A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)

Cytokine gene expression by peripheral blood leukocytes in horses experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophila. (1/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), a tick-borne zoonosis, is caused by an obligatory intragranulocytic bacterium, the HGE agent, a strain of Anaplasma phagocytophila. The equine model of HGE is considered valuable in understanding pathogenic and immune mechanisms of HGE. In the present study, cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) in horses was examined during the course of infection by intravenous inoculation of A. phagocytophila or by allowing feeding by infected ticks. The p44 genes encoding the major outer membrane protein P44s of A. phagocytophila were detected by PCR in PBLs of all four horses from 4 to 20 days postexposure. During the 20-day infection period, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression was upregulated in PBLs of all four horses, and IL-8 mRNA expression was upregulated in three horses. Gamma interferon, IL-10, and IL-12 p35 mRNAs were weakly expressed in only one horse each. IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 mRNA expression, however, could not be detected in the PBLs of any of the four horses. These results suggest that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 generation during A. phagocytophila infection has a primary role in HGE pathogenesis and immunomodulation.  (+info)

Repression of rac2 mRNA expression by Anaplasma phagocytophila is essential to the inhibition of superoxide production and bacterial proliferation. (2/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophila, the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, is an emerging bacterial pathogen that invades neutrophils and can be cultivated in HL-60 cells. Infected neutrophils and HL-60 cells fail to produce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), which is partially attributable to the fact that A. phagocytophila inhibits transcription of gp91(phox), an integral component of NADPH oxidase. cDNA microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of the gene encoding Rac2, a key component in NADPH oxidase activation, was down-regulated in infected HL-60 cells. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that rac2 mRNA expression was reduced 7-fold in retinoic acid-differentiated HL-60 cells and 50-fold in neutrophils following A. phagocytophila infection. Rac2 protein expression was absent in infected HL-60 cells. Rac1 and Rac2 are interchangeable in their abilities to activate NADPH oxidase. HL-60 cells transfected to express myc-tagged rac1 and gp91(phox) from the CMV immediate early promoter maintained the ability to generate O(2)(-) 120 h postinfection. A. phagocytophila proliferation was severely inhibited in these cells. These results directly attribute the inhibition of rac2 and gp91(phox) transcription to the loss of NADPH oxidase activity in A. phagocytophila-infected cells and demonstrate its importance to bacterial intracellular survival.  (+info)

Roles of neutrophil beta 2 integrins in kinetics of bacteremia, extravasation, and tick acquisition of Anaplasma phagocytophila in mice. (3/299)

Tick saliva contains anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive substances that facilitate blood feeding and enhance tick-vectored pathogen transmission, including Anaplasma phagocytophila an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis. As such, inflammation at a tick-feeding site is strikingly different than that typically observed at other sites of inflammation. Up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 occurs in host granulocytes following interaction or infection with A phagocytophila, and the absence of CD11b/CD18 results in early increases in bacteremia. We hypothesized that beta 2 integrin-dependent infection kinetics and leukocyte extravasation are important determinants of neutrophil trafficking to, and pathogen acquisition at, tick-feeding sites. A phagocytophila infection kinetics were evaluated in CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, and CD18 knock-out mice using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood, ticks, and skin biopsies in conjunction with histopathology. A marked increase in the rate of A phagocytophila infection of neutrophils and pathogen burden in blood followed tick feeding. Infection kinetics were modified by beta 2 integrin expression and systemic neutrophil counts. Significant neutrophil-pathogen trafficking was observed to both suture and tick sites. Despite the prominent role for beta 2 integrins in neutrophil arrest in flowing blood, successful pathogen acquisition by ticks occurred in the absence of beta 2 integrins. Establishment of feeding pools that rely less on leukocyte trafficking and more on small hemorrhages may explain the ready amplification of A phagocytophila DNA from ticks infested on CD11/CD18-deficient mouse strains.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. (4/299)

We tested the antibiotic susceptibilities of eight strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) collected in various geographic areas of the United States, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and New York. The results are homogeneous and show that doxycycline, rifampin, and levofloxacin are the most active antibiotics against these strains in vitro.  (+info)

Seasonal dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophila in a rodent-tick (Ixodes trianguliceps) system, United Kingdom. (5/299)

We investigated the reservoir role of European wild rodents for Anaplasma phagocytophila using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of blood collected from individually tagged rodents captured monthly over 2 years. The only tick species observed in the woodland study site was Ixodes trianguliceps, and ruminant reservoir hosts were not known to occur. A. phagocytophila infections were detected in both bank voles and wood mice but were restricted to periods of peak nymphal and adult tick activity. Most PCR-positive rodents were positive only once, suggesting that rodent infections are generally short-lived and that ticks rather than rodents may maintain the infection over winter. Bank voles were more likely to be PCR positive than wood mice, possibly because detectable infections are longer lived in bank voles. This study confirms that woodland rodents can maintain A. phagocytophila in Great Britain in the absence of other reservoir hosts and suggests that I. trianguliceps is a competent vector.  (+info)

Comparison of PCR assays for detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (6/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging infectious disease in the United States and Europe, and PCR methods have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of acute infections. Numerous PCR assays and primer sets have been reported in the literature. The analytical sensitivities (limits of detection) of 13 published PCR primer sets were compared using DNA extracted from serial dilutions of Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected HL-60 cells. The specificity of the assays that were able to detect +info)

Expression of multiple outer membrane protein sequence variants from a single genomic locus of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (7/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States and Europe. The organism causes a febrile illness accompanied by other nonspecific symptoms and can be fatal, especially if treatment is delayed. Persistence of A. phagocytophilum within mammalian reservoir hosts is important for ensuring continued disease transmission. In the related organism Anaplasma marginale, persistence is associated with antigenic variation of the immunoprotective outer membrane protein MSP2. Extensive diversity of MSP2 is achieved by combinatorial gene conversion of a genomic expression site by truncated pseudogenes. The major outer membrane protein of A. phagocytophilum, MSP2(P44), is homologous to MSP2 of A. marginale, has a similar organization of conserved and variable regions, and is also encoded by a multigene family containing some truncated gene copies. This suggests that the two organisms could use similar mechanisms to generate diversity in outer membrane proteins from their small genomes. We define here a genomic expression site for MSP2(P44) in A. phagocytophilum. As in A. marginale, the msp2(p44) gene in this expression site is polymorphic in all populations of organisms we have examined, whether organisms are obtained from in vitro culture in human HL-60 cells, from culture in the tick cell line ISE6, or from infected human blood. Changes in culture conditions were found to favor the growth and predominance of certain msp2(p44) variants. Insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the region of the genomic expression site encoding the central hypervariable region matched sequence polymorphisms in msp2(p44) mRNA. These data suggest that, similarly to A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum uses combinatorial mechanisms to generate a large array of outer membrane protein variants. Such gene polymorphism has profound implications for the design of vaccines, diagnostic tests, and therapy.  (+info)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum reduces neutrophil apoptosis in vivo. (8/299)

Ovine neutrophils spontaneously underwent apoptosis during culture in vitro, as assessed by morphological changes and exposure of annexin V binding sites on their cell surfaces. The addition of conditioned medium from concanavalin A-treated ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could partially protect against this progression into apoptosis, but dexamethasone and sodium butyrate could not. Actinomycin D accelerated the rate at which ovine neutrophils underwent apoptosis. Neutrophils isolated from sheep experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed significantly delayed apoptosis during culture ex vivo, and the addition of conditioned medium from PBMC to these cells could not delay apoptosis above the protective effects observed after in vivo infection. The ability of neutrophils from A. phagocytophilum-infected sheep to activate a respiratory burst was increased compared to the activity measured in neutrophils from uninfected sheep, but chemotaxis was decreased in neutrophils from infected sheep. These data are the first demonstration that in vivo infection with A. phagocytophilum results in changes in rates of apoptosis of infected immune cells. This may help explain how these bacteria replicate in these normally short-lived cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of human-Active and variant 1 strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hosts and forests of Eastern North America. AU - Keesing, Felicia. AU - McHenry, Diana J.. AU - Hersh, Michelle. AU - Tibbetts, Michael. AU - Brunner, Jesse L.. AU - Killilea, Mary. AU - LoGiudice, Kathleen. AU - Schmidt, Kenneth A.. AU - Ostfeld, Richard S.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-Active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) to feeding larval ticks. We also sampled ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in small mammal hosts of Ixodes ticks, Western United States. AU - Foley, Janet E.. AU - Nieto, Nathan C.. AU - Adjemian, Jennifer. AU - Dabritz, Haydee. AU - Brown, Richard N.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were ,1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks.. AB - A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were ,1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species ...
References. Aguiar D.M., Cavalcante G.T., Pinter A., Gennari S.M., Camargo L.M. & Labruna M.B. 2007. Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Brazil. J. Med. Entomol. 44:126-132. [ Links ] Aragão H. & Fonseca F. 1961. Ixodological notes. VIII. List and key to the representatives of the Brazilian ixodological fauna. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 59:115-129. [ Links ] Barutzki D., De Nicola A., Zeziola M. & Reule M. 2006. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs in Germany. Berl. Münch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr. 119:342-347. [ Links ] Beall M.J., Chandrashekar R., Eberts M.D., Cyr K.E., Diniz P.P., Mainville C., Hegarty B.C. & Crawford J.M., Breitschwerdt E.B. 2008. Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases 8:455-464. [ Links ] Bown K.J., Lambin X., Ogden N.H., Petrovec M., ...
Infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern Norway. Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in lambs, but epidemiological links between infections in red deer and sheep have yet to be established. To address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting sympatric red deer and sheep. Blood from 32 lambs grazing on tick-infested pasture, and blood and tissues from 8 red deer shot in proximity to these pastures were collected during the summer and autumn of 2007. The presence of A. phagocytophilum in these samples was determined by PCR-based methods, and genotyping of detected strains was performed using comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and msp4 fragments. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 12 lambs and 7 red deer, 11 and 4
A 36-year-old woman acquired severe human granulocytic anaplasmosis after blood transfusion following a cesarean section. Although intensive treatment with mechanical ventilation was needed, the patient had an excellent recovery. Disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was confirmed in 1 blood donor and in the transfusion recipient.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Murine neutrophils require α 1,3-fucosylation but not PSGL-1 for productive infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. AU - Carlyon, Jason A.. AU - Akkoyunlu, Mustafa. AU - Xia, Lijun. AU - Yago, Tadayuki. AU - Wang, Tian. AU - Cummings, Richard D.. AU - McEver, Rodger P.. AU - Fikrig, Erol. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, the second most common tick-borne disease in the United States. Mice are natural reservoirs for this bacterium and man is an inadvertent host. A phagocytophilums tropism for human neutrophils is linked to neutrophil expression of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), as well as sialylated and α1,3-fucosylated glycans. To determine whether A phagocytophilum uses similar molecular features to infect murine neutrophils, we assessed in vitro bacterial binding to neutrophils from and infection burden in wild-type mice; mice lacking α1,3-fucosyltransferases Fuc-TIV and Fuc-TVII; or mice ...
Ticks and tick-borne diseases affect animal and human health worldwide. A vector of many diseases in Europe and Slovenia is Ixodes ricinus [1]. It can be found in the forest, in shrubby or wooded pastures and on surfaces with low vegetation [2]. Ticks feeding cycle includes three stages: larva, nymph and adult. I. ricinus feeds on livestock, deer, dogs and a wide variety of other species, including humans [2]. I. ricinus is a confirmed vector of the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum [3]. The tick becomes infected as it feeds on an infected host. Anaplasmae are transmitted from stage to stage as the tick moults (trans-stadially), but not transovarially. No anaplasmae have been detected in unfed larvae so far [4]. A. phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, was formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent (HGE agent), Ehrlichia phagocytophila and E. equi [5]. A. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts from asymptomatic to ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic and obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In domestic ruminants, it is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, which causes significant economic losses in Europe. As A. phagocytophilum is difficult to isolate and cultivate, only nine genome sequences have been published to date, none of which originate from a bovine strain. Our goals were to; 1/ develop a sequencing methodology which efficiently circumvents the difficulties associated with A. phagocytophilum isolation and culture; 2/ describe the first genome of a bovine strain; and 3/ compare it with available genomes, in order to both explore key genomic features at the species level, and to identify candidate genes that could be specific to bovine strains. DNA was extracted from a bovine blood sample infected by A. phagocytophilum. Following a whole genome capture approach, A. phagocytophilum DNA was enriched 197-fold in the sample and then sequenced using Illumina technology. In total, 58.9%
Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is currently regarded as a single species. However, molecular studies indicate that it can be subdivided into ecotypes, each with distinct but overlapping transmission cycle. Here, we evaluate the interactions between and within clusters of haplotypes of the bacterium isolated from vertebrates and ticks, using phylogenetic and network-based methods. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in ticks and vertebrate tissue samples. A fragment of the groEl gene was amplified and sequenced from qPCR-positive lysates. Additional groEl sequences from ticks and vertebrate reservoirs were obtained from GenBank and through literature searches, resulting in a dataset consisting of 1623 A. phagocytophilum field isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were used to infer clusters of haplotypes and to assess phylogenetic clustering of A. phagocytophilum in vertebrates or ticks. Network-based methods were used to resolve host-vector interactions and their relative importance in the
A TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the Anaplasma citrate synthase gene, gltA, was developed and used for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 765 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and cats in northern Norway (n = 669) and Telemark county in southern Norway (n = 96). Among the ticks from northern Norway the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 3.0 %, while the prevalence in southern Norway was 2.1 % (p = 0.63). The gltA PCR assay showed a high analytical sensitivity (30 genomic units) and efficiency (98.5 %), and its utility in clinical diagnostics should be evaluated in future studies. This is the first report of A. phagocytophilum occurrence in ticks collected north of the Arctic Circle in Norway. The prevalence is comparable to that found in Telemark county in southern Norway.
This narrative review summarizes published evidence about the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesio
Avhandlingar om HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC ANAPLASMOSIS. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
In recent years, some tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis became widespread worldwide, threatening the health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 102 opossums (Didelphis spp.) and 44 owned free-ranging dogs in southeastern Mexico using a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. E. canis was only present in 7% of dogs, while we didnt detect E. chaffeensis in any host. We report the first evidence of infections of A. phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in Mexico. The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of this pathogen than opossums. Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities
Anaplasmosis is a tickborne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It was previously known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and has more recently been called human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA).
Tick-borne pathogens cause emerging zoonoses, and include fastidious organisms such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Because of their obligate intracellular nature, methods for mutagenesis and transformation have not been available. To facilitate genetic manipulation, we transformed A. phagocytophilum (Ap) to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the Himar1 transposase system and selection with the clinically irrelevant antibiotic spectinomycin. These transformed bacteria (GFP/Ap) grow at normal rates and are brightly fluorescent in human, monkey, and tick cell culture. Molecular characterization of the GFP/Ap genomic DNA confirmed transposition and the flanking genomic insertion locations were sequenced. Three mice inoculated with GFP/Ap by intraperitoneal injection became infected as demonstrated by the appearance of morulae in a peripheral blood neutrophil and re-isolation of the bacteria in culture.
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In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks increases their ability to survive in the cold. We identified an I. scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein, designated IAFGP, and demonstrated via RNAi knockdown studies the importance of IAFGP for the survival of I. scapularis ticks in a cold environment. Transfection studies also show that IAFGP increased the viability of yeast cells subjected to cold temperature. Remarkably, A. phagocytophilum induced the expression of iafgp, thereby increasing the cold tolerance and survival of I. scapularis. These data define a molecular basis for symbiosis between a human pathogenic bacterium and its arthropod vector and delineate what we believe to be a new pathway that may be targeted to alter the life cycle of this microbe and its ...
The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability ...
The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER
A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by polymer
A tick-borne illness that presents with undifferentiated flu-like symptoms similar to those seen in patients with Lyme disease and other such ailments is cropping up in the Northeastern United States. According to a recent Annals of Internal Medicine article, two patients -- one a 61-year-old man in Massachusetts and the other an 87-year-old New Jersey man -- presented with signs and symptoms suggesting human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which is caused by the rickettsia-like bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum carried by deer ticks in that region. The presumptive diagnosis proved false, however.
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing similar to 57\% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick-host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host `questing, prolonged feeding, cuticle synthesis, blood meal concentration, novel methods of haemoglobin digestion, haem detoxification, vitellogenesis and prolonged off-host survival. We identify proteins associated with the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease, ...
Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that utilize cattle as amplifying hosts, namely Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia sensu stricto, to increase. To test these hypotheses, we compared the densities of questing I. ricinus between twenty pairs of plots in grazed and ungrazed forest areas. The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. Nymphs were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia s.s. DNA from twelve paired areas. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and ...
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Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium of neutrophils....
Abstract. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. This is the first case to suggest that crust tissue at the tick-bite site may be useful for early HGA diagnosis in patients who have already been treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline.
DISCUSSION. A. phagocytophilum, capable of infecting granulocytes, and so far neutrophils and eosinophils (7), frequently cause an acute febrile systemic illness, namely CGA. In an attempt to make precise diagnostic tests for CGA microscopic detection of specific morulae, anti-Anaplasma IgM and IgG antibody detection and PCR analysis, which is most reliable for early diagnosis (8).. Recent exposure to A. phagocytophilum may be determined in dogs and human by acute and convalescent serologic testing, to those of IFA assays (9). IgG class antibodies primarily are detectable following 8 days after first exposure, corresponding to 2-5 days after morulae presence. It is therefore may be suggested that antibody detection may not be possible during acute infection (7). Seronegative dogs could probably have been recently infected; indeed a seropositive case could have been exposed to the etiological agent preceeding months, in association with elimination of infection thorugh immunity (10). Polymerase ...
Clinical. Epidemiological elements + Clinical signs. Laboratory. Direct. Using light microscopy on peripheral stained blood smears, the diagnosis relies on the observation of a typical morula of Anaplasma platys in the platelets for thrombocytic anaplasmosis and the observation of a typical morula of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the neutrophils for granulocytic anaplasmosis.. Infection is confirmed by PCR detection of bacterial DNA on tissues or blood.. Indirect. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays to determine serum antibody against Anaplasma spp. available in veterinary laboratories.. Fast diagnosis at patient-side, based on an multivalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is available for the detection of antibodies to E. canis, E. ewingii, A. phagocytophilum and A. platys.. Differential. Other tick-borne pathogens: Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp.. Co-infection with other vector-borne pathogens is reported, especially co-infection with B. burgdorferi and A. ...
PL EN. Online first. Rada Naukowa. Bazy indeksacyjne. Piotr Adamczuk 1 ,. Jolanta Chmielewska-Badora 1 ,. Mojzych, Dyrektor: prof. Tick-borne diseases are transmission diseases belonging to the group of zoonoses but carried by ticks. These diseases are a major public health problem but also a problem for groups occupationally exposed to tick bites.. Ixodes ricinus is a species of ticks which is the most common reservoir and the vector of a large number of microorganisms pathogenic to humans. It transfers, among others, bacteria of the species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. The article discusses the mechanisms of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum for both ticks as well as for animals and humans.. The two microorganisms discussed have developed many characteristics and mechanisms of adaptation to the environment, as well as defense mechanisms against the bodys immune response. Understanding the biology of ticks and the function of proteins ...
Ticks are important vectors of disease and transmit an extensive array of bacterial, viral and protozoan diseases to both humans and dogs within a com
George Garrity, Don J. Brenner, James T. Staley, Noel R. Krieg, David R. Boone, Paul De Vos, Michael Goodfellow, Fred A. Rainey, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, ...,Bergeys Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, lk 123,2005,Googlei raamat veebiversioon (vaadatud 21.01.2014) (inglise keeles) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting the emergence of tick-borne infections based on climatic changes in Korea. AU - Chae, Joon Seok. AU - Adjemian, Jennifer Zipser. AU - Kim, Heung Chul. AU - Ko, Sungjin. AU - Klein, Terry A.. AU - Foley, Janet E. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and monocytic ehrlichiosis (ME) are maintained in wild rodent reservoirs and tick vectors in the Republic of Korea. This study investigated the prevalence of 2 tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in wild rodents and ticks in central Korea to identify any significant associations with existing or changing climatic conditions. Specifically, the goal of this study was to develop simple models for the probability of occurrence of an epidemic of GA or ME as a function of climate in an area in a given year. Climatic data from 2 regions, Munsan and Dongducheon, Gyeonggi, in central Korea (between the Demilitarized Zone and Seoul, latitude between 37°N-38°N and ...
There is a paucity of data on human exposure to tick-borne pathogens in the western United States. This study reports prevalence of antibodies against three clinically important tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.) among 249 people in five counties in northern California. Individuals from Humboldt County were recruited and answered a questionnaire to assess risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens. Samples from other counties were obtained from a blood bank and were anonymized. Seventeen (6.8%) samples were seropositive for antibodies against at least one pathogen: five for A. phagocytophilum, eight for B. burgdorferi, and four for Rickettsia spp. Women and people aged 26-35 had higher seroprevalence compared to other demographic groups. Santa Cruz County had no seropositive individuals, northern Central Valley counties had three seropositive individuals (all against A. phagocytophilum), and Humboldt County had 14 (all three pathogens), a ...
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recently updated its guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis. Gary Wormser, M.D., lead author, said the guidelines were updated in response to mounting concern and confusion regarding Lyme disease. Wormser, who is also the chief of the division of infectious disease and vice-chairman of the department of medicine at the New York Medical College in Valhalla, went on to point out that the updated document differs from the previous guidelines, released in 2000, in several ways.
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging zoonosis, and one of the most prevalent life- threatening tick-borneillnesses in North America. This diseas...
Citalopram neuraxpharm 40 mg erfahrungsberichte citalopram beipackzettel 10mg 5 stars based on 99 reviews Sharapova now needs to convince an International Tennis Federation panel that there were health reasons as also told by her lawyer John Haggerty. It is a natural and important emotion, cost of micardis 80 mg signaling through stirrings of worry, fearfulness, and alarm that danger or a sudden, threatening change is near. Acceptance of this card and your submission of claims are also subject to the Terms and Conditions posted at www.. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: Website to obtain participating providers: Salmela University of Helsinki, prograf xl 1 mg Helsinki ; France: An antidepressant medicine in the tricyclic group is a common treatment for neuropathic pain. However, these attacks continued to occur for over a year later never happened to me before Lexapro. ...
Disease transmission of is the most dramatic consequence of tick infestation in humans or animals in Europe. Tick-borne diseases are due to bacteria (Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella sp., Rickettsia sp etc.), parasites (protozoa Babesia canis sp, Hepatozoon canis and helminths Cercopithifilaria sp etc.) and viruses (Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE) virus etc.). Ticks can also cause secondary skin lesions such as bacterial dermatitis and necrosis.. Some tick species (especially Australian Ixodes Holocyclus) can cause severe paralysis.. Learn more about the transmitted diseases: Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis, Hepatozoonosis, Lyme Borreliosis.. ...
BLOT kit for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the recombinant antigens of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGA) in human serum and plasma.
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Caramel is spayed (January-23-2018), up to date with routine shots, micro-chipped, de-wormed and tested negative for heartworm.. Blood Test December-29-2017, January-28-2018. Excessive drooling with warmer temperature, blood work on electrolytes and calcium revealed potassium in electrolytes lower resulting in slight liver inflammation, anti-inflammatory prescribed along with potassium supplements. X-Rays January-23-2018. Please note that x-rays only reflect when they were taken. Since shes still growing, hips and joints will be more fully developed when reaches the age of 1 for a more accurate assessment. Patellar Luxation Examination January-23-2018. Idexx SNAP® 4Dx® (November-29-2017). Tested negative for Heartworm, Lyme, Ehrlichia Canis, and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Test (December-05-2017). Tested negative for Babesia spp. (B. Canis and B. Gibsoni), Ehrlichia spp. (E. Canis and Anaplasma Platys), Haemobartonella Canis, and Borrelia Burgdorferi. ...
Nango is neutered (April-12-2015), up to date with routine shots, micro-chipped, de-wormed and tested negative for heartworm.. Was likely abandoned as a puppy, when found collar outgrew causing neck laceration: Debridement and suture performed 04-13-2015 with full recovery. Blood Test January-25-2018. X-Rays January-25-2018. Patellar Luxation Examination January-25-2018. Dental Cleaning January-25-2018. Idexx SNAP® 4Dx® (April-11-2015). Tested negative for Heartworm, Lyme, Ehrlichia Canis, and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Test (May-14-2015). Tested negative for Babesia spp. (B. Canis and B. Gibsoni), Ehrlichia spp. (E. Canis and Anaplasma Platys), Haemobartonella Canis, and Borrelia Burgdorferi. ...
These are Ixodes scapularis, the deer tick or black-legged tick. Adult deer ticks are commonly found on horses, particularly in the colder months, and in areas where disease is endemic, these ticks may transmit Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum to horses ...
BLOT kit for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the recombinant antigens of Borrelia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGA) in serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.
To determine if the range of deer ticks in Maine had expanded, we conducted a multitarget serosurvey of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in 2007. An extension of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi to the northern border and local transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum throughout southern areas was found ...
PMN are endowed with a highly efficient adhesion and migratory apparatus that supports their primary function of rapid antimicrobial response during host defense. They have evolved a capacity for rapid activation of integrins that support the transition from cell rolling to arrest and transmigration on inflamed endothelium under the hydrodynamic shear of blood flow. One such process involves recognition of sLex-decorated receptors including L-selectin and PSGL-1 that redistribute and cluster at the trailing edge of a rolling PMN (36). This in turn triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events including calcium flux, phosphorylation of MAPK, an upshift in integrin affinity, and shear-resistant adhesion (2, 3, 19). In this study, we demonstrated that rapid binding of A. phagocytophilum to PMN in a shear flow channel results in rapid PMN arrest that correlates with a small calcium flux and an upshift in CD18 affinity. Despite this response to binding A. phagocytophilum, PMN failed to fully ...
Obligatory intracellular, human ehrlichiosis agents Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have remarkable abilities to parasitize first-line immune defensive cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, respectively. As newly discovered pathogens, the bacterial or host components, the signaling pathways required for their internalization and proliferation, and how these bacteria inhibit the microbicidal activities in host cells remain vastly unknown. In this study, we found that the entry of E. chaffeensis into THP-1 cells rapidly induces the following essential signaling events: protein cross-linking by transglutaminase, tyrosine phosphorylation, phospholipase C (PLC)-?2 activation, IP 3 production, and an increase in cytosolic free calcium levels. The entry and proliferation of these pathogens involve caveolae-mediated endocytosis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. Furthermore, caveolar marker protein caveolin-1, tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, and PLC-?2 are ...
Serological surveys have confirmed Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in dromedary camels, but molecular surveys and genetic characterisation of camel-associated Anaplasma species are lacking. In this study, we detected tick-borne Anaplasmataceae in 30 of 100 (30%) healthy dromedary camels screened using a combined 16S rRNA-groEL PCR-sequencing approach. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed Anaplasmataceae genome presence in 28 of the 33 16S rRNA PCR-positive samples, with two additional positive samples, for which 16S rRNA sequence data were ambiguous, being identified by groEL gene characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of a 1289 nt segment of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a unique Ehrlichia lineage and a discrete Anaplasma lineage, comprising three variants, occurring at an overall prevalence of 4% and 26%, respectively. Genetic characterisation of an aligned 559 nt groEL gene region revealed the camel-associated Anaplasma and Ehrlichia lineages to be novel ...
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans.
Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humans and in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3 pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma...
Establishing a Protocol for the Long-term Sampling and Analysis of Tick-borne Pathogens in the Lehigh Valley Rachel Heist1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Lehigh Valley Health Network Abstract The blackedlegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, transmits several human pathogens including the spirochete that causes Lyme disease (Borellia burgdorferi), which is endemic to the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Additional tick-borne diseases have also been emerging in the region including tick-borne relapsing fever (caused by Borrelia miyamotoi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and human babesiosis (caused by Babesia microti). The dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, is capable of transmitting Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (caused by Rickettsia rickettsii). To determine the entomological risk of infection by a tick-borne pathogen, a protocol was established to gather data for a long-term study. Eleven collection sites were screened and selected for analysis
Human anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a rickettsial organism transmitted to humans by bites from Ixodes scapularis (the blacklegged tick or deer tick). In Minnesota, the same tick vector also transmits the etiologic agents of Lyme disease, babesiosis, one form of human ehrlichiosis, and a strain of Powassan virus. A. phagocytophilum can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. In 2012, 507 confirmed or probable anaplasmosis cases (9.5 cases per 100,000 population) were reported (Figure 1). The median number of 317 cases (range, 139 to 782 cases) reported from 2004 through 2012 is also considerably higher than the median number of cases reported annually from 1996 to 2003 (median, 56 cases; range, 14 to 149). Three hundred eleven (61%) cases reported in 2012 were male. The median age of cases was 56 years (range, 1 to 99 years), 17 years older that are endemic to other tick-borne diseases transmitted by I. scapularis. POW ...
Anaplasma species infection mimics many other conditions, including other chronic infections. If you are experiencing hard-to-diagnose chronic symptoms and have had a recent tick attachment or live in a region endemic for Anaplasma species in ticks, you should consider testing for Anaplasma infection. Symptoms can range from mild to serious illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, confusion, myalgia, nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, acute weight loss, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, neurological problems and other conditions that may require immediate medical attention. This zoonotic infection is primarily transmitted to humans by Ixodes ticks, but can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. Clinical presentations may be more severe when co-infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens.. Tests Offered. Anaplasma species PCR test is designed to detect all pathogenic Anaplasma species. Positive results are confirmed by DNA sequencing to identify the infecting species. It is ...
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne transmitted infection. Its clinical expression include fever, cytopenia and hepatitis.This infection was initially described in United States. In Europe, its epidemiology is not well known. Some isolated cases have been diagnosed in several country, were the tick Ixodes ricinus is known to transmitted another infection :the Lyme borreliosis.The purpose of our study is to look systematically for Anaplasmosis, in patient living in Eastern France, and presenting with compatible clinical symptoms using a new diagnosis tool : PCR in blood samples. So we will have new data about epidemiology in our country and the clinical symptoms that are associated with Anaplasmosis ...
Tick-borne diseases are the most common vector-borne diseases in the United States, with serology being the primary method of diagnosis. We developed the first multiplex, array-based assay for serodiagnosis of tick-borne diseases called the TBD-Serochip. The TBD-Serochip was designed to discriminate antibody responses to 8 major tick-borne pathogens present in the United States, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Rickettsia rickettsii, Heartland virus and Powassan virus. Each assay contains approximately 170,000 12-mer linear peptides that tile along the protein sequence of the major antigens from each agent with 11 amino acid overlap. This permits accurate identification of a wide range of specific immunodominant IgG and IgM epitopes that can then be used to enhance diagnostic accuracy and integrate differential diagnosis into a single assay. To test the performance of the TBD-Serochip, we examined sera from patients
Anaplasmosis: on an epidemiological point of view, it was not immediately clear if our patient had been exposed to tick infested in rural areas or had been in contact with pets or wild animals. Nevertheless, his stay in town parks and night cohabitation with homeless people could well have exposed him to ticks. The absence of acute phase reactants in a highly febrile patient was another intriguing point. Actually, Anaplasma phagocytophylum has as virulence factor the escape from neutrophil phagocytosis, through the inhibition of phagolysosome fusion. Although it is a potent inducer of -- INF, at the same time it behaves as an inhibitor suppressing the expression of -- INF membrane receptors and inhibiting the proinflammatory action in favour of bacterial multiplication withi n neutrophils (5- 6). The apparent failure of the appropriate treatment for anaplasmosis was another point of doubt since, despite the abatement of fever, the clinical course tended toward a greater severity. Limited ...
Les Anaplasmataceae sont des bactéries intracellulaires transmises aux animaux et à lhomme, principalement par les tiques. Les Anaplasma spp. (A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum…) et les Ehrlichia spp. (E. canis, E. ruminantium...) en sont les principaux représentants dimportance économique et sanitaire. Les outils de diagnostic disponibles jouent un rôle déterminant dans leur identification. Nous proposons une approche globale par un système permettant didentifier la plupart des espèces dAnaplasmataceae. Il est basé sur le gène codant lARNr 23S ; il couple une qPCR et une PCR standard avec deux jeux damorces suivie dun séquençage. Il est testé pour en vérifier la spécificité, puis mis en oeuvre à partir de prélèvements de sang de ruminants et de tiques : dans les Pyrénées-Atlantiques, des brebis suspectes dinfection sont porteuses dA. ovis et leurs tiques Rhipicephalus bursa, dA. ovis, dA. phagocytophilum et dune nouvelle ehrlichia. En Haute-Corse, une forte ...
It is defined as a disorder in which there is an infection caused by the bacteria. It resides in the cell and is known as the Anaplasma phago cyto philum.
Fly and tick season is here, which means it is time for producers to watch their herds for signs of anaplasmosis. This disease can be devastating to herds if not treated properly or in a timely manner.. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Human metapneumovirus infection Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) Human monocytic ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis. Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii ...
December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1828-34 ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a coastal region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...
E. phagocytophilum and E. equi were reclassified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum.[citation needed] Ehrlichiosis Malik A, Jameel M ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Lee HC, Kioi M, Han J, Puri RK, Goodman JL (September 2008). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum-induced gene expression in both human ... Massung RF, Courtney JW, Hiratzka SL, Pitzer VE, Smith G, Dryden RL (October 2005). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white-tailed ...
"Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Cellular Microbiology. 12 (9): 1213-21 ... T4SS has two effector proteins: firstly, ATS-1, which stands for Anaplasma translocated substrate 1, and secondly AnkA, which ...
It can be contracted from tick bites which contain Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The most common tick that carries the bacterium ... prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ehrlichia sp.), Wolbachia sp., Rickettsia sp., and Babesia sp. in Southern Germany". ... found worldwide Anaplasma centrale - found mainly in South America, Africa and the Middle East Sheep and goats: Anaplasma ovis ... Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp and is therefore related to rickettsial ...
Like Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infects neutrophils. ...
2007). "Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilum for infection of human promyelocytic cells". ...
Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko (2003-09-01). "Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum lack genes for lipid A ... It is also closely related to Wolbachia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia bacteria, with Rickettsia as a more distant genus. ... unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. phagocytophilum is endemic to New England and the north- ... genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. These obligate intracellular bacteria infect and kill white blood cells. The average reported ...
D. variabilis may also carry Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Ehrlichia ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a Coastal Region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...
Hedgehogs Erinaceus Roumanicus as Hosts for Ticks Infected with Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum ...
... and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA." Experimental and Applied Acarology ...
... such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic ... birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. Prevalence of Infectious Agents and Anti-Erythrocyte ...
... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: Results of a national clinic-based serologic survey". Veterinary ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Ionfhabhtú Human metapneumovirus. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Human monocytic ehrlichiosis. ...
... such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic ...
... as an alternative treatment for infections by the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum when ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a Gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that causes anaplasmosis, has been detected in L ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) is a bacterium of deer that spreads to sheep where it causes tick ... Anaplasma centrale tends to infect the central region of red blood cells, and is sufficiently closely related to An. marginale ... Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... However, some microbes, such as Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale, can also be transmitted by biting flies, or by blood on ...
... baumannii Actinomyces israelii Agrobacterium radiobacter Agrobacterium tumefaciens Anaplasma Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum or Ehrlichia equi) Vector: Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum ...
... virus infections Dengue Dengue-like illness Severe dengue Diphtheria Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
"Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild ... Fukui, Yuichi; Inokuma, Hisashi (2019). "Subclinical Infections of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis in Dogs from ... "Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis in Small Wild Mammals from Taichung and Kinmen Island, Taiwan". ... "First Molecular Evidence of Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Bovine from Central Punjab, Pakistan". Pathogens. ...
... HZ Genome Page Anaplasma+phagocytophilum at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Thomas V, Fikrig E (July 2007). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during ... December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infect. Dis. 11 (12): 1828-34. doi: ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilumRedigeeri. Oletatakse, et bakteri Anaplasma phagocytophilum elutsükkel organismis võib häirida ... ning see omakorda signaliseerib neutrofiilide tõmmet Anaplasma phagocytophilumi sulundkehakestesse. Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum muudab rakkudevahelist suhtlust nii, et suureneks IL-1 ja IL-8 tsütokiinide osakaal, ...
... marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Anaplasma is a genus of bacteria of the alphaproteobacterial order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae. Anaplasma species ... Anaplasma Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Anaplasma Genomes (at DOE's IMG system) v t e ...
... et Anaplasma phagocytophilum elutsükkel organismis võib häirida neutrofiilide fagotsütoosi, samuti viibib apoptoos. Anaplasma ... Nieto NC, Foley JE, Bettaso J, Lane RS.,Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ... Selles artiklis on kasutatud saksakeelset artiklit de:Anaplasma phagocytophilum seisuga 22.01.2014. ... Varem on seda bakterit nimetatud mitmeti: Anaplasma phagocytophila, Ehrlichia phagocytophilum ja Ehrlichia phagocytophila, ka ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
"Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Cellular Microbiology. 12 (9): 1213-21 ... T4SS has two effector proteins: firstly, ATS-1, which stands for Anaplasma translocated substrate 1, and secondly AnkA, which ...
Theileria microti և Anaplasma phagocytophilum, որոնք փոխանցում են համապատասխանաբար բաբեշիոզ և մարդու գրանուլոցիտար անապլազմոզ ( ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis) · Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
... and their closely related species Anaplasma show extreme diversity in the structure and content of their genomes. ... phagocytophilum is spread by the Ixodes scapularis tick in the Upper Midwest. 1,518 cases of E. chaffeensis were recorded in ... "Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants". Molecular ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis) · Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anaplasma-phagocytophilum-infection/case-definition/2008/) ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection 2008. Current. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ehrlichia phagocytophila)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0S0L6,A0S0L6_ANAPH AnkA OS=Anaplasma phagocytophilum OX=948 PE=4 SV=1 ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Alphaproteobacteria › Rickettsiales › Anaplasmataceae › Anaplasma › ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum HZ Genome Page Anaplasma+phagocytophilum at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Thomas V, Fikrig E (July 2007). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during ... December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infect. Dis. 11 (12): 1828-34. doi: ...
Lyme disease is usually carried by the black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis. This duplex qPCR tests for both Borrelia burgdorferi & Anaplasma phagocytophilum. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western Wisconsin: a molecular survey.. Michalski M1, Rosenfield C, Erickson M, Selle ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ... The presence of A. phagocytophilum in Wisconsin white-tailed deer blood and in deer ticks was assessed using PCR and DNA ... Furthermore, two novel A. phagocytophilum variants were found in deer blood samples. Transmission of Lyme disease has been ...
... et Anaplasma phagocytophilum elutsükkel organismis võib häirida neutrofiilide fagotsütoosi, samuti viibib apoptoos. Anaplasma ... Nieto NC, Foley JE, Bettaso J, Lane RS.,Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ... Selles artiklis on kasutatud saksakeelset artiklit de:Anaplasma phagocytophilum seisuga 22.01.2014. ... Varem on seda bakterit nimetatud mitmeti: Anaplasma phagocytophila, Ehrlichia phagocytophilum ja Ehrlichia phagocytophila, ka ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. CRT53-1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. CRT38. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. ApMUC09. 322. ...
The tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilumhas been recorded in a range of mammal species and causes granulocytic ... Kenny MJ, Parsons I, Shaw SE, Beugnet F (2003) Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum infection in a UK fallow deer (Dama dama) ... Stuen S (2007) Anaplasma phagocytophilum-the most widespread tick-borne infection in animals in Europe. Vet Res Commun 31(Suppl ... Adamska M (2006) Detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in blood of roe deer and in ticks. Med Weter 62:201-203 In Polish with ...
Inability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice.. Massung RF1, Priestley RA, Miller NJ, Mather TN, ... Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the presence and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in rabbits from southeastern China.. *. [ Not Yet Rated ] [ Discuss This ... A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia ... Sequence analyses of PCR products identified a variant of A. phagocytophilum and a B. garinii genotype. This is the first ...
The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more ... This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. ... We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum; comparative genomics; diagnosis; PCR human anaplasmosis; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; comparative ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum,/i, causes great concern for livestock farmers. Tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in Norway, ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum, formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila, is a vector-borne pathogen known to cause tick-borne fever (TBF) ... The complete A. phagocytophilum genome sequence has been assembled, and like that of other Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp., ... S. Stuen, "Anaplasma Phagocytophilum-the most widespread tick-borne infection in animals in Europe," Veterinary Research ...
Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ... Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ... and Anaplasma spp. was done using the msp4 data for A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis; the E. ... Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ...
The presence of A. phagocytophilum was found in 2.7 % of foxes. ... Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in roe deer ( ... The investigation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection covered 111 red foxes from the Mazovian Province. Determination was ... Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected ... Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus ticks determined by polymerase chain reaction with two pairs of ...
... phagocytophilum in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. ... We report the first isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea. A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-day history ... New genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). ... oa Clinical Isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea * Seung Hun Lee1,†, Se Yoon Park2,5,†, Mi Jin Jang1, Ki Ju ...
Find out information about Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A genus of the family Anaplasmataceae; organisms form inclusions in red ... blood cells of ruminants Explanation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... equi and is now referred to as Anaplasma phagocytophilum (which ... Anaplasma. (redirected from Anaplasma phagocytophilum). Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia. Anaplasma. [‚an·ə′plaz·mə] ( ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Article about Anaplasma phagocytophilum by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces Ixodes scapularis ticks to express an antifreeze glycoprotein gene that enhances their ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces Ixodes scapularis ticks to express an antifreeze glycoprotein gene that enhances their ... A. phagocytophilum. -infected mice. Each circle in A. , C. , D. , and E. represents 1 individual tick, and each circle in B. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of human, equine and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever in ... A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing ... A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing ... A. phagocytophilum infection inhibits gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial metabolism, but increases the expression of glycolytic ...
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Anaplasma... ... Both the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks and the ... Seroactivity against Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 20.6% of personsin the study group. Coexistence of anti-Borrelia ... The PCR test identifying Anaplasma phagocytophilum was positive in 13.1% of overall tick samples. The highest prevalence of ... Both the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks and the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis have been ...
c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 2 Inhibits Gamma Interferon Production during Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Joao H. F. Pedra, ... ASC/PYCARD and caspase-1 regulate the IL-18/IFN-γ axis during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. J. Immunol. 179:4783-4791. ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during infection. Cell Microbiol. 9:1730-1737. ... Infection of endothelial cells with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Vet. Microbiol. 101:53-64. ...
Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated ... Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated ... Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. This study ... Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen ...
Serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG ... phagocytophilum 16S rRNA genes and the PCR-positive rates were 26.69% for goats, 23.38% for cattle, and 10.89% for dogs. Six ... f Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Domestic Animals in Ten Provinces/Cities of China * Lijuan Zhang, Hong Liu, Bianli Xu ... Infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Germany. Res Vet Sci 91: 71-76.[Crossref]. [Google Scholar] ...
... are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the ... phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, ... phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3%) with ...
4.7%; 30/637), Anaplasma spp. (1.4%; 9/637), B. burgdorferi (0.9%; 6/637) and D. immitis (0.2%; 1/637) with most of the ... Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Overall, we found only low levels of exposure to Ehrlichia spp. ( ... The occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in China. ... Detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia ...
Serotyping Isolates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by Using Monoclonal Antibodies. Hisashi Inokuma, Philippe Brouqui, J. Stephen ... Serotyping Isolates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by Using Monoclonal Antibodies. Hisashi Inokuma, Philippe Brouqui, J. Stephen ... Serotyping Isolates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by Using Monoclonal Antibodies Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Serotyping Isolates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by Using Monoclonal Antibodies. Hisashi Inokuma, Philippe Brouqui, J. Stephen ...
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A. phagocytophilum cells ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum ligation to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, but not to TLR4, activates macrophages for nuclear factor- ... Mitogenic Component in Polar Lipid-Enriched Anaplasma phagocytophilum Membranes. Kyoung-Seong Choi, J. Stephen Dumler ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection induces protracted neutrophil degranulation. Infect. Immun.72:3680-3683. ...
Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia sp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in questing Ixodes ricinus ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants in ... Stuen, S., Granquist, E. & Silaghi, C. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - pathogen with a zoonotic potential. Parasites Vectors 7, O24 ... A. phagocytophilum is able to persist between seasons of tick activity in several mammalian species and movement of hosts and ... A. phagocytophilum encompasses multiple genetic strains, a broad host range and has pathogenic potential in several other ...
  • A. phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum, formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila , is a vector-borne pathogen known to cause tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), also known as the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, Ehrlichia equi , and Ehrlichia phagocytophila , is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne fever of ruminants, and equine and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • scapularis collected in Indiana and examined during a recent study were found to harbor Babesia microti (the agent of human babesiosis) and, as far as is known, no human cases of babesiosis have been reported in Indiana, 5% of the ticks collected in Pulaski county were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human anaplasmosis) (Steiner et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. (jci.org)
  • The obligate intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum , is the causative agent of human, equine, and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present work provides a more comprehensive view of the major carbohydrate metabolic pathways involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks, and provides the basis for further studies to develop novel strategies for the control of granulocytic anaplasmosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks and the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis have been reported in different parts of Europe. (aaem.pl)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), and the organism can infect neutrophils, neutrophil precursors, and endothelial cells ( 13 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum , a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum , an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects neutrophils and lacks pathways for both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan biosynthesis ( 10 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular rickettsial pathogen also transmitted by ixodid ticks, has emerged as an important zoonotic infection with significant veterinary and medical implications, and is responsible for both canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. (prohealth.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and various animal species. (scielo.br)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the tick-borne agent causing Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA). (specialtylabs.com)
  • The etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum , has a circum-global distribution within the northern hemisphere and shows a host species predilection that varies by the geographic region in which the disease is found. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that geographic variation in host susceptibility to A. phagocytophilum strains may play a more important role in the epidemiology of granulocytic anaplasmosis than does the competence of its tick vectors to transmit the pathogen. (springer.com)
  • To address these challenges, the graph theory was applied to characterize the tick vector and human cell protein response to infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. (csic.es)
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium,Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (ovid.com)
  • Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tickborne rickettsial infection of neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • and 5) anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum ( 2 ), also called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results suggest that these two avian species are unlikely to play a significant role in the maintenance of the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis and that avian serosurveys may not be a reliable indicator of A. phagocytophilum exposure. (edu.au)
  • The zoonotic disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (surmodics.com)
  • Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp. (wikimili.com)
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis ( HGA ) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum , an obligate intracellular bacterium that is typically transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, including Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus in North America. (wikimili.com)
  • Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA) is an acute tick-borne infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (slub.se)
  • Although rare, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human anaplasmosis, can be transmitted to people through blood transfusions. (cdc.gov)
  • A. phagocytophilum causes human anaplasmosis, a tickborne rickettsial disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Although transfusion-associated transmission of A. phagocytophilum appears to be rare, reported incidences of anaplasmosis and other tickborne diseases are increasing in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • DOI 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5578) Introduction dogs in 1996.5 Granulocytic anaplasmosis can cause hematologic Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative intracellular bac- abnormalities, most typically thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and terium transmitted by Ixodes species ticks and is the causative anemia.5-8 The mechanism of thrombocytopenia is not fully un- agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis.1 In the United States, Ixodes derstood. (spotidoc.com)
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and animal infection of A. phagocytophilum have been reported in Korea recently. (cdc.gov)
  • In California, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is transmitted by western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus). (elsevier.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). (elsevier.com)
  • Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (elsevier.com)
  • A. phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) that can manifest as moderate to life-threatening disease in humans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Ehrlichia chaffeensis (human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis), and other anaplasmataceae. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative, obligate bacterium of neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum is a small, obligate, intracellular bacterium with a Gram-negative cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ap-ha strain from the Ap-variant 1 strain of A. phagocy- he gram-negative bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophi- tophilum lum based on DNA sequence comparisons of the 16S is the causative agent of human granulocytic ana- rRNA gene of each strain (online Technical Appendix 1) plasmosis (HGA) in the United States ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. (nih.gov)
  • A. phagocytophilum of the order Rickettsiales is a Gram-negative bacterium that invades neutrophils [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is an obligate intracellular bacterium mainly transmitted by Ixodes spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum is able to persist between seasons of tick activity in several mammalian species and movement of hosts and infected ticks on migrating animals or birds may spread the bacterium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study confirms a relatively high frequency of A. phagocytophilum infection in a population of domiciled dogs in an urbanized area in south-eastern Brazil and highlights the need for further studies on the role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks in the transmission of this bacterium to dogs in urban Brazilian areas. (scielo.br)
  • To assess these different hypotheses, we examined the effective population sizes of three strains of the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum and categorized the varying roles of selection and demography on patterns of genetic diversity and divergence in these populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative bacterium formerly known as Ehrlichia phagocytophilum . (zoologix.com)
  • Background The intracellular, tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) is wide spread and causes disease in a wide range of animals including sheep. (uu.nl)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infections in pregnant ewes and to investigate whether these ewes vertically transmit the bacterium to their newborn lambs under field condition. (uu.nl)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic and obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The RFLP pattern of 1 amplicon, derived to determine the proportion of black-legged ticks infected from the gDNA of a female tick from Itasca State Park, with A. phagocytophilum in different geographic regions of Minnesota, consisted of 3 bands (360, 550, and 920 bp) (online Technical Appendix 2), suggesting a mixture of Author affiliations: University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, the 2 strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of A. phagocytophilum in Wisconsin white-tailed deer blood and in deer ticks was assessed using PCR and DNA sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • Adamska M (2006) Detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in blood of roe deer and in ticks. (springer.com)
  • Foley JE, Nieto NC, Adjemian J, Dabritz H, Brown RN (2008) Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in small mammal hosts of Ixodes ticks, Western United States. (springer.com)
  • In Norway, Ixodes ricinus ticks are the main vector for A. phagocytophilum , and although HGA is not a common disease in Norway [ 4 - 6 ], A. phagocytophilum antibodies have been detected in sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Once the detection techniques for Lyme disease were perfected, PHCR-W expanded its capabilities to test ticks and rodent tissue for other TBDs to include Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum , and Spotted Fever group Rickettsias. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks increases their ability to survive in the cold. (jci.org)
  • QRT-PCR showing reduced iafgp mRNA levels ( D ) and A. phagocytophilum burden ( E ) in mock-injected (black circles) and iafgp -dsRNA-injected (black triangles) ticks partially fed (48 hours) on A. phagocytophilum -infected mice. (jci.org)
  • F ) Survival percentage at -20°C, 50-minute time point of mock-dsRNA-injected (black circles) and iafgp -dsRNA-injected (black triangles) ticks partially fed (48 hours) on A. phagocytophilum -infected mice. (jci.org)
  • The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilumin ticks, and to detect antibodies against the HGE agent in serum of forest workers in the region of Mid-Eastern Poland. (aaem.pl)
  • A total of 472 goats, 201 cattle, 102 dog blood clots, and 1,580 ticks were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA genes and the PCR-positive rates were 26.69% for goats, 23.38% for cattle, and 10.89% for dogs. (ajtmh.org)
  • Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. (k-state.edu)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum persists in nature by cycling between mammals and ticks. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canada. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In a controlled laboratory study, we tested whether two species, the American robin ( Turdus migratorius (L.)) and the gray catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis (L.)), can become infected with and then transmit A. phagocytophilum to feeding ticks, and whether exposed birds develop disease. (edu.au)
  • Major surface protein Msp5 is conserved among the Anaplasma species and expressed in the salivary glands of infected ticks. (surmodics.com)
  • Overall, prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in adult ticks was 0.8% (11/1,465), and in nymphal ticks was 4.2% (24/568), though presence was patchy and prevalence varied locally. (elsevier.com)
  • Five (3.1%) questing ticks had A. phagocytophilum infection (one I. ricinus male, two Dermacentor reticulatus females and two Haemaphysalis concinna females). (elsevier.com)
  • Infection with A. phagocytophilum is a tick-borne infectious disease spread by Ixodes species ticks. (vetsecure.com)
  • OmpA is transcriptionally induced during transmission feeding of A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks on mice and is upregulated during invasion of HL-60 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • An investigation on presence of A. phagocytophilum, as well as A.platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge Province,Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic.Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. (who.int)
  • A. phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6.1%) and 4 (20.0%) of Ixodes persulcatus and Dermacentor nuttalli ticks respectively, whereas infection of A.platys was detected in 1.8% in I.persulcatus and 10% in D.nuttalli ,respectively. (who.int)
  • We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-Active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) to feeding larval ticks. (elsevier.com)
  • ticks were more than two times as likely to be infected with A. phagocytophilum human-Active as A. phagocytophilum variant 1. (elsevier.com)
  • Jomfruland, with no wild cervids but high levels of migrating birds and rodents, harboured both B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks. (usn.no)
  • The infection rate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed the opposite result with a high prevalence in questing ticks in localities with a high density of wild cervids compared to localities with lower density. (usn.no)
  • For example, Ixodes ticks can simultaneously or sequentially infect their hosts with Borrelia burgdorferi , Anaplasma phagocytophilum , and Babesia microti . (nap.edu)
  • Based on 16S rRNA sequences, A. phagocytophilum strains associated and not associated with human infections were identified. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity between strains infecting humans and U.S. dogs and a more distant relationship with horse and ruminant strains. (mdpi.com)
  • The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more distantly related in genome sequence. (mdpi.com)
  • This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. (mdpi.com)
  • Sequence variation between strains of A. phagocytophilum (90 to 100% identity at the nucleotide level and 92 to 100% similarity at the protein level) was higher than in A. marginale . (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of msp4 sequences did not provide phylogeographic information but did differentiate strains of A. phagocytophilum obtained from ruminants from those obtained from humans, dogs, and horses. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that A. phagocytophilum strains from ruminants could share some common characteristics, including reservoirs and pathogenicity, which may be different from strains that infect humans. (asm.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum encompasses multiple genetic strains, a broad host range and has pathogenic potential in several other mammalian species, including humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reason for the suspected underreporting may be lack of awareness among physicians, unspecific clinical signs, lack of available adequate hosts and non-virulent strains of A. phagocytophilum involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the natural transmission cycles of various A. phagocytophilum strains, the involvement of their respective hosts and vectors, and in particular their zoonotic potential, have to be unravelled. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that tick vector species collected from geographic regions sympatric with particular A. phagocytophilum strains will show evidence of a higher degree of vector competence than will tick species and allopatric A. phagocytophilum strains. (springer.com)
  • Strains of A. phagocytophilum display varying degrees of host specialization, making this a good species for exploring questions regarding host range, effective population size and selection efficacy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that a roe deer specialist harbored the most genetic diversity of the three A. phagocytophilum strains and correspondingly had the largest effective population size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A. phagocytophilum is a diverse bacterial species that differs among distinct strains in its effective population size, as well as how genetic diversity and divergence have been influenced by selection and demographic changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the presence of multiple A. phagocytophilum strains has made it difficult to determine which reservoir hosts pose the greatest risk to humans and domestic animals. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here we characterized three genetic markers (23S-5S rRNA intergenic spacer, ank and groESL ) from 73 real-time TaqMan PCR-positive A. phagocytophilum strains infecting multiple rodent and reptile species, as well as a dog and a horse, from California. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of all three genetic markers consistently identified two major clades, one of which consisted of A. phagocytophilum strains infecting woodrats and the other consisting of strains infecting sciurids (chipmunks and squirrels) as well as the dog and horse strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In addition, analysis of the 23S-5S rRNA spacer region identified two unique and highly dissimilar clades of A. phagocytophilum strains infecting several lizard species. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Our findings indicate that multiple unique strains of A. phagocytophilum with distinct host tropisms exist in California. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Methods Based on the genomes of the 4 published Anaplasma strains ,4 genomic senquences were analyzed by Mauve 2.3.1 software and varable spacer sequences were selected for designing primers with the bio- software Primer Premier 5.0. (bvsalud.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 5 strains from patients (LZ-H1,LZ-H2,LZ-H3,LZ-H4,LZ-H5) from Laizhou areas,Shandong province and 1 tick strain (LZ-T1)from Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from the same areas where the patients lived were grouped in the same clan with the reference A. phagocytophilum strain Webster and strain HZ. (bvsalud.org)
  • MST seemed a valuable tool for the detection and tracing for any endemic strains of Anaplasma during the outbreak investigations in the public health events. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tick populations in our study sites harbor genetically diverse strains of A. phagocytophilum, which may influence potential risk in the region. (elsevier.com)
  • Then by performing comparisons with nine previously-sequenced A. phagocytophilum genomes, we determined the core genome of these ten strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the presence and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum human agent (AP-ha) and a genetic variant not associated with human disease (AP-variant 1). (nih.gov)
  • Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia sp. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum- infected dogs in a residential area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. (uzh.ch)
  • To investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in small mammals from the forest area of Hengduan Mountains in southwestern China. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of vector tick distribution, global warming, and the increase of the horse industry, horses should be considered as a potential reservoir for A. phagocytophilum, and cross infectivity should be evaluated even though a low prevalence of infection was detected in this study. (cdc.gov)
  • Results The overall antepartum prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 16.5% in ewes. (uu.nl)
  • The overall prevalence in tissue samples was 6.6% (skin) and 5.1% (spleen) for A. phagocytophilum and 1.7% (skin) and 3.4% (spleen) for Candidatus N. mikurensis. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. (elsevier.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum ( Ap , formerly the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis agent) is a common tick borne obligate intracellular pathogen with an uncommon tropism for host granulocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, coinfection with tick-borne pathogens, Babesia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been increasing in endemic regions of the USA and Europe. (beds.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been considered as pathogens in animals and humans. (usn.no)
  • Retrospective Study of Tick-Borne Pathogens and Observation of Ehrlichia ewingii / Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • A. phagocytophilum then divides until cell lysis or when the bacteria leave to infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis was recently reclassified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum , unifying previously described bacteria that cause disease in humans, horses, dogs, and ruminants. (asm.org)
  • A reciprocal cross-transmission experiment was performed using an eastern and a western North American strain of A. phagocytophilum (Webster and MRK, respectively) and the two tick species, I. scapularis and I. pacificus , most commonly associated with human and animal transmission of the bacteria in the United States. (springer.com)
  • A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the natural cycle of the new human pathogenic bacteria Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Southern Hungary. (elsevier.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum bacteria. (healthline.com)
  • It is caused by the rickettsial bacteria called Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (medlineplus.gov)
  • tive with A. phagocytophilum cultured nantly 2 species of p44 / msp2 tran- cdc.gov/EID/article/20/3/13-1337- in THP-1 cells in IFA bound to either scripts in THP-1 cells, but it produces Techapp1.pdf). (cdc.gov)
  • During an A. phagocytophilum infection, the 44 kDa major surface protein (msp2) plays an important role in adhesion to the surface receptors of neutrophils [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The sequence analysis of the recently discovered A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene corroborated these results. (asm.org)
  • Its identity was confirmed by an immunofluorescence assay, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, msp2 ( p44 ), and ankA genes, and staining and electron microscopy of morulae of A. phagocytophilum in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. (ajtmh.org)
  • The chief source of antigenic variation is due to differences in the major immunodominant outer surface proteins of A. phagocytophilum , which are encoded by a multicopy gene family called msp2 (or p44 ). (asm.org)
  • cells activate Toll-like receptor 2 signaling and possess mitogenic activity, and A. phagocytophilum infection in vivo activates NKT cells unrelated to major surface protein 2 (Msp2) hypervariable region expression. (asm.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum membranes depleted of Msp2 and protein antigens enhanced the proliferation of naïve mouse splenocytes beyond that of untreated membranes. (asm.org)
  • Seven dogs (10.9%) were PCR-positive for the msp4 gene, six and four of these were positive for the for the msp2/p44 gene of A. phagocytophilum and 16S rRNA region of granulocytic Anaplasmataceae respectively. (scielo.br)
  • Sete cães (10,9%) foram positivos no PCR para o gene msp4 de A. phagocytophilum , seis para o gene msp2/p44 A. phagocytophilum e quatro para a região 16S rRNA de Anaplasmataceae granulocíticas. (scielo.br)
  • PCR adapted to amplify A. phagocytophilum groEL and msp2 genes failed to generate amplicons, suggesting genetic diversity in these genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of real-time quantitative PCR targeting the msp2 protein gene to identify cryptic Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in wildlife and domestic animals. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Samples were analysed for A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus N. mikurensis with multiplex quantitative real-time PCR targeting a part of major surface protein 2 (msp2) and the heat shock protein groEL genes, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: For detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum a 77-bp fragment in the msp2 gene was used. (usn.no)
  • A tick bite injects Anaplasma storming defender neutrophils, Using MSP2 hooks to scale the walls. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. (prohealth.com)
  • Esse estudo confirma a frequência relativamente alta da infecção por A. phagocytophilum em uma população de cães domiciliados em área urbanizada no sudeste do Brasil e destaca a necessidade de pesquisas para determinar o papel do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato na transmissão desse microrganismo para cães de áreas urbanas brasileiras. (scielo.br)
  • Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a New Jersey community. (prohealth.com)
  • The tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been recorded in a range of mammal species and causes granulocytic ehrlichiosis in humans, horses, and companion animals as well as tick-borne fever in ruminants. (springer.com)
  • Ten mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that react with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent) Webster isolates were developed. (asm.org)
  • Obligatory intracellular, human ehrlichiosis agents Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have remarkable abilities to parasitize first-line immune defensive cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, respectively. (openthesis.org)
  • We examined patients with a clinical presentation consistent with the syndrome of ehrlichiosis and a positive blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for all known Ehrlichia species or Anaplasma phagocytophilum admitted to Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, MO, from 1996 to 2006. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, the second most common tick-borne disease in the United States. (utmb.edu)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophila , Ehrlichia phagocytophilum ja Ehrlichia phagocytophila , ka Ehrlichia egui . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bown KJ, Begon M, Bennett M, Woldehiwet Z, Ogden NH (2003) Seasonal dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophila in a rodent-tick ( Ixodes trianguliceps ) system, United Kingdom. (springer.com)
  • Anaplasma the variation of P44 protein species in further confirmed the specific reaction phagocytophilum HL60 cells ( 2 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Blood from 80 deer of four species were screened using an A. phagocytophilum -specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • For the characterization of genetic heterogeneity in this species, the homologue of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 4 gene ( msp4 ) was identified, and the coding region was PCR amplified and sequenced from a variety of sources, including 50 samples from the United States, Germany, Poland, Norway, Italy, and Switzerland and 4 samples of A. phagocytophilum -like organisms obtained from white-tailed deer in the United States. (asm.org)
  • Distinct host species correlate with Anaplasma phagocytophilum ankA gene clusters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Wild caught, seronegative birds ( n = 10 per species) were exposed to A. phagocytophilum- infected I. scapularis nymphs (day 0). (edu.au)
  • Both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in- A phagocytophilum has been documented to cause disease in direct fluorescent antibody tests are commercially available, and a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ruminants, documentation of seroconversion can be used to confirm the and humans. (spotidoc.com)
  • A. phagocytophilum was firstly identified in 6 genera 11 species small mammals from a forest area of Hengduan Mountainous areas in southwestern China. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transmission of Lyme disease has been documented in both the Western and Central regions we sampled, and the presence of A. phagocytophilum in naturally occurring tick populations could present an additional risk of disease to humans that enter tick habitats. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic studies indicate that stains isolated from humans, dogs and horses from Europe belongs to the same clonal complex, while similar studies on isolates from wild and domestic ruminants indicate that they are unlikely to harbour variants of A. phagocytophilum that are infectious to humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phagocytophilum-infected mice, horses and humans. (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, continuous surveillance and effective control measures for A. phagocytophilum should be established to prevent disease distribution and possible transmission to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that infects humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum is zoonosis of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. (who.int)
  • In 4 of tive P44 proteins (online Technical patients in Japan reacted with antigens the patients, antibodies to A. phago- Appendix Figure 3) were produced of A. phagocytophilum cultured in cytophilum were detected in serum as recombinant proteins in vitro by THP-1 cells rather than in HL60 cells by using A. phagocytophilum cultured insect cell-free protein synthesis in IFA ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Anti- A. phagocytophilum antibodies were detected in 43.8% of the dogs. (scielo.br)
  • A clinical examination, complete blood cell count, enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for A phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and a polymerase chain reaction test for A phagocytophilum DNA were obtained for all dogs. (spotidoc.com)
  • Seroreactivity to A phagocytophilum was found in 61%, B burgdorferi antibodies in 17%, and D immitis antigen in 5% of the dogs. (spotidoc.com)
  • Due to phagocytophilum infection using PCR in conjunction with the the acute nature of this infection, approximately 40% of clinically availability of a medical history, physical examination findings, ill dogs will not produce a detectable level of A phagocytophilum a complete blood count, an in-clinic serologic assaya, and access to antibodies at the time of presentation when using current sero- the clinical response to doxycycline, as follow-up data. (spotidoc.com)
  • Seroprevalence to A. phagocytophilum antibodies was 79 and 0 %, respectively. (inn.no)
  • Casey ANJ, Birtles RJ, Radford AD, Bown KJ, French NP, Woldehiwet Z, Ogden NH (2004) Groupings of highly similar major surface protein (p44)-encoding paralogues: a potential index of genetic diversity amongst isolates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (springer.com)
  • Then, the available transcriptomics and proteomics data was used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis major carbohydrate metabolic pathway components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, these findings provide strong evidence that JNK2 is an important regulatory protein for IFN-γ secretion upon challenge with A. phagocytophilum . (asm.org)
  • This study delineates the first domain of any Anaplasmataceae protein that is essential for associating with the pathogen-occupied vacuole membrane, demonstrates the importance of APH0032 to infection, and identifies it as the second A. phagocytophilum effector that co-opts SUMOylation, thus underscoring the relevance of this post-translational modification to infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protein-depleted and polar lipid-enriched membranes from low-passage A. phagocytophilum cultures enhanced naïve splenocyte lymphoproliferation to a much greater degree than did these fractions from high-passage cultures of bacterial membranes (1.8- to 3.7-fold for protein-depleted fractions and 4.8- to ≥17.7-fold for polar lipid-enriched fractions). (asm.org)
  • The results demonstrated that changes in the tick proteome were driven by modifications in protein representation in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. (csic.es)
  • To facilitate genetic manipulation, we transformed A. phagocytophilum ( Ap ) to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the Himar1 transposase system and selection with the clinically irrelevant antibiotic spectinomycin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate the importance of A. phagocytophilum outer membrane protein A (OmpA) APH_0338 in infection of mammalian host cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These tests can be performed to determine an A. phagocytophilum infection: Indirect immunofluorescence assay is the principal test used to detect infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A real-time combined polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection and differentiation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, we describe a real-time multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of B. burgdorferi, B. microti and A. phagocytophilum simultaneously even when they are present in very low copy numbers. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay capable of the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii was developed using the LightCycler™ instrument (Roche Applied Sciences, Indianapolis, IN). (elsevier.com)
  • DNA extracts from 59 specimens previously confirmed positive for A. phagocytophilum (n = 37), E. chaffeensis (n = 19), or E. ewingii (n = 3) were used to evaluate the assay. (elsevier.com)
  • Bell, CA & Patel, R 2005, ' A real-time combined polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection and differentiation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii ', Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease , vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 301-306. (elsevier.com)
  • Inability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice. (nih.gov)
  • Pretreatment of A. phagocytophilum organisms with OmpA antiserum reduces their abilities to infect HL-60 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Although E. ewingii and A. phagocytophilum infect granulocytes and neutrophils of their hosts, respectively, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • A phagocytophilum binding to PSGL-1 -/- neutrophils was modestly reduced, whereas sialidase treatment significantly decreased binding to both wild-type and PSGL-1 -/- neutrophils. (utmb.edu)
  • A phagocytophilum induced comparable levels of chemokines from wild-type and PSGL-1 -/- neutrophils in vitro, while those induced from Fuc-TIV -/- /Fuc-TVII -/- neutrophils were appreciably reduced. (utmb.edu)
  • However, murine infection does not require neutrophil PSGL-1 expression, which has important implications for understanding how A phagocytophilum binds and infects neutrophils. (utmb.edu)
  • The molecular characteristics of A. phagocytophilum include sequence studies of the 16S rRNA region, the surface membrane proteins mps4 and mps2 , the groEL locus, the ankA locus [ 12 - 14 ], or a combination of these [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The sequences of 16S rRNA and the groE gene of A. phagocytophilum isolates from different origins are nearly identical. (asm.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16s rRNA gene. (edu.au)
  • The nucleotide sequences of A.phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene amplified from small mammals varied from 99% - 100% and were 99% - 100% similar with the corresponding segments of A. phagocytophilum from Jilin deposited in GeneBank. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 16S rRNA sequence of A. phagocytophilum was similar (99.5- 100%) to A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA isolated from horses in other countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic tree constructed using maximum likelihood method, based on the 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (cdc.gov)
  • Courtney JW, Kostelnik LM, Zeidner NS, Massung RF (2004) Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi . (springer.com)
  • Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For serodiag- Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, who had frequently predominates by A. phago- nosis of HGA, A. phagocytophilum rickettsiosis-like symptoms, were sus- cytophilum cultured in HL60 cells ( 6 ) propagated in HL60 cells is usually pected to have Japanese spotted fever as representatives for the preparation used as an antigen, especially by in- or scrub typhus, but they were sero- of recombinant proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • IFN-γ gene-null mice have a markedly elevated A. phagocytophilum load compared to that of wild-type mice during the early phase of infection. (asm.org)
  • However, ankA gene analysis distinguishes isolates from different geographic locations ( 3 , 8 , 10 ) and separates A. phagocytophilum into three clades: two in North America and one in Europe. (asm.org)
  • The sequences of A. phagocytophilum Msp4 gene showed that there was 95% - 97% similarity with the corresponding sequences registered in GenBank. (bvsalud.org)
  • The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. (hindawi.com)
  • Infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern Norway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The acute and convalescent phase serum samples can be evaluated to look for a four-fold change in antibody titer to A. phagocytophilum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG antibody by immunofluorescence assays and the average seroprevalences were 10.05% for dogs, 3.82% for goats, and 0.69% for cattle, respectively. (ajtmh.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum binds to fucosylated and sialylated scaffold proteins on neutrophil and granulocyte surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study represents the first step toward identifying inhibitory proteins that modulate IFN-γ secretion upon A. phagocytophilum infection. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum -occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated proteins decorate the AVM. (frontiersin.org)
  • The four proteins unique to the A. phagocytophilum bovine genome could be involved in host tropism, therefore their functions need to be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Page Anaplasma on lpsn.dsmz.de Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Dumler et al. (edu.au)
  • Polymerase chain reaction assays are used to detect A. phagocytophilum DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute clinical, hematologic, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction findings in horses experimentally infected with a European strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (slub.se)
  • Here we describe the first successful transformation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identical human pathogenic strain of A. phagocytophilum from those results were obtained for both assays. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we assessed MAbs specific for the A. phagocytophilum Webster strain (isolated in a human in Wisconsin) and examined their reactivity against isolates from different hosts and geographic locations. (asm.org)
  • Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were immunized with cell-free A. phagocytophilum Webster strain. (asm.org)
  • Low-passage (passages 5 to 7) and high-passage (passage 22) A. phagocytophilum Webster strain-infected HL-60 cells were propagated in vitro as described previously ( 7 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Twenty two intergenic sequences for each isolate tested and the reference A. phagocytophilum strain Webster and A. phagocytophilum strain HZ were concatenated in the order of HGA-mst 1F/1R-mst 2F/2R,HGA-mst 22F/22R. (bvsalud.org)
  • As A. phagocytophilum is difficult to isolate and cultivate, only nine genome sequences have been published to date, none of which originate from a bovine strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were the most competent reservoirs for infection with the A. phagocytophilum human-Active strain. (elsevier.com)
  • and Anaplasma phagocytophilum ) in the city of Hanover, Germany, reveals Rickettsia spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Organism is now known as Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmitted by Ixodes scapularis (black-legged deer tick) on Eastern Seaboard, New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Upper Midwest, and on the West Coast by the western black-legged tick ( Ixodes pacificus )-the same vectors as for Lyme disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi ). (hopkinsguides.com)
  • We have developed 2 real-time multiplex PCR assays for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. (cdc.gov)
  • This duplex qPCR tests for both Borrelia burgdorferi & Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in rabbits from southeastern China. (prohealth.com)
  • One and three samples were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi, respectively. (prohealth.com)
  • Coexistence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi was present in 84.6 % of individuals seropositive to A. phagocytophilum . (aaem.pl)
  • B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum and B. microti have overlapping epidemiology and transmission cycles with shared tick vectors, and common primary and secondary host reservoirs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Caption: Anaplasma phagocytophilum cultured in human promyelocytic cells, showing morulae as basophilic and intracytoplasmic inclusions (arrows). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, this inflammatory phenotype is also determined in part by bacterial factors, since infection of horses by isogenic A. phagocytophilum differing only in the length of in vitro passage results in differential clinical severity and hematologic derangements ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, we studied A. phagocytophilum to identify whether bacterial membranes and membrane components could initiate differential naïve immune cell proliferation that in part underlies the virulence observed with changing in vitro passage intervals. (asm.org)
  • Remarkably, A. phagocytophilum induced the expression of iafgp, thereby increasing the cold tolerance and survival of I. scapularis. (jci.org)
  • However, our current knowledge on how A. phagocytophilum affect these processes in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis is limited. (frontiersin.org)
  • The western tick, I. pacificus , showed a significantly higher vector competence for A. phagocytophilum than I. scapularis and the eastern isolate, Webster, was more transmissible than its western counterpart, MRK. (springer.com)
  • The black-legged tick ( Ixodes scapularis ) is the vector of A. phagocytophilum in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States. (zoologix.com)
  • The main vector of A. phagocytophilum in the United States is the blacklegged tick ( Ixodes scapularis (Say)) and various small and medium-sized mammals are reservoirs. (edu.au)
  • In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. (elsevier.com)
  • Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum lack genes for lipid A biosynthesis and incorporate cholesterol for their survival. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Whereas Ehrlichia chaffeensis (HME) often causes meningoencephalitis, this is rare with Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. (elsevier.com)
  • We report the first isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea. (ajtmh.org)
  • we then compared the observed genotypes with those found in horses, dogs, and roe deer to determine whether genotypes of A. phagocytophilum are shared among different hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Horses in Korea. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 627 horses included in the study, only 1 (0.2%) was infected with A. phagocytophilum. (cdc.gov)
  • This study is the first molecular detection of A. phagocytophilum in horses in Korea. (cdc.gov)
  • jnk2 -null mice were more refractory to infection with A. phagocytophilum and produced increased levels of IFN-γ after challenge with the pathogen. (asm.org)
  • The resistance of jnk2 -null mice to A. phagocytophilum infection was due to elevated levels of IFN-γ secreted by conventional and natural killer (NK) T cells. (asm.org)
  • The administration of α-galactosylceramide, a strong NK T-cell agonist, increased IFN-γ release and protected mice from A. phagocytophilum , further demonstrating the inhibitory effect of JNK2 on IFN-γ production. (asm.org)
  • A similar dichotomous phenotype was observed among B6 mice infected with A. phagocytophilum propagated for different lengths of time in vitro, resulting in the differential expansion of NK1.1 + cells and CD8 + splenic lymphocytes on days 2 to 7 ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • However, lymphoproliferative responses to whole-cell A. phagocytophilum cultures are detectable even among splenocytes from naïve mice. (asm.org)
  • Owing to these data, the innate immune responses in mice infected with A. phagocytophilum , and our prior data implicating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4 inflammatory signaling in human and murine macrophages exposed to A. phagocytophilum ( 8 , 9 , 26 ), we hypothesized that a lipoprotein or glycolipid component of A. phagocytophilum membranes is an important trigger of the innate immune response and immunopathology. (asm.org)
  • A phagocytophilum similarly infected PSGL-1 -/- and wild-type mice in vivo. (utmb.edu)
  • Mechanisms of obligatory intracellular infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, two novel A. phagocytophilum variants were found in deer blood samples. (nih.gov)
  • Vector-host interaction, genotypes, geographical distribution, and pathogenesis are recognised as biological and ecological differences between the identified genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Stuen2013AnaplasmaPV, title={Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Johnston, E and Tsao, JI and Munoz, JD and Owen, J, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in American robins and gray catbirds: an assessment of reservoir competence and disease in captive wildlife, Journal of Medical Entomology, 50, (1) Article 10.1603/ME12141. (edu.au)
  • however, because no studies have directly investigated avian susceptibility, reservoir competence, and morbidity for A. phagocytophilum , uncertainty remains as to what role birds could play in its transmission ecology. (edu.au)
  • Additionally, it remains to be seen if the three clusters of A. phagocytophilum genotypes in cattle correspond to distinct epidemiological cycles, potentially involving different reservoir hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wild cervids may serve as a reservoir for A. phagocytophilum. (usn.no)
  • Seven different isolates of A. phagocytophilum were subtyped with these MAbs. (asm.org)
  • These features may lead to the development of other specific MAbs in order to provide tools for antigenic characterization of human isolates of A. phagocytophilum . (asm.org)
  • Most clinical cases of human A. phagocytophilum infection have been reported from the United States, but some were from European countries, and several isolates have been cultivated in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Seven isolates of A phagocytophilum from diverse geographic locations were used in this study (Table 1 ). (asm.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum isolates were purified by a method described previously ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Objective To type the Chinese Anaplasma phagocytophilum isolates by Multispacer typing(MST). (bvsalud.org)
  • A total of 11 Chinese A. phagocytophilum isolates,obtained from different areas of China during 2009-2012 were assayed by the MST. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western Wisconsin: a molecular survey. (nih.gov)