Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Anaplasma centrale: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Anaplasma ovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.PolandBabesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Ehrlichia canis: Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Bites and StingsRodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)

Cytokine gene expression by peripheral blood leukocytes in horses experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophila. (1/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), a tick-borne zoonosis, is caused by an obligatory intragranulocytic bacterium, the HGE agent, a strain of Anaplasma phagocytophila. The equine model of HGE is considered valuable in understanding pathogenic and immune mechanisms of HGE. In the present study, cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) in horses was examined during the course of infection by intravenous inoculation of A. phagocytophila or by allowing feeding by infected ticks. The p44 genes encoding the major outer membrane protein P44s of A. phagocytophila were detected by PCR in PBLs of all four horses from 4 to 20 days postexposure. During the 20-day infection period, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression was upregulated in PBLs of all four horses, and IL-8 mRNA expression was upregulated in three horses. Gamma interferon, IL-10, and IL-12 p35 mRNAs were weakly expressed in only one horse each. IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 mRNA expression, however, could not be detected in the PBLs of any of the four horses. These results suggest that IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 generation during A. phagocytophila infection has a primary role in HGE pathogenesis and immunomodulation.  (+info)

Repression of rac2 mRNA expression by Anaplasma phagocytophila is essential to the inhibition of superoxide production and bacterial proliferation. (2/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophila, the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, is an emerging bacterial pathogen that invades neutrophils and can be cultivated in HL-60 cells. Infected neutrophils and HL-60 cells fail to produce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), which is partially attributable to the fact that A. phagocytophila inhibits transcription of gp91(phox), an integral component of NADPH oxidase. cDNA microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of the gene encoding Rac2, a key component in NADPH oxidase activation, was down-regulated in infected HL-60 cells. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that rac2 mRNA expression was reduced 7-fold in retinoic acid-differentiated HL-60 cells and 50-fold in neutrophils following A. phagocytophila infection. Rac2 protein expression was absent in infected HL-60 cells. Rac1 and Rac2 are interchangeable in their abilities to activate NADPH oxidase. HL-60 cells transfected to express myc-tagged rac1 and gp91(phox) from the CMV immediate early promoter maintained the ability to generate O(2)(-) 120 h postinfection. A. phagocytophila proliferation was severely inhibited in these cells. These results directly attribute the inhibition of rac2 and gp91(phox) transcription to the loss of NADPH oxidase activity in A. phagocytophila-infected cells and demonstrate its importance to bacterial intracellular survival.  (+info)

Roles of neutrophil beta 2 integrins in kinetics of bacteremia, extravasation, and tick acquisition of Anaplasma phagocytophila in mice. (3/299)

Tick saliva contains anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive substances that facilitate blood feeding and enhance tick-vectored pathogen transmission, including Anaplasma phagocytophila an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis. As such, inflammation at a tick-feeding site is strikingly different than that typically observed at other sites of inflammation. Up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 occurs in host granulocytes following interaction or infection with A phagocytophila, and the absence of CD11b/CD18 results in early increases in bacteremia. We hypothesized that beta 2 integrin-dependent infection kinetics and leukocyte extravasation are important determinants of neutrophil trafficking to, and pathogen acquisition at, tick-feeding sites. A phagocytophila infection kinetics were evaluated in CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, and CD18 knock-out mice using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood, ticks, and skin biopsies in conjunction with histopathology. A marked increase in the rate of A phagocytophila infection of neutrophils and pathogen burden in blood followed tick feeding. Infection kinetics were modified by beta 2 integrin expression and systemic neutrophil counts. Significant neutrophil-pathogen trafficking was observed to both suture and tick sites. Despite the prominent role for beta 2 integrins in neutrophil arrest in flowing blood, successful pathogen acquisition by ticks occurred in the absence of beta 2 integrins. Establishment of feeding pools that rely less on leukocyte trafficking and more on small hemorrhages may explain the ready amplification of A phagocytophila DNA from ticks infested on CD11/CD18-deficient mouse strains.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. (4/299)

We tested the antibiotic susceptibilities of eight strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) collected in various geographic areas of the United States, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and New York. The results are homogeneous and show that doxycycline, rifampin, and levofloxacin are the most active antibiotics against these strains in vitro.  (+info)

Seasonal dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophila in a rodent-tick (Ixodes trianguliceps) system, United Kingdom. (5/299)

We investigated the reservoir role of European wild rodents for Anaplasma phagocytophila using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of blood collected from individually tagged rodents captured monthly over 2 years. The only tick species observed in the woodland study site was Ixodes trianguliceps, and ruminant reservoir hosts were not known to occur. A. phagocytophila infections were detected in both bank voles and wood mice but were restricted to periods of peak nymphal and adult tick activity. Most PCR-positive rodents were positive only once, suggesting that rodent infections are generally short-lived and that ticks rather than rodents may maintain the infection over winter. Bank voles were more likely to be PCR positive than wood mice, possibly because detectable infections are longer lived in bank voles. This study confirms that woodland rodents can maintain A. phagocytophila in Great Britain in the absence of other reservoir hosts and suggests that I. trianguliceps is a competent vector.  (+info)

Comparison of PCR assays for detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (6/299)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging infectious disease in the United States and Europe, and PCR methods have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of acute infections. Numerous PCR assays and primer sets have been reported in the literature. The analytical sensitivities (limits of detection) of 13 published PCR primer sets were compared using DNA extracted from serial dilutions of Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected HL-60 cells. The specificity of the assays that were able to detect +info)

Expression of multiple outer membrane protein sequence variants from a single genomic locus of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (7/299)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States and Europe. The organism causes a febrile illness accompanied by other nonspecific symptoms and can be fatal, especially if treatment is delayed. Persistence of A. phagocytophilum within mammalian reservoir hosts is important for ensuring continued disease transmission. In the related organism Anaplasma marginale, persistence is associated with antigenic variation of the immunoprotective outer membrane protein MSP2. Extensive diversity of MSP2 is achieved by combinatorial gene conversion of a genomic expression site by truncated pseudogenes. The major outer membrane protein of A. phagocytophilum, MSP2(P44), is homologous to MSP2 of A. marginale, has a similar organization of conserved and variable regions, and is also encoded by a multigene family containing some truncated gene copies. This suggests that the two organisms could use similar mechanisms to generate diversity in outer membrane proteins from their small genomes. We define here a genomic expression site for MSP2(P44) in A. phagocytophilum. As in A. marginale, the msp2(p44) gene in this expression site is polymorphic in all populations of organisms we have examined, whether organisms are obtained from in vitro culture in human HL-60 cells, from culture in the tick cell line ISE6, or from infected human blood. Changes in culture conditions were found to favor the growth and predominance of certain msp2(p44) variants. Insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the region of the genomic expression site encoding the central hypervariable region matched sequence polymorphisms in msp2(p44) mRNA. These data suggest that, similarly to A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum uses combinatorial mechanisms to generate a large array of outer membrane protein variants. Such gene polymorphism has profound implications for the design of vaccines, diagnostic tests, and therapy.  (+info)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum reduces neutrophil apoptosis in vivo. (8/299)

Ovine neutrophils spontaneously underwent apoptosis during culture in vitro, as assessed by morphological changes and exposure of annexin V binding sites on their cell surfaces. The addition of conditioned medium from concanavalin A-treated ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could partially protect against this progression into apoptosis, but dexamethasone and sodium butyrate could not. Actinomycin D accelerated the rate at which ovine neutrophils underwent apoptosis. Neutrophils isolated from sheep experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed significantly delayed apoptosis during culture ex vivo, and the addition of conditioned medium from PBMC to these cells could not delay apoptosis above the protective effects observed after in vivo infection. The ability of neutrophils from A. phagocytophilum-infected sheep to activate a respiratory burst was increased compared to the activity measured in neutrophils from uninfected sheep, but chemotaxis was decreased in neutrophils from infected sheep. These data are the first demonstration that in vivo infection with A. phagocytophilum results in changes in rates of apoptosis of infected immune cells. This may help explain how these bacteria replicate in these normally short-lived cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of human-Active and variant 1 strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hosts and forests of Eastern North America. AU - Keesing, Felicia. AU - McHenry, Diana J.. AU - Hersh, Michelle. AU - Tibbetts, Michael. AU - Brunner, Jesse L.. AU - Killilea, Mary. AU - LoGiudice, Kathleen. AU - Schmidt, Kenneth A.. AU - Ostfeld, Richard S.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-Active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) to feeding larval ticks. We also sampled ...
References. Aguiar D.M., Cavalcante G.T., Pinter A., Gennari S.M., Camargo L.M. & Labruna M.B. 2007. Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Brazil. J. Med. Entomol. 44:126-132. [ Links ] Aragão H. & Fonseca F. 1961. Ixodological notes. VIII. List and key to the representatives of the Brazilian ixodological fauna. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 59:115-129. [ Links ] Barutzki D., De Nicola A., Zeziola M. & Reule M. 2006. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs in Germany. Berl. Münch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr. 119:342-347. [ Links ] Beall M.J., Chandrashekar R., Eberts M.D., Cyr K.E., Diniz P.P., Mainville C., Hegarty B.C. & Crawford J.M., Breitschwerdt E.B. 2008. Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases 8:455-464. [ Links ] Bown K.J., Lambin X., Ogden N.H., Petrovec M., ...
Infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern Norway. Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in lambs, but epidemiological links between infections in red deer and sheep have yet to be established. To address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting sympatric red deer and sheep. Blood from 32 lambs grazing on tick-infested pasture, and blood and tissues from 8 red deer shot in proximity to these pastures were collected during the summer and autumn of 2007. The presence of A. phagocytophilum in these samples was determined by PCR-based methods, and genotyping of detected strains was performed using comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and msp4 fragments. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 12 lambs and 7 red deer, 11 and 4
A 36-year-old woman acquired severe human granulocytic anaplasmosis after blood transfusion following a cesarean section. Although intensive treatment with mechanical ventilation was needed, the patient had an excellent recovery. Disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was confirmed in 1 blood donor and in the transfusion recipient.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Murine neutrophils require α 1,3-fucosylation but not PSGL-1 for productive infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. AU - Carlyon, Jason A.. AU - Akkoyunlu, Mustafa. AU - Xia, Lijun. AU - Yago, Tadayuki. AU - Wang, Tian. AU - Cummings, Richard D.. AU - McEver, Rodger P.. AU - Fikrig, Erol. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, the second most common tick-borne disease in the United States. Mice are natural reservoirs for this bacterium and man is an inadvertent host. A phagocytophilums tropism for human neutrophils is linked to neutrophil expression of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), as well as sialylated and α1,3-fucosylated glycans. To determine whether A phagocytophilum uses similar molecular features to infect murine neutrophils, we assessed in vitro bacterial binding to neutrophils from and infection burden in wild-type mice; mice lacking α1,3-fucosyltransferases Fuc-TIV and Fuc-TVII; or mice ...
Ticks and tick-borne diseases affect animal and human health worldwide. A vector of many diseases in Europe and Slovenia is Ixodes ricinus [1]. It can be found in the forest, in shrubby or wooded pastures and on surfaces with low vegetation [2]. Ticks feeding cycle includes three stages: larva, nymph and adult. I. ricinus feeds on livestock, deer, dogs and a wide variety of other species, including humans [2]. I. ricinus is a confirmed vector of the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum [3]. The tick becomes infected as it feeds on an infected host. Anaplasmae are transmitted from stage to stage as the tick moults (trans-stadially), but not transovarially. No anaplasmae have been detected in unfed larvae so far [4]. A. phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, was formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent (HGE agent), Ehrlichia phagocytophila and E. equi [5]. A. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts from asymptomatic to ...
Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is currently regarded as a single species. However, molecular studies indicate that it can be subdivided into ecotypes, each with distinct but overlapping transmission cycle. Here, we evaluate the interactions between and within clusters of haplotypes of the bacterium isolated from vertebrates and ticks, using phylogenetic and network-based methods. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in ticks and vertebrate tissue samples. A fragment of the groEl gene was amplified and sequenced from qPCR-positive lysates. Additional groEl sequences from ticks and vertebrate reservoirs were obtained from GenBank and through literature searches, resulting in a dataset consisting of 1623 A. phagocytophilum field isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were used to infer clusters of haplotypes and to assess phylogenetic clustering of A. phagocytophilum in vertebrates or ticks. Network-based methods were used to resolve host-vector interactions and their relative importance in the
A TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the Anaplasma citrate synthase gene, gltA, was developed and used for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 765 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and cats in northern Norway (n = 669) and Telemark county in southern Norway (n = 96). Among the ticks from northern Norway the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 3.0 %, while the prevalence in southern Norway was 2.1 % (p = 0.63). The gltA PCR assay showed a high analytical sensitivity (30 genomic units) and efficiency (98.5 %), and its utility in clinical diagnostics should be evaluated in future studies. This is the first report of A. phagocytophilum occurrence in ticks collected north of the Arctic Circle in Norway. The prevalence is comparable to that found in Telemark county in southern Norway.
Avhandlingar om HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC ANAPLASMOSIS. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
In recent years, some tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis became widespread worldwide, threatening the health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 102 opossums (Didelphis spp.) and 44 owned free-ranging dogs in southeastern Mexico using a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. E. canis was only present in 7% of dogs, while we didnt detect E. chaffeensis in any host. We report the first evidence of infections of A. phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in Mexico. The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of this pathogen than opossums. Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities
Tick-borne pathogens cause emerging zoonoses, and include fastidious organisms such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Because of their obligate intracellular nature, methods for mutagenesis and transformation have not been available. To facilitate genetic manipulation, we transformed A. phagocytophilum (Ap) to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the Himar1 transposase system and selection with the clinically irrelevant antibiotic spectinomycin. These transformed bacteria (GFP/Ap) grow at normal rates and are brightly fluorescent in human, monkey, and tick cell culture. Molecular characterization of the GFP/Ap genomic DNA confirmed transposition and the flanking genomic insertion locations were sequenced. Three mice inoculated with GFP/Ap by intraperitoneal injection became infected as demonstrated by the appearance of morulae in a peripheral blood neutrophil and re-isolation of the bacteria in culture.
In the United States, Ixodes scapularis ticks overwinter in the Northeast and Upper Midwest and transmit the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks increases their ability to survive in the cold. We identified an I. scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein, designated IAFGP, and demonstrated via RNAi knockdown studies the importance of IAFGP for the survival of I. scapularis ticks in a cold environment. Transfection studies also show that IAFGP increased the viability of yeast cells subjected to cold temperature. Remarkably, A. phagocytophilum induced the expression of iafgp, thereby increasing the cold tolerance and survival of I. scapularis. These data define a molecular basis for symbiosis between a human pathogenic bacterium and its arthropod vector and delineate what we believe to be a new pathway that may be targeted to alter the life cycle of this microbe and its ...
The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability ...
The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER
A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by polymer
A tick-borne illness that presents with undifferentiated flu-like symptoms similar to those seen in patients with Lyme disease and other such ailments is cropping up in the Northeastern United States. According to a recent Annals of Internal Medicine article, two patients -- one a 61-year-old man in Massachusetts and the other an 87-year-old New Jersey man -- presented with signs and symptoms suggesting human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which is caused by the rickettsia-like bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum carried by deer ticks in that region. The presumptive diagnosis proved false, however.
Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that utilize cattle as amplifying hosts, namely Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia sensu stricto, to increase. To test these hypotheses, we compared the densities of questing I. ricinus between twenty pairs of plots in grazed and ungrazed forest areas. The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. Nymphs were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia s.s. DNA from twelve paired areas. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and ...
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Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium of neutrophils....
Abstract. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. This is the first case to suggest that crust tissue at the tick-bite site may be useful for early HGA diagnosis in patients who have already been treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline.
DISCUSSION. A. phagocytophilum, capable of infecting granulocytes, and so far neutrophils and eosinophils (7), frequently cause an acute febrile systemic illness, namely CGA. In an attempt to make precise diagnostic tests for CGA microscopic detection of specific morulae, anti-Anaplasma IgM and IgG antibody detection and PCR analysis, which is most reliable for early diagnosis (8).. Recent exposure to A. phagocytophilum may be determined in dogs and human by acute and convalescent serologic testing, to those of IFA assays (9). IgG class antibodies primarily are detectable following 8 days after first exposure, corresponding to 2-5 days after morulae presence. It is therefore may be suggested that antibody detection may not be possible during acute infection (7). Seronegative dogs could probably have been recently infected; indeed a seropositive case could have been exposed to the etiological agent preceeding months, in association with elimination of infection thorugh immunity (10). Polymerase ...
Clinical. Epidemiological elements + Clinical signs. Laboratory. Direct. Using light microscopy on peripheral stained blood smears, the diagnosis relies on the observation of a typical morula of Anaplasma platys in the platelets for thrombocytic anaplasmosis and the observation of a typical morula of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the neutrophils for granulocytic anaplasmosis.. Infection is confirmed by PCR detection of bacterial DNA on tissues or blood.. Indirect. Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays to determine serum antibody against Anaplasma spp. available in veterinary laboratories.. Fast diagnosis at patient-side, based on an multivalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is available for the detection of antibodies to E. canis, E. ewingii, A. phagocytophilum and A. platys.. Differential. Other tick-borne pathogens: Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp.. Co-infection with other vector-borne pathogens is reported, especially co-infection with B. burgdorferi and A. ...
Ticks are important vectors of disease and transmit an extensive array of bacterial, viral and protozoan diseases to both humans and dogs within a com
George Garrity, Don J. Brenner, James T. Staley, Noel R. Krieg, David R. Boone, Paul De Vos, Michael Goodfellow, Fred A. Rainey, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, ...,Bergeys Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, lk 123,2005,Googlei raamat veebiversioon (vaadatud 21.01.2014) (inglise keeles) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting the emergence of tick-borne infections based on climatic changes in Korea. AU - Chae, Joon Seok. AU - Adjemian, Jennifer Zipser. AU - Kim, Heung Chul. AU - Ko, Sungjin. AU - Klein, Terry A.. AU - Foley, Janet E. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and monocytic ehrlichiosis (ME) are maintained in wild rodent reservoirs and tick vectors in the Republic of Korea. This study investigated the prevalence of 2 tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in wild rodents and ticks in central Korea to identify any significant associations with existing or changing climatic conditions. Specifically, the goal of this study was to develop simple models for the probability of occurrence of an epidemic of GA or ME as a function of climate in an area in a given year. Climatic data from 2 regions, Munsan and Dongducheon, Gyeonggi, in central Korea (between the Demilitarized Zone and Seoul, latitude between 37°N-38°N and ...
There is a paucity of data on human exposure to tick-borne pathogens in the western United States. This study reports prevalence of antibodies against three clinically important tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.) among 249 people in five counties in northern California. Individuals from Humboldt County were recruited and answered a questionnaire to assess risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens. Samples from other counties were obtained from a blood bank and were anonymized. Seventeen (6.8%) samples were seropositive for antibodies against at least one pathogen: five for A. phagocytophilum, eight for B. burgdorferi, and four for Rickettsia spp. Women and people aged 26-35 had higher seroprevalence compared to other demographic groups. Santa Cruz County had no seropositive individuals, northern Central Valley counties had three seropositive individuals (all against A. phagocytophilum), and Humboldt County had 14 (all three pathogens), a ...
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recently updated its guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis. Gary Wormser, M.D., lead author, said the guidelines were updated in response to mounting concern and confusion regarding Lyme disease. Wormser, who is also the chief of the division of infectious disease and vice-chairman of the department of medicine at the New York Medical College in Valhalla, went on to point out that the updated document differs from the previous guidelines, released in 2000, in several ways.
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging zoonosis, and one of the most prevalent life- threatening tick-borneillnesses in North America. This diseas...
Citalopram neuraxpharm 40 mg erfahrungsberichte citalopram beipackzettel 10mg 5 stars based on 99 reviews Sharapova now needs to convince an International Tennis Federation panel that there were health reasons as also told by her lawyer John Haggerty. It is a natural and important emotion, cost of micardis 80 mg signaling through stirrings of worry, fearfulness, and alarm that danger or a sudden, threatening change is near. Acceptance of this card and your submission of claims are also subject to the Terms and Conditions posted at www.. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: Website to obtain participating providers: Salmela University of Helsinki, prograf xl 1 mg Helsinki ; France: An antidepressant medicine in the tricyclic group is a common treatment for neuropathic pain. However, these attacks continued to occur for over a year later never happened to me before Lexapro. ...
Disease transmission of is the most dramatic consequence of tick infestation in humans or animals in Europe. Tick-borne diseases are due to bacteria (Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella sp., Rickettsia sp etc.), parasites (protozoa Babesia canis sp, Hepatozoon canis and helminths Cercopithifilaria sp etc.) and viruses (Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE) virus etc.). Ticks can also cause secondary skin lesions such as bacterial dermatitis and necrosis.. Some tick species (especially Australian Ixodes Holocyclus) can cause severe paralysis.. Learn more about the transmitted diseases: Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis, Hepatozoonosis, Lyme Borreliosis.. ...
BLOT kit for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the recombinant antigens of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGA) in human serum and plasma.
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Caramel is spayed (January-23-2018), up to date with routine shots, micro-chipped, de-wormed and tested negative for heartworm.. Blood Test December-29-2017, January-28-2018. Excessive drooling with warmer temperature, blood work on electrolytes and calcium revealed potassium in electrolytes lower resulting in slight liver inflammation, anti-inflammatory prescribed along with potassium supplements. X-Rays January-23-2018. Please note that x-rays only reflect when they were taken. Since shes still growing, hips and joints will be more fully developed when reaches the age of 1 for a more accurate assessment. Patellar Luxation Examination January-23-2018. Idexx SNAP® 4Dx® (November-29-2017). Tested negative for Heartworm, Lyme, Ehrlichia Canis, and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Test (December-05-2017). Tested negative for Babesia spp. (B. Canis and B. Gibsoni), Ehrlichia spp. (E. Canis and Anaplasma Platys), Haemobartonella Canis, and Borrelia Burgdorferi. ...
Nango is neutered (April-12-2015), up to date with routine shots, micro-chipped, de-wormed and tested negative for heartworm.. Was likely abandoned as a puppy, when found collar outgrew causing neck laceration: Debridement and suture performed 04-13-2015 with full recovery. Blood Test January-25-2018. X-Rays January-25-2018. Patellar Luxation Examination January-25-2018. Dental Cleaning January-25-2018. Idexx SNAP® 4Dx® (April-11-2015). Tested negative for Heartworm, Lyme, Ehrlichia Canis, and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Test (May-14-2015). Tested negative for Babesia spp. (B. Canis and B. Gibsoni), Ehrlichia spp. (E. Canis and Anaplasma Platys), Haemobartonella Canis, and Borrelia Burgdorferi. ...
These are Ixodes scapularis, the deer tick or black-legged tick. Adult deer ticks are commonly found on horses, particularly in the colder months, and in areas where disease is endemic, these ticks may transmit Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum to horses ...
BLOT kit for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the recombinant antigens of Borrelia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGA) in serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.
To determine if the range of deer ticks in Maine had expanded, we conducted a multitarget serosurvey of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in 2007. An extension of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi to the northern border and local transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum throughout southern areas was found ...
PMN are endowed with a highly efficient adhesion and migratory apparatus that supports their primary function of rapid antimicrobial response during host defense. They have evolved a capacity for rapid activation of integrins that support the transition from cell rolling to arrest and transmigration on inflamed endothelium under the hydrodynamic shear of blood flow. One such process involves recognition of sLex-decorated receptors including L-selectin and PSGL-1 that redistribute and cluster at the trailing edge of a rolling PMN (36). This in turn triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events including calcium flux, phosphorylation of MAPK, an upshift in integrin affinity, and shear-resistant adhesion (2, 3, 19). In this study, we demonstrated that rapid binding of A. phagocytophilum to PMN in a shear flow channel results in rapid PMN arrest that correlates with a small calcium flux and an upshift in CD18 affinity. Despite this response to binding A. phagocytophilum, PMN failed to fully ...
Obligatory intracellular, human ehrlichiosis agents Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have remarkable abilities to parasitize first-line immune defensive cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, respectively. As newly discovered pathogens, the bacterial or host components, the signaling pathways required for their internalization and proliferation, and how these bacteria inhibit the microbicidal activities in host cells remain vastly unknown. In this study, we found that the entry of E. chaffeensis into THP-1 cells rapidly induces the following essential signaling events: protein cross-linking by transglutaminase, tyrosine phosphorylation, phospholipase C (PLC)-?2 activation, IP 3 production, and an increase in cytosolic free calcium levels. The entry and proliferation of these pathogens involve caveolae-mediated endocytosis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. Furthermore, caveolar marker protein caveolin-1, tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, and PLC-?2 are ...
Serological surveys have confirmed Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in dromedary camels, but molecular surveys and genetic characterisation of camel-associated Anaplasma species are lacking. In this study, we detected tick-borne Anaplasmataceae in 30 of 100 (30%) healthy dromedary camels screened using a combined 16S rRNA-groEL PCR-sequencing approach. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed Anaplasmataceae genome presence in 28 of the 33 16S rRNA PCR-positive samples, with two additional positive samples, for which 16S rRNA sequence data were ambiguous, being identified by groEL gene characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of a 1289 nt segment of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a unique Ehrlichia lineage and a discrete Anaplasma lineage, comprising three variants, occurring at an overall prevalence of 4% and 26%, respectively. Genetic characterisation of an aligned 559 nt groEL gene region revealed the camel-associated Anaplasma and Ehrlichia lineages to be novel ...
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans.
Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humans and in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3 pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma...
Establishing a Protocol for the Long-term Sampling and Analysis of Tick-borne Pathogens in the Lehigh Valley Rachel Heist1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Lehigh Valley Health Network Abstract The blackedlegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, transmits several human pathogens including the spirochete that causes Lyme disease (Borellia burgdorferi), which is endemic to the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Additional tick-borne diseases have also been emerging in the region including tick-borne relapsing fever (caused by Borrelia miyamotoi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and human babesiosis (caused by Babesia microti). The dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, is capable of transmitting Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (caused by Rickettsia rickettsii). To determine the entomological risk of infection by a tick-borne pathogen, a protocol was established to gather data for a long-term study. Eleven collection sites were screened and selected for analysis
Human anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a rickettsial organism transmitted to humans by bites from Ixodes scapularis (the blacklegged tick or deer tick). In Minnesota, the same tick vector also transmits the etiologic agents of Lyme disease, babesiosis, one form of human ehrlichiosis, and a strain of Powassan virus. A. phagocytophilum can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. In 2012, 507 confirmed or probable anaplasmosis cases (9.5 cases per 100,000 population) were reported (Figure 1). The median number of 317 cases (range, 139 to 782 cases) reported from 2004 through 2012 is also considerably higher than the median number of cases reported annually from 1996 to 2003 (median, 56 cases; range, 14 to 149). Three hundred eleven (61%) cases reported in 2012 were male. The median age of cases was 56 years (range, 1 to 99 years), 17 years older that are endemic to other tick-borne diseases transmitted by I. scapularis. POW ...
Anaplasma species infection mimics many other conditions, including other chronic infections. If you are experiencing hard-to-diagnose chronic symptoms and have had a recent tick attachment or live in a region endemic for Anaplasma species in ticks, you should consider testing for Anaplasma infection. Symptoms can range from mild to serious illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, confusion, myalgia, nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, acute weight loss, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, neurological problems and other conditions that may require immediate medical attention. This zoonotic infection is primarily transmitted to humans by Ixodes ticks, but can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. Clinical presentations may be more severe when co-infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens.. Tests Offered. Anaplasma species PCR test is designed to detect all pathogenic Anaplasma species. Positive results are confirmed by DNA sequencing to identify the infecting species. It is ...
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne transmitted infection. Its clinical expression include fever, cytopenia and hepatitis.This infection was initially described in United States. In Europe, its epidemiology is not well known. Some isolated cases have been diagnosed in several country, were the tick Ixodes ricinus is known to transmitted another infection :the Lyme borreliosis.The purpose of our study is to look systematically for Anaplasmosis, in patient living in Eastern France, and presenting with compatible clinical symptoms using a new diagnosis tool : PCR in blood samples. So we will have new data about epidemiology in our country and the clinical symptoms that are associated with Anaplasmosis ...
Anaplasmosis: on an epidemiological point of view, it was not immediately clear if our patient had been exposed to tick infested in rural areas or had been in contact with pets or wild animals. Nevertheless, his stay in town parks and night cohabitation with homeless people could well have exposed him to ticks. The absence of acute phase reactants in a highly febrile patient was another intriguing point. Actually, Anaplasma phagocytophylum has as virulence factor the escape from neutrophil phagocytosis, through the inhibition of phagolysosome fusion. Although it is a potent inducer of -- INF, at the same time it behaves as an inhibitor suppressing the expression of -- INF membrane receptors and inhibiting the proinflammatory action in favour of bacterial multiplication withi n neutrophils (5- 6). The apparent failure of the appropriate treatment for anaplasmosis was another point of doubt since, despite the abatement of fever, the clinical course tended toward a greater severity. Limited ...
Les Anaplasmataceae sont des bactéries intracellulaires transmises aux animaux et à lhomme, principalement par les tiques. Les Anaplasma spp. (A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum…) et les Ehrlichia spp. (E. canis, E. ruminantium...) en sont les principaux représentants dimportance économique et sanitaire. Les outils de diagnostic disponibles jouent un rôle déterminant dans leur identification. Nous proposons une approche globale par un système permettant didentifier la plupart des espèces dAnaplasmataceae. Il est basé sur le gène codant lARNr 23S ; il couple une qPCR et une PCR standard avec deux jeux damorces suivie dun séquençage. Il est testé pour en vérifier la spécificité, puis mis en oeuvre à partir de prélèvements de sang de ruminants et de tiques : dans les Pyrénées-Atlantiques, des brebis suspectes dinfection sont porteuses dA. ovis et leurs tiques Rhipicephalus bursa, dA. ovis, dA. phagocytophilum et dune nouvelle ehrlichia. En Haute-Corse, une forte ...
It is defined as a disorder in which there is an infection caused by the bacteria. It resides in the cell and is known as the Anaplasma phago cyto philum.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis. Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Human metapneumovirus infection Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) Human monocytic ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia ...
December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1828-34 ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a coastal region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...
E. phagocytophilum and E. equi were reclassified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection Ticks of domestic ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Massung RF, Courtney JW, Hiratzka SL, Pitzer VE, Smith G, Dryden RL (October 2005). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white-tailed ... Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate ...
... prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ehrlichia sp.), Wolbachia sp., Rickettsia sp., and Babesia sp. in Southern Germany". ... Anaplasma centrale - found mainly in South America, Africa and the Middle East. Sheep and goats: Anaplasma ovis - found ... In 2005, Anaplasma ovis was found in reindeer populations in Mongolia. This pathogen and its associated syndrome (characterized ... In Australia, bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is only found in the northern and eastern parts of Australia ...
Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Cellular Microbiology. 12 (9): 1213-21 ... T4SS has two effector proteins: firstly, ATS-1, which stands for Anaplasma translocated substrate 1, and secondly AnkA, which ...
Like Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infects neutrophils. ...
2007). "Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilum for infection of human promyelocytic cells". ...
Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko (2003-09-01). "Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum lack genes for lipid A ... It is also closely related to Wolbachia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia bacteria, with Rickettsia as a more distant genus. ... unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (which causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis,). A. phagocytophilum is endemic to New England and the ... genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. These obligate intracellular bacteria infect and kill white blood cells. The average reported ...
... may also carry Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of HGE (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a Coastal Region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...
... such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic ... birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. Prevalence of Infectious Agents and Anti-Erythrocyte ...
... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: Results of a national clinic-based serologic survey". Veterinary ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Ionfhabhtú Human metapneumovirus. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Human monocytic ehrlichiosis. ...
... such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic ...
... as an alternative treatment for infections by the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum when ...
L. cervi flies are not only a nuisance, but also represent a newly discovered vector for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a Gram- ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) is a bacterium of deer that spreads to sheep where it causes tick ... Anaplasma centrale tends to infect the central region of red blood cells, and is sufficiently closely related to An. marginale ... Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... However, some microbes, such as Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale, can also be transmitted by biting flies, or by blood on ...
... baumannii Actinomyces israelii Agrobacterium radiobacter Agrobacterium tumefaciens Anaplasma Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
... renamed to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, see Human granulocytic anaplasmosis for another example) Vector: Lone star tick ( ...
... phagocytophilum Anaplasma platys Anaplasmosis Parte, A.C. "Anaplasma". www.bacterio.net. Anaplasmas reviewed and ... Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma mesaeterum and Anaplasma ovis in sheep and goats Anaplasma ... Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Anaplasma Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Anaplasma Genomes (at DOE's IMG system). ...
... HZ Genome Page Anaplasma phagocytophilum at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a small, obligate, intracellular bacterium with a Gram-negative cell wall. It is 0.2-1.0 μm and ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum binds to fucosylated and sialylated scaffold proteins on neutrophil and granulocyte surfaces. A type ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilumRedigeeri. Oletatakse, et bakteri Anaplasma phagocytophilum elutsükkel organismis võib häirida ... ning see omakorda signaliseerib neutrofiilide tõmmet Anaplasma phagocytophilumi sulundkehakestesse. Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum muudab rakkudevahelist suhtlust nii, et suureneks IL-1 ja IL-8 tsütokiinide osakaal, ...
... et Anaplasma phagocytophilum elutsükkel organismis võib häirida neutrofiilide fagotsütoosi, samuti viibib apoptoos. Anaplasma ... Nieto NC, Foley JE, Bettaso J, Lane RS.,Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ... Selles artiklis on kasutatud saksakeelset artiklit de:Anaplasma phagocytophilum seisuga 22.01.2014. ... Varem on seda bakterit nimetatud mitmeti: Anaplasma phagocytophila, Ehrlichia phagocytophilum ja Ehrlichia phagocytophila, ka ...
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia chaffeensis *Human ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum. CCAGCGTTTAGCAAGATAAGAG. msp2/p44. msp2-3F. 334. Zeidner et al. 2000 ... Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Brazilian dogs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 23:770- ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum é responsável pela anaplasmose granulocítica, doença que acomete seres-humanos e várias espécies de ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and various animal species. The aim of the ...
A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 12 lambs and 7 red deer, 11 and 4 individuals of which 16S rDNA and msp4 sequence data ... The presence of A. phagocytophilum in these samples was determined by PCR-based methods, and genotyping of detected strains was ... Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in ... To address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting ...
... phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-Active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) ... phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-Active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) ... phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-Active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) ... phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-Active, which causes human cases, and A. phagocytophilum variant 1, which does not) ...
... real-time PCR was developed to specifically detect Neoehrlichia mikurensis in combination with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ...
... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anaplasma-phagocytophilum-infection/case-definition/2008/) ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection 2008. Current. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum HZ Genome Page Anaplasma phagocytophilum at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a small, obligate, intracellular bacterium with a Gram-negative cell wall. It is 0.2-1.0 μm and ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum binds to fucosylated and sialylated scaffold proteins on neutrophil and granulocyte surfaces. A type ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western Wisconsin: a molecular survey.. Michalski M1, Rosenfield C, Erickson M, Selle ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ... The presence of A. phagocytophilum in Wisconsin white-tailed deer blood and in deer ticks was assessed using PCR and DNA ... Furthermore, two novel A. phagocytophilum variants were found in deer blood samples. Transmission of Lyme disease has been ...
... et Anaplasma phagocytophilum elutsükkel organismis võib häirida neutrofiilide fagotsütoosi, samuti viibib apoptoos. Anaplasma ... Nieto NC, Foley JE, Bettaso J, Lane RS.,Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ... Selles artiklis on kasutatud saksakeelset artiklit de:Anaplasma phagocytophilum seisuga 22.01.2014. ... Varem on seda bakterit nimetatud mitmeti: Anaplasma phagocytophila, Ehrlichia phagocytophilum ja Ehrlichia phagocytophila, ka ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. JM. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. MRK. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. NCH-1. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. CRT53-1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. CRT38. Anaplasma phagocytophilum str. ApMUC09. 322. ...
The tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilumhas been recorded in a range of mammal species and causes granulocytic ... Kenny MJ, Parsons I, Shaw SE, Beugnet F (2003) Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum infection in a UK fallow deer (Dama dama) ... Stuen S (2007) Anaplasma phagocytophilum-the most widespread tick-borne infection in animals in Europe. Vet Res Commun 31(Suppl ... Adamska M (2006) Detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in blood of roe deer and in ticks. Med Weter 62:201-203 In Polish with ...
Inability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice.. Massung RF1, Priestley RA, Miller NJ, Mather TN, ... Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the presence and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in rabbits from southeastern China.. *. [ Not Yet Rated ] [ Discuss This ... A total of 54 wild rabbits captured from southeastern China were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia ... Sequence analyses of PCR products identified a variant of A. phagocytophilum and a B. garinii genotype. This is the first ...
The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more ... This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. ... We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum; comparative genomics; diagnosis; PCR human anaplasmosis; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; comparative ...
Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ... Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ... and Anaplasma spp. was done using the msp4 data for A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis; the E. ... Sequence Analysis of the msp4 Gene of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains. José de la Fuente, Robert F. Massung, Susan J. Wong, ...
The presence of A. phagocytophilum was found in 2.7 % of foxes. ... Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in roe deer ( ... The investigation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection covered 111 red foxes from the Mazovian Province. Determination was ... Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected ... Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus ticks determined by polymerase chain reaction with two pairs of ...
... phagocytophilum in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. ... We report the first isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea. A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-day history ... New genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). ... oa Clinical Isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea * Seung Hun Lee1,†, Se Yoon Park2,5,†, Mi Jin Jang1, Ki Ju ...
Find out information about Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A genus of the family Anaplasmataceae; organisms form inclusions in red ... blood cells of ruminants Explanation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... equi and is now referred to as Anaplasma phagocytophilum (which ... Anaplasma. (redirected from Anaplasma phagocytophilum). Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia. Anaplasma. [‚an·ə′plaz·mə] ( ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Article about Anaplasma phagocytophilum by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, among other pathogens. We now show that the presence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces Ixodes scapularis ticks to express an antifreeze glycoprotein gene that enhances their ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces Ixodes scapularis ticks to express an antifreeze glycoprotein gene that enhances their ... A. phagocytophilum. -infected mice. Each circle in A. , C. , D. , and E. represents 1 individual tick, and each circle in B. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of human, equine and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever in ... A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing ... A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing ... A. phagocytophilum infection inhibits gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial metabolism, but increases the expression of glycolytic ...
c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 2 Inhibits Gamma Interferon Production during Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Joao H. F. Pedra, ... ASC/PYCARD and caspase-1 regulate the IL-18/IFN-γ axis during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. J. Immunol. 179:4783-4791. ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during infection. Cell Microbiol. 9:1730-1737. ... Infection of endothelial cells with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Vet. Microbiol. 101:53-64. ...
Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated ... Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated ... Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. This study ... Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen ...
Serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG ... phagocytophilum 16S rRNA genes and the PCR-positive rates were 26.69% for goats, 23.38% for cattle, and 10.89% for dogs. Six ... f Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Domestic Animals in Ten Provinces/Cities of China * Lijuan Zhang, Hong Liu, Bianli Xu ... Infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Germany. Res Vet Sci 91: 71-76.[Crossref]. [Google Scholar] ...
... are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the ... phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, ... phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3%) with ...
  • Esse estudo confirma a frequência relativamente alta da infecção por A. phagocytophilum em uma população de cães domiciliados em área urbanizada no sudeste do Brasil e destaca a necessidade de pesquisas para determinar o papel do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato na transmissão desse microrganismo para cães de áreas urbanas brasileiras. (scielo.br)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum- infected dogs in a residential area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were the most competent reservoirs for infection with the A. phagocytophilum human-Active strain. (elsevier.com)
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