasmosis in cattle is an arthropod-borne disease caused predominantly by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia Ana-plasma marginale21. Anaplasmosis is characterised by mucosal pallor, depression, inappetance, general weakness and a rapidly rising parasitaemia21. Pyrexia is an inconsistent finding21. The severity of clinical disease is directly related to the age of the animal: in animals less than 1 year old it is usually subclinical, in yearlings and 2-year-olds it is moderately severe while in older cattle it is severe and often fatal9. Vertical transmission of anaplasmosis has been documented, although its significance in the spread of the diseases is unclear13,27,28,31. Experiments attempting to demonstrate vertical transmission where progeny from known Anaplasma carrier cows were utilised, as well as where cows were acutely infected with Anaplasma during gestation, did not produce clinically ill progeny13,27,31. In utero transmission has either been demonstrated by inoculating ...
This workshop proceeding discusses the importance of anaplasmosis, babesiosis and cowdriosis; the methods of control being used for the diseases and the problems encountered with these control methods; recent findings in the epidemiology and molecular biology of these diseases, and developments towards new vaccines. Topics of discussion include distribution, economic importance, control measures, diagnosis, approaches to new vaccines, and in vitro cultivation. Under the topic diagnosis, papers are presented on development of diagnostic reagents for anaplasmosis and babesiosis; serodiagnosis of Cowdria ruminantium, and DNA probes for this species. The papers under approaches to new vaccines examine molecular biology of rickettsiae with particular reference to gene organization and structure in Anaplasma marginale and Cowdria ruminantium; methodological approaches to the study of resistance in cowdriosis and the possible role of cell-mediated immunity; progress in development of subunit vaccines ...
We observed wide variations in the prevalence of tick-borne bacteria in I. ricinus ticks in a French bocage landscape. This prevalence was influenced by several environmental factors that varied according to the bacterial species and habitat type. Depending on the habitat and the stage and sex of the adult tick, we found that 1.4% to 16.1% of the ticks carried DNA of at least one of the three bacteria studied. Compared to the rates found in Europe (51) and France (5, 50), the infection prevalences that we found for B. burgdorferi sensu lato are low. This could be due to the inclusion in our study of pastures, where there was a lower infection prevalence, whereas most studies carried out in Europe focus on woody habitats. For A. phagocytophilum, our figures are higher than the figures previously reported in France (5, 27), but they fall within the range of figures found in other European sites (30, 34), including some that considered woodlands and pastures (39, 66). For Rickettsia sp., the ...
2002) Erratum to "A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates" [Vet. Microbiol. 86 (2002) 325-335]. Veterinary Microbiology, 87 (4). pp. 365-366. ...
Article from Medscape Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD), a tick-borne infection that can cause more severe symptoms than Lyme disease, was first...
Are you looking for photos, images, vectors, illustrations ixodes ricinus for your website, electronic or printed advertisement? We sell cheap royalty free licensed photos ixodes ricinus and images on the theme ixodes ricinus for personal and business purposes. Use legal images and vectors ixodes ricinus.
rickettsia, RMSF, Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus, anaplasma, ehrlichia, coxiella, bartonella, Babesia, orientia, IFA, ELISA, IgG, IgM, test kit, rickettsii, conorii, canis, phagocytophilum, toxoplasma, neospora
24.BraytonKA,PalmerGH,BrownWC: Genomicandproteomicapproaches tovaccinecandidateidentificationfor Anaplasmamarginale ExpertRev Vaccines 2006, 5: 95 101. 25.PierleSA,DarkMJ,DahmenD,PalmerGH,BraytonKA: Comparative genomicsandtranscriptomicsoftrait-geneassociation. BMCGenomics 2012, 13: 669. 26.VanOpijnenT,CamilliA: Transposoninsertionsequencing:anewtoolfor systems-levelanalysisofmicroorganisms. NatRevMicrobiol 2013, 11: 435 442. 27.ClaeysBouuaertC,ChalmersRM: Genetherapyvectors:theprospectsand potentialsofthecut-and-pastetransposons. Genetica 2010, 138: 473 484. 28.PicardeauM: Transpositionofflymarinerelementsintobacteriaasa genetictoolformutagenesis. Genetica 2010, 138: 551 558. 29.LampeDJ,GrantTE,RobertsonHM: Factorsaffectingtranspositionofthe Himar1 marinertransposoninvitro. Genetics 1998, 149: 179 187. 30.PlasterkRH,IzsvakZ,IvicsZ: Residentaliens:theTc1/marinersuperfamily oftransposableelements. TrendsGenet 1999, 15: 326 332. 31.ClarkTR,EllisonDW,KlebaB,HackstadtT: Complementationof Rickettsia ...
Actually, these days a diagnosis is straightforward. Do you have some or all of that litany of symptoms, especially fever and fatigue? Were you in any place a week or two ago where there might have been ticks? Do you have any symptoms which hint you may have something else? If not the last, thats it. A blood sample will be taken, but early in the course of the infection the test results can be falsely negative (results say you dont, but you do). Standard medical practice is to start antibiotic treatment immediately. Treatment should never be delayed until the lab results are back. Standard treatment is the same as for Lyme - two weeks of doxycycline ...
Took Prairie to the vet this morning and he tested positive for Lyme Disease and Anaplasmosis. I dont know much about Lymes and absolutely nothing about the Anaplasmosis. I have some reading to do. He started him on antibiotics while we wait for the panel to come back on the blood draw that tells us how severe it is. Its his guess that he was infected last summer, so its early, because he otherwise seems to be in good health. And just now I realized I forgot to bring home a kit for a stool sample, so will have to get that soon. I have noticed that Prairie sometimes moans when he lays down. Vet thinks that could be arthritis soreness which would be part of the Lymes. He asked where he came from and I said Danbury, Wisconsin, he said that is a real hotbed for Lymes ...
Original printed pages were feed scanned as 300 dpi TIFF files on a Xerox WorkCentre 5030 PS copier, PDF files were then added to the CONTENTdm database at the WSU Libraries ...
She was female, 2 monthsold and was anaemic and had no appetite for 3 days. Temperature was 39.9C. 2 siblings had passed away, 2 were OK and 1 had become lethargic. E canis Ab, Heartworm Ag, Lyme Ab and Anaplasma Ab were negative. Babesiosis was suspected ...
Hi Everyone I was diagnosed with Babesia about 6 months ago along with Anaplasmosis and several viruses (EBV, CMV, HHV 6 I think). I have not yet...
Background: Neoehrlichia mikurensis s an emerging and vector-borne zoonosis: The first human disease cases were reported in 2010. Limited information is available about the prevalence and distribution of Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Europe, its natural life cycle and reservoir hosts. An Ehrlichia-like schotti variant has been described in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, which could be identical to Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Methods: Three genetic markers, 16S rDNA, gltA and GroEL, of Ehrlichia schotti-positive tick lysates were amplified, sequenced and compared to sequences from Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Based on these DNA sequences, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to specifically detect Neoehrlichia mikurensis in combination with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick lysates. Various tick species from different life-stages, particularly Ixodes ricinus nymphs, were collected from the vegetation or wildlife. Tick lysates and DNA derived from organs of wild rodents were tested by PCR-based methods ...
In situ hybridization (ISH), which allows localization of pathogen nucleic acid in tissue sections, was used to detect A. marginale, a rickettsial pathogen of cattle, in its tick vector. Dermacentor andersoni males were experimentally infected with A. marginale, and one-half of each of 20 ticks was embedded in paraffin or LR White for ISH: companion halves were embedded in DER resin for light microscopy. Sections were digested with proteinase K and hybridized with a digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe. In both paraffin and LR White embedded sections, dark-blue colour precipitates of hybridization signals were visualized in both salivary gland and gut cells. Anaplasma infections were also confirmed by light microscopy in companion tick halves. Positive hybridization signals and A. marginale colonies were not seen in uninfected control tissues. Although ISH detected A. marginale in both paraffin and LR White embedded sections, LR White was found to be optimum for ISH of A. marginale because of improved ...
Ehrlichia phagocytophila (Genus Ehrlichia, Order Rickettsiales) is the pathogen responsible for Tick-borne fever, a disease of high morbidity in susceptible ruminants. These bacteria appear to be almost identical at serological and molecular level to granulocytic Ehrlichia species recently diagnosed in humans, dogs and horses of Europe and the United States. A molecular description of different isolates of the pathogen is given. Samples were derived from wild and domestic vertebrate hosts from Europe, including the UK where Tick-borne fever is endemic. Molecular characterisation of a fragment from the groE operon gene showed higher nucleotide variation than at 16S rDNA level. Human and equine isolates from Europe differed from North American samples, which in 16S sequence appeared to be identical. Thus, emerging cases of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Europe are likely to be associated with strain variants of E. phagocytophila. Further differences were also found between ruminant and non-ruminant ...
Ixodes scapularis tick ser ine p roteinase in hibitor serpin gene family; annotation and transcriptional analysis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This topic includes links to society and government-sponsored guidelines from selected countries and regions around the world. We will update these links periodically; newer versions of some guidelines may be available on each societys website. Some
Dermacentor variabilis, also known as the American dog tick or wood tick, is a species of tick that is known to carry bacteria responsible for several diseases in humans, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia (Francisella tularensis). It is one of the most well-known hard ticks. Diseases are spread when it sucks blood from the host, which could take several days for the host to experience some symptoms. Though D. variabilis may be exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, these ticks are not competent vectors for the transmission of this disease. The primary vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi are the deer tick Ixodes scapularis in Eastern parts of the United States, Ixodes pacificus in California and Oregon, and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Dermacentor variabilis may also carry Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of HGE (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of HME (human monocytic ehrlichiosis). ...
We recently reported a novel Ehrlichia sp. closely related to E. muris detected in blood of 4 from patients in Minnesota (MN) and Wisconsin (WI) in 2009 (NEJM 2011). We now present data from the 2009-2011 patient cases, and results of tick, rodent, and deer studies. Blood from patients with suspected ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis was tested using PCR targeting the Ehrlichia/Anaplasma Heat Shock Operon gene. PCR was also performed on rodent and deer blood, ticks from MN and WI, and ticks found on military personnel at 132 U.S. military bases nationwide (2007-2010). Select specimens were characterized using culture and DNA sequencing. Human sera were tested for antibodies to specific Ehrlichia spp. and A. phagocytophilum. During 6/2009-8/2011, blood from 32 of 8,110 MN and WI patients tested PCR positive for an Ehrlichia sp. other than E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii. This result was also detected from 1 North Dakota patient who recently travelled to MN. The result was not noted among 7,827 other patient
Introduction. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis (CTA) are infectious diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria of the Order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma (DUMLER et al., 2001). Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are obligatorily intracellular organisms organized in clusters, called morulae, and frequently observed in leukocytes and platelets, respectively, with the possibility of concomitant infections (McBRIDE et al., 1996; COHN, 2003; SUKSAWAT et al., 2001a). These infectious diseases are of great importance for small animal clinics and public health, since they are increasingly prevalent in dogs and because there is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans (DAGNONE et al., 2001; TAMÍ; TAMÍ-MAURY, 2004; NEER; HARRUS, 2006).. The transmission of E. canis occurs primarily through the bite of the tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and this tick might be associated with the transmission of A. platys to dogs ...

Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway. - Semantic ScholarAnaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway. - Semantic Scholar

A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 12 lambs and 7 red deer, 11 and 4 individuals of which 16S rDNA and msp4 sequence data ... The presence of A. phagocytophilum in these samples was determined by PCR-based methods, and genotyping of detected strains was ... Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in ... To address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Anaplasma-phagocytophilum-variants-in-sympatric-re-Stuen-Pettersen/9229b259dd8a3ecba07a8bc17263186fc77b25b2

Prevalence of **Neoehrlichia mikurensis** in ticks and rodents from North-west Europe - Institutional Repository University of...Prevalence of **Neoehrlichia mikurensis** in ticks and rodents from North-west Europe - Institutional Repository University of...

... real-time PCR was developed to specifically detect Neoehrlichia mikurensis in combination with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ...
more infohttps://repository.uantwerpen.be/link/irua/100211

Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeediaAnaplasma phagocytophilum - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia

... et Anaplasma phagocytophilum elutsükkel organismis võib häirida neutrofiilide fagotsütoosi, samuti viibib apoptoos. Anaplasma ... Nieto NC, Foley JE, Bettaso J, Lane RS.,Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ... Selles artiklis on kasutatud saksakeelset artiklit de:Anaplasma phagocytophilum seisuga 22.01.2014. ... Varem on seda bakterit nimetatud mitmeti: Anaplasma phagocytophila, Ehrlichia phagocytophilum ja Ehrlichia phagocytophila, ka ...
more infohttps://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaplasma_phagocytophilum

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western Wisconsin: a molecular survey.  - PubMed - NCBIAnaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western Wisconsin: a molecular survey. - PubMed - NCBI

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western Wisconsin: a molecular survey.. Michalski M1, Rosenfield C, Erickson M, Selle ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ... The presence of A. phagocytophilum in Wisconsin white-tailed deer blood and in deer ticks was assessed using PCR and DNA ... Furthermore, two novel A. phagocytophilum variants were found in deer blood samples. Transmission of Lyme disease has been ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16738890?dopt=Abstract

bioB - Biotin synthase - Anaplasma phagocytophilum (strain HZ) - bioB gene & proteinbioB - Biotin synthase - Anaplasma phagocytophilum (strain HZ) - bioB gene & protein

Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. CRT53-1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. CRT38. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. ApMUC09. 322. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q2GLB4

Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in rabbits from southeastern China.Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in rabbits from southeastern China.

A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in rabbits from southeastern China.. *. [ Not Yet Rated ] [ Discuss This ... A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia ... Sequence analyses of PCR products identified a variant of A. phagocytophilum and a B. garinii genotype. This is the first ...
more infohttp://www.prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=22628

Inability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice.  - PubMed - NCBIInability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice. - PubMed - NCBI

Inability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice.. Massung RF1, Priestley RA, Miller NJ, Mather TN, ... Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the presence and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14639548?dopt=Abstract

Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a multi-species deer community in the New Forest, England | SpringerLinkAnaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a multi-species deer community in the New Forest, England | SpringerLink

The tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilumhas been recorded in a range of mammal species and causes granulocytic ... Kenny MJ, Parsons I, Shaw SE, Beugnet F (2003) Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum infection in a UK fallow deer (Dama dama) ... Stuen S (2007) Anaplasma phagocytophilum-the most widespread tick-borne infection in animals in Europe. Vet Res Commun 31(Suppl ... Adamska M (2006) Detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in blood of roe deer and in ticks. Med Weter 62:201-203 In Polish with ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10344-009-0261-8

Anaplasma phagocytophilum | Article about Anaplasma phagocytophilum by The Free DictionaryAnaplasma phagocytophilum | Article about Anaplasma phagocytophilum by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A genus of the family Anaplasmataceae; organisms form inclusions in red ... blood cells of ruminants Explanation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... equi and is now referred to as Anaplasma phagocytophilum (which ... Anaplasma. (redirected from Anaplasma phagocytophilum). Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia. Anaplasma. [‚an·ə′plaz·mə] ( ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Article about Anaplasma phagocytophilum by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Anaplasma+phagocytophilum

Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains | Journal of Clinical MicrobiologySequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains | Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ... Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ... and Anaplasma spp. was done using the msp4 data for A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis; the E. ... Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/43/3/1309?ijkey=06b3fc36293bf8486d027cd4d226652ea58ee97a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Pathogens | Free Full-Text | Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilumPathogens | Free Full-Text | Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilum

The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more ... This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. ... We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum; comparative genomics; diagnosis; PCR human anaplasmosis; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; comparative ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/3/1/25

Anaplasma phagocytophilum - WikipediaAnaplasma phagocytophilum - Wikipedia

Anaplasma phagocytophilum HZ Genome Page Anaplasma phagocytophilum at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a small, obligate, intracellular bacterium with a Gram-negative cell wall. It is 0.2-1.0 μm and ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum binds to fucosylated and sialylated scaffold proteins on neutrophil and granulocyte surfaces. A type ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaplasma_phagocytophilum

Clinical Isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and HygieneClinical Isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

... phagocytophilum in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. ... We report the first isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea. A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-day history ... New genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). ... oa Clinical Isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea * Seung Hun Lee1,†, Se Yoon Park2,5,†, Mi Jin Jang1, Ki Ju ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0529

Anaplasma phagocytophilum  , interferon gamma production and Stat1 signalingAnaplasma phagocytophilum , interferon gamma production and Stat1 signaling

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium,Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The ... phagocytophilum-infected mice, horses and humans. In this study, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/micai/201303000/00080180-201303000-00007

Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Volume 18, Number 12-December 2012 - Emerging...Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Volume 18, Number 12-December 2012 - Emerging...

... were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic ... Dumler JS, Choi K, Garcia-Garcia J, Barat N, Scorpio D, Garyu J, Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. ... Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3164-8. ... HGA is caused by a rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1), groups of which form dense aggregations in ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/12/12-0919_article

Frontiers | Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis ...Frontiers | Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis ...

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of human, equine and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever in ... A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing ... A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing ... A. phagocytophilum infection inhibits gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial metabolism, but increases the expression of glycolytic ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00023/full

c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 2 Inhibits Gamma Interferon Production during Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection | Infection and...c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 2 Inhibits Gamma Interferon Production during Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection | Infection and...

c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 2 Inhibits Gamma Interferon Production during Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Joao H. F. Pedra, ... ASC/PYCARD and caspase-1 regulate the IL-18/IFN-γ axis during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. J. Immunol. 179:4783-4791. ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during infection. Cell Microbiol. 9:1730-1737. ... Infection of endothelial cells with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Vet. Microbiol. 101:53-64. ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/76/1/308.long

Anaplasma Phagocytophilum (hge Agent) Igg Antibody, Ifa - Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute of ValenciaAnaplasma Phagocytophilum (hge Agent) Igg Antibody, Ifa - Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute of Valencia

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the tick-borne agent causing Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA). HGA is distinct and separate ... Single IgG titers of 1:64 or greater indicate exposure to A. phagocytophilum; a four-fold rise in IgG titer between acute and ...
more infohttp://specialtylabs.com/tests/details.asp?id=47543

Frontiers | Infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. in Opossums and Dogs in Campeche, Mexico: The Role of...Frontiers | Infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. in Opossums and Dogs in Campeche, Mexico: The Role of...

The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis ... We report the first evidence of infections of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in México. ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27 %, respectively. E. canis was only ... The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2017.00161/full

Expression and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Immunoreactive Surface Protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum | Clinical and...Expression and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Immunoreactive Surface Protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum | Clinical and...

Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Yiyuan county, Shandong. Infect. Dis. Inform. 22: 21- 25. ... Investigation on Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in rodents from forest areas in northeastern China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing ... Expression and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Immunoreactive Surface Protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Qiang Yu, Chuang-fu ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the etiological agent of the emerging tick-borne disease ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/19/6/919

Detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia...Detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia...

4.7%; 30/637), Anaplasma spp. (1.4%; 9/637), B. burgdorferi (0.9%; 6/637) and D. immitis (0.2%; 1/637) with most of the ... Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Overall, we found only low levels of exposure to Ehrlichia spp. ( ... The occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in China. ... Detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ap.2018.63.issue-2/ap-2018-0047/ap-2018-0047.xml

Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Domestic Animals in Ten Provinces/Cities of China | The American Journal of Tropical...Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Domestic Animals in Ten Provinces/Cities of China | The American Journal of Tropical...

Serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG ... phagocytophilum 16S rRNA genes and the PCR-positive rates were 26.69% for goats, 23.38% for cattle, and 10.89% for dogs. Six ... f Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Domestic Animals in Ten Provinces/Cities of China * Lijuan Zhang, Hong Liu, Bianli Xu ... Infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Germany. Res Vet Sci 91: 71-76.[Crossref]. [Google Scholar] ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0005

Are Patients with Erythema Migrans Who Have Leukopenia and/or Thrombocytopenia Coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or...Are Patients with Erythema Migrans Who Have Leukopenia and/or Thrombocytopenia Coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or...

... are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the ... phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, ... phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3%) with ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103188

Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Semantic ScholarAnaplasma phagocytophilum - Semantic Scholar

A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or ... ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM ANTIBODY:ARBITRARY CONCENTRATION:POINT IN TIME:SERUM:ORDINAL. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Ab.IgG:PrThr: ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Known as: HGE agent, agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophila (More). ... Distinct host species correlate with Anaplasma phagocytophilum ankA gene clusters.. *Wiebke Scharf, Sonja Schauer, +14 authors ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Anaplasma-phagocytophilum/37312

Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a...Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a...

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular rickettsial pathogen also transmitted by ixodid ticks, has emerged as an important ... Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a ...
more infohttp://www.prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=20334
  • Based on these DNA sequences, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to specifically detect Neoehrlichia mikurensis in combination with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick lysates. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern Norway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • scapularis collected in Indiana and examined during a recent study were found to harbor Babesia microti (the agent of human babesiosis) and, as far as is known, no human cases of babesiosis have been reported in Indiana, 5% of the ticks collected in Pulaski county were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human anaplasmosis) (Steiner et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The emerging zoonotic pathogens E. chaffeensis and A. phagocytophilum are increasingly implicated as a human pathogen worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of the extremely fragile and pleomorphic nature of E. chaffeensis and A. phagocytophilum , we tested if cholesterol is also required for them as for mycoplasmas with similar physical characteristics. (openthesis.org)
  • Although they lack genes for cholesterol biosynthesis or modification, host cell-free E. chaffeensis and A. phagocytophilum can directly incorporate significant amount of exogenous cholesterol into their membranes, which provides them physical strength and is essential for infecting host leukocytes. (openthesis.org)
  • Three tests can be performed to determine an A. phagocytophilum infection: Indirect immunofluorescence assay is the principal test used to detect infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its identity was confirmed by an immunofluorescence assay, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, msp2 ( p44 ), and ankA genes, and staining and electron microscopy of morulae of A. phagocytophilum in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. (ajtmh.org)
  • In this study, we successfully cloned and expressed an A. phagocytophilum immunoreactive surface protein (major surface protein 2 [MSP and demonstrated that this recombinant protein has natural immunogenicity by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using human HGA-positive sera and reference rabbit HGA-positive sera. (asm.org)
  • The rabbit antisera against the recombinant protein also reacted actively with the natural antigen of A. phagocytophilum by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). (asm.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum then divides until cell lysis or when the bacteria leave to infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reciprocal cross-transmission experiment was performed using an eastern and a western North American strain of A. phagocytophilum (Webster and MRK, respectively) and the two tick species, I. scapularis and I. pacificus , most commonly associated with human and animal transmission of the bacteria in the United States. (springer.com)
  • Polymerase chain reaction assays are used to detect A. phagocytophilum DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG antibody by immunofluorescence assays and the average seroprevalences were 10.05% for dogs, 3.82% for goats, and 0.69% for cattle, respectively. (ajtmh.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum -infected neutrophils continuously release MMPs and other vasoactive biomediators. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, we showed that A. phagocytophilum -infected neutrophils protractedly produce biologically active molecules, including chemokines, cytokines, and MMPs ( 14 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Inability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice. (nih.gov)
  • Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the presence and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum human agent (AP-ha) and a genetic variant not associated with human disease (AP-variant 1). (nih.gov)
  • A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities of A. phagocytophilum , the high tick infestation rates found and because both opossums and free-ranging dogs can achieve high population densities in the region. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, the prevalence of infected ticks was estimated and the diversity of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prevalence of ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in the year 2005 and in the year 2006 was 0.31% and 0.63%, respectively, and it did not differ considerably between locations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to our study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks is comparable to the findings in other studies in Europe, and it does not vary considerably between locations and tick stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prevalence of ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum was estimated and the diversity of the groESL operon of detected DNA of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • their results showed that 8.8% of the human serum samples tested were positive for A. phagocytophilum antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) plays a critical role in the early eradication of Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (asm.org)
  • The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) contributes to the eradication of A. phagocytophilum ( 1 , 21 , 24 , 30 , 31 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The sequence analysis of the recently discovered A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene corroborated these results. (asm.org)
  • IFN-γ gene-null mice have a markedly elevated A. phagocytophilum load compared to that of wild-type mice during the early phase of infection. (asm.org)
  • Casey ANJ, Birtles RJ, Radford AD, Bown KJ, French NP, Woldehiwet Z, Ogden NH (2004) Groupings of highly similar major surface protein (p44)-encoding paralogues: a potential index of genetic diversity amongst isolates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (springer.com)
  • Then, the available transcriptomics and proteomics data was used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis major carbohydrate metabolic pathway components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, these findings provide strong evidence that JNK2 is an important regulatory protein for IFN-γ secretion upon challenge with A. phagocytophilum . (asm.org)
  • The western tick, I. pacificus , showed a significantly higher vector competence for A. phagocytophilum than I. scapularis and the eastern isolate, Webster, was more transmissible than its western counterpart, MRK. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, a broad active surveillance of tick vectors and host animals revealed that both were commonly infected with A. phagocytophilum in many parts of China ( 8 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • The resistance of jnk2 -null mice to A. phagocytophilum infection was due to elevated levels of IFN-γ secreted by conventional and natural killer (NK) T cells. (asm.org)
  • The administration of α-galactosylceramide, a strong NK T-cell agonist, increased IFN-γ release and protected mice from A. phagocytophilum , further demonstrating the inhibitory effect of JNK2 on IFN-γ production. (asm.org)
  • The NCH-1 isolate of A. phagocytophilum , recovered from a patient with HGA, was used throughout these studies ( 36 ). (asm.org)