A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Antigens and alternatives for control of Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. (1/95)

Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. Analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order Rickettsiales. The genus Anaplasma, of which A. marginale is the type species, now also includes A. bovis, A. platys, and A. phagocytophilum, which were previously known as Ehrlichia bovis, E. platys, and the E. phagocytophila group (which causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), respectively. Live and killed vaccines have been used for control of anaplasmosis, and both types of vaccines have advantages and disadvantages. These vaccines have been effective in preventing clinical anaplasmosis in cattle but have not blocked A. marginale infection. Thus, persistently infected cattle serve as a reservoir of infective blood for both mechanical transmission and infection of ticks. Advances in biochemical, immunologic, and molecular technologies during the last decade have been applied to research of A. marginale and related organisms. The recent development of a cell culture system for A. marginale provides a potential source of antigen for the development of improved killed and live vaccines, and the availability of cell culture-derived antigen would eliminate the use of cattle in vaccine production. Increased knowledge of A. marginale antigen repertoires and an improved understanding of bovine cellular and humoral immune responses to A. marginale, combined with the new technologies, should contribute to the development of more effective vaccines for control and prevention of anaplasmosis.  (+info)

Glycosylation of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and its putative role in adhesion to tick cells. (2/95)

Anaplasma marginale, the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle that multiplies in erythrocytes and tick cells. Major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) and MSP1b form the MSP1 complex of A. marginale, which is involved in adhesion of the pathogen to host cells. In this study we tested the hypothesis that MSP1a and MSP1b were glycosylated, because the observed molecular weights of both proteins were greater than the deduced molecular masses. We further hypothesized that the glycosylation of MSP1a plays a role in adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells. Native and Escherichia coli-derived recombinant MSP1a and MSP1b proteins were shown by gas chromatography to be glycosylated and to contain neutral sugars. Glycosylation of MSP1a appeared to be mainly O-linked to Ser/Thr residues in the N-terminal repeated peptides. Glycosylation may play a role in adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells because chemical deglycosylation of MSP1a significantly reduced its adhesive properties. Although the MSP1a polypeptide backbone alone was adherent to tick cell extract, the glycans in the N-terminal repeats appeared to enhance binding and may cooperatively interact with one or more surface molecules on host cells. These results demonstrated that MSP1a and MSP1b are glycosylated and suggest that the glycosylation of MSP1a plays a role in the adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells.  (+info)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a functional msp2 gene that is distinct from p44. (3/95)

The msp2 and p44 genes encode polymorphic major outer membrane proteins that are considered unique to the intraerythrocytic agent of Anaplasma marginale and the intragranulocytic agent of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, respectively. In the present study, however, we found an msp2 gene in A. phagocytophilum that was remarkably conserved among A. phagocytophilum strains from human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) patients, ticks, and a horse from various regions in the United States, but the gene was different in a sheep isolate from the United Kingdom. The msp2 gene in the A. phagocytophilum strain HZ genome was a single-copy gene and was located downstream of two Ehrlichia chaffeensis omp-1 homologs and a decarboxylase gene (ubiD). The msp2 gene was expressed by A. phagocytophilum in the blood from HGA patients NY36 and NY37 and by A. phagocytophilum isolates from these patients cultured in HL-60 cells at 37 degrees C. The msp2 gene was also expressed in a DBA/2 mouse infected by attaching ticks infected with strain NTN-1 and in a horse experimentally infected by attaching strain HZ-infected ticks. However, the transcript of the msp2 gene was undetectable in A. phagocytophilum strain HZ in SCID mice and Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with strain NTN-1. These results indicate that msp2 is functional in various strains of A. phagocytophilum, and relative expression ratios of msp2 to p44 vary in different infected hosts. These findings may be important in understanding roles that Msp2 proteins play in granulocytic ehrlichia infection and evolution of the polymorphic major outer membrane protein gene families in Anaplasma species.  (+info)

Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle entering Alberta feedlots: Fall 2001. (4/95)

A serologic survey was conducted in yearling cattle imported into Alberta feedlots from Montana during October 2001 to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to BTV when the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used was 0.37% (21/5608). Test positive cELISA samples were also all positive when tested by virus neutralization (VN) and they reacted to 1 or more BTV serotypes, including 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to A. marginale when a recombinant cELISA (rcELISA) was used with a positive cutoff at 30% inhibition was 1.93% (108/5608). When the rcELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 0.73% (41/5608). After the reported sensitivity and specificity of the test had been accounted for, the A. marginale antibody results were consistent with a population that was either free of exposure or had a very low prevalence for A. marginale.  (+info)

Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland. (5/95)

Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease. This was the first severe disease outbreak associated with concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens in alpine Switzerland; it was presumably curtailed by culling of the entire herd. It remains to be seen whether similar disease outbreaks will have to be anticipated in northern Europe in the future.  (+info)

The CD4+ T cell immunodominant Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 stimulates gammadelta T cell clones that express unique T cell receptors. (6/95)

Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) of the bovine rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is an abundant, serologically immunodominant outer membrane protein. Immunodominance partially results from numerous CD4+ T cell epitopes in highly conserved amino and carboxy regions and the central hypervariable region of MSP2. However, in long-term cultures of lymphocytes stimulated with A. marginale, workshop cluster 1 (WC1)+ gammadelta T cells and CD4+ alphabeta T cells proliferated, leading to a predominance of gammadelta T cells. As gammadelta T cells proliferate in A. marginale-stimulated lymphocyte cultures, this study hypothesized that gammadelta T cells respond to the abundant, immunodominant MSP2. To test this hypothesis, gammadelta T cell clones were isolated from MSP2 vaccinates and assessed for antigen-specific proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion. Seven WC1+ gammadelta T cell clones responded to A. marginale and MSP2, and three of these proliferated to overlapping peptides from the conserved carboxy region. The gammadelta T cell response was not major histocompatibility complex-restricted, although it required antigen-presenting cells and was blocked by addition of antibody specific for the T cell receptor (TCR). Sequence analysis of TCR-gamma and -delta chains of peripheral blood lymphocytes identified two novel TCR-gamma chain constant (Cgamma) regions. It is important that all seven MSP2-specific gammadelta T cell clones used the same one of these novel Cgamma regions. The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 was less conserved than those of MSP2-specific CD4+ alphabeta T cell clones. Together, these data indicate that WC1+ gammadelta T cells recognize A. marginale MSP2 through the TCR and contribute to the immunodominant response to this protein.  (+info)

Stochastic transmission of multiple genotypically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains in a herd with high prevalence of Anaplasma infection. (7/95)

Multiple genotypically unique strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale occur and are transmitted within regions where the organism is endemic. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific A. marginale strains are preferentially transmitted. The study herd of cattle (n = 261) had an infection prevalence of 29% as determined by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR, with complete concordance between results of the two assays. Genotyping revealed the presence of 11 unique strains within the herd. Although the majority of the individuals (70 of 75) were infected with only a single A. marginale strain, five animals each carried two strains with markedly distinct genotypes, indicating that superinfection does occur with distinct A. marginale strains, as has been reported with A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale strains. Identification of strains in animals born into and infected within the herd during the period from 1998 to 2003 revealed no significant difference from the overall strain prevalence in the herd, results that do not support the occurrence of preferential strain transmission within a population of persistently infected animals and are most consistent with pathogen strain transmission being stochastic.  (+info)

Identification of a novel Anaplasma marginale appendage-associated protein that localizes with actin filaments during intraerythrocytic infection. (8/95)

The rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale assembles an actin filament bundle during intracellular infection. Unlike other bacterial pathogens that generate actin filament tails, A. marginale infects mature erythrocytes, and the F-actin appendages are assembled on the cytoplasmic surface of a vacuole containing several organisms. To identify A. marginale molecules associated with these filaments, two complementary approaches were used: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of A. marginale proteins identified with an appendage-specific monoclonal antibody and expression screening of an A. marginale phage library. Amino acid and nucleotide sequences were mapped to a full-length gene in the genome of the St. Maries strain of A. marginale; the correct identification was confirmed by expression of full-length recombinant protein and its reactivity with appendage-specific antibodies. Interestingly, there is marked variation in the abilities of diverse A. marginale strains to assemble the F-actin appendages. Comparison of four strains, the Florida, Illinois, St. Maries, and Virginia strains, revealed substantial polymorphism in the gene encoding the appendage-associated protein, with amino acid sequence identity of as low as 34% among strains. However, this variation does not underlie the differences in expression, as there is no specific polymorphism associated with loss of ability to assemble actin appendages. In contrast, the ability to assemble an actin filament bundle reflected dramatic strain-specific differences in the expression level of the appendage-associated protein. Understanding how this protein influences the cycle of invasion, replication, and egress in the host cell may provide new insights into pathogen-host interactions.  (+info)

'Anaplasma marginale' is a gram-negative bacterium that infects red blood cells in various species of animals, including cattle. It is the causative agent of Anaplasmosis, which is a tick-borne disease that can lead to severe anemia, abortion, and even death in infected animals. The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected ticks or through contaminated blood transfusions, needles, or surgical instruments.

The bacterium has a unique life cycle, where it infects and replicates within the red blood cells, causing them to rupture and release more bacteria into the bloodstream. This results in the characteristic symptoms of Anaplasmosis, such as fever, weakness, icterus (yellowing of the mucous membranes), and anemia.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmosis can be confirmed through various laboratory tests, including blood smears, PCR assays, and serological tests. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which can help to reduce the severity of symptoms and clear the infection. Preventive measures include the control of tick populations, the use of protective clothing and insect repellents, and the implementation of strict biosecurity protocols in veterinary practices and farms.

Anaplasma is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infect and parasitize the white blood cells of various animals, including humans. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. The most common species that infect humans are Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tick-borne disease characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and leukopenia. It infects granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, and can cause severe complications such as respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death in some cases.

Anaplasma platys causes canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, a disease that affects dogs and is characterized by recurring low platelet counts. It infects platelets, another type of blood cell involved in clotting, and can cause bleeding disorders in affected animals.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma infections typically involves the detection of antibodies against the bacteria or the direct identification of the organism through molecular methods such as PCR. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against both species of Anaplasma. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas and using insect repellents and protective clothing to reduce the risk of tick bites.

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States and western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in the western United States.

The bacterium infects and reproduces within certain white blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills that typically appear within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Other possible symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, and a rash (although a rash is uncommon).

Anaplasmosis can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against the bacterium or the DNA of the organism itself. It is usually treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline, which are most effective when started early in the course of the disease.

Preventing tick bites is the best way to avoid anaplasmosis and other tick-borne diseases. This can be done by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors. If a tick is found, it should be removed promptly using fine-tipped tweezers, grasping the tick as close to the skin as possible and pulling straight upwards with steady pressure.

'Anaplasma phagocytophilum' is a gram-negative bacterium that causes Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease in humans. It infects and survives within granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and chills. In severe cases, it can cause complications like respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the United States and the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) in Europe. Proper diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing this infection.

Dermacentor is a genus of ticks that includes several species known to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Some of the notable species in this genus are:

1. Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick): This species is widely distributed across western North America and can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and tularemia.
2. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick): Found throughout the United States, this tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and human ehrlichiosis.
3. Dermacentor reticulatus (Ornate cow tick or Marsh tick): This species is distributed in Europe and parts of Asia and can transmit diseases like tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, and babesiosis.
4. Dermacentor marginatus (Marginated tick): Found primarily in Europe, this tick transmits various pathogens causing diseases such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and rickettsialpox.
5. Dermacentor nitens (Brazilian pampas tick): This species is native to South America and can transmit Rickettsia rickettsii, the bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Dermacentor ticks are known for their hard, shield-like structures called scutums on their backs and their long mouthparts called hypostomes, which they use to feed on the blood of their hosts. They typically prefer large mammals as hosts but will also feed on humans and other animals if necessary.

Anaplasma centrale is a bacterial species that belongs to the order Rickettsiales and the family Anaplasmataceae. It is an intracellular pathogen that primarily infects red blood cells in ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. The bacteria are transmitted through tick vectors, particularly ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus.

The infection caused by A. centrale is often asymptomatic or mild in affected animals, but it can lead to anemia and decreased productivity in livestock. In some cases, the disease may also cause abortion or death in young animals. There are no known human infections associated with A. centrale.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma centrale infection typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears, PCR testing, and serological assays such as ELISA or complement fixation tests. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which are effective against intracellular bacteria. Preventive measures include tick control and vaccination of livestock.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with Ehrlichia bacteria. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms of ehrlichiosis can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If left untreated, ehrlichiosis can cause serious complications, including damage to the central nervous system and other organs. It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have been exposed to ehrlichiosis and are experiencing symptoms of the disease. A healthcare provider can diagnose ehrlichiosis through laboratory tests and can recommend appropriate treatment, which typically involves antibiotics. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can help reduce the risk of ehrlichiosis and other tick-borne diseases.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

"Rhipicephalus" is a genus of ticks that are commonly found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Europe, and Asia. These ticks are known to parasitize various mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can transmit a variety of diseases to their hosts. Some species of Rhipicephalus ticks are capable of transmitting serious diseases to humans, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and African tick-bite fever. These ticks are usually found in grassy or wooded areas, and can be carried by animals such as cattle, sheep, and deer. They are typically reddish-brown in color and have a hard, shield-shaped body. Proper identification and prevention measures are important for avoiding tick bites and reducing the risk of tick-borne diseases.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Anaplasma ovis is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that belongs to the order Rickettsiales. It is the etiological agent of ovine anaplasmosis, which primarily affects sheep and goats. The bacteria infect and replicate within the host's erythrocytes (red blood cells), causing clinical signs such as anemia, jaundice, weight loss, and abortion in pregnant animals. Transmission typically occurs through tick vectors, with the most common vector being Ixodes ricinus in Europe and Ixodes holocyclus in Australia.

In humans, Anaplasma ovis is not known to cause disease, and there are no reports of human infection or illness associated with this bacterium. However, other species within the Anaplasma genus, such as A. phagocytophilum and A. platys, can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively.

It is essential to consult a medical or veterinary professional for accurate information regarding specific pathogens and their associated diseases.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

Anaplasmataceae is a family of gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that includes several human pathogens. These bacteria are known to infect and parasitize the white blood cells (such as granulocytes, monocytes, or erythrocytes) of various mammals, including humans. The bacterial genus within Anaplasmataceae include Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Orientia.

Some notable human pathogens in this family are:

1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Causes Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), which is transmitted primarily through the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus).
2. Ehrlichia chaffeensis - Causes Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME), which is transmitted mainly by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
3. Ehrlichia ewingii - Associated with Human Ewingii Ehrlichiosis, primarily transmitted through the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
4. Neorickettsia sennetsu - Causes Sennetsu fever, which is a rare infectious disease in humans and is usually found in Japan and Southeast Asia. It's transmitted by the swallow bug or through the consumption of raw fish.
5. Orientia tsutsugamushi - Causes Scrub typhus, a widespread mite-borne disease in the Asia-Pacific region.

These bacterial infections can lead to flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, they may cause complications like respiratory failure, organ damage, or even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Ehrlichia is a genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that infect and replicate within the vacuoles of host cells. These bacteria are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropods, such as ticks. Infection with Ehrlichia can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some species of Ehrlichia, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are known to cause human disease, including ehrlichiosis.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that can range in severity from mild to severe and can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as neurological problems, respiratory failure, or kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you may have been infected with Ehrlichia, as early treatment can help prevent serious complications. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

'Ehrlichia ruminantium' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that belongs to the family Anaplasmataceae. It is the etiological agent of heartwater, a tick-borne disease that affects mainly ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The bacteria infect endothelial cells in various organs, including the brain and heart, causing vasculitis, edema, and hemorrhage, which can lead to severe clinical signs and death in infected animals.

The bacterium is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, mainly from the genus Amblyomma. The disease is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. Heartwater is a major constraint to livestock production in affected areas, causing significant economic losses to farmers and pastoralists.

Prevention and control measures for heartwater include the use of acaricides to control tick infestations, vaccination of susceptible animals, and quarantine measures to prevent the introduction of infected animals into disease-free areas.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

'Babesia bovis' is a species of intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that causes bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever or redwater fever, in cattle. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily from the genus Boophilus (e.g., Boophilus microplus).

The life cycle of 'Babesia bovis' involves two main stages: the sporozoite stage and the merozoite stage. Sporozoites are injected into the host's bloodstream during tick feeding and invade erythrocytes (red blood cells), where they transform into trophozoites. The trophozoites multiply asexually, forming new infective stages called merozoites. These merozoites are released from the infected erythrocytes and invade other red blood cells, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical signs of bovine babesiosis caused by 'Babesia bovis' include fever, anemia, icterus (jaundice), hemoglobinuria (the presence of hemoglobin in the urine), and occasionally neurologic symptoms due to the parasite's ability to invade and damage blood vessels in the brain. The disease can be severe or fatal, particularly in naïve animals or those exposed to high parasitemia levels.

Prevention and control strategies for bovine babesiosis include tick control measures, such as acaricides and environmental management, as well as vaccination using attenuated or recombinant vaccine candidates. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal drugs, such as imidocarb dipropionate or diminazene accurate, to reduce parasitemia and alleviate clinical signs.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

Antigenic variation is a mechanism used by some microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, to evade the immune system and establish persistent infections. This occurs when these pathogens change or modify their surface antigens, which are molecules that can be recognized by the host's immune system and trigger an immune response.

The changes in the surface antigens can occur due to various mechanisms, such as gene mutation, gene rearrangement, or gene transfer. These changes can result in the production of new variants of the microorganism that are different enough from the original strain to avoid recognition by the host's immune system.

Antigenic variation is a significant challenge in developing effective vaccines against certain infectious diseases, such as malaria and influenza, because the constantly changing surface antigens make it difficult for the immune system to mount an effective response. Therefore, researchers are working on developing vaccines that target conserved regions of the microorganism that do not undergo antigenic variation or using a combination of antigens to increase the likelihood of recognition by the immune system.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Rickettsial vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against rickettsial infections, which are diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. These bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods such as ticks, fleas, and lice.

Rickettsial vaccines typically contain whole-cell or subunit antigens of the rickettsial bacteria, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate T cells that can recognize and eliminate the pathogen if it infects the body in the future.

Examples of rickettsial vaccines include those for typhus fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and scrub typhus. These vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the severity of these diseases, but they are not widely available or used due to various factors such as limited demand, production challenges, and safety concerns.

It's important to note that rickettsial vaccines may carry some risks and side effects, including allergic reactions, local reactions at the injection site, and in rare cases, systemic reactions. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine, including rickettsial vaccines.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

Theileriasis is a disease caused by the intracellular parasitic protozoa of the genus Theileria, which primarily infects and affects the erythrocytes (red blood cells) and lymphocytes (white blood cells) of various animals, including domestic and wild ruminants. This disease is mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks.

Infection with Theileria parasites can lead to a wide range of clinical signs in affected animals, depending on the specific Theileria species involved and the immune status of the host. Some common symptoms include fever, anemia, weakness, weight loss, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), jaundice, and abortion in pregnant animals.

Two major Theileria species that cause significant economic losses in livestock are:

1. Theileria parva: This species is responsible for East Coast fever in cattle, which is a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Eastern and Southern Africa.
2. Theileria annulata: This species causes Tropical theileriosis or Mediterranean coast fever in cattle and buffaloes, primarily found in regions around the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and Asia.

Preventive measures for theileriasis include tick control, use of live vaccines, and management practices that reduce exposure to infected ticks. Treatment options are limited but may involve chemotherapeutic agents such as buparvaquone or parvaquone, which can help control parasitemia (parasite multiplication in the blood) and alleviate clinical signs. However, these treatments do not provide complete immunity against reinfection.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Anaplasmataceae infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae. These bacteria include Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Neorickettsia genera, which infect various mammalian hosts, including humans. The most well-known diseases caused by these bacteria are human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS).

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which infects neutrophils in humans. Symptoms of HGA include fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as respiratory failure, neurological symptoms, and even death.

Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii, which infect monocytes in humans. Symptoms of HME are similar to those of HGA but may also include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash. Severe cases can lead to complications such as kidney failure, respiratory distress, and neurological symptoms.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by Dabie bandavirus, a member of the genus Bandavirus within the family Phenuiviridae. It was previously classified as a member of the family Anaplasmataceae. SFTS is transmitted to humans through tick bites and causes symptoms such as fever, fatigue, muscle pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to complications such as multi-organ failure, shock, and death.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmataceae infections typically involves laboratory tests that detect the presence of bacterial DNA or antibodies against the bacteria in the blood. Treatment usually includes antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against all three genera of bacteria within the family Anaplasmataceae. Preventing tick bites through the use of insect repellent and protective clothing can help reduce the risk of infection.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Immunodominant epitopes refer to specific regions or segments on an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that are particularly effective at stimulating an immune response. These epitopes are often the parts of the antigen that are most recognized by the immune system, and as a result, they elicit a strong response from immune cells such as T-cells or B-cells.

In the context of T-cell responses, immunodominant epitopes are typically short peptide sequences (usually 8-15 amino acids long) that are presented to T-cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The T-cell receptor recognizes and binds to these epitopes, triggering a cascade of immune responses aimed at eliminating the pathogen or foreign substance that contains the antigen.

In some cases, immunodominant epitopes may be the primary targets of vaccines or other immunotherapies, as they can elicit strong and protective immune responses. However, in other cases, immunodominant epitopes may also be associated with immune evasion or tolerance, where the immune system fails to mount an effective response against a pathogen or cancer cell. Understanding the properties and behavior of immunodominant epitopes is therefore crucial for developing effective vaccines and immunotherapies.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

136). Mackerras, I. M., Mackerras, M. J., & Mulhearn, C. R. (1942). Attempted transmission of Anaplasma marginale Theiler by ...
"mCherry - MCherry fluorescent protein - Anaplasma marginale - mCherry gene & protein". Uniprot. Retrieved 2018-11-11. Shu, X.; ...
The two major species that cause anaplasmosis in ruminants include Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anaplasma ... The two major bacterial pathogens are Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. These microorganisms are Gram-negative ... Atif FA (November 2015). "Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public ... and South America have used live vaccines containing infectious Anaplasma centrale to prevent infection of Anaplasma marginale ...
Evidence of Anaplasma marginale Transmission by Sucking Lice Haematopinus tuberculatus". Journal of Parasitology. 99 (3): 546- ...
"Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants". Molecular ... Ehrlichia and its closely related genus Anaplasma show extreme diversity in the structure and content of their genomes. This ...
Other species of Anaplasma, most commonly A. marginale, are well documented to cause disease in cattle. Anaplasma species ... "Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild ... Other members of this genus include the species A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. platys, A. ovis, and A. centrale Anaplasma ... Anaplasma bovis is currently one of 6 recognized species within the Genus Anaplasma. ...
It is a potential vector of many babesiosis pathogens like Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Anaplasma marginale. Its ...
The dominant parasites were Theileria species, T. buffeli, T. bicornis, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma marginale and A. bovis. ...
Anaplasma marginale, and Baberia bigemina; 27 species of ixodid ticks have been found on waterbucks - a healthy waterbuck may ...
Anaplasma centrale tends to infect the central region of red blood cells, and is sufficiently closely related to An. marginale ... Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... marginale. Sheep and goats suffer disease from infection with Anaplasma ovis which is transmitted similarly to the anaplasmas ... However, some microbes, such as Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale, can also be transmitted by biting flies, or by blood on ...
Tabanid flies are also transmitters the bacteria Anaplasma marginale and A.centrale to cattle, sheep and goats, causing ... Scoles,G.A., (2008) Comparison of the efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: ...
2005). "Complete genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the surface is skewed to two superfamilies of outer ...
Tick fever is caused by the diseases Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, or Anaplasma marginale which are transmitted by cattle ...
... are found in Anaplasma and those which interact with Anaplasma can mainly be found in A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. ... A. marginale evolved to be more specific in infecting animals, such as deer and cattle in the subtropics and tropics. The main ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Anaplasma MSPs can not only cooperate with vertebrates, but also invertebrates, which make these phenotypes evolve faster than ...
... in deer and sheep of the parasites present in the blood of calves infected with the Oregon strain of Anaplasma marginale". Am J ...
Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina. Tick fever results in exterior material damage, internal damage, loss of condition, ...
... marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma ... Anaplasma species are biologically transmitted by Ixodes deer-tick vectors, and the prototypical species, A. marginale, can be ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the U.S. ... Anaplasma platys in dogs The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare zoonosis, the Sparouine anaplasmosis, ...
Anaplasma marginale, which causes anaplasmosis in cattle, Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia, Babesia caballi, ...
... and the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. Horses may be infected with Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophila, and the viral ... Anaplasma phagocytophila), Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), Boutonneuse fever (Rickettsia conorii), ...
Anaplasma MeSH B03.440.040.050.100 - Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.440.040.050.500 - Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.440.040.050.575 ... Anaplasma MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.100 - Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.500 - Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.660. ... Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.440.040.050.600 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH B03.440.040.287 - Ehrlichia MeSH B03.440.040.287.090 ... 050.020.050.575 - Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.600 - Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH B03.660.050.020.287 - Ehrlichia ...
... in corresponding PCR product of Anaplasma marginale and cut it in the position 68 and 509, whereas the used restriction enzyme ... in corresponding PCR product of Anaplasma marginale and cut it in the position 68 and 509, whereas the used restriction enzyme ... Anaplasma marginale, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RFLP-PCR, biochemical parameters. ... Anaplasma marginale, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RFLP-PCR, biochemical parameters. ...
Inoculation of AmRio 2 strain of Anaplasma marginale. The inoculum used for application to animals was the AmRio 2 strain of A ... Characterization of Anaplasma marginale infection in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 57:76-78. and Reddy et al. (1988)Reddy G.R ... Characterization of Anaplasma marginale infection in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 57:76-78., Silva et al. 2014cSilva J.B., ... Sequencing of msp1α gene in Anaplasma marginale From the samples selected for sequencing, it was found that five animals ( ...
Anaplasma marginale In Giemsa-stained thin blood films the intra-erythrocytic organisms appear as dense blue-purple round to ...
By targeting MAR1bB2 gene with the molecular weight of approximately 265 bp, Anaplasma marginale were detected in18 samples ( ... To detect Anaplasma marginale among carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, 64 blood samples, ... To detect Anaplasma marginale among carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, 64 blood samples, ... Al-Kasar, N., Flayyih, M., Al-Jorany, A. Molecular study of Anaplasma marginale parasite in carrier cattle in Al-Nasiriyah city ...
10.30917/ATT-VK-1814-9588-2019-4-3 Real-time PCR for detection of Anaplasma marginale. ...
Anaplasma marginale; Anaplasmose; Doenças dos Bovinos; Rhipicephalus; Masculino; Bovinos; Animais; Feminino; Ovinos; Anaplasma ... Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne haemoparasite of cattle and causes huge economic losses to the dairy ... Molecular prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in ruminants and Rhipicephalus ticks in northern Pakistan. ... Molecular prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in ruminants and Rhipicephalus ticks in northe ...
Anaplasma marginale ACR67104.1. Full length. Major surface protein 2. ND. −. −. Anaplasma marginale ACR67105.1. Full length. ... Anaplasma marginale. ACR67103.1. Full length. Major surface protein 2 variant 9H1. ND. +. −. ... the genera Anaplasma, Bartonella, Borrelia, Brucella, Burkholderia, Ehrlichia and Mycobacterium). In this set, 20% of the ...
Characterization of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 locus and its synteny with the omp1/p30 loci of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ... Characterization of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 locus and its synteny with the omp1/p30 loci of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ... is an immunodominant and antigenically variant protein in the outer membrane of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale. MSP2 ... Maries strain of A. marginale. The locus encoded, in a 5 to 3 direction, a transcriptional regulator followed by five outer ...
136). Mackerras, I. M., Mackerras, M. J., & Mulhearn, C. R. (1942). Attempted transmission of Anaplasma marginale Theiler by ...
Theo Schetters is director of ProtActivity, a company that focuses on vaccine development against ticks and tick-borne protozoal infections, and coordinator of CATVAC a consortium that works on the development of a vaccine against Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. In this capacity he partners with Clinvet (CRO from Bloemfontein, South Africa). He is inventor of a recombinant vaccine against Babesia canis and B. divergens. This work has been carried out in collaboration with the University of Montpellier (France). The aim is to develop similar vaccines against B. bovis and B. bigemina (collaboration University of Pretoria and University of Montpellier).
Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale (Peer Reviewed Journal) (16-Oct-09) ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum-causal agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Anaplasma marginale-causal agent of anaplasmosis in ... Anaplasma marginale-casual agent of anaplasmosis in cattle Therileria equi-causal agent of piroplasmosis in horses, mules and ... Anaplasma marginale-causal agent of anaplasmosis of cattle with transmission accomplished through trans-stadial survival of the ...
Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Haemonchus placei and Theileria parva9,10,11. However, a recent study has shown that in ...
Title: Iron reduction in Dermacentor andersoni tick cells inhibits Anaplasma marginale replication Author. SOLYMAN, MUNA SALEM ... Using Anaplasma marginale, which causes bovine anaplasmosis, and Dermacentor andersoni tick cells, we determine that iron is ... These pathogens include Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum, which cause bovine and granulocytic anaplasmosis, ... Iron reduction in Dermacentor andersoni tick cells inhibits Anaplasma marginale replication. International Journal of Molecular ...
Association between chronic Anaplasma marginale and Babesia spp. infection and hematological parameters of taurine heifers / ... Associação entre infecção crônica por Anaplasma marginale e Babesia spp. e parâmetros hematológicos de novilhas taurinas Rahal ...
Assays to evaluate the transovarial transmission of Anaplasma marginale by Rhipicephalus microplus. Mazzucco Panizza M, Cutullé ...
Optimizing the delivery of a DNA-based vaccine for protection against Anaplasma marginale ...
Testing Options for Anaplasma marginale in Cattle Melanie T. Landis, DVM, MBA Anaplasma marginale is a rickettsial bacterium ... Testing Options for Anaplasma marginale in Cattle. June 22, 2020. by Mallory Pfeifer ... about Testing Options for Anaplasma marginale in Cattle ...
Evaluation of sequential coinfection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale in cattle ... Evaluation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in experimentally inoculated sheep and determination of Anaplasma spp ... sequelae of infection differed among single versus double infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma marginale, with ... A marginale followed on day 35 by A phagocytophilum with tick saliva, A phagocytophilum followed on day 10 by A marginale with ...
2022). Molecular survey and genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks collected from livestock hosts in Pakistan ...
The blood smear evidenced Anaplasma marginale corpuscles in parasited red blood cells. The blood cells count was normal except ... The ophthalmic findings and the presence of Anaplasma marginale corpuscles in parasited red blood cells indicated that the ... The authors conclude that the A. marginale systemic infection was the primary cause of the chronic uveitis. This sort of ...
Prevalence and risk factors for Anaplasma marginale seropositivity in cattle in California Shih-Yu Chen. Friday, September 22, ...
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an obligate gram-negative bacteria, Anaplasma (A.) marginale. This study reports ... A Report on Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Anaplasma marginale in Ticks and Blood Samples Collected from ... Informe sobre la detección molecular y evaluación filogenética de Anaplasma marginale en garrapatas y muestras de sangre ... on the seasonal prevalence, epidemiology and phylogeny of A. marginale in three breeds … ...
Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the blood-borne parasite Anaplasma marginale, is a worldwide problem for cattle. ...
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an obligate gram-negative bacteria, Anaplasma (A.) marginale. This study reports ... A Report on Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Anaplasma marginale in Ticks and Blood Samples Collected from ... Informe sobre la detección molecular y evaluación filogenética de Anaplasma marginale en garrapatas y muestras de sangre ... on the seasonal prevalence, epidemiology and phylogeny of A. marginale in three breeds … ...
Molecular detection and characterization of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale isolated ...
Caracterização genotípica de Borrelia sp e de genes de Anaplasma marginale que codificam proteínas de membrana com potencial ...
AvgC protein, Anaplasma marginale 0 *Antigens, Bacterial *Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins *Lipoproteins. Qlp42 protein, ...
  • These pathogens include Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum, which cause bovine and granulocytic anaplasmosis, respectively. (usda.gov)
  • Objective -To determine whether sequelae of infection differed among single versus double infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma marginale , with and without tick salivary extract, in cattle. (avma.org)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance -Results indicated an important biological interaction between A marginale and A phagocytophilum infection as well as with tick saliva in disease kinetics and severity in cattle, which may be important for interpretation of diagnostic tests and management of disease in areas where both pathogens occur. (avma.org)
  • Romanowsky stained canine blood smear containing morulae (arrow) of Anaplasma phagocytophilum within a neutrophil. (ncvetp.org)
  • Infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum are most common in the northeastern United States, in the upper Midwest, and along the West Coast. (ncvetp.org)
  • To detect Anaplasma marginale among carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, 64 blood samples, fromhealthy cows in abattoir of Al- Nasiriyah city were collected from June till August, 2017 in this study. (vetmedmosul.com)
  • Molecular study of Anaplasma marginale parasite in carrier cattle in Al-Nasiriyah city', Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 32(2), pp. 299-301. (vetmedmosul.com)
  • Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick -borne haemoparasite of cattle and causes huge economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. (bvsalud.org)
  • It has never been reported that sheep , goats , and cattle in Tank , Ghulam Khan, Birmil and Miran Shah areas were infected with A. marginale. (bvsalud.org)
  • All samples of blood and ticks were collected through random sampling from March 2021 to January 2022 from cattle , sheep and goats and screened through PCR for anaplasmosis by using primer pairs of Anaplasma spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • PCR results for A marginale were positive in spleen, lung, lymph node, heart, and ear skin of infected cattle. (avma.org)
  • Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the blood-borne parasite Anaplasma marginale, is a worldwide problem for cattle. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Molecular detection and characterization of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in Kenya. (obihiro.ac.jp)
  • We are using a combination of A. marginale strains, some of which we recently isolated from Kansas cattle herds, to help determine how strains differ in their susceptibility to tetracycline antimicrobials, specifically chlortetracycline, the most common antimicrobial used to control anaplasmosis. (k-state.edu)
  • Abstract Anaplasma marginale and A. platys were detected and characterized (16S rDNA sequence analysis) from dairy and indigenous cattle, and the latter in domestic dogs in Vietnam. (edu.vn)
  • His Beef cattle research is multidisciplinary, incorporating elements of Trypanosoma vivax, Herd and Anaplasma marginale. (research.com)
  • Infectious blood disease in cattle caused by the rickesttsial parasites Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale. (sanfovet.com)
  • Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) is an immunodominant and antigenically variant protein in the outer membrane of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Several pathogens including tick-borne pathogens ( Borrelia/Borreliella , Anaplasma , Neoehrlichia , Rickettsia ) and opportunistic bacteria ( Williamsia ) were transmitted to the skin microbiome and some of them disseminated to the blood or spleen of the mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Title : Rickettsia and Anaplasma species in Dermacentor andersoni ticks from Washington Personal Author(s) : Francis, Lily;Paddock, Christopher D.;Dykstra, Elizabeth A.;Karpathy, Sandor E. (cdc.gov)
  • First Molecular Evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Rickettsia spp. (google.com.pa)
  • The most sensitive method for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis is the method of polymerase chain reaction, DNA extraction was performed only on 24 blood samples which were positive for Anaplasma spp. (academicjournals.org)
  • Using Anaplasma marginale, which causes bovine anaplasmosis, and Dermacentor andersoni tick cells, we determine that iron is required for pathogen replication in tick cells. (usda.gov)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an obligate gram-negative bacteria, Anaplasma (A.) marginale. (lutzonilab.net)
  • Kathryn Reif, assistant professor in the diagnostic medicine and pathobiology department in the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine, is leading a project that focuses on optimizing antimicrobial use to control active infection of the hemoparasitic pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis. (k-state.edu)
  • Anaplasmosis is caused by the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. (dtnpf.com)
  • Control of active infection of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale susceptible to chlortetracycline. (pharmgate.com)
  • Association between chronic Anaplasma marginale and Babesia spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • infection and hematological parameters of taurine heifers / Associação entre infecção crônica por Anaplasma marginale e Babesia spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to determine the occurrence of A. marginale infection in blood and tick samples collected from livestock animals in the districts located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan . (bvsalud.org)
  • We report the first PCR based detection of A. marginale infection in blood samples and in R. sanguineus ticks of goats simultaneously. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anemia occurred 25 to 32 days after A marginale infection, which was attenuated by tick saliva. (avma.org)
  • The ophthalmic findings and the presence of Anaplasma marginale corpuscles in parasited red blood cells indicated that the systemic a infection may have induced the chronic uveitis. (vin.com)
  • The authors conclude that the A. marginale systemic infection was the primary cause of the chronic uveitis. (vin.com)
  • Molecular prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in ruminants and Rhipicephalus ticks in northern Pakistan. (bvsalud.org)
  • Romanowsky stained canine blood film containing Anaplasma platys (PCR confirmed), which are intraplatelet organisms within vacuoles. (ncvetp.org)
  • Among these ticks , A. marginale was detected in female ticks of R. microplus, and R. sanguineus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Molecular identification of A. marginale was confirmed in 120 out of 184 blood samples and 6 out of 74 tick samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • The sequences of this entire locus were analyzed using six genetically and phenotypically distinct strains of A. marginale. (oregonstate.edu)
  • O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e patológicos de búfalos e bovinos infectados experimentalmente com estirpe AmRio 2 de Anaplasma marginale . (scielo.br)
  • Characterization of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 locus and its synteny with the omp1/p30 loci of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. canis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • by ELISA test, the extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by PCR and PCR-RFLP technique using primers derived from 16S rRNA gene and restriction endonuclease Bst 1107I enzyme which can recognize the sequence (GTATAC) in corresponding PCR product of Anaplasma marginale and cut it in the position 68 and 509, whereas the used restriction enzyme cannot cut the corresponding PCR product of other Aanaplasma spp. (academicjournals.org)
  • The obtained sequence showed similarity with A. marginale reported from Kenya and USA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. (usda.gov)
  • In this study we determined that iron is required for A. marginale replication in tick cells and identify three genes that are likely involved in iron transport. (usda.gov)
  • We then determined that all three A. marginale genes are modestly differentially expressed in response to altered host cell iron levels, despite the lack of a fur regulator or operon structure. (usda.gov)
  • Semi-Nested-PCR (snPCR) for the msp5 and snPCR for the msp1α target gene for identification of A. marginale in blood samples from animals was done. (scielo.br)
  • Foram realizados exames clínicos, hematócrito, hemograma, esfregaço sanguíneo com avaliação de riquetsemia, necropsia e histopatologia, além de, Semi-Nested-PCR (snPCR) para o gene alvo msp5 e snPCR para o gene alvo msp1α para identificação de A. marginale nas amostras de sangue dos ruminantes. (scielo.br)
  • Interestingly, the 5' structure of this A. marginale msp2 locus is conserved in the omp1 gene locus of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and p30 gene locus of E. canis despite marked divergence between genera in the structure of the 3' region of the loci. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Overall, occurrence of A. marginale in blood and tick samples was found to be 65.21% and 8.1% respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The study aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical, laboratory and pathological aspects of buffalo and bovine experimentally infected with AmRio 2 strain of Anaplasma marginale . (scielo.br)
  • Strain AmRio 2 of A. marginale was inoculated in all experimental animals. (scielo.br)
  • However, sequencing revealed only five animals, including the bovine which died, with a similarity of the amino acid sequences with AmRio 2 strain of A. marginale . (scielo.br)
  • The complete 5.6-kb msp2 locus was identified by sequencing a 90-kb region of the St. Maries strain of A. marginale. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The Anaplasma Pcr Mayo reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (synoviocytes.com)
  • The blood smear evidenced Anaplasma marginale corpuscles in parasited red blood cells. (vin.com)
  • Romanowsky stained bovine erythrocytes containing Anaplasma marginale , which are dense, homogeneously staining blue-purple inclusions 0.3-1.0 µm in diameter that are typically located toward the margins of infected cells. (ncvetp.org)
  • Anaplasma marginale is a vector-borne pathogen that causes a disease known as anaplasmosis. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an obligate gram-negative bacteria, Anaplasma (A.) marginale. (lutzonilab.net)
  • Anaplasma ovis , the agent of ovine anaplasmosis, may cause mild to severe disease in sheep, deer and goats, but is not infectious for cattle. (alberta.ca)
  • Beef Cattle (over 700 lb): Control of active infection of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale susceptible to chlortetracycline. (nih.gov)
  • Beef and Non-Lactating Dairy Cattle: As an aid in control of active infection of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale susceptible to chlortetracycline when delivered in a free-choice feed. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma marginale, is a disease caused by a micro-organism that is a parasite of red blood cells. (canada.ca)
  • Anaplasma marginale is a virulent intra-erythrocytic pathogen that causes bovine anaplasmosis, its closely related species, Anaplasma centrale causes mild sickness. (ufs.ac.za)
  • Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasma marginale es la especie más patógena y es el agente causal de la anaplasmosis bovina grave. (bvsalud.org)
  • In cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale, the number of pathogens in the blood varies between a peak of 10 6 to 10 7 per mL to a low of 10 2 per mL. (medscape.com)
  • Development of a Multiplex PCR and Magnetic DNA Capture Assay for Detecting Six Species Pathogens of the Genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in Canine, Bovine, Caprine and Ovine. (sgu.edu)
  • Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species are tick-borne pathogens of both veterinary and public health importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current status of these pathogens, including emerging species such as Ehrlichia minasensis and Anaplasma platys , infecting cattle in Kenya, remain unclear, mainly because of limitation in the diagnostic techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species of the family Anaplasmataceae are tick-borne pathogens of livestock with some species known to infect humans and therefore are of both veterinary and public health importance [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. (pacb.com)
  • The serum antibodies against A. marginale and B. bovis were detected using spe- cific cELISA tests and those against B. bigemina and T. annulata by indirect immunofluorescence tests on 1764 animals (792 from Gharb area and 972 from Doukkala area) of different sexes, breed and ages. (revmedvet.com)
  • T. annulata is widely distributed in Doukkala (36.5%), while the area of Gharb is dominated by A. marginale (40.5%) as well by B. bovis (23.0%) and B. bigemina (25.0%) at a lesser extend. (revmedvet.com)
  • The Anaplasma species clustered in four distinct phylogenetic clades including A. marginale , A. platys , A. bovis and some unidentified Anaplasma spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blood samples from 300 calves were collected, followed by DNA extraction and nested PCR using oligonucleotide primers to amplify fragments of the semi-nested for the msp5 gene (A. marginale), sbp-4 (B. bovis) and rap-1a (B. bigemina) Among the examined calves, the prevalence of A. marginale was 55.6% (n=167/300), B. bovis was 4.0% (n=12/300) and B. bigemina was 15.3% (n=46/300), by PCR techniques. (bvsalud.org)
  • Parasitic forms of A. marginale and B. bigemina were found in 36,3% and 2,6% of the blood smears while B. bovis was not detected. (bvsalud.org)
  • Foram coletadas 300 amostras sanguíneas de bezerros, seguidas por extração de DNA e Nested- PCR utilizando oligonucleotídeos iniciadores que amplificam fragmentos dos genes sbp-4 (B. bovis) e rap-1a (B. bigemina) e a Semi-Nested para o gene msp5 (A. marginale). (bvsalud.org)
  • A prevalência de A. marginale foi 55,66% (167/300), B. bigemina, 15,33% (46/300) e B. bovis 4,0% (12/300) dos bezerros examinados. (bvsalud.org)
  • Formas parasitárias de A. marginale and B. bigemina foram encontradas em 36,33% e 2,66% dos esfregaços sanguíneos, enquanto B. bovis não foi detectado. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is an infectious disease of the red blood cells caused by the rickettsial bacteria Anaplasma marginale . (alberta.ca)
  • A. marginale is a bacteria that infects red blood cells and once an animal becomes infected they are infected for life. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Indications: Oxytetracycline is effective against gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and anaplasma. (petmedsmex.com)
  • Furthermore, A. marginale and B. bigemina infection frequencies were significantly higher in traditional exploitations than in modern ones. (revmedvet.com)
  • There was a statistical difference between the positivity of infected animals in the age groups 1 (10-70 days) and (>70-300 days) for A. marginale and B. bigemina. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaplasma centrale is a less pathogenic but closely related organism. (alberta.ca)
  • The infection, which is caused by members of the genus Anaplasma, an obligate intracellular rickettsia-like bacterium related to the genus Ehrlichia, is characterized by repetitive cycles of rickettsemia at 6- to 8-week intervals. (medscape.com)
  • Whole blood DNA was extracted and tested for presence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia DNA through amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species were detected in 19.9 and 3.3% of all the samples analyzed, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasma marginale transmitted by several tick vectors including some Rhipicephalus ( boophilus ) species is the most common in Kenya causing a severe hemolytic disease in the ruminants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Anaplasma marginale transmission studies conducted on the high semi-arid range of eastern Oregon during the 1974 and 1975 vector season, A marginale-susceptible calves (principals) were maintained on 2 raised tick-proof platforms. (oregonstate.edu)
  • partial gene sequences amplified representation of A. marginale submitted to GenBank (Accession number MK032842 and MK032843). (lutzonilab.net)
  • Major surface protein 2 of A. marginale is an immunodominant outer membrane protein of approximately 40 kDa. (medscape.com)
  • Two calves seronegative for A. marginale were immunized four times at weeks 0, 3, 7 and 13 with pVCL/MSP1a. (usda.gov)
  • Reads were mapped using the genome of the Florida strain of A. marginale as a reference sequence. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasma marginale does not cause clinical disease in humans. (gov.ab.ca)
  • It was observed that the white blood cells, lymphocytes (%), monocytes (%) hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and hemoglobin concentration of living cells on average were significantly impaired in A. marginale-positive than negative cows. (lutzonilab.net)
  • The presence of A. marginale may be confirmed by identifying the organism in a stained blood smear from a sick animal. (alberta.ca)
  • 2013. Identification of multilocus genetic heterogeneity in Anaplasma marginale subsp. (k-state.edu)
  • 37/844 (4.3%) Giemsa stained blood smears found positive for Anaplasma spp. (lutzonilab.net)
  • Immunization with the native major surface protein 1 (MSP1) (a heterodimer containing disulfide and non-covalently bonded polypeptides designated MSP1a and MSP1b) of the erythrocytic stage of A. marginale conferred protection against homologous challenge (G. H. Palmer, A. F. Barbet, W. C. Davis, and T. C. McGuire, Science, 231:1299-1302). (usda.gov)