A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term or concept; it is a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those!
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
"Bites and stings refer to tissue damage or toxic reactions caused by the teeth, mouthparts, or venomous secretions of animals such as insects, spiders, snakes, and mammals during predatory or defensive attacks."
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)

Cytokine gene expression by peripheral blood leukocytes in horses experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophila. (1/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), a tick-borne zoonosis, is caused by an obligatory intragranulocytic bacterium, the HGE agent, a strain of Anaplasma phagocytophila. The equine model of HGE is considered valuable in understanding pathogenic and immune mechanisms of HGE. In the present study, cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) in horses was examined during the course of infection by intravenous inoculation of A. phagocytophila or by allowing feeding by infected ticks. The p44 genes encoding the major outer membrane protein P44s of A. phagocytophila were detected by PCR in PBLs of all four horses from 4 to 20 days postexposure. During the 20-day infection period, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression was upregulated in PBLs of all four horses, and IL-8 mRNA expression was upregulated in three horses. Gamma interferon, IL-10, and IL-12 p35 mRNAs were weakly expressed in only one horse each. IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 mRNA expression, however, could not be detected in the PBLs of any of the four horses. These results suggest that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 generation during A. phagocytophila infection has a primary role in HGE pathogenesis and immunomodulation.  (+info)

Repression of rac2 mRNA expression by Anaplasma phagocytophila is essential to the inhibition of superoxide production and bacterial proliferation. (2/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophila, the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, is an emerging bacterial pathogen that invades neutrophils and can be cultivated in HL-60 cells. Infected neutrophils and HL-60 cells fail to produce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), which is partially attributable to the fact that A. phagocytophila inhibits transcription of gp91(phox), an integral component of NADPH oxidase. cDNA microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of the gene encoding Rac2, a key component in NADPH oxidase activation, was down-regulated in infected HL-60 cells. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that rac2 mRNA expression was reduced 7-fold in retinoic acid-differentiated HL-60 cells and 50-fold in neutrophils following A. phagocytophila infection. Rac2 protein expression was absent in infected HL-60 cells. Rac1 and Rac2 are interchangeable in their abilities to activate NADPH oxidase. HL-60 cells transfected to express myc-tagged rac1 and gp91(phox) from the CMV immediate early promoter maintained the ability to generate O(2)(-) 120 h postinfection. A. phagocytophila proliferation was severely inhibited in these cells. These results directly attribute the inhibition of rac2 and gp91(phox) transcription to the loss of NADPH oxidase activity in A. phagocytophila-infected cells and demonstrate its importance to bacterial intracellular survival.  (+info)

Roles of neutrophil beta 2 integrins in kinetics of bacteremia, extravasation, and tick acquisition of Anaplasma phagocytophila in mice. (3/299)

Tick saliva contains anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive substances that facilitate blood feeding and enhance tick-vectored pathogen transmission, including Anaplasma phagocytophila an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis. As such, inflammation at a tick-feeding site is strikingly different than that typically observed at other sites of inflammation. Up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 occurs in host granulocytes following interaction or infection with A phagocytophila, and the absence of CD11b/CD18 results in early increases in bacteremia. We hypothesized that beta 2 integrin-dependent infection kinetics and leukocyte extravasation are important determinants of neutrophil trafficking to, and pathogen acquisition at, tick-feeding sites. A phagocytophila infection kinetics were evaluated in CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, and CD18 knock-out mice using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood, ticks, and skin biopsies in conjunction with histopathology. A marked increase in the rate of A phagocytophila infection of neutrophils and pathogen burden in blood followed tick feeding. Infection kinetics were modified by beta 2 integrin expression and systemic neutrophil counts. Significant neutrophil-pathogen trafficking was observed to both suture and tick sites. Despite the prominent role for beta 2 integrins in neutrophil arrest in flowing blood, successful pathogen acquisition by ticks occurred in the absence of beta 2 integrins. Establishment of feeding pools that rely less on leukocyte trafficking and more on small hemorrhages may explain the ready amplification of A phagocytophila DNA from ticks infested on CD11/CD18-deficient mouse strains.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. (4/299)

We tested the antibiotic susceptibilities of eight strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) collected in various geographic areas of the United States, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and New York. The results are homogeneous and show that doxycycline, rifampin, and levofloxacin are the most active antibiotics against these strains in vitro.  (+info)

Seasonal dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophila in a rodent-tick (Ixodes trianguliceps) system, United Kingdom. (5/299)

We investigated the reservoir role of European wild rodents for Anaplasma phagocytophila using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of blood collected from individually tagged rodents captured monthly over 2 years. The only tick species observed in the woodland study site was Ixodes trianguliceps, and ruminant reservoir hosts were not known to occur. A. phagocytophila infections were detected in both bank voles and wood mice but were restricted to periods of peak nymphal and adult tick activity. Most PCR-positive rodents were positive only once, suggesting that rodent infections are generally short-lived and that ticks rather than rodents may maintain the infection over winter. Bank voles were more likely to be PCR positive than wood mice, possibly because detectable infections are longer lived in bank voles. This study confirms that woodland rodents can maintain A. phagocytophila in Great Britain in the absence of other reservoir hosts and suggests that I. trianguliceps is a competent vector.  (+info)

Comparison of PCR assays for detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (6/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging infectious disease in the United States and Europe, and PCR methods have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of acute infections. Numerous PCR assays and primer sets have been reported in the literature. The analytical sensitivities (limits of detection) of 13 published PCR primer sets were compared using DNA extracted from serial dilutions of Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected HL-60 cells. The specificity of the assays that were able to detect +info)

Expression of multiple outer membrane protein sequence variants from a single genomic locus of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (7/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States and Europe. The organism causes a febrile illness accompanied by other nonspecific symptoms and can be fatal, especially if treatment is delayed. Persistence of A. phagocytophilum within mammalian reservoir hosts is important for ensuring continued disease transmission. In the related organism Anaplasma marginale, persistence is associated with antigenic variation of the immunoprotective outer membrane protein MSP2. Extensive diversity of MSP2 is achieved by combinatorial gene conversion of a genomic expression site by truncated pseudogenes. The major outer membrane protein of A. phagocytophilum, MSP2(P44), is homologous to MSP2 of A. marginale, has a similar organization of conserved and variable regions, and is also encoded by a multigene family containing some truncated gene copies. This suggests that the two organisms could use similar mechanisms to generate diversity in outer membrane proteins from their small genomes. We define here a genomic expression site for MSP2(P44) in A. phagocytophilum. As in A. marginale, the msp2(p44) gene in this expression site is polymorphic in all populations of organisms we have examined, whether organisms are obtained from in vitro culture in human HL-60 cells, from culture in the tick cell line ISE6, or from infected human blood. Changes in culture conditions were found to favor the growth and predominance of certain msp2(p44) variants. Insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the region of the genomic expression site encoding the central hypervariable region matched sequence polymorphisms in msp2(p44) mRNA. These data suggest that, similarly to A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum uses combinatorial mechanisms to generate a large array of outer membrane protein variants. Such gene polymorphism has profound implications for the design of vaccines, diagnostic tests, and therapy.  (+info)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum reduces neutrophil apoptosis in vivo. (8/299)

Ovine neutrophils spontaneously underwent apoptosis during culture in vitro, as assessed by morphological changes and exposure of annexin V binding sites on their cell surfaces. The addition of conditioned medium from concanavalin A-treated ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could partially protect against this progression into apoptosis, but dexamethasone and sodium butyrate could not. Actinomycin D accelerated the rate at which ovine neutrophils underwent apoptosis. Neutrophils isolated from sheep experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed significantly delayed apoptosis during culture ex vivo, and the addition of conditioned medium from PBMC to these cells could not delay apoptosis above the protective effects observed after in vivo infection. The ability of neutrophils from A. phagocytophilum-infected sheep to activate a respiratory burst was increased compared to the activity measured in neutrophils from uninfected sheep, but chemotaxis was decreased in neutrophils from infected sheep. These data are the first demonstration that in vivo infection with A. phagocytophilum results in changes in rates of apoptosis of infected immune cells. This may help explain how these bacteria replicate in these normally short-lived cells.  (+info)

'Anaplasma phagocytophilum' is a gram-negative bacterium that causes Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease in humans. It infects and survives within granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and chills. In severe cases, it can cause complications like respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the United States and the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) in Europe. Proper diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing this infection.

Anaplasma is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infect and parasitize the white blood cells of various animals, including humans. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. The most common species that infect humans are Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tick-borne disease characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and leukopenia. It infects granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, and can cause severe complications such as respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death in some cases.

Anaplasma platys causes canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, a disease that affects dogs and is characterized by recurring low platelet counts. It infects platelets, another type of blood cell involved in clotting, and can cause bleeding disorders in affected animals.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma infections typically involves the detection of antibodies against the bacteria or the direct identification of the organism through molecular methods such as PCR. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against both species of Anaplasma. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas and using insect repellents and protective clothing to reduce the risk of tick bites.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with Ehrlichia bacteria. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms of ehrlichiosis can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If left untreated, ehrlichiosis can cause serious complications, including damage to the central nervous system and other organs. It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have been exposed to ehrlichiosis and are experiencing symptoms of the disease. A healthcare provider can diagnose ehrlichiosis through laboratory tests and can recommend appropriate treatment, which typically involves antibiotics. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can help reduce the risk of ehrlichiosis and other tick-borne diseases.

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States and western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in the western United States.

The bacterium infects and reproduces within certain white blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills that typically appear within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Other possible symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, and a rash (although a rash is uncommon).

Anaplasmosis can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against the bacterium or the DNA of the organism itself. It is usually treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline, which are most effective when started early in the course of the disease.

Preventing tick bites is the best way to avoid anaplasmosis and other tick-borne diseases. This can be done by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors. If a tick is found, it should be removed promptly using fine-tipped tweezers, grasping the tick as close to the skin as possible and pulling straight upwards with steady pressure.

'Anaplasma marginale' is a gram-negative bacterium that infects red blood cells in various species of animals, including cattle. It is the causative agent of Anaplasmosis, which is a tick-borne disease that can lead to severe anemia, abortion, and even death in infected animals. The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected ticks or through contaminated blood transfusions, needles, or surgical instruments.

The bacterium has a unique life cycle, where it infects and replicates within the red blood cells, causing them to rupture and release more bacteria into the bloodstream. This results in the characteristic symptoms of Anaplasmosis, such as fever, weakness, icterus (yellowing of the mucous membranes), and anemia.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmosis can be confirmed through various laboratory tests, including blood smears, PCR assays, and serological tests. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which can help to reduce the severity of symptoms and clear the infection. Preventive measures include the control of tick populations, the use of protective clothing and insect repellents, and the implementation of strict biosecurity protocols in veterinary practices and farms.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

Anaplasmataceae infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae. These bacteria include Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Neorickettsia genera, which infect various mammalian hosts, including humans. The most well-known diseases caused by these bacteria are human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS).

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which infects neutrophils in humans. Symptoms of HGA include fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as respiratory failure, neurological symptoms, and even death.

Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii, which infect monocytes in humans. Symptoms of HME are similar to those of HGA but may also include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash. Severe cases can lead to complications such as kidney failure, respiratory distress, and neurological symptoms.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by Dabie bandavirus, a member of the genus Bandavirus within the family Phenuiviridae. It was previously classified as a member of the family Anaplasmataceae. SFTS is transmitted to humans through tick bites and causes symptoms such as fever, fatigue, muscle pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to complications such as multi-organ failure, shock, and death.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmataceae infections typically involves laboratory tests that detect the presence of bacterial DNA or antibodies against the bacteria in the blood. Treatment usually includes antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against all three genera of bacteria within the family Anaplasmataceae. Preventing tick bites through the use of insect repellent and protective clothing can help reduce the risk of infection.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

'Babesia microti' is a species of intracellular parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause babesiosis, a type of tick-borne disease. The transmission of this parasite to humans usually occurs through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis).

The life cycle of 'Babesia microti' involves two hosts: the tick and the mammalian host (such as a mouse or human). In the tick, the parasite undergoes development in the midgut, salivary glands, and ovaries. When an infected tick bites a mammalian host, it injects sporozoites into the skin, which then enter the bloodstream and invade red blood cells. Inside the red blood cells, the parasites multiply asexually, leading to their rupture and release of merozoites that infect other red blood cells.

The symptoms of babesiosis can range from mild to severe, depending on the patient's age, immune status, and the presence of other medical conditions. Mild cases may present with flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe cases can lead to complications such as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of parasites, as well as serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can also be used to detect the genetic material of 'Babesia microti' in blood samples.

Treatment of babesiosis usually involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs such as atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and complications. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after outdoor activities.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nymph" does not have a medical definition. In general, nymph is a term used in mythology to refer to a minor nature deity typically represented as an attractive maiden or beautiful young woman who animates nature and is often associated with various natural phenomena.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

Anaplasma centrale is a bacterial species that belongs to the order Rickettsiales and the family Anaplasmataceae. It is an intracellular pathogen that primarily infects red blood cells in ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. The bacteria are transmitted through tick vectors, particularly ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus.

The infection caused by A. centrale is often asymptomatic or mild in affected animals, but it can lead to anemia and decreased productivity in livestock. In some cases, the disease may also cause abortion or death in young animals. There are no known human infections associated with A. centrale.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma centrale infection typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears, PCR testing, and serological assays such as ELISA or complement fixation tests. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which are effective against intracellular bacteria. Preventive measures include tick control and vaccination of livestock.

Dermacentor is a genus of ticks that includes several species known to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Some of the notable species in this genus are:

1. Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick): This species is widely distributed across western North America and can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and tularemia.
2. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick): Found throughout the United States, this tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and human ehrlichiosis.
3. Dermacentor reticulatus (Ornate cow tick or Marsh tick): This species is distributed in Europe and parts of Asia and can transmit diseases like tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, and babesiosis.
4. Dermacentor marginatus (Marginated tick): Found primarily in Europe, this tick transmits various pathogens causing diseases such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and rickettsialpox.
5. Dermacentor nitens (Brazilian pampas tick): This species is native to South America and can transmit Rickettsia rickettsii, the bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Dermacentor ticks are known for their hard, shield-like structures called scutums on their backs and their long mouthparts called hypostomes, which they use to feed on the blood of their hosts. They typically prefer large mammals as hosts but will also feed on humans and other animals if necessary.

HL-60 cells are a type of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. They are named after the hospital where they were first isolated, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) and the 60th culture attempt to grow these cells.

HL-60 cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, such as granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, when exposed to certain chemical compounds or under specific culturing conditions. This makes them a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

HL-60 cells are also often used in toxicity studies, drug discovery and development, and research on cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. They can be easily grown in the lab and have a stable genotype, making them ideal for use in standardized experiments and comparisons between different studies.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

Anaplasmataceae is a family of gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that includes several human pathogens. These bacteria are known to infect and parasitize the white blood cells (such as granulocytes, monocytes, or erythrocytes) of various mammals, including humans. The bacterial genus within Anaplasmataceae include Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Orientia.

Some notable human pathogens in this family are:

1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Causes Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), which is transmitted primarily through the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus).
2. Ehrlichia chaffeensis - Causes Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME), which is transmitted mainly by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
3. Ehrlichia ewingii - Associated with Human Ewingii Ehrlichiosis, primarily transmitted through the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
4. Neorickettsia sennetsu - Causes Sennetsu fever, which is a rare infectious disease in humans and is usually found in Japan and Southeast Asia. It's transmitted by the swallow bug or through the consumption of raw fish.
5. Orientia tsutsugamushi - Causes Scrub typhus, a widespread mite-borne disease in the Asia-Pacific region.

These bacterial infections can lead to flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, they may cause complications like respiratory failure, organ damage, or even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

'Borrelia burgdorferi' is a species of spirochete bacteria that is the primary cause of Lyme disease in humans. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern, midwestern, and eastern parts of the United States; Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast).

The bacterium was first identified and named after Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the spirochete in the mid-1980s. The infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Antibiotic treatment is usually effective in eliminating the bacteria and resolving symptoms, especially when initiated early in the course of the disease. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms even after treatment, a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The exact cause of PTLDS remains unclear, with ongoing research investigating potential factors such as residual bacterial infection, autoimmune responses, or tissue damage.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Ixodidae is a family of arachnids commonly known as hard ticks. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Ixodidae is a family of tick species, also known as hard ticks, which are obligate ectoparasites of many different terrestrial vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have a hard, shield-like structure on their dorsal surface called the scutum, and a prominent mouthpart called the hypostome, which helps them anchor themselves onto their host's skin during feeding.

Hard ticks are vectors of various bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases that can affect both humans and animals. Some of the diseases transmitted by Ixodidae include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and tularemia.

Ixodidae species have a complex life cycle that involves three developmental stages: larva, nymph, and adult. Each stage requires a blood meal from a host to progress to the next stage or to reproduce. The length of the life cycle varies depending on the species and environmental conditions but can take up to several years to complete.

Proper identification and control of Ixodidae populations are essential for preventing tick-borne diseases and protecting public health.

'Ehrlichia chaffeensis' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that causes human ehrlichiosis, a tick-borne disease. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). The bacteria infect and replicate within white blood cells, causing symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, ehrlichiosis can cause damage to organs and may be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antibiotics.

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is named after Dr. William A. Ehrlich, who first described the bacterium in 1937, and Fort Chaffee in Arkansas, where the tick vector was first identified.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Ehrlichia is a genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that infect and replicate within the vacuoles of host cells. These bacteria are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropods, such as ticks. Infection with Ehrlichia can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some species of Ehrlichia, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are known to cause human disease, including ehrlichiosis.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that can range in severity from mild to severe and can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as neurological problems, respiratory failure, or kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you may have been infected with Ehrlichia, as early treatment can help prevent serious complications. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Anaplasma ovis is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that belongs to the order Rickettsiales. It is the etiological agent of ovine anaplasmosis, which primarily affects sheep and goats. The bacteria infect and replicate within the host's erythrocytes (red blood cells), causing clinical signs such as anemia, jaundice, weight loss, and abortion in pregnant animals. Transmission typically occurs through tick vectors, with the most common vector being Ixodes ricinus in Europe and Ixodes holocyclus in Australia.

In humans, Anaplasma ovis is not known to cause disease, and there are no reports of human infection or illness associated with this bacterium. However, other species within the Anaplasma genus, such as A. phagocytophilum and A. platys, can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively.

It is essential to consult a medical or veterinary professional for accurate information regarding specific pathogens and their associated diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term. It is a country in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

'Ehrlichia canis' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that belongs to the family Anaplasmataceae. It is the etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), which is a tick-borne disease in dogs. The bacteria are transmitted to dogs through the bite of infected brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).

The infection can cause a variety of clinical signs, including fever, lethargy, anorexia, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhages. In severe cases, the infection may lead to serious complications such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), neurological disorders, and even death.

Diagnosis of CME is typically made through detection of Ehrlichia canis antibodies in the dog's serum or by PCR-based methods to detect the bacterial DNA. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which has been shown to be effective against Ehrlichia canis.

It is important to note that 'Ehrlichia canis' can also infect humans, causing a similar disease known as human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). However, this is rare and usually occurs in individuals who are immunocompromised or have been exposed to infected dogs or ticks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Rickettsia is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. They are the etiologic agents of several important human diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, and scrub typhus. Rickettsia are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as ticks, fleas, and lice. Once inside a host cell, Rickettsia manipulate the host cell's cytoskeleton and membrane-trafficking machinery to gain entry and replicate within the host cell's cytoplasm. They can cause significant damage to the endothelial cells that line blood vessels, leading to vasculitis, tissue necrosis, and potentially fatal outcomes if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antibiotics.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Slovakia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Forestry" is not a medical term. Forestry is the science and practice of managing forests, plantations, and associated resources for timber, wildlife, recreation, conservation, and other benefits. It involves the application of ecological principles, silvicultural techniques, and management strategies to ensure the sustainability and health of forest ecosystems.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

"Bites and stings" is a general term used to describe injuries resulting from the teeth or venomous secretions of animals. These can include:

1. Insect bites: The bite marks are usually small, punctate, and may be accompanied by symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and pain. Examples include mosquito, flea, bedbug, and tick bites.

2. Spider bites: Some spiders possess venomous fangs that can cause localized pain, redness, and swelling. In severe cases, systemic symptoms like muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing may occur. The black widow and brown recluse spiders are notorious for their venomous bites.

3. Snake bites: Venomous snakes deliver toxic saliva through their fangs, which can lead to local tissue damage, swelling, pain, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as paralysis, bleeding disorders, and respiratory failure.

4. Mammal bites: Animal bites from mammals like dogs, cats, and wild animals can cause puncture wounds, lacerations, and crush injuries. They may also transmit infectious diseases, such as rabies.

5. Marine animal stings: Stings from jellyfish, sea urchins, stingrays, and other marine creatures can result in localized pain, redness, swelling, and systemic symptoms like difficulty breathing, muscle cramps, and altered heart rhythms. Some marine animals' venoms can cause severe allergic reactions or even death.

Treatment for bites and stings varies depending on the type and severity of the injury. It may include wound care, pain management, antibiotics to prevent infection, and in some cases, antivenom therapy to counteract the effects of venom. Seeking immediate medical attention is crucial in severe cases or when systemic symptoms are present.

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

"Borrelia" is a genus of spirochete bacteria that are known to cause several tick-borne diseases in humans, the most notable being Lyme disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast).

The Borrelia species are gram-negative, helical-shaped bacteria with distinctive endoflagella that allow them to move in a corkscrew-like motion. They are microaerophilic, meaning they require a low oxygen environment for growth. The bacteria can survive in a variety of environments, including the digestive tracts of ticks and mammals, as well as in soil and water.

Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. It typically presents with a characteristic rash called erythema migrans, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, causing arthritis, neurological problems, and cardiac issues.

Other Borrelia species, such as B. afzelii and B. garinii, are responsible for causing Lyme disease in Europe and Asia. Additionally, some Borrelia species have been linked to other tick-borne illnesses, including relapsing fever and tick-borne meningoencephalitis.

Prevention of Borrelia infections involves avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks. If a tick bite is suspected, it's important to seek medical attention and monitor for symptoms of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can help prevent the development of chronic symptoms.

"Dirofilaria immitis" is a species of parasitic roundworm that can infect dogs, cats, and other animals, including humans. It is the causative agent of heartworm disease in these animals. The adult worms typically reside in the pulmonary arteries and hearts of infected animals, where they can cause serious damage to the cardiovascular system.

The life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis involves mosquitoes as intermediate hosts. Infected animals produce microfilariae, which are taken up by mosquitoes during blood meals. These larvae then develop into infective stages within the mosquito and can be transmitted to other animals through the mosquito's bite.

In dogs, heartworm disease is often asymptomatic in the early stages but can progress to cause coughing, exercise intolerance, heart failure, and even death if left untreated. In cats, heartworm disease is more difficult to diagnose and often causes respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing.

Preventive measures, such as regular administration of heartworm preventatives, are essential for protecting animals from this parasitic infection.

Antigenic variation is a mechanism used by some microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, to evade the immune system and establish persistent infections. This occurs when these pathogens change or modify their surface antigens, which are molecules that can be recognized by the host's immune system and trigger an immune response.

The changes in the surface antigens can occur due to various mechanisms, such as gene mutation, gene rearrangement, or gene transfer. These changes can result in the production of new variants of the microorganism that are different enough from the original strain to avoid recognition by the host's immune system.

Antigenic variation is a significant challenge in developing effective vaccines against certain infectious diseases, such as malaria and influenza, because the constantly changing surface antigens make it difficult for the immune system to mount an effective response. Therefore, researchers are working on developing vaccines that target conserved regions of the microorganism that do not undergo antigenic variation or using a combination of antigens to increase the likelihood of recognition by the immune system.

... HZ Genome Page Anaplasma+phagocytophilum at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Thomas V, Fikrig E (July 2007). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during ... December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infect. Dis. 11 (12): 1828-34. doi: ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis. Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii ...
December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1828-34 ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a coastal region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...
E. phagocytophilum and E. equi were reclassified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum.[citation needed] Ehrlichiosis Malik A, Jameel M ... are found in Anaplasma and those which interact with Anaplasma can mainly be found in A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Lee HC, Kioi M, Han J, Puri RK, Goodman JL (September 2008). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum-induced gene expression in both human ...
"Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Cellular Microbiology. 12 (9): 1213-21 ... T4SS has two effector proteins: firstly, ATS-1, which stands for Anaplasma translocated substrate 1, and secondly AnkA, which ...
The two major species that cause anaplasmosis in ruminants include Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anaplasma ... The two major bacterial pathogens are Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. These microorganisms are Gram-negative ... Atif FA (November 2015). "Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is also found worldwide, mainly transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Other species that cause anaplasmosis in ...
... such as Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis ... "Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infections in German Horses". Animals. 13 (12 ...
Like Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infects neutrophils. ...
Additionally Spiroplasma bacteria are suspected symbionts, besides potentially the pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, ...
"Antigen diversity in the parasitic bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum arises from selectively-represented, spatially clustered ... that survive in phagocytes Anaplasma phagocytophilum Certain protozoa, including: Apicomplexans (Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma ...
2007). "Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilum for infection of human promyelocytic cells". ...
Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko (2003-09-01). "Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum lack genes for lipid A ... It is also closely related to Wolbachia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia bacteria, with Rickettsia as a more distant genus. ... unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions ...
"Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild ... Fukui, Yuichi; Inokuma, Hisashi (2019). "Subclinical Infections of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis in Dogs from ... "Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis in Small Wild Mammals from Taichung and Kinmen Island, Taiwan". ... "First Molecular Evidence of Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Bovine from Central Punjab, Pakistan". Pathogens. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. phagocytophilum is endemic to New England and the north- ... genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. These obligate intracellular bacteria infect and kill white blood cells. The average reported ...
D. variabilis may also carry Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Ehrlichia ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a Coastal Region of California". Journal of Medical Entomology. ...
Hedgehogs Erinaceus Roumanicus as Hosts for Ticks Infected with Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum ...
... and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA." Experimental and Applied Acarology ...
... such as Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis ... birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. Prevalence of Infectious Agents and Anti-Erythrocyte ...
April 2006). "Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and ... April 2006). "Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and ...
... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: Results of a national clinic-based serologic survey. In: Vet. ...
... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: Results of a national clinic-based serologic survey". Veterinary ...
... marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the U.S. ... Anaplasma platys in dogs The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare zoonosis, the Sparouine anaplasmosis, ... including tropical and semitropical areas of the world for intraerythrocytic Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma species are biologically ...
... as an alternative treatment for infections by the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum when ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a Gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that causes anaplasmosis, has been detected in L ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) is a bacterium of deer that spreads to sheep where it causes tick ... Anaplasma centrale tends to infect the central region of red blood cells, and is sufficiently closely related to An. marginale ... Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... However, some microbes, such as Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale, can also be transmitted by biting flies, or by blood on ...
... baumannii Actinomyces israelii Agrobacterium radiobacter Agrobacterium tumefaciens Anaplasma Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum or Ehrlichia equi) Vector: Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum ...
... virus infections Dengue Dengue-like illness Severe dengue Diphtheria Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.440.040.050.575 - Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.440.040.050.600 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH B03.440 ... Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.575 - Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.600 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH ... Anaplasma MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.100 - Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.500 - ... Anaplasma MeSH B03.440.040.050.100 - Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.440.040.050.500 - ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum HZ Genome Page Anaplasma+phagocytophilum at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Thomas V, Fikrig E (July 2007). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during ... December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infect. Dis. 11 (12): 1828-34. doi: ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A. phagocytophilum causes human anaplasmosis, which is also known as human granulocytic anaplasmosis ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis). Pathophysiology. A. phagocytophilum is an obligate, intracellular ... Coinfections of Anaplasma with Other Tickborne Pathogens. The tick vector responsible for A. phagocytophilum transmission in ... Increasing incidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the United States, 2000-2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg ...
... phagocytophilum was able to live in L929 cells and BALB/c mice but did not propagate well. In this study, A. phagocytophilum ... phagocytophilum and flea-borne Yersnia pestis is rarely concerned. A. phagocytophilum and Yersnia pestis were discovered within ... Coinfections with A. phagocytophilum and other tick-borne pathogens are reported frequently, whereas the relationship between A ... 16S rRNA and groESL gene screenings show that A. phagocytophilum is widely distributed in marmots; the bacterium was more ...
Access Anaplasma phagocytophilum case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
"Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum" 18, no. 12 (2012). Keesing, Felicia et al. "Reservoir ... Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the ... Title : Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum Personal Author(s) : Keesing, Felicia;Hersh, ... 2012). Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. 18(12). Keesing, Felicia et al. " ...
... is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which infect granulocytes. In contrast, human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is caused by ... A real-time combined polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection and differentiation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, ... Ehrlichia/Anaplasma are tiny (0.2-2 µm) obligate, intracytoplasmic, gram-negative bacteria that resemble Rickettsia; divide by ... Ehrlichia, anaplasma, and related infections. Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS. Red Book: 2018 Report of the ...
An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of ... Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia Authors. * G Javkhlan ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1%) Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. ...
Ehrlichia chaffeensis (human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis), ... It is caused by the rickettsial bacteria called Anaplasma phagocytophilum. ...
Two cases of transfusion-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilum.. Title. Two cases of transfusion-transmitted Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum/ge [Genetics], *Blood Transfusion/ae [Adverse Effects], *Ehrlichiosis/tm [Transmission], Aged, 80 and ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular bacterium most ... including A phagocytophilum. We report 2 additional cases of transfusion-transmitted A phagocytophilum in which leukocyte ...
MOLgen DNA Anaplasma phagocytophilum / Ehrlichia muris / Ehrlichia chaffeensis S1 ... "MOLgen DNA Anaplasma phagocytophilum / Ehrlichia muris / Ehrlichia chaffeensis S1 Kit"is intended to detect DNA of Anaplasma ... "MOLgen DNA Anaplasma phagocytophilum / Ehrlichia muris / Ehrlichia chaffeensis S1 Kit" is an assay kit for the detection of ... Home Page Products Molecular Diagnostic Tests Tick-borne Infections MOLgen DNA Anaplasma phagocytophilum / Ehrlichia muris / ...
Individual ticks were tested for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, B. burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi ... ticks were tested for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti and ... Abbreviations: AB, Alberta; Ap, Anaplasma phagocytophilum; BbA, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence in adult ticks; BbN ... Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Powassan virus in ticks ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. (Export Data). (PDF). Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection. (Export Data). (PDF). ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. (Export Data). (PDF). Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection. (Export Data). (PDF). ...
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis;Anaplasma phagocytophilum ;Spotted fever group rickettsiae. File. MOHW107-CDC-C-315-112302.pdf ... Development of rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Anaplasma spp and R.felis infections. ...
Typical and atypical manifestations of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs. Eberts MD, Vissotto de Paiva Diniz PP, ... Comparative strain analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and clinical outcomes in a canine model of granulocytic ... Comparison of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species-specific peptide ELISAs with whole organism-based immunofluorescent assays for ... serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Adolescent Adult Aged Aged, 80 And Over Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Anaplasmataceae Animals Female Humans Male Middle Aged ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. During 2007-2013, samples from 69 (0.1%) patients were positive for the EML pathogen; patients ...
Evaluation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in experimentally inoculated sheep and determination of Anaplasma spp ... Evaluation of sequential coinfection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale in cattle ... Objective-To evaluate disease progression in sheep experimentally inoculated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and determine the ... Procedures-10 ewes received 1 of 3 treatments: A phagocytophilum Webster strain (n = 4), A phagocytophilum MRK strain (4), or ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum. in a large, demographically diverse US sample. . Clin Infect Dis 46. : 70. -. 77. .. ), false ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum. in a large, demographically diverse US sample. . Clin Infect Dis 46. : 70. -. 77. .. ), false ... Prevalence of seropositivity to spotted fever group rickettsiae and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a large, demographically ... Prevalence of seropositivity to spotted fever group rickettsiae and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a large, demographically ...
Prevention of transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by Ixodes spp. ticks to dogs ... with proven high efficacy against ticks carrying Lyme and Anaplasma diseases5. ...
Emergence of Anaplasma Species Related to A. phagocytophilum and A. platys in Senegal. Zobba, Rosanna; Murgia, Claudio; Dahmani ... Molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma spp. related to A. phagocytophilum in Mediterranean small ruminants. Zobba, Rosanna; Ben ... gltA typing of Anaplasma strains related to A. platys: Taxonomical and one health implications. Zobba, Rosanna; Schianchi, ... Molecular investigation and phylogeny of Anaplasma spp. in Mediterranean ruminants reveal the presence of neutrophil-tropic ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly E. phagocytophila) causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which occurs in the Northeast, ... Ehrlichiosis is caused mainly by Ehrlichia chaffeensis; anaplasmosis is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both are ...
Expression of perilipin in human promyelocytic cells in response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection results in modified ... The obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks and causes human granulocytic ... In this study, it was hypothesized that PLIN may be involved in infection of human HL-60 cells by A. phagocytophilum. To test ... The results of these studies expand our knowledge of the role of lipid metabolism in A. phagocytophilum infection and ...
... clinical testing and surveillance testing for New York State to detect tickborne bacteria such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, which cause ehrlichiosis. * Flavivirus, the cause of tick-borne ...
"Co-infection Prevalence of Anaplasma Phagocytophilum and Borrelia Burgdorferi in Ixodes Scapularis Ticks in Erie, Pennsylvania ...
Identify areas of Ontario with a higher risk of Anaplasma phagocytophilum exposure ...

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