A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A group of related mycotoxins produced by the pasture fungus Pithomyces chartarum (formerly Sporidesmium bakeri); causes liver damage and facial eczema in cattle and sheep.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.

Antigens and alternatives for control of Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. (1/95)

Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. Analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order Rickettsiales. The genus Anaplasma, of which A. marginale is the type species, now also includes A. bovis, A. platys, and A. phagocytophilum, which were previously known as Ehrlichia bovis, E. platys, and the E. phagocytophila group (which causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), respectively. Live and killed vaccines have been used for control of anaplasmosis, and both types of vaccines have advantages and disadvantages. These vaccines have been effective in preventing clinical anaplasmosis in cattle but have not blocked A. marginale infection. Thus, persistently infected cattle serve as a reservoir of infective blood for both mechanical transmission and infection of ticks. Advances in biochemical, immunologic, and molecular technologies during the last decade have been applied to research of A. marginale and related organisms. The recent development of a cell culture system for A. marginale provides a potential source of antigen for the development of improved killed and live vaccines, and the availability of cell culture-derived antigen would eliminate the use of cattle in vaccine production. Increased knowledge of A. marginale antigen repertoires and an improved understanding of bovine cellular and humoral immune responses to A. marginale, combined with the new technologies, should contribute to the development of more effective vaccines for control and prevention of anaplasmosis.  (+info)

Glycosylation of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and its putative role in adhesion to tick cells. (2/95)

Anaplasma marginale, the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle that multiplies in erythrocytes and tick cells. Major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) and MSP1b form the MSP1 complex of A. marginale, which is involved in adhesion of the pathogen to host cells. In this study we tested the hypothesis that MSP1a and MSP1b were glycosylated, because the observed molecular weights of both proteins were greater than the deduced molecular masses. We further hypothesized that the glycosylation of MSP1a plays a role in adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells. Native and Escherichia coli-derived recombinant MSP1a and MSP1b proteins were shown by gas chromatography to be glycosylated and to contain neutral sugars. Glycosylation of MSP1a appeared to be mainly O-linked to Ser/Thr residues in the N-terminal repeated peptides. Glycosylation may play a role in adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells because chemical deglycosylation of MSP1a significantly reduced its adhesive properties. Although the MSP1a polypeptide backbone alone was adherent to tick cell extract, the glycans in the N-terminal repeats appeared to enhance binding and may cooperatively interact with one or more surface molecules on host cells. These results demonstrated that MSP1a and MSP1b are glycosylated and suggest that the glycosylation of MSP1a plays a role in the adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells.  (+info)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a functional msp2 gene that is distinct from p44. (3/95)

The msp2 and p44 genes encode polymorphic major outer membrane proteins that are considered unique to the intraerythrocytic agent of Anaplasma marginale and the intragranulocytic agent of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, respectively. In the present study, however, we found an msp2 gene in A. phagocytophilum that was remarkably conserved among A. phagocytophilum strains from human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) patients, ticks, and a horse from various regions in the United States, but the gene was different in a sheep isolate from the United Kingdom. The msp2 gene in the A. phagocytophilum strain HZ genome was a single-copy gene and was located downstream of two Ehrlichia chaffeensis omp-1 homologs and a decarboxylase gene (ubiD). The msp2 gene was expressed by A. phagocytophilum in the blood from HGA patients NY36 and NY37 and by A. phagocytophilum isolates from these patients cultured in HL-60 cells at 37 degrees C. The msp2 gene was also expressed in a DBA/2 mouse infected by attaching ticks infected with strain NTN-1 and in a horse experimentally infected by attaching strain HZ-infected ticks. However, the transcript of the msp2 gene was undetectable in A. phagocytophilum strain HZ in SCID mice and Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with strain NTN-1. These results indicate that msp2 is functional in various strains of A. phagocytophilum, and relative expression ratios of msp2 to p44 vary in different infected hosts. These findings may be important in understanding roles that Msp2 proteins play in granulocytic ehrlichia infection and evolution of the polymorphic major outer membrane protein gene families in Anaplasma species.  (+info)

Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle entering Alberta feedlots: Fall 2001. (4/95)

A serologic survey was conducted in yearling cattle imported into Alberta feedlots from Montana during October 2001 to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to BTV when the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used was 0.37% (21/5608). Test positive cELISA samples were also all positive when tested by virus neutralization (VN) and they reacted to 1 or more BTV serotypes, including 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to A. marginale when a recombinant cELISA (rcELISA) was used with a positive cutoff at 30% inhibition was 1.93% (108/5608). When the rcELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 0.73% (41/5608). After the reported sensitivity and specificity of the test had been accounted for, the A. marginale antibody results were consistent with a population that was either free of exposure or had a very low prevalence for A. marginale.  (+info)

Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland. (5/95)

Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease. This was the first severe disease outbreak associated with concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens in alpine Switzerland; it was presumably curtailed by culling of the entire herd. It remains to be seen whether similar disease outbreaks will have to be anticipated in northern Europe in the future.  (+info)

The CD4+ T cell immunodominant Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 stimulates gammadelta T cell clones that express unique T cell receptors. (6/95)

Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) of the bovine rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is an abundant, serologically immunodominant outer membrane protein. Immunodominance partially results from numerous CD4+ T cell epitopes in highly conserved amino and carboxy regions and the central hypervariable region of MSP2. However, in long-term cultures of lymphocytes stimulated with A. marginale, workshop cluster 1 (WC1)+ gammadelta T cells and CD4+ alphabeta T cells proliferated, leading to a predominance of gammadelta T cells. As gammadelta T cells proliferate in A. marginale-stimulated lymphocyte cultures, this study hypothesized that gammadelta T cells respond to the abundant, immunodominant MSP2. To test this hypothesis, gammadelta T cell clones were isolated from MSP2 vaccinates and assessed for antigen-specific proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion. Seven WC1+ gammadelta T cell clones responded to A. marginale and MSP2, and three of these proliferated to overlapping peptides from the conserved carboxy region. The gammadelta T cell response was not major histocompatibility complex-restricted, although it required antigen-presenting cells and was blocked by addition of antibody specific for the T cell receptor (TCR). Sequence analysis of TCR-gamma and -delta chains of peripheral blood lymphocytes identified two novel TCR-gamma chain constant (Cgamma) regions. It is important that all seven MSP2-specific gammadelta T cell clones used the same one of these novel Cgamma regions. The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 was less conserved than those of MSP2-specific CD4+ alphabeta T cell clones. Together, these data indicate that WC1+ gammadelta T cells recognize A. marginale MSP2 through the TCR and contribute to the immunodominant response to this protein.  (+info)

Stochastic transmission of multiple genotypically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains in a herd with high prevalence of Anaplasma infection. (7/95)

Multiple genotypically unique strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale occur and are transmitted within regions where the organism is endemic. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific A. marginale strains are preferentially transmitted. The study herd of cattle (n = 261) had an infection prevalence of 29% as determined by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR, with complete concordance between results of the two assays. Genotyping revealed the presence of 11 unique strains within the herd. Although the majority of the individuals (70 of 75) were infected with only a single A. marginale strain, five animals each carried two strains with markedly distinct genotypes, indicating that superinfection does occur with distinct A. marginale strains, as has been reported with A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale strains. Identification of strains in animals born into and infected within the herd during the period from 1998 to 2003 revealed no significant difference from the overall strain prevalence in the herd, results that do not support the occurrence of preferential strain transmission within a population of persistently infected animals and are most consistent with pathogen strain transmission being stochastic.  (+info)

Identification of a novel Anaplasma marginale appendage-associated protein that localizes with actin filaments during intraerythrocytic infection. (8/95)

The rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale assembles an actin filament bundle during intracellular infection. Unlike other bacterial pathogens that generate actin filament tails, A. marginale infects mature erythrocytes, and the F-actin appendages are assembled on the cytoplasmic surface of a vacuole containing several organisms. To identify A. marginale molecules associated with these filaments, two complementary approaches were used: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of A. marginale proteins identified with an appendage-specific monoclonal antibody and expression screening of an A. marginale phage library. Amino acid and nucleotide sequences were mapped to a full-length gene in the genome of the St. Maries strain of A. marginale; the correct identification was confirmed by expression of full-length recombinant protein and its reactivity with appendage-specific antibodies. Interestingly, there is marked variation in the abilities of diverse A. marginale strains to assemble the F-actin appendages. Comparison of four strains, the Florida, Illinois, St. Maries, and Virginia strains, revealed substantial polymorphism in the gene encoding the appendage-associated protein, with amino acid sequence identity of as low as 34% among strains. However, this variation does not underlie the differences in expression, as there is no specific polymorphism associated with loss of ability to assemble actin appendages. In contrast, the ability to assemble an actin filament bundle reflected dramatic strain-specific differences in the expression level of the appendage-associated protein. Understanding how this protein influences the cycle of invasion, replication, and egress in the host cell may provide new insights into pathogen-host interactions.  (+info)

DETECTION OF Anaplasma marginale INFECTION IN A DAIRY CATTLE FARM BY STAINED BLOOD SMEAR EXAMINATION AND NESTED POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
Classification of bacteria is challenging due to the lack of a theory-based framework. In addition, the adaptation of bacteria to ecological niches often results in selection of strains with diverse virulence, pathogenicity and transmission characteristics. Bacterial strain diversity presents challenges for taxonomic classification, which in turn impacts the ability to develop accurate diagnostics and effective vaccines. Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, has become apparent. The extent of A. marginale strain diversity, formerly underappreciated, has contributed to the challenges of classification which, in turn, likely impacts the design and development of improved vaccines. Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for strain identity, is both an adhesin necessary for infection of cells and an immuno-reactive protein and is ...
Anaplasma marginale is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the main cause of bovine anaplasmosis in tropical and subtropical regions. In Egypt, data regarding the prevalence of A. marginale in ruminant hosts and of the circulating genotypes is lacking. This study therefore aimed to (i) investigate the presence, epidemiology and genotypes of A. marginale in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, (ii) to evaluate suitable diagnostic tools and (iii) to identify co-infections of A. marginale with other selected tick-borne pathogens. Blood samples were collected from 394 animals (309 cattle and 85 buffaloes) from three different areas in Egypt. For the detection of A. marginale infection, several tests were compared for their sensitivity and specificity: blood smear analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PCR, real-time PCR and reverse line blot (RLB) assay. Co-infections with A. marginale, piroplasms and other Anaplasmataceae were surveyed by RLB while A. marginale genotypes were identified by
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The establishment and maintenance of anaplasmosis-free cattle herds is impaired due to the lack of a rapid, sensitive, and specific serologic test to detect persistently infected cattle which serve as carriers for the organism. To develop an improved diagnostic test for anaplasmosis we screened Anaplasma marginale initial body proteins to identify a protein common to antigenically different isolates that is recognized by the host immune system at all stages of infection. Seronegative cattle were infected with either the Florida, Virginia, or North Texas isolate of A. marginale and monitored for infection by daily examination of Wright-stained blood smears for parasitized erythrocytes. Sera from cattle at different stages of infection, from acute through persistent, were used to immunoprecipitate A. marginale proteins that were metabolically radiolabeled with [35S]methionine or surface radiolabeled with 125I. Multiple A. marginale proteins were recognized by using sera either undiluted or at ...
A major surface protein complex from the Florida isolate of Anaplasma marginale has been previously shown to induce protection in immunized cattle and has been proposed as the basis of a subunit vaccine against anaplasmosis. This complex in the Florida isolate is composed of two noncovalently associated polypeptides with molecular masses of 105 and 100 kilodaltons (kDa). The analogous protein complex from four geographically different isolates of A. marginale was immunoprecipitated and compared with the protein complex of the Florida isolate. The polypeptides of the complex varied in apparent molecular mass among the isolates. By using antibodies recognizing epitopes on each polypeptide of the Florida isolate, the antigenic identity of the polypeptides in the analogous complexes was determined. The polypeptides recognized by the neutralizing monoclonal antibody 22B1, which recognizes a 105-kDa polypeptide in the Florida isolate, ranged from 70 to 100 kDa in the other isolates. Those polypeptides ...
Shared and unique antigens were identified and partially characterized for two morphologically and antigenically distinct isolates of Anaplasma, A. marginale (Florida) (FAM) and A. caudatum (Illinois) (IAC). Crude CA-like antigens were prepared from the parasitemic blood of each calf, separated by SDS-PAGE, electroblotted onto nitrocellulose, and detected using immune bovine sera and an avidin-biotin-peroxidase assay with biotinylated rabbit anti-goat IgG (cross-reacted with cattle, sheep and deer antibodies). IAC antigens were 200 kilodalton (kd), 100 kd, 96 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-IAC and anti-FAM sera. FAM antigens were 108 kd, 100 kd, 96 kd, 91 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-FAM sera and, except for the 91 kd, with anti-IAC sera. The 91 kd is an FAM isolate-specific antigen. The 108 kd, 100 kd, and 96 kd are group-specific antigens of A. marginale and A. centrale. The 43 to 38 kd is genus-specific. The 96, 91, and 75 kd ...
Phytopathology 92:970-975...Phytopathology 92:970-975...Virus Transmission Phenotype Is Correlated with Host Adaptation Among Genetically Diverse Populations of the Aphid Schizaphis graminum...Stewart M. Gray , Dawn M. Smith , Lia Barbierri , and John Burd...
24.BraytonKA,PalmerGH,BrownWC: Genomicandproteomicapproaches tovaccinecandidateidentificationfor Anaplasmamarginale ExpertRev Vaccines 2006, 5: 95 101. 25.PierleSA,DarkMJ,DahmenD,PalmerGH,BraytonKA: Comparative genomicsandtranscriptomicsoftrait-geneassociation. BMCGenomics 2012, 13: 669. 26.VanOpijnenT,CamilliA: Transposoninsertionsequencing:anewtoolfor systems-levelanalysisofmicroorganisms. NatRevMicrobiol 2013, 11: 435 442. 27.ClaeysBouuaertC,ChalmersRM: Genetherapyvectors:theprospectsand potentialsofthecut-and-pastetransposons. Genetica 2010, 138: 473 484. 28.PicardeauM: Transpositionofflymarinerelementsintobacteriaasa genetictoolformutagenesis. Genetica 2010, 138: 551 558. 29.LampeDJ,GrantTE,RobertsonHM: Factorsaffectingtranspositionofthe Himar1 marinertransposoninvitro. Genetics 1998, 149: 179 187. 30.PlasterkRH,IzsvakZ,IvicsZ: Residentaliens:theTc1/marinersuperfamily oftransposableelements. TrendsGenet 1999, 15: 326 332. 31.ClarkTR,EllisonDW,KlebaB,HackstadtT: Complementationof Rickettsia ...
Ubiquinone (UQ), also called coenzyme Q, and plastoquinone (PQ) are electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively. The quinoid nucleus of ubiquinone is derived from the shikimate pathway; 4-hydroxybenzoate is directly formed from chorismate in bacteria, while it can be formed from either chorismate or tyrosine in yeast. The following biosynthesis of terpenoid moiety involves reactions of prenylation, decarboxylation, and three hydroxylations alternating with three methylations. The order of these reactions are somewhat different between bacteria and yeast. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), and tocopherol (vitamin E) are fat-soluble vitamins. Phylloquinone is a compound present in all photosynthetic plants serving as a cofactor for photosystem I-mediated electron transport. Menaquinone is an obligatory component of the electron-transfer pathway in bacteria ...
Part of the ESX-3 specialized secretion system, which is important for iron and zinc uptake or homeostasis (PubMed:19684129, PubMed:24155985). EccA3 exhibits ATPase activity and may provide energy for the export of ESX-3 substrates (By similarity).
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In der vorliegenden in vitro Studie sollte der Frage nachgegangen werden, inwieweit die Teilkronenpräparation Einfluss auf die marginale Integrität der vollkeramischen Restauration im Schmelz und im Dentin nach thermomechanischer Wechselbelastung hat. Es wurden zwei unterschiedliche Präparationsformen gewählt, wobei der vestibuläre, nichttragende Höcker auf 1,0 mm Restzahnhartsubstanzstärke ausgedünnt (Präparation A) oder zusätzlich um ca. 2,0 mm horizontal reduziert und überkuppelt (Präparation B) wurde. Von den Zähnen wurden vor und nach thermomechanischer Wechselbelastung Epoxidharzreplikate hergestellt, an denen die marginale Integrität computergestützt bei 201 facher Vergrößerung mittels rasterelektronenmikroskopischer Randanalyse sowohl an allen Grenzen (Schmelz/Befestigungskomposit, Dentin/Befestigungskomposit und Keramik/Befestigungskomposit), als auch an allen Flächen (okklusal/vestibulär, palatinal, approximal/mesial und approximal/distal) ermittelt wurde. Bei ...
Anaplasma marginale is a tick-transmitted, obligate intraerythrocytic pathogen of cattle, causing anaplasmosis characterized by anemia, decreased milk and meat production, and occasionally death. Animals that survive are ...
CP000828.PILC Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept complement(390490..391710) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /gene=pilC FT /locus_tag=AM1_0417 FT /product=type II secretion system domain protein/ pilin FT biogenesis protein PilC FT /note=Member of bacterial type II secretion system protein FT F domain, PF00482. FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:AM1_0417 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABW25474 FT /db_xref=GOA:B0CAY4 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR001992 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR003004 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR018076 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR042094 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:B0CAY4 FT /protein_id=ABW25474.1 FT /translation=MPTYVVRARDSQGKSSQKRVNATSQKEARSNIQRQGLQILDIKES FT QGFSMNAELDLSFLQSITVKDKALFSRQFSALVNAGVALVRGLGVMSEQCKNPKLKKAL FT LDVNAAVQQGVSLSDAMRGHPAAFDQLYVAMIQAGETGGVLDEVLNRLATLLEDQARLK FT NQIRSALAYPVVVGFIAVSIFLGMVIFLIPVFDGIFSQLGGDLPAFTQFMVNLSEFLRT FT PIYGISAAIVVFGSTFALRQYYRTRAGRETIDRIMLKLPLFGDLIQKTAVARFCRTFGS FT LSRSGVPILYSLEIVRDTAGNQVVSNAIDEARREIQGGGMLSLALQKEKVFPLLATQMI ...
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - PathoGenetix and Applied Maths today announced a deal to integrate each others technologies into a solution for rapid pathogen strain typing.
ISSR stands for Inter Simple Sequence Repeat and refers to the genome regions between microsatellite loci. It is a rapid and inexpensive genotyping technique with a wide range of applications, including the characterization of genetic relatedness among the organisms of a population. This application describes the amplification of ISSR sequences from individual C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains using ISSR-PCR and the QIAxcel Advanced System.
Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne pathogen of cattle. It is transmitted by ixodid ticks. Symptoms of acute disease are anemia, weight loss, and often death. A.marginale establishes life-long persistent infection in animals that survive disease. These animals are clinically healthy but serve as reservoirs for transmission of the pathogen. Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale (Anaplasma centrale (strain Israel)) is a naturally occurring attenuated strain has been used as a live vaccine to prevent severe disease due to A. marginale senso stricto strains for 100 years. A. marginale subsp. centrale contains 10 putative genes not found in the genomes of senso stricto strains, while 18 genes found in senso stricto strains are absent from A. marginale subsp. centrale. As inoculation with purified outer membrane protein (OMP) complexes provides immunity against A. marginale, it is important to identify OMPs that differ among A,marginale to identify further vaccine candidates. ...
2002) Erratum to A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates [Vet. Microbiol. 86 (2002) 325-335]. Veterinary Microbiology, 87 (4). pp. 365-366. ...
The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER
Introduction. Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia Anaplasma marginale and is an endemic condition in tropical and subtropical areas. Ticks are the biological vector, but transmission may also occur mechanically by mosquitoes and bloodsucking flies (YERUHAM; BRAVERMAN, 1981). In endemic areas, calves are infected during the first months of life. Acute infections develop into a clinical disease characterized by anemia and weight loss (CORRIER; GUZMAN, 1977; RIBEIRO; REIS, 1981), and death can occur in 36% (PALMER, 1989). Animals that survive the clinical disease remain persistent carriers with low rickettsemia. They may be a source of infection for other susceptible animals that become infected through mechanical and biological vectors (SCHILF, 1971). Animal susceptibility increases with age, and younger animals are more resistant to the first infection, and have less severe clinical symptoms (ROBY et al., 1961; JONES et al., 1968).. Over the past 30 years no new ...
Aim: Anaplasma marginale is a rickettsial pathogen responsible for progressive anemia in ruminants leading to huge economic losses. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of anaplasmosis and therapeutic evaluation of traditional line of treatment.. Materials and Methods: A total of 168 cattle presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar during the period of 3 months (July-September, 2014) with history of fever, anorexia, reduced milk yield and tick infestation were analyzed for prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases using classical giemsa stained thin blood smear parasitological method.. Results: Out of these 168 animals, 7 (4.17%) were found to be suffering from anaplasmosis on the basis of presence of dense, rounded, intra-erythrocytic bodies situated on or near the margin of the erythrocytes. Overall prevalence of theileriosis and babesiosis were found to be 42.9% and 1.8%, ...
Ha, S., Furukawa, R., Stramiello, M., Wagner, J.J., and Fechheimer, M. (2011). Transgenic Mouse Model for the Formation of Hirano Bodies. BMC Neurosci. 12:97. [Epub ahead of print]. Ha, S., Furukawa, R., and Fechheimer, M. (2011). Association of AICD and Fe65 with Hirano bodies reduces transcriptional activation and initiation of apoptosis. Neurobiol Aging. 32:2287-98.. Kim, D.-H., R. Furukawa, and M. Fechheimer. 2009. Degradation of Hirano Bodies by Autophagy 5, 44-51.. Davis, R. C., Furukawa, R., and M. Fechheimer, 2008. A Mammalian Cell Culture Model for the Formation of Hirano Bodies, Acta Neuropathologica 115, 205-217.. Stich, R. W., G. A. Olah, K. A. Brayton, W. C. Brown, M. Fechheimer, K. Green-Church, S. Jittapalapong, K. M. Kocan, T. C. McGuire, F. R. Rurangirwa, and G. H. Palmer. 2004. Identification of a novel Anaplasma marginale appendage-associated protein that localizes with actin filaments during intraerythrocytic infection. Infection and Immunity 72, 7257-7264.. Maselli, A., R. ...
Below are College of Veterinary Medicine publications added to the Scopus database in the last 30 days.. PubMed Collection of MU CVM Publications 2020. Congratulations to all the recently published authors!. Note: access to the full text may be subject to library subscriptions.. Journal Articles. Saetiew N, Simking P, Saengow S, Morand S, Desquesnes M, Stich RW, Jittapalapong S. Spatial and seasonal variation in the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale among beef cattle in previously flooded regions of Thailand. Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2020;54(4):355-62. doi: 10.34044/j.anres.2020.54.4.03.. Wiemken TL, Ericsson AC. Chlorhexidine gluconate does not result in epidermal microbiota dysbiosis in healthy adults. American Journal of Infection Control. 2020. Epub 2020/12/02. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2020.11.021. PubMed PMID: 33259824.. Zhao ZH, Li CY, Meng TG, Wang Y, Liu WB, Li A, Cai YJ, Hou Y, Schatten H, Wang ZB, Sun QY, Sun Q. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals regulation of fetal ovary ...
Maries memoirs, The Education of a Princess and A Princess in Exile, published by Viking Press in 1930 and 1932, were highly successful, and she signed many copies with a purple flourish. But what next? She had a living to make, at a time when former Wall Street millionaires were selling apples on streetcornersa familiar sight for one who had lived as a former-person under the Bolsheviks. One talent Marie seemed to constantly improve was her ability to charm sometimes perfect strangers, although the exquisite portrait painter and fellow ÚmigrÚe aristocrat Elly Shoumatoff (for whom Marie had sat in 1930) felt one of Maries less positive talents was for getting involved with undesirable people. When among her friends, Marie was warm and funny; but when pulling rank, in the words of Mme Shoumatoffs grandson, writer Alex Shoumatoff, the grand duchess could run the gamut from mildly annoying to sadly pathetic.. Mostly, it was the charm that came through, along with that enduring desire ...
Bain Marie E24M-F merupakan mesin yang dipakai sebagai pemajang maupun menghangatkan makanan. Dengan memakai mesin bain marie counter ini makanan akan tetap terjaga kualitasnya melalui penghangatan dari makanan tersebut. Mesin bain marie counter ini memiliki tampilan desain yang menarik dengan dilengkapi thermostat dan lampu indikator. Mesin bain marie terbuat dari bahan stainless Steel sehingga membuat makanan yang dipajang terlihat lebih cantik dan juga menarik. Cocok untuk penyajian makanan panas di rumah, cafe, dsb.. ...
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an obligate gram-negative bacteria, Anaplasma (A.) marginale. This study reports on the seasonal prevalence, epidemiology and phylogeny of A. marginale in three breeds …. ...
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an obligate gram-negative bacteria, Anaplasma (A.) marginale. This study reports on the seasonal prevalence, epidemiology and phylogeny of A. marginale in three breeds …. ...
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Whats the over/under on Marie breaking out into tears during testimony? Marie thinks President Trump was mean to her, implies she feels threatened. Really, Marie? From President Zelinsky to President Trump: ......It was great that you were the first one who told me that she was a bad Ambassador because I agree with you 100%.…
Cel mai adeasea, cei care locuiesc la bloc isi achizitioneaza si monteaza centrale termice cu condensare datorita faptului ca acestea consuma putina energie.. Nu trebuie sa mergi neaparat prin magazine si sa umbli zile in sir pentru a cumpara o centrala. Poti cumpara o centrala si online de pe Epinvest.ro. Intra pe site si consulta lista cu centralele disponibile.. Nu este convenabil sa cumperi centrale termice cu condensare atunci cand locuiesti la casa. Daca locuiesti la casa, cel mai convenabil este sa-ti achizitionezi o centrala termica pe lemne. Ai cu siguranta spatiu suficient pentru depozitarea lemnelor si suficient spatiu pentru camera in care tii centrala.. ...
If we really want to get more women into STEM fields, we need to enact a moratorium on Marie Curie. Its all well and good to have that obligatory female nerd in the lab on every procedural mystery TV show, to include some lab-coated ladies in a Lego set, or to add a computer engineer Barbie to Mattels latest line (though that one didnt go so well). But clearly its not enough. Every single one of us needs to scrub that you-know-who reflex from our brain and replace it with a diverse set of important female innovators. When we do, girls will gain Grace Hopper, who was one of the most important-and colorful-computer scientists in history; Marie Tharp, who mapped the ocean floor and saw evidence of continental drift years before her partner or others in the scientific community accepted the idea; Virginia Apgar, whose scoring system for newborns has saved countless babies lives; and Inge Lehmann, who discovered Earths inner core. ...
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Building on the momentum generated out of last weeks Families Against Narcotics (FAN) presentation, more than two dozen people gathered in the Avery Center Wednesday to decide where we - as a community - go from here.Prevention Coordinator Karen Senkus of the Chippewa County Health Department said she was pleased by the turnout before giving the crowd their instructions:
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The Marie Curie Actions are the EUs funding mechanism for supporting the mobility and career development of researchers across Europe. (In Horizon 2020, they have been renamed the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions). Since 1996, the Marie Curie Actions have helped thousands of researchers of all ages, nationalities and disciplines develop their careers and realise their research dreams - no other scheme in the world offers such a wide variety of opportunities to such a broad range of researchers. By doing this, the Marie Curie Actions also promote the transfer of knowledge and skills across national and sectoral borders, and crucially, advance excellence in research and innovation across Europe.. The Initial Training Networks are one particular Marie Curie Action, which supports early stage researchers. Each network consists of a consortium of research partners and industry, with an integrated training programme in a particular topic. The Marie Curie Actions then fund a number of early stage ...
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Heres something all the means girls can write about in their notebooks: Rachel McAdams is now a redhead.The Vow star ventured to Disneyland Wednesday with a new do, according to US Magazine.Rachel McAdams and Michael Sheen splitMcAdams, 34, kept her ...
La Conférence sur le diabète et les autres MNT en Afrique de lOuest et en Afrique centrale a examiné les défis que le diabète et les autres maladies non transmissibles représentent pour la santé et le bien-être des citoyens de la région et par conséquent pour les économies de ces pays. Les participants à cette rencontre ont adopté la déclaration suivante et ont lancé un appel urgent à laction ...
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The Container Store Group, Inc. (NYSE: TCS) shares are trading higher after the company reported fiscal second-quarter earnings of 41 cents per share, up from 8 cents year-over-year. The company reported quarterly sales of $248.20 million, which beat the analyst consensus estimate of $216.45 million by 14.6%.The company also announced its launching an exclusive co-branded collection of organizing tools by Marie Kondo.The Container Store has seen a lot of interest after Netflix, Inc. (NASDAQ: NFLX) started streaming episodes of Get Organized With the Home Edit, a show based on an extreme organization book by Clea Shearer and Joanna Tepin called The Home Edit.View more earnings on TCSSee Also: Container Stores Stock Is Getting A Netflix Home Edit BoostThe Container Store Group operates as a retailer of storage and organization products and solutions in the United States. It operates through two segments, The Container Store and Elfa. The company provides approximately 11,000 products designed to
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136). Mackerras, I. M., Mackerras, M. J., & Mulhearn, C. R. (1942). Attempted transmission of Anaplasma marginale Theiler by ...
"mCherry - MCherry fluorescent protein - Anaplasma marginale - mCherry gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2018-11-11. ...
"Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants". Molecular ... Ehrlichia and its closely related genus Anaplasma show extreme diversity in the structure and content of their genomes. This ...
It is a potential vector of many babesiosis pathogens like Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Anaplasma marginale. It shows a ...
The dominant parasites were Theileria species, T. buffeli, T. bicornis, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma marginale and A. bovis. ...
Anaplasma centrale tends to infect the central region of red blood cells, and is sufficiently closely related to An. marginale ... Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... marginale. Sheep and goats suffer disease from infection with Anaplasma ovis which is transmitted similarly to the anaplasmas ... However, some microbes, such as Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale, can also be transmitted by biting flies, or by blood on ...
Tabanid flies are also transmitters the bacteria Anaplasma marginale and A.centrale to cattle, sheep and goats, causing ... Scoles,G.A., (2008) Comparison of the efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: ...
2005). "Complete genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the surface is skewed to two superfamilies of outer ...
Tick fever is caused by the diseases Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, or Anaplasma marginale which are transmitted by cattle ...
They are unaffected by tsetse flies but ticks may introduce parasitic protozoa such as Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale and ...
Many MSPs are found in Anaplasma and those which interact with Anaplasma can mainly be found in A. marginale and A. ... A. marginale evolved to be more specific in infecting animals, such as deer and cattle in the subtropics and tropics. The main ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Anaplasma MSPs can not only cooperate with vertebrates, but also invertebrates, which make these phenotypes evolve faster than ...
Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina. Tick fever results in exterior material damage, internal damage, loss of condition, ...
Anaplasma marginale, which causes anaplasmosis in cattle, Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia, Babesia caballi, ...
Anaplasma marginale - found worldwide Anaplasma centrale - found mainly in South America, Africa and the Middle East Sheep and ... In Australia, bovine anaplasmosis, caused by A. marginale, is found in only the northern and eastern parts of Australia where ... Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp and is therefore related to rickettsial ... It can be contracted from tick bites which contain Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The most common tick that carries the bacterium ...
... and the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. Horses may be infected with Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophila, and the viral ... Anaplasma phagocytophila), Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), Boutonneuse fever (Rickettsia conorii), ...
Anaplasma MeSH B03.440.040.050.100 - Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.440.040.050.500 - Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.440.040.050.575 ... Anaplasma MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.100 - Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.500 - Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.660. ... Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.440.040.050.600 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH B03.440.040.287 - Ehrlichia MeSH B03.440.040.287.090 ... 050.020.050.575 - Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.600 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH B03.660.050.020.287 - Ehrlichia ...
... marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma ... Anaplasma species are biologically transmitted by Ixodes deer-tick vectors, and the prototypical species, A. marginale, can be ... Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Anaplasma is a genus of bacteria of the alphaproteobacterial order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae. Anaplasma species ...
Other species of Anaplasma, most commonly A. marginale, are well documented to cause disease in cattle. Anaplasma species ... "Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild ... Other members of this genus include the species A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. platys, A. ovis, and A. centrale Anaplasma ... Anaplasma bovis is currently one of 6 recognized species within the Genus Anaplasma. ...
L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale ... Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS is one of seven ... The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector ... Conclusions The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were ...
Anaplasma marginale str. Florida; Anaplasma marginale str. Illinois; Anaplasma marginale str. St. Maries; Anaplasma marginale ... Anaplasma marginale (Theiler, 1910) Description and significance. Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne, ... 5) NCBI Taxonomy Browser, "Anaplasma marginale" Retrieved 30 April, 2007 6) TGR-CMR, "Anaplasma marginale St. Maries Genome" ... "D425 Anaplasma Marginale" 8) Ueti MW, Reagan JO Jr, Knowles DP Jr, Scoles GA, Shkap V, Palmer GH., "Identification of midgut ...
Experimental transmission of bovine anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma marginale) by means of Dermacentor variabilis and D. ... Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale-tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor ... Infection exclusion of the rickettsial pathogen anaplasma marginale in the tick vector Dermacentor variabilis. ... Vaccination of cattle with Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture and bovine erythrocytes followed by challenge- ...
Three isolates of Anaplasma marginale--Virginia (VAM), Illinois (IAM), and Florida (FAM)--were compared for infectivity for ... Infectivity of three Anaplasma marginale isolates for Dermacentor andersoni Am J Vet Res. 1987 Jan;48(1):96-9. ... Three isolates of Anaplasma marginale--Virginia (VAM), Illinois (IAM), and Florida (FAM)--were compared for infectivity for ... Colonies of A marginale were observed only in gut tissues of ticks naturally infected with VAM. The IAM (appendage present) and ...
Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis - Anaplasma marginale Florida [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway ...
Anaplasma marginale. The major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) has been used as a genetic marker for identifying A. marginale ... Here we propose one nomenclature for A. marginale strain classification based on MSP1a. All tandem repeats among A. marginale ... marginale strains. The analysis of MSP1a sequences provides relevant information about the biology of A. marginale to design ... A total of 224 different strains of A. marginale were classified, showing 11 genotypes based on the 5′-UTR microsatellite and ...
The persistence of colostral Anaplasma marginale antibodies and incidence of in utero transmission of Anaplasma infections in ... Anaplasma marginale is a pathogen of the Rickettsiales order, family Anaplasmataceae (DUMLER et al., 2001), and is an obligate ... Anaplasma marginale (THEILER, 1910): Imunidade passiva e ativa em bovinos nascidos na primavera no sul do Rio Grande do Sul [ ... Epidemiologia molecular de Anaplasma marginale em bovinos criados nos estados de Rondônia e Acre. Porto Velho: Embrapa Rondônia ...
Find out information about Anaplasma marginale. A genus of the family Anaplasmataceae; organisms form inclusions in red blood ... Anaplasma. (redirected from Anaplasma marginale). Also found in: Medical. Anaplasma. [‚an·ə′plaz·mə] (microbiology) A genus of ... Anaplasma marginale , Article about Anaplasma marginale by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ... and Anaplasma marginale (among bacteria) and African trypanosomes, Plasmodium falciparum, and Babesia bovis (among parasites) ...
... marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self- ... marginale outer membrane fractions, suggesting formulations will be useful for bovine immunisation and protection studies. ... Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma ... marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are ...
Detection of an Anaplasma marginale common surface protein present in all stages of infection.. G H Palmer, A F Barbet, K L ... Detection of an Anaplasma marginale common surface protein present in all stages of infection. ... Detection of an Anaplasma marginale common surface protein present in all stages of infection. ... Detection of an Anaplasma marginale common surface protein present in all stages of infection. ...
Cyclic rickettsemia during persistent Anaplasma marginale infection of cattle.. S T Kieser, I S Eriks, G H Palmer ... Cyclic rickettsemia during persistent Anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Submicroscopic levels of Anaplasma marginale rickettsemia in persistently infected cattle were determined by using nucleic acid ...
Vaccination with Anaplasma centrale: Response after an experimental challenge with Anaplasma marginale. Trop Anim Health Prod ... Duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection and quantification of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ... marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale infection. One study using the cELISA showed high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. ... marginale is globally prevalent and results in anemia, with mortality rates of up to 30% (2). Anaplasma marginale subspecies ...
Recognition of conserved surface protein epitopes on Anaplasma centrale and Anaplasma marginale isolates from Israel, Kenya and ... Anaplasma strains and preparation of homogenates, MSP2, and MSP2-derived peptides. The A. marginale strains used in this study ... Expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 variants during persistent cyclic rickettsemia. Infect. Immun. 66: ... The immunoprotective Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 (MSP-2) is encoded by a polymorphic multigene family. Infect. ...
A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In ... A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In ... marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV ... marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV ...
... ( PDF ). Supplement 1 ( PDF ). ... Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of Anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis. Physical Description: Mixed ... Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of Anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis. ... Figure1 Redfluorescent A.marginale .A .Plasmidmapof pHimarcisA7mCherry-SS usedfortheelectroporationof A.marginale str. Virginia ...
Molecular size variations in an immunoprotective protein complex among isolates of Anaplasma marginale.. S M Oberle, G H Palmer ... A major surface protein complex from the Florida isolate of Anaplasma marginale has been previously shown to induce protection ... Molecular size variations in an immunoprotective protein complex among isolates of Anaplasma marginale. ... Molecular size variations in an immunoprotective protein complex among isolates of Anaplasma marginale. ...
Differential gene transcription, especially of potential vaccine candidates, is of interest in Anaplasma marginale, the tick- ... Quantitative PCR was used to assess transcription of a set of genes in A. marginale infected tick midguts and salivary glands ... Genes belonging to fourteen pathways or component groups were found to be differentially transcribed in A. marginale in the ... RNA-seq technology allowed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional status of A. marginale genes in two conditions: ...
Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a: a marker of strain diversity with implications for control of bovine anaplasmosis ... Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, ... Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for ... Herein, we discuss a molecular taxonomic approach for classification of A. marginale strain diversity. Taxonomic analysis of ...
Anaplasma marginale DNA was amplified by qPCR in 68.3% of cattle and 29.4% of buffaloes. RLB showed infection with A. marginale ... ELISA showed specific antibodies against A. marginale in 54.9% of cattle. Anaplasma marginale was associated, in cattle and ... Co-infections with A. marginale, piroplasms and other Anaplasmataceae were surveyed by RLB while A. marginale genotypes were ... Babesia occultans and Anaplasma platys). A significant difference of A. marginale infection level was noticed in cattle, where ...
Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma Caudatum (Illinois ... Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma Caudatum (Illinois ... Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma Caudatum (Illinois ... The Anaplasma antigens had a neutral pI, were heat stable, and lost their antigenicity after treatment with chymotrypsin. The ...
BACKGROUND : Only a few studies have examined the presence of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in South Africa, and ... Anaplasma marginale was prevalent in the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga and absent in the Northern Cape. Anaplasma ... Co-infections with multiple genotypes of Anaplasma marginale in cattle indicate pathogen diversity. Hove, Paidashe; Chaisi, ... Co-infections with multiple genotypes of Anaplasma marginale in cattle indicate pathogen diversity. Login ...
... Login ... The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of assays for detection of Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating ... Diagnostic accuracy of methods for detecting Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico. Fosgate, ...
... we used a functional genomics approach to characterize tick genes regulated in response to Anaplasma marginale infection. ... Four genes, which encode putative GST, salivary selenoprotein M, vATPase, and ubiquitin, affected A. marginale infection in ... marginale. Nine of 17 of these genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR to be differentially regulated in ticks and/or IDE8 ... tick cells in response to A. marginale infection. RNA interference was used for functional studies. Six genes, which encode ...
and Anaplasma marginale (among bacteria) and African trypanosomes, Plasmodium falciparum, and Babesia bovis (among parasites) ... Emergence of Anaplasma marginale antigenic variants during persistent rickettsemia. Infect Immun. 1999;67:5834-40.PubMed ... In cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale, the number of pathogens in the blood varies between a peak of 106 to 107 per mL to ... Anaplasma marginale and Related Bacteria. Anaplasmosis, a persistent intraerythrocytic infection of cattle and goats, has a ...
Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, a disease which can be protected by vaccination with the ... A molecular test specific for A. marginale would be ideal for the identification of Anaplasma species in wild ruminants, as ... A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates ... 2002) A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates. ...
2002) Erratum to "A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale ... Erratum to "A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates ...
Antigenic characterization of Anaplasma marginale isolates from different regions of Brazil. Kano, F S; Vidotto, O; Pacheco, R ... Antigenic characterization of Anaplasma marginale isolates from different regions of Brazi ... marginale isolates from different regions. Brazilian A. marginale isolates were characterized antigenically by Western blot ... Six A. marginale isolates from MS, MG (AUFV1), SP, PR-L1, PR-HV, RS and Florida strain were tested with ANA22B1 to MSP-1a, ...
A pcr for differentiate between anaplasma marginale and a. centrale . João Martins ; Aoi Masuda ; Adriana Seixas ; Itabajara da ... During production of the vaccine, accidental contamination with Anaplasma marginale (A.. marginale) is a risk that can ... A pcr for differentiate between anaplasma marginale and a. centrale - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para ... 1270 ISSN 1679-9216 A PCR for Differentiate between Anaplasma marginale and A.. centrale Ana Carolina Joazeiro1,2, João ...
Anaplasma marginale Theiler (ATCC® VR-1436™) ATCC® Number: VR-1436™ Classification: Rickettsiae ...
  • Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne, livestock pathogen worldwide and poses a considerable constraint to animal health. (kenyon.edu)
  • Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale -tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor variabilis . (nih.gov)
  • Bovine anaplasmosis caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is endemic in South Africa. (asm.org)
  • Bovine anaplasmosis (gallsickness) is a tick-borne disease caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Genogroup II ehrlichia, including the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, and the bovine pathogen Anaplasma marginale , express a markedly immunodominant outer membrane protein designated major surface protein 2 (MSP2). (jimmunol.org)
  • We demonstrate MSP2-specific CD4 + T lymphocyte recognition of epitopes common to several strains of A. marginale and the related pathogen A. ovis . (jimmunol.org)
  • Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) 3 is an immunodominant outer membrane protein (OMP) of the genogroup II ehrlichial pathogen Ehrlichia phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), and Anaplasma marginale . (jimmunol.org)
  • In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). (frontiersin.org)
  • These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen-host interfaces that directly engage the ER in vertebrate and invertebrate host cells and evidence the conservation of ER parasitism between two Anaplasma species. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are interested in exploring differences in pathogen transcription in these dissimilar environments and are using Anaplasma marginale as our model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A. marginale is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes bovine anaplasmosis and depends on a tick vector for efficient transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, has become apparent. (csic.es)
  • Both tick and animal hosts are considered reservoirs for this pathogen and can become persistently infected with A. marginale . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Fuente2007FunctionalGS, title={Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A PCR assay was designed to amplify the major surface protein 1α gene of the rickettsial bovine pathogen, A. marginale both as an inter- and intra-specific test. (edu.au)
  • 2005). The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale , an ehrlichial pathogen of the genogroup II (Dumler et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Quantitative differences in salivary pathogen load during tick transmission underlie strain-specific variation in transmission efficiency of Anaplasma marginale. (nih.gov)
  • Strains of the tick-borne rickettsia Anaplasma marginale differ markedly in transmission efficiency, with a consequent impact on pathogen strain structure. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative analysis of pathogen replication and secretion revealed that the high-efficiency St. Maries strain replicated to a 10-fold-higher titer and that a significantly greater percentage of infected ticks secreted A. marginale into the saliva and did so at a significantly higher level than for the low-efficiency Israel vaccine strain. (nih.gov)
  • Propagation of the Israeli vaccine strain of Anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • centrale were further characterized using the msp1aS gene, a homolog of msp1 α of A. marginale , which contains repeats at the 5′ ends that are useful for genotyping strains. (asm.org)
  • centrale strains from cattle and wildlife hosts from South Africa and indicate the utility of msp1aS as a genotypic marker for A. marginale subsp. (asm.org)
  • centrale does not provide complete protection against A. marginale infection but does protect against severe anaplasmosis ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The 108 kd, 100 kd, and 96 kd are group-specific antigens of A. marginale and A. centrale. (illinois.edu)
  • BACKGROUND : Only a few studies have examined the presence of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in South Africa, and no studies have comprehensively examined these species across the whole country. (up.ac.za)
  • Of the cattle samples screened using the assay, 57% and 17% were found to be positive for A. marginale and A. centrale, respectively. (up.ac.za)
  • Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, a disease which can be protected by vaccination with the less pathogenic Anaplasma species, A. centrale. (edu.au)
  • A molecular test specific for A. marginale would be ideal for the identification of Anaplasma species in wild ruminants, as possible reservoirs of anaplasmosis, and to differentiate between A. marginale from A. centrale. (edu.au)
  • The test did not amplify A. centrale or A. ovis, and discriminated A. marginale by amplifying repeat regions within the msp1α gene which vary in number between many isolates. (edu.au)
  • da Silva Vaz Junior, Itabajara A PCR for Differentiate between Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, vol. (duhnnae.com)
  • 1270 ISSN 1679-9216 A PCR for Differentiate between Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale Ana Carolina Joazeiro1,2, João Martins3, Aoi Masuda1, Adriana Seixas1,4 & Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior1,2 ABSTRACT Background: Anaplasma marginale ssp. (duhnnae.com)
  • for detecting and differentiating with greater sensitivity and specificity the species of A. centrale and A. marginale in blood samples from experimentally infected cattle. (duhnnae.com)
  • Erythrocytes infected with known A. centrale, A. marginale served as positive control and the erytrocytes infected with Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina served as the negat. (duhnnae.com)
  • Immunization with the current vaccine, based on parasitized erythrocytes with live Anaplasma centrale, shows some constraints and confers partial protection, suggesting the feasibility for the development of new generation of vaccines. (gob.ar)
  • Current methods of control of anaplasmosis include immunization of susceptible animals with infected blood from carrier cattle (premunition) or infection with attenuated live or less pathogenic Anaplasma centrale live vaccines (Kocan et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Differential expression of the tick protective antigen subolesin in anaplasma marginale - and A. phagocytophilum-infected host cells. (nih.gov)
  • While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum -occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans -Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale -occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale are tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the Family Anaplasmataceae that cause debilitating and potentially fatal diseases ( Carlyon, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum…) et les Ehrlichia spp. (inist.fr)
  • The tick IMD network protects against colonization by three distinct bacteria, that is the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the rickettsial agents Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A. marginale . (nature.com)
  • and Anaplasma marginale (among bacteria) and African trypanosomes, Plasmodium falciparum, and Babesia bovis (among parasites) are examples of pathogens using these mechanisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anaplasma marginale was associated, in cattle and buffaloes, with several tick-borne pathogens ( Theileria annulata , Babesia bovis , Babesia bigemina , Babesia occultans and Anaplasma platys ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular clones expressing a conserved 19 kDa protein of Anaplasma marginale and a 34 kDa protein of Babesia equi were derived and characterized. (naver.com)
  • Spatial variation of tick abundance and seroconversion rates of indigenous cattle to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Therileria parva infections in Uganda. (sjournals.com)
  • Molecular detection and genetic identification of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in Turkey. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluación de estabilizados a base de Babesia bovis y Anaplasma marginale en desafío natural. (agrosavia.co)
  • Presence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia spp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Relacion entre infecciones asintomaticas con Anaplasma marginale, Babesia spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have a trivalent vaccine to cover 2 Babesia sp as well as Anaplasma marginale. (cattletoday.com)
  • Similarly, in two out of 12 catching days (16.66 %), those S. calcitrans batches collected in the morning and in the afternoon, were pos-itive for A. marginale , while those S. calcitrans groups collected in three out of 12 catching days (25 %), were positive for the rickettsia. (unam.mx)
  • Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (embrapa.br)
  • Recognition of epitopes by total IgG and by IgG2 from infected cattle with A. marginale support the inclusion of these proteins in recombinant vaccines against this rickettsia. (embrapa.br)
  • Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on recombinant major surface protein 5 (rMSP5) and initial body (IB) antigens from a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale were developed to detect antibodies against this rickettsia in cattle. (fiocruz.br)
  • Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia Anaplasma marginale and is an endemic condition in tropical and subtropical areas. (scielo.br)
  • Differential gene transcription, especially of potential vaccine candidates, is of interest in Anaplasma marginale , the tick-borne causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anaplasma marginale, the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, is a tick-borne bacterium that causes significant economic losses for cattle industries. (usda.gov)
  • phagocytophila strains align into a clade that includes Anaplasma marginale , the historical precedent in this grouping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A diverse population of A. marginale strains are found in South Africa, with some msp1α genotypes widely distributed across the country, and others appearing only once in one province. (up.ac.za)
  • Machado ZR, Barbosa da Silva J, André MR, Goncalves RL, Matos CA, Obregón D. Outbreak of anaplasmosis associated with the presence of different Anaplas¬ma marginale strains in dairy cattle in the states of Sao Paulo and Goias, Brazil. (unam.mx)
  • We have identified two A. marginale strains with significant differences in the transmission phenotype that is effected following infection of the salivary gland. (nih.gov)
  • A major surface protein complex from the Florida isolate of Anaplasma marginale has been previously shown to induce protection in immunized cattle and has been proposed as the basis of a subunit vaccine against anaplasmosis. (asm.org)
  • The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (Tams-1), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP) and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 variants during persistent cyclic rickettsemia. (unam.mx)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sequential immunization of BALB/c mice, with herpesvirus amplicon vector-based vaccines combined with protein-based vaccines, on the quality of the immune response against the major surface protein 5 of A. marginale. (gob.ar)
  • Despite a global impact on animal health, there is no widely accepted vaccine for "Anaplasma marginale. (kenyon.edu)
  • the strain known as the "Israel strain" or the "vaccine strain" was sent to Israel in the 1950s and was used to generate the complete genome sequence for A. marginale subsp. (asm.org)
  • The data may improve vaccine development to protect against A. marginale isolates from different regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • During production of the vaccine, accidental contamination with Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) is a risk that can jeopardize the entire batch of vaccine. (duhnnae.com)
  • Alice: IgG and IgG2 antibodies from cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale recognize the recombinant vaccine candidate antigens VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu. (embrapa.br)
  • 1999). Consequently, current research emphasizes the identification of the effectors of protective immunity and of the A. marginale epitopes targeted by these effectors, with the goal of developing a standardized and safe vaccine (Palmer et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Control of A. marginale infection requires both an effective vaccine and accurate identification of carrier cattle (Andrade et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Detection of an Anaplasma marginale common surface protein present in all stages of infection. (asm.org)
  • Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for strain identity, is both an adhesin necessary for infection of cells and an immuno-reactive protein and is also an indicator of the evolution of strain diversity. (csic.es)
  • Complete genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the surface is skewed to two super families of outer membrane proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale . (mdpi.com)
  • To develop an improved diagnostic test for anaplasmosis we screened Anaplasma marginale initial body proteins to identify a protein common to antigenically different isolates that is recognized by the host immune system at all stages of infection. (asm.org)
  • Sera from cattle at different stages of infection, from acute through persistent, were used to immunoprecipitate A. marginale proteins that were metabolically radiolabeled with [35S]methionine or surface radiolabeled with 125I. (asm.org)
  • These MSP2 proteins comprise the dominant Ags recognized by sera from patients infected with E. phagocytophila ( 1 , 2 ) and cattle infected with A. marginale ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The Major surface proteins (MSP) of A. marginale play an important role in the interaction with the host, as these are highly variable proteins and responsible for the invasion of host cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differentially regulated genes/proteins were identified by suppression-subtractive hybridization and differential in-gel electrophoresis analyses of cultured IDE8 tick cells infected with A. marginale. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antigenic characterization of A. marginale isolates has contributed to identifying the presence of common and restricts epitopes of major surface proteins (MSPs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies reactive with these proteins were derived and applied with recombinant copies of the 19 kDa A. marginale and 34 kDa B. equi proteins in a CI-ELISA format. (naver.com)
  • Serologic tests for anaplasmosis based on crude antigen have a high error rate due to false-positive results with bovine erythrocyte proteins contaminating the A. marginale antigen and reacting with anti-erythrocyte antibodies in bovine sera (as reviewed by Knowles et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • To improve serological diagnosis of bovine anaplasmosis, research has focused on the identification and characterization of A. marginale membrane antigens, by gene cloning and production of recombinant proteins, which would be suitable for diagnostic tests (Reyna-Bello et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Silencing expression of the defensin, varisin, in male Dermacentor variabilis by RNA interference results in reduced Anaplasma marginale infections. (nih.gov)
  • Three isolates of Anaplasma marginale--Virginia (VAM), Illinois (IAM), and Florida (FAM)--were compared for infectivity for Dermacentor andersoni. (nih.gov)
  • Localization of Anaplasma colonies (arrows) within the granular acinar cells (G) of Dermacentor andersoni salivary glands. (nih.gov)
  • At least 20 ixodid tick species have been implicated in the transmission of A. marginale, including Dermacentor spp. (usda.gov)
  • In North America, A. marginale can be transmitted by the Dermacentor species of ticks, including the three-host ticks Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick), Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick), Dermacentor occidentalis (Pacific Coast tick - not present in Canada), and the one-host tick Dermacentor albipictus (winter or moose tick). (alberta.ca)
  • Transstadial and attempted transovarial transmission of Anaplasma marginale by Dermacentor variabilis. (google.com.au)
  • The distribution of Dermacentor hunteri and Anaplasma sp. (usda.gov)
  • A. marginale is the most pathogenic of its species causing anaplasmosis, which is a form of tick fever carried by specific cattle tick species. (kenyon.edu)
  • Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 380 blood samples from wild ruminant species and cattle collected from biobanks, national parks, and other regions of South Africa were used in duplex real-time PCR assays to simultaneously detect A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. (asm.org)
  • Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species' vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles' lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Currently, there is no polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay available which differentiates between different species of Anaplasma or which can differentiate isolates of A. marginale within outbreaks and between different countries. (edu.au)
  • The 19 kDa A. marginale protein, conserved in all recognized Anaplasma species, and present in the infected tick salivary gland, was reactive with all bovine immune sera tested. (naver.com)
  • The heat-shock protein (GroEL) genes of Anaplasma marginale, Ehrlichia muris and 'Ehrlichia platys' were sequenced and compared with the GroEL of other species of Ehrlichia. (utmb.edu)
  • 1998, Torioni de Echaide 1998), as it is conserved between Anaplasma species and isolates, including Brazilian isolates of A. marginale (Visser et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Ehrlichia and their closely related species Anaplasma show extreme diversity in the structure and content of their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important species for the economy and for health are Anaplasma spp. (inist.fr)
  • This protein was demonstrated to be on the surface of the A. marginale initial body and to be water soluble. (asm.org)
  • Immunoblot analysis showed a reduction in the production of Omp9 protein in these mutants compared to wild-type A. marginale. (ufl.edu)
  • Molecular size variations in an immunoprotective protein complex among isolates of Anaplasma marginale. (asm.org)
  • The analogous protein complex from four geographically different isolates of A. marginale was immunoprecipitated and compared with the protein complex of the Florida isolate. (asm.org)
  • MSP4 and MSP5 were detected in all A. marginale isolates analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibody against an Anaplasma marginale MSP5 epitope common to tick and erythrocyte stages identified persistently infected cattle. (sjournals.com)
  • The cattle infection was investigated by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) using the specific primer "msp5" for A. marginale. (bvsalud.org)
  • Após a extração do DNA de cada amostra, a infecção nos bovinos foi investigada pela amplificação do gene "msp5" de A. marginale. (bvsalud.org)
  • Seven of the batches (29.16 %) were pos-itive for A. marginale , as detected by an nPCR that targets the A. marginale msp5 gene. (unam.mx)
  • Relative efficiency of biological trans¬mission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Derma¬centor andersoni (Acari:Ixodidae) compared with mechanical transmission by Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). (unam.mx)
  • Antigenic variation in the persistence and transmission of the ehrlichia, Anaplasma marginale. (sjournals.com)
  • The GroEL amino acid sequences of A. marginale and ' E. platys' were most similar to the GroEL sequence of Ehrlichia phagocytophila, with which they formed one group with 6-10% divergence. (utmb.edu)
  • Seronegative cattle were infected with either the Florida, Virginia, or North Texas isolate of A. marginale and monitored for infection by daily examination of Wright-stained blood smears for parasitized erythrocytes. (asm.org)
  • Shared and unique antigens were identified and partially characterized for two morphologically and antigenically distinct isolates of Anaplasma, A. marginale (Florida) (FAM) and A. caudatum (Illinois) (IAC). (illinois.edu)
  • Brazilian A. marginale isolates were characterized antigenically by Western blot with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against MSPs and rabbit anti-MSP-4 from Florida strain . (bvsalud.org)
  • Six A. marginale isolates from MS, MG (AUFV1), SP, PR-L1, PR-HV, RS and Florida strain were tested with ANA22B1 to MSP-1a, AMR36A6 to MSP-1b, ANAF19E2 to MSP-2, AMG75C1 and AMG76B2 to MSP-3 and ANAF16C1 to MSP-5. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Anaplasma antigens had a neutral pI, were heat stable, and lost their antigenicity after treatment with chymotrypsin. (illinois.edu)
  • Co-infections with A. marginale, piroplasms and other Anaplasmataceae were surveyed by RLB while A. marginale genotypes were identified by amplifying and sequencing the partial msp1α gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • En Haute-Corse, une forte prévalence d'infections par les Anaplasmataceae est détectée dans des élevages (bovins, ovins, caprins) où la symptomatologie rétrocède lors de traitements à l'oxytétracycline. (inist.fr)
  • La spécificité et la sensibilité du système de diagnostic utilisé et sa capacité à identifier de nouvelles espèces offrent des perspectives pour l'étude de l'épidémiologie des Anaplasmataceae et permettront de mettre en évidence de nouveaux réservoirs. (inist.fr)
  • Cyclic rickettsemia during persistent Anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Submicroscopic levels of Anaplasma marginale rickettsemia in persistently infected cattle were determined by using nucleic acid hybridization. (asm.org)
  • MSP2 variants are sequentially expressed in the repeated cycles of rickettsemia that characterize persistent A. marginale infection and control of each rickettsemic cycle is associated with development of a variant-specific IgG response. (jimmunol.org)
  • The criteria for treatment of calves were increasing A. marginale rickettsemia and 30% reduction of baseline packed cell volume (PCV) of each animal. (scielo.br)
  • Os critérios para o tratamento dos bezerros foram aumento da rickettsemia do A. marginale e redução de 30% do valor basal de volume globular (VG) de cada animal. (scielo.br)
  • The genus Anaplasma which contains both animal and human pathogens. (kenyon.edu)
  • In cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale , the number of pathogens in the blood varies between a peak of [10. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study therefore aimed to (i) investigate the presence, epidemiology and genotypes of A. marginale in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, (ii) to evaluate suitable diagnostic tools and (iii) to identify co-infections of A. marginale with other selected tick-borne pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a transmissão transplacentária de A. marginale em bovinos de corte cronicamente infectados utilizando diferentes testes de diagnóstico. (scielo.br)
  • Determinou-se a freqüência de bovinos soro - reagentes para Anaplasma marginale em rebanhos leiteiros das microrregiöes de Jequié, Itabuna e Vitória da Conquista , Estado da Bahia, pelas técnicas de imunoadsorçäo enzimática ( ELISA ), imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e teste de conglutinaçäo rápida (TCR). (bvsalud.org)
  • O presente estudo fornece os primeiros dados epidemiológicos relativos a infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos criados na Amazônia Sul Ocidental brasileira. (bvsalud.org)
  • A técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase ( PCR ) foi aplicada para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por A. marginale em bovinos com idade entre 4 e 12 meses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Analisis de la Respuesta Inmune de Bovinos Infectados con Anaplasma marginale. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anaplasma marginale is endemic to topical and subtropical regions of the world. (kenyon.edu)
  • The high frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to 12-month-old cattle indicate a situation of enzootic stability in the studied areas and are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnosis in different endemic regions in Brazil . (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaplasma marginale is found in regions where tick vectors are endemic. (usda.gov)
  • We used the assay to screen 517 cattle samples sourced from all nine provinces of South Africa, and subsequently examined A. marginale positive samples for msp1α genotype to gauge strain diversity. (up.ac.za)
  • RESULTS : Although the A. marginale msp1β gene is variable, the qPCR functions at an acceptable efficiency. (up.ac.za)
  • Eight sequences from Australian isolates from different geographical regions confirmed the conserved nature of the Australian A. marginale msp1α genes. (edu.au)
  • The msp1α PCR method developed here enabled the amplification and comparison of A. marginale isolates originating from North and South America, Africa, Israel and Australia. (edu.au)
  • Although additional msp1α products were amplified from at least two Australian isolates, the results suggest limited introduction of A. marginale into Australia. (edu.au)
  • Erratum to "A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates" [Vet. (edu.au)
  • The msp1 beta multigene family of Anaplasma marginale: nucleotide sequence analysis of an expressed copy. (naver.com)
  • The results presented here showed that sequential immunization with HSV-based vectors and purified antigen enhances the quality of the immune response against A. marginale. (gob.ar)
  • Ticks are biological vectors of A. marginale and this is the most common route of transmission. (alberta.ca)
  • Furthermore, comparison of the amino acid sequence of A. marginale MSP2 with that of E. phagocytophila MSP2 in these conserved regions revealed 96% and 87% similarity in the respective N and C termini ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, we evaluated various techniques for detection of transplacental transmission of A. marginale . (scielo.br)
  • For the detection of A. marginale infection, several tests were compared for their sensitivity and specificity: blood smear analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PCR, real-time PCR and reverse line blot (RLB) assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The qPCR assay was confirmed to be the most sensitive tool for detection of A. marginale in cattle and buffaloes even in the carrier state, highlighting the importance of using suitable diagnostic tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of assays for detection of Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico using Bayesian methods without a perfect reference test. (up.ac.za)
  • Detection and quantitation of Anaplasma marginale in carrier cattle by using a nucleic acid probe. (naver.com)
  • Identification of Anaplasma marginale long-term carrier cattle by detection of serum antibody to isolated MSP-3. (naver.com)
  • Bautista-Garfias CR, Rodríguez T, Rojas C, Lira JJ, Álvarez JA, Polanco D. Molecular detection of Anaplasma marginale in stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) feeding on a tick-free bovine herd. (unam.mx)
  • The similar performances of the ELISAs suggest that both tests can be used in epidemiological surveys for detection of antibodies to A. marginale in cattle. (fiocruz.br)
  • 2004). Two possible methods for routine carrier detection are identification of rickettsial DNA in blood and the detection of A. marginale -specific antibodies in serum (McGuire et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • We report the first molecular detection of Anaplasma marginale in goats from northeastern Brazil, based on sequencing analysis. (usda.gov)
  • Anaplasma central is a less pathogenic but closely related organism. (alberta.ca)
  • The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anaplasma marginale is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the main cause of bovine anaplasmosis in tropical and subtropical regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differential expression of genes in salivary glands of male Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in response to infection with Anaplasma marginale . (nih.gov)
  • RNA-seq technology allowed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional status of A. marginale genes in two conditions: bovine host blood and tick derived cell culture, a model for the tick vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantitative PCR was used to assess transcription of a set of genes in A. marginale infected tick midguts and salivary glands at two time points during the transmission cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes belonging to fourteen pathways or component groups were found to be differentially transcribed in A. marginale in the bovine host versus the tick vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In these studies, we used a functional genomics approach to characterize tick genes regulated in response to Anaplasma marginale infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of Anaplasma marginale subsp. (asm.org)
  • Antigenic characterization of Anaplasma marginale isolates from different regions of Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we describe the molecular characterization of a red fluorescent and spectinomycin and streptomycin resistant A. marginale mutant generated by Himar1 transposon mutagenesis. (ufl.edu)
  • Herein, we discuss a molecular taxonomic approach for classification of A. marginale strain diversity. (csic.es)
  • Anaplasma marginale is a pathogenic gram-negative stain bacteria with an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides. (kenyon.edu)
  • In the bovine host A. marginale infects the erythrocyte and replicates up to levels of 10 9 bacteria per ml of blood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anaplasmosis in cattle is an infectious disease of the red blood cells caused by the rickettsial bacteria Anaplasma marginale. (alberta.ca)
  • Circular genome of Anaplasma marginale St. Maries. (kenyon.edu)
  • Results: High throughput genome sequencing to determine the Himar1-A. marginale genome junctions established that the transposon sequences were integrated within the coding region of the omp10 gene. (ufl.edu)
  • 2006). Therefore, complete genome sequencing and proteomic analysis of the A. marginale membrane were undertaken (Brayton et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Anaplasma marginale in bovine erythrocytes - "A Rickettsial agent transmitted by ticks. (kenyon.edu)
  • A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Four groups of six Holstein calves were inoculated with 3.6 × 10 7 erythrocytes parasitized with Anaplasma marginale . (scielo.br)
  • Transplacental transmission where infected erythrocytes from infected cows move across the placenta in the uterus to the fetus without amplification of A. marginale. (alberta.ca)
  • A. marginale -specific antibodies were detected in 100% of the cows with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and in 97% of them, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (scielo.br)
  • ELISA showed specific antibodies against A. marginale in 54.9% of cattle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the analysis of sera from dairy calves naturally-infected with A. marginale , the dynamics of antibody production was very similar between both tests, with maternal antibodies reaching the lowest levels at 15-30 days, followed by an increase in the mean optical densities in both ELISAs, suggesting the development of active immunity against A. marginale . (fiocruz.br)
  • Conclusions: These results demonstrate that transposon mutagenesis in A. marginale is possible and that this technology can be used for the creation of insertional gene knockouts that can be evaluated in natural host-vector systems. (ufl.edu)
  • Due to limitation of microscopic examination to detect low levels of parasitaemia, the present study aims to standardize a polymerase chain reaction assay using primers for the msp4 gene of Anaplasma sp. (duhnnae.com)
  • marginale in serum were detected by MSP-5 competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( cELISA ) using commercially available Anaplasma Antibody Test Kit, cELISA (VMRD Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) validated previously by Urdaz-Rodriguez et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that sera of cattle infected with A. marginale, with homologous or heterologous isolates recognize recombinant VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu. (embrapa.br)
  • The aim of the present studyis determination of probable correlation between parasitemia rate and hemolysis in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale. (sid.ir)
  • Data on the implication of the stable fly ( Stomoxys calcitrans , Diptera: Mus-cidae), in the transmission of Anaplasma marginale in tick-free cattle is scarce. (unam.mx)
  • Transmission electron micrographs of Anaplasma colonies within tick salivary glands. (nih.gov)
  • A. marginale infects cattle through tick transmission worldwide, but increasingly the bacterium is being detected in other domestic and wild ruminants. (usda.gov)
  • Expression patterns of Anaplasma marginale msp2 variants change in response to growth in cattle, and tick cells versus mammalian cells. (umn.edu)
  • Coronado, A. ¿Es Boophilus microplus el principal vector de Anaplasma mar¬ginale? (unam.mx)
  • Control of active infection of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale susceptible to chlortetracycline. (drugs.com)
  • The present study of seroprevalence of B. bigemina and A. marginale in cattle, sheep and goats was studied in Ganderbal district of Kashmir, between January to December 2012. (sjournals.com)
  • A total of 153 blood samples were collected randomly from 40 cattle, 52 sheep and 61 goats for the preparation of blood smears and serum samples in four consecutive seasons and tested against B. bigemina and A. marginale using the SVANOVIR ® B. bigemina -Abs and A. marginale -Abs ELISA Kit. (sjournals.com)
  • The overall prevalence of B. bigemina infection was 3 (7.5%), 2 (3.84%) and 3 (4.91%) in cattle, sheep and goats and for A. marginale 2 (5%), 1 (1.92%) and1 (1.63%) respectively. (sjournals.com)
  • The mixed infections between B. bigemina and A. marginale were 5% in cattle, 1.92% in sheep and 3.27% in goats. (sjournals.com)
  • The seasonal prevalence of B.bigemina , A. marginale and mixed infection between them peaked in summer as revealed by blood smear examination and ELISA. (sjournals.com)
  • PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. marginale, T. annulata, B. bigemina and T. orientalis were 29.1%, 18.9%, 11.2% and 5.6%, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • After controlling for other significant covariates in mixed effects statistical models, the results revealed synergistic interactions (lower growth rates) with Theileria parva and Anaplasma marginale co-infections, and antagonistic interactions (relatively higher growth rates) with T. parva and Theileria mutans co-infections, compared with infections with T. parva only. (cambridge.org)
  • Within the midgut epithelial cells, A. marginale replicates within intracellular vacuoles to form colonies of up to several hundred organisms per cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In cattle, the A. marginale organisms are located on the periphery of the RBC. (agweb.com)
  • Anaplasma ovis, the agent of ovine anaplasmosis, may cause mild to severe disease in sheep, deer and goats but is not infectious for cattle. (alberta.ca)
  • In this study, we have investigated the incidence of transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in chronically infected cows with no history of acute anaplasmosis during gestation. (scielo.br)
  • These results confirm the occurrence of transplacental transmission of A. marginale in chronically infected cows and suggest the importance of this transmission route in areas of enzootic instability. (scielo.br)
  • The obtained re-sults suggest that A. marginale transmission is carried out mechanically by S. calcitrans , favouring the circulation and maintenance of the microorganism in this particular bovine herd. (unam.mx)
  • Transmission of Anaplasma marginale by arthropods. (unam.mx)
  • CATTIE: Successful experimental transmission of anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale) by A. persicus has been reported. (google.com.au)
  • Anaplasma marginale is an intraerythrocytic vector-borne infectious agent of cattle. (gob.ar)
  • PCR method was used to asses the frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to12-month-old cattle . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of A. marginale and factors associated with the infection in goats from the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. (usda.gov)
  • A. marginale is globally prevalent and results in anemia, with mortality rates of up to 30% ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS : Anaplasma marginale was prevalent in the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga and absent in the Northern Cape. (up.ac.za)
  • According to polymerase chain reaction, 63.3% of the cows were carriers of A. marginale , as well as 6.7% of the newborn calves. (scielo.br)
  • Importantly, the SV-100 VirB9-1 and VirB10 complexes were shown to specifically stimulate bovine T-cell linages derived from calves immunised with A. marginale outer membrane fractions, suggesting formulations will be useful for bovine immunisation and protection studies. (mdpi.com)
  • Induction of protective immunity by using Anaplasma marginale initial body membranes. (naver.com)