Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Anaplasma centrale: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Rhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Anaplasma ovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Ehrlichia ruminantium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Babesia bovis: A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Theileriasis: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Antigens and alternatives for control of Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. (1/95)

Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. Analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order Rickettsiales. The genus Anaplasma, of which A. marginale is the type species, now also includes A. bovis, A. platys, and A. phagocytophilum, which were previously known as Ehrlichia bovis, E. platys, and the E. phagocytophila group (which causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), respectively. Live and killed vaccines have been used for control of anaplasmosis, and both types of vaccines have advantages and disadvantages. These vaccines have been effective in preventing clinical anaplasmosis in cattle but have not blocked A. marginale infection. Thus, persistently infected cattle serve as a reservoir of infective blood for both mechanical transmission and infection of ticks. Advances in biochemical, immunologic, and molecular technologies during the last decade have been applied to research of A. marginale and related organisms. The recent development of a cell culture system for A. marginale provides a potential source of antigen for the development of improved killed and live vaccines, and the availability of cell culture-derived antigen would eliminate the use of cattle in vaccine production. Increased knowledge of A. marginale antigen repertoires and an improved understanding of bovine cellular and humoral immune responses to A. marginale, combined with the new technologies, should contribute to the development of more effective vaccines for control and prevention of anaplasmosis.  (+info)

Glycosylation of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and its putative role in adhesion to tick cells. (2/95)

Anaplasma marginale, the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle that multiplies in erythrocytes and tick cells. Major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) and MSP1b form the MSP1 complex of A. marginale, which is involved in adhesion of the pathogen to host cells. In this study we tested the hypothesis that MSP1a and MSP1b were glycosylated, because the observed molecular weights of both proteins were greater than the deduced molecular masses. We further hypothesized that the glycosylation of MSP1a plays a role in adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells. Native and Escherichia coli-derived recombinant MSP1a and MSP1b proteins were shown by gas chromatography to be glycosylated and to contain neutral sugars. Glycosylation of MSP1a appeared to be mainly O-linked to Ser/Thr residues in the N-terminal repeated peptides. Glycosylation may play a role in adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells because chemical deglycosylation of MSP1a significantly reduced its adhesive properties. Although the MSP1a polypeptide backbone alone was adherent to tick cell extract, the glycans in the N-terminal repeats appeared to enhance binding and may cooperatively interact with one or more surface molecules on host cells. These results demonstrated that MSP1a and MSP1b are glycosylated and suggest that the glycosylation of MSP1a plays a role in the adhesion of A. marginale to tick cells.  (+info)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a functional msp2 gene that is distinct from p44. (3/95)

The msp2 and p44 genes encode polymorphic major outer membrane proteins that are considered unique to the intraerythrocytic agent of Anaplasma marginale and the intragranulocytic agent of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, respectively. In the present study, however, we found an msp2 gene in A. phagocytophilum that was remarkably conserved among A. phagocytophilum strains from human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) patients, ticks, and a horse from various regions in the United States, but the gene was different in a sheep isolate from the United Kingdom. The msp2 gene in the A. phagocytophilum strain HZ genome was a single-copy gene and was located downstream of two Ehrlichia chaffeensis omp-1 homologs and a decarboxylase gene (ubiD). The msp2 gene was expressed by A. phagocytophilum in the blood from HGA patients NY36 and NY37 and by A. phagocytophilum isolates from these patients cultured in HL-60 cells at 37 degrees C. The msp2 gene was also expressed in a DBA/2 mouse infected by attaching ticks infected with strain NTN-1 and in a horse experimentally infected by attaching strain HZ-infected ticks. However, the transcript of the msp2 gene was undetectable in A. phagocytophilum strain HZ in SCID mice and Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with strain NTN-1. These results indicate that msp2 is functional in various strains of A. phagocytophilum, and relative expression ratios of msp2 to p44 vary in different infected hosts. These findings may be important in understanding roles that Msp2 proteins play in granulocytic ehrlichia infection and evolution of the polymorphic major outer membrane protein gene families in Anaplasma species.  (+info)

Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle entering Alberta feedlots: Fall 2001. (4/95)

A serologic survey was conducted in yearling cattle imported into Alberta feedlots from Montana during October 2001 to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to BTV when the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used was 0.37% (21/5608). Test positive cELISA samples were also all positive when tested by virus neutralization (VN) and they reacted to 1 or more BTV serotypes, including 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to A. marginale when a recombinant cELISA (rcELISA) was used with a positive cutoff at 30% inhibition was 1.93% (108/5608). When the rcELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 0.73% (41/5608). After the reported sensitivity and specificity of the test had been accounted for, the A. marginale antibody results were consistent with a population that was either free of exposure or had a very low prevalence for A. marginale.  (+info)

Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland. (5/95)

Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease. This was the first severe disease outbreak associated with concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens in alpine Switzerland; it was presumably curtailed by culling of the entire herd. It remains to be seen whether similar disease outbreaks will have to be anticipated in northern Europe in the future.  (+info)

The CD4+ T cell immunodominant Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 stimulates gammadelta T cell clones that express unique T cell receptors. (6/95)

Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) of the bovine rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is an abundant, serologically immunodominant outer membrane protein. Immunodominance partially results from numerous CD4+ T cell epitopes in highly conserved amino and carboxy regions and the central hypervariable region of MSP2. However, in long-term cultures of lymphocytes stimulated with A. marginale, workshop cluster 1 (WC1)+ gammadelta T cells and CD4+ alphabeta T cells proliferated, leading to a predominance of gammadelta T cells. As gammadelta T cells proliferate in A. marginale-stimulated lymphocyte cultures, this study hypothesized that gammadelta T cells respond to the abundant, immunodominant MSP2. To test this hypothesis, gammadelta T cell clones were isolated from MSP2 vaccinates and assessed for antigen-specific proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion. Seven WC1+ gammadelta T cell clones responded to A. marginale and MSP2, and three of these proliferated to overlapping peptides from the conserved carboxy region. The gammadelta T cell response was not major histocompatibility complex-restricted, although it required antigen-presenting cells and was blocked by addition of antibody specific for the T cell receptor (TCR). Sequence analysis of TCR-gamma and -delta chains of peripheral blood lymphocytes identified two novel TCR-gamma chain constant (Cgamma) regions. It is important that all seven MSP2-specific gammadelta T cell clones used the same one of these novel Cgamma regions. The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 was less conserved than those of MSP2-specific CD4+ alphabeta T cell clones. Together, these data indicate that WC1+ gammadelta T cells recognize A. marginale MSP2 through the TCR and contribute to the immunodominant response to this protein.  (+info)

Stochastic transmission of multiple genotypically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains in a herd with high prevalence of Anaplasma infection. (7/95)

Multiple genotypically unique strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale occur and are transmitted within regions where the organism is endemic. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific A. marginale strains are preferentially transmitted. The study herd of cattle (n = 261) had an infection prevalence of 29% as determined by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR, with complete concordance between results of the two assays. Genotyping revealed the presence of 11 unique strains within the herd. Although the majority of the individuals (70 of 75) were infected with only a single A. marginale strain, five animals each carried two strains with markedly distinct genotypes, indicating that superinfection does occur with distinct A. marginale strains, as has been reported with A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale strains. Identification of strains in animals born into and infected within the herd during the period from 1998 to 2003 revealed no significant difference from the overall strain prevalence in the herd, results that do not support the occurrence of preferential strain transmission within a population of persistently infected animals and are most consistent with pathogen strain transmission being stochastic.  (+info)

Identification of a novel Anaplasma marginale appendage-associated protein that localizes with actin filaments during intraerythrocytic infection. (8/95)

The rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale assembles an actin filament bundle during intracellular infection. Unlike other bacterial pathogens that generate actin filament tails, A. marginale infects mature erythrocytes, and the F-actin appendages are assembled on the cytoplasmic surface of a vacuole containing several organisms. To identify A. marginale molecules associated with these filaments, two complementary approaches were used: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of A. marginale proteins identified with an appendage-specific monoclonal antibody and expression screening of an A. marginale phage library. Amino acid and nucleotide sequences were mapped to a full-length gene in the genome of the St. Maries strain of A. marginale; the correct identification was confirmed by expression of full-length recombinant protein and its reactivity with appendage-specific antibodies. Interestingly, there is marked variation in the abilities of diverse A. marginale strains to assemble the F-actin appendages. Comparison of four strains, the Florida, Illinois, St. Maries, and Virginia strains, revealed substantial polymorphism in the gene encoding the appendage-associated protein, with amino acid sequence identity of as low as 34% among strains. However, this variation does not underlie the differences in expression, as there is no specific polymorphism associated with loss of ability to assemble actin appendages. In contrast, the ability to assemble an actin filament bundle reflected dramatic strain-specific differences in the expression level of the appendage-associated protein. Understanding how this protein influences the cycle of invasion, replication, and egress in the host cell may provide new insights into pathogen-host interactions.  (+info)

*Dermacentor

Anaplasma marginale, which causes anaplasmosis in cattle, Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia, Babesia caballi, ...

*Ehrlichia

"Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants". Molecular ... Ehrlichia and their closely related species Anaplasma show extreme diversity in the structure and content of their genomes. ...

*Ticks of domestic animals

Anaplasma centrale tends to infect the central region of red blood cells, and is sufficiently closely related to An. marginale ... Anaplasma marginale infects marginal areas of red blood cells of cattle and causes anaplasmosis wherever boophilid ticks occur ... marginale. Sheep and goats suffer disease from infection with Anaplasma ovis which is transmitted similarly to the anaplasmas ... However, some microbes, such as Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale, can also be transmitted by biting flies, or by blood on ...

*Mabel Josephine Mackerras

136). Mackerras, I. M., Mackerras, M. J., & Mulhearn, C. R. (1942). Attempted transmission of Anaplasma marginale Theiler by ...

*Anaplasmosis

Anaplasma marginale - found worldwide. Anaplasma centrale - found mainly in South America, Africa and the Middle East. Sheep ... In Australia, bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is only found in the northern and eastern parts of Australia ... In 2005, Anaplasma ovis was found in reindeer populations in Mongolia. This pathogen and its associated syndrome (characterized ... Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp. The microorganism is gram-negative, and ...

*Rhipicephalus annulatus

It is a potential vector of many babesiosis pathogens like Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Anaplasma marginale. It shows a ...

*Nyala

The dominant parasites were Theileria species, T. buffeli, T. bicornis, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma marginale and A. bovis. ...

*Parasitic flies of domestic animals

Tabanid flies are also transmitters the bacteria Anaplasma marginale and A.centrale to cattle, sheep and goats, causing ... Scoles,G.A., (2008) Comparison of the efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: ...

*List of sequenced bacterial genomes

2005). "Complete genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the surface is skewed to two superfamilies of outer ...

*Waterbuck

They are unaffected by tsetse flies but ticks may introduce parasitic protozoa such as Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale and ...

*Ixodes ricinus

... and the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. Horses may be infected with Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophila, and the viral ... Anaplasma phagocytophila), Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), Boutonneuse fever (Rickettsia conorii), ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.440.040.050.500 --- Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.440.040.050.575 --- Anaplasma ovis MeSH B03.440. ... Anaplasma centrale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.500 --- Anaplasma marginale MeSH B03.660.050.020.050.575 --- Anaplasma ovis MeSH ... 040.050.600 --- Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH B03.440.040.287 --- Ehrlichia MeSH B03.440.040.287.090 --- Ehrlichia canis MeSH ... B03.660.050.020.050.600 --- Anaplasma phagocytophilum MeSH B03.660.050.020.287 --- Ehrlichia MeSH B03.660.050.020.287.090 --- ...

*Human granulocytic anaplasmosis

Lots of MSPs are found in Anaplasma and the ones that interact with Anaplasma can mainly be found in A. marginale and A. ... A. marginale evolved to be more specific in infecting animals, such as deer and cattle in the subtropics and tropics. The main ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Anaplasma MSPs can not only cooperate with vertebrates, but also invertebrates, which make these phenotypes evolve faster than ...

*Anaplasma

... marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma mesaeterum and Anaplasma ovis in sheep and goats Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma platys Anaplasmosis Parte, A.C. "Anaplasma". www.bacterio.net. Anaplasmas reviewed and ... Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Anaplasma Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Anaplasma Genomes (at DOE's IMG system). ...
Classification of bacteria is challenging due to the lack of a theory-based framework. In addition, the adaptation of bacteria to ecological niches often results in selection of strains with diverse virulence, pathogenicity and transmission characteristics. Bacterial strain diversity presents challenges for taxonomic classification, which in turn impacts the ability to develop accurate diagnostics and effective vaccines. Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, has become apparent. The extent of A. marginale strain diversity, formerly underappreciated, has contributed to the challenges of classification which, in turn, likely impacts the design and development of improved vaccines. Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for strain identity, is both an adhesin necessary for infection of cells and an immuno-reactive protein and is ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
In situ hybridization (ISH), which allows localization of pathogen nucleic acid in tissue sections, was used to detect A. marginale, a rickettsial pathogen of cattle, in its tick vector. Dermacentor andersoni males were experimentally infected with A. marginale, and one-half of each of 20 ticks was embedded in paraffin or LR White for ISH: companion halves were embedded in DER resin for light microscopy. Sections were digested with proteinase K and hybridized with a digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe. In both paraffin and LR White embedded sections, dark-blue colour precipitates of hybridization signals were visualized in both salivary gland and gut cells. Anaplasma infections were also confirmed by light microscopy in companion tick halves. Positive hybridization signals and A. marginale colonies were not seen in uninfected control tissues. Although ISH detected A. marginale in both paraffin and LR White embedded sections, LR White was found to be optimum for ISH of A. marginale because of improved ...
Heparinized whole blood, heavily parasitized with Anaplasma marginale, was collected from 3 splenectomized oxen. Buffered lactose peptone (BLP) was added in equal volumes as a stabilizer and the mixture lyophilized in 2 ml aliquots after rapid freezing. The dried material was reconstituted with 2 ml sterile water and inoculated without delay. The product remained infective for at least 6 months when stored in an ordinary household deep-freeze unit ...
Shared and unique antigens were identified and partially characterized for two morphologically and antigenically distinct isolates of Anaplasma, A. marginale (Florida) (FAM) and A. caudatum (Illinois) (IAC). Crude CA-like antigens were prepared from the parasitemic blood of each calf, separated by SDS-PAGE, electroblotted onto nitrocellulose, and detected using immune bovine sera and an avidin-biotin-peroxidase assay with biotinylated rabbit anti-goat IgG (cross-reacted with cattle, sheep and deer antibodies). IAC antigens were 200 kilodalton (kd), 100 kd, 96 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-IAC and anti-FAM sera. FAM antigens were 108 kd, 100 kd, 96 kd, 91 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-FAM sera and, except for the 91 kd, with anti-IAC sera. The 91 kd is an FAM isolate-specific antigen. The 108 kd, 100 kd, and 96 kd are group-specific antigens of A. marginale and A. centrale. The 43 to 38 kd is genus-specific. The 96, 91, and 75 kd ...
24.BraytonKA,PalmerGH,BrownWC: Genomicandproteomicapproaches tovaccinecandidateidentificationfor Anaplasmamarginale ExpertRev Vaccines 2006, 5: 95 101. 25.PierleSA,DarkMJ,DahmenD,PalmerGH,BraytonKA: Comparative genomicsandtranscriptomicsoftrait-geneassociation. BMCGenomics 2012, 13: 669. 26.VanOpijnenT,CamilliA: Transposoninsertionsequencing:anewtoolfor systems-levelanalysisofmicroorganisms. NatRevMicrobiol 2013, 11: 435 442. 27.ClaeysBouuaertC,ChalmersRM: Genetherapyvectors:theprospectsand potentialsofthecut-and-pastetransposons. Genetica 2010, 138: 473 484. 28.PicardeauM: Transpositionofflymarinerelementsintobacteriaasa genetictoolformutagenesis. Genetica 2010, 138: 551 558. 29.LampeDJ,GrantTE,RobertsonHM: Factorsaffectingtranspositionofthe Himar1 marinertransposoninvitro. Genetics 1998, 149: 179 187. 30.PlasterkRH,IzsvakZ,IvicsZ: Residentaliens:theTc1/marinersuperfamily oftransposableelements. TrendsGenet 1999, 15: 326 332. 31.ClarkTR,EllisonDW,KlebaB,HackstadtT: Complementationof Rickettsia ...
Ubiquinone (UQ), also called coenzyme Q, and plastoquinone (PQ) are electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively. The quinoid nucleus of ubiquinone is derived from the shikimate pathway; 4-hydroxybenzoate is directly formed from chorismate in bacteria, while it can be formed from either chorismate or tyrosine in yeast. The following biosynthesis of terpenoid moiety involves reactions of prenylation, decarboxylation, and three hydroxylations alternating with three methylations. The order of these reactions are somewhat different between bacteria and yeast. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), and tocopherol (vitamin E) are fat-soluble vitamins. Phylloquinone is a compound present in all photosynthetic plants serving as a cofactor for photosystem I-mediated electron transport. Menaquinone is an obligatory component of the electron-transfer pathway in bacteria ...
Part of the ESX-3 specialized secretion system, which is important for iron and zinc uptake or homeostasis (PubMed:19684129, PubMed:24155985). EccA3 exhibits ATPase activity and may provide energy for the export of ESX-3 substrates (By similarity).
Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Immunization with purified outer membranes of this organism induces protection against acute anaplasmosis. Previous studies, with proteomic and genomic approach identified 21 proteins within the outer membrane immunogen in addition to previously characterized major surface protein1a-5 (MSP1a-5). Among the newly described proteins were VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu). VirB9, VirB10 are considered part of the type IV secretion system (TFSS), which mediates secretion or cell-to-cell transfer of macromolecules, proteins, or DNA-protein complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. EF-Tu can be located in the bacterial surface, mediating bacterial attachment to host cells, or in the bacterial cytoplasm for protein synthesis. However, the roles of VirB9, VirB10, and TFSS in A. marginale have not been defined. VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu have not been explored as vaccine ...
ID B9KHY5_ANAMF Unreviewed; 221 AA. AC B9KHY5; DT 24-MAR-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 37. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM49097.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=AMF_220 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM49097.1}; OS Anaplasma marginale (strain Florida). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; OC Anaplasmataceae; Anaplasma. OX NCBI_TaxID=320483 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM49097.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007307}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM49097.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007307} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Florida {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM49097.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000007307}; RX PubMed=19134224; DOI=10.1186/1471-2164-10-16; RA Dark M.J., Herndon D.R., Kappmeyer L.S., Gonzales M.P., Nordeen E., RA Palmer G.H., Knowles D.P. Jr., Brayton K.A.; RT "Conservation in the face of diversity: multistrain analysis of an RT intracellular bacterium."; RL BMC ...
ISSR stands for Inter Simple Sequence Repeat and refers to the genome regions between microsatellite loci. It is a rapid and inexpensive genotyping technique with a wide range of applications, including the characterization of genetic relatedness among the organisms of a population. This application describes the amplification of ISSR sequences from individual C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains using ISSR-PCR and the QIAxcel Advanced System.
Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne pathogen of cattle. It is transmitted by ixodid ticks. Symptoms of acute disease are anemia, weight loss, and often death. A.marginale establishes life-long persistent infection in animals that survive disease. These animals are clinically healthy but serve as reservoirs for transmission of the pathogen. Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale (Anaplasma centrale (strain Israel)) is a naturally occurring attenuated strain has been used as a live vaccine to prevent severe disease due to A. marginale senso stricto strains for 100 years. A. marginale subsp. centrale contains 10 putative genes not found in the genomes of senso stricto strains, while 18 genes found in senso stricto strains are absent from A. marginale subsp. centrale. As inoculation with purified outer membrane protein (OMP) complexes provides immunity against A. marginale, it is important to identify OMPs that differ among A,marginale to identify further vaccine candidates. ...
2002) Erratum to "A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates" [Vet. Microbiol. 86 (2002) 325-335]. Veterinary Microbiology, 87 (4). pp. 365-366. ...
The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER
Introduction. Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia Anaplasma marginale and is an endemic condition in tropical and subtropical areas. Ticks are the biological vector, but transmission may also occur mechanically by mosquitoes and bloodsucking flies (YERUHAM; BRAVERMAN, 1981). In endemic areas, calves are infected during the first months of life. Acute infections develop into a clinical disease characterized by anemia and weight loss (CORRIER; GUZMAN, 1977; RIBEIRO; REIS, 1981), and death can occur in 36% (PALMER, 1989). Animals that survive the clinical disease remain persistent carriers with low rickettsemia. They may be a source of infection for other susceptible animals that become infected through mechanical and biological vectors (SCHILF, 1971). Animal susceptibility increases with age, and younger animals are more resistant to the first infection, and have less severe clinical symptoms (ROBY et al., 1961; JONES et al., 1968).. Over the past 30 years no new ...
Aim: Anaplasma marginale is a rickettsial pathogen responsible for progressive anemia in ruminants leading to huge economic losses. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of anaplasmosis and therapeutic evaluation of traditional line of treatment.. Materials and Methods: A total of 168 cattle presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar during the period of 3 months (July-September, 2014) with history of fever, anorexia, reduced milk yield and tick infestation were analyzed for prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases using classical giemsa stained thin blood smear parasitological method.. Results: Out of these 168 animals, 7 (4.17%) were found to be suffering from anaplasmosis on the basis of presence of dense, rounded, intra-erythrocytic bodies situated on or near the margin of the erythrocytes. Overall prevalence of theileriosis and babesiosis were found to be 42.9% and 1.8%, ...
Ha, S., Furukawa, R., Stramiello, M., Wagner, J.J., and Fechheimer, M. (2011). Transgenic Mouse Model for the Formation of Hirano Bodies. BMC Neurosci. 12:97. [Epub ahead of print]. Ha, S., Furukawa, R., and Fechheimer, M. (2011). Association of AICD and Fe65 with Hirano bodies reduces transcriptional activation and initiation of apoptosis. Neurobiol Aging. 32:2287-98.. Kim, D.-H., R. Furukawa, and M. Fechheimer. 2009. Degradation of Hirano Bodies by Autophagy 5, 44-51.. Davis, R. C., Furukawa, R., and M. Fechheimer, 2008. A Mammalian Cell Culture Model for the Formation of Hirano Bodies, Acta Neuropathologica 115, 205-217.. Stich, R. W., G. A. Olah, K. A. Brayton, W. C. Brown, M. Fechheimer, K. Green-Church, S. Jittapalapong, K. M. Kocan, T. C. McGuire, F. R. Rurangirwa, and G. H. Palmer. 2004. Identification of a novel Anaplasma marginale appendage-associated protein that localizes with actin filaments during intraerythrocytic infection. Infection and Immunity 72, 7257-7264.. Maselli, A., R. ...
Maries memoirs, The Education of a Princess and A Princess in Exile, published by Viking Press in 1930 and 1932, were highly successful, and she signed many copies with a purple flourish. But what next? She had a living to make, at a time when former Wall Street millionaires were selling apples on streetcornersa familiar sight for one who had lived as a former-person under the Bolsheviks. One talent Marie seemed to constantly improve was her ability to charm sometimes perfect strangers, although the exquisite portrait painter and fellow ÚmigrÚe aristocrat Elly Shoumatoff (for whom Marie had sat in 1930) felt one of Maries less positive talents was for getting involved with undesirable people. When among her friends, Marie was warm and funny; but when pulling rank, in the words of Mme Shoumatoffs grandson, writer Alex Shoumatoff, the grand duchess could run the gamut from mildly annoying to sadly pathetic.. Mostly, it was the charm that came through, along with that enduring desire ...
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If we really want to get more women into STEM fields, we need to enact a moratorium on Marie Curie. Its all well and good to have that obligatory female nerd in the lab on every procedural mystery TV show, to include some lab-coated ladies in a Lego set, or to add a computer engineer Barbie to Mattels latest line (though that one didnt go so well). But clearly its not enough. Every single one of us needs to scrub that you-know-who reflex from our brain and replace it with a diverse set of important female innovators. When we do, girls will gain Grace Hopper, who was one of the most important-and colorful-computer scientists in history; Marie Tharp, who mapped the ocean floor and saw evidence of continental drift years before her partner or others in the scientific community accepted the idea; Virginia Apgar, whose scoring system for newborns has saved countless babies lives; and Inge Lehmann, who discovered Earths inner core. ...
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Heres something all the means girls can write about in their notebooks: Rachel McAdams is now a redhead.The Vow star ventured to Disneyland Wednesday with a new do, according to US Magazine.Rachel McAdams and Michael Sheen splitMcAdams, 34, kept her ...
The Marie Curie Actions are the EUs funding mechanism for supporting the mobility and career development of researchers across Europe. (In Horizon 2020, they have been renamed the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions). Since 1996, the Marie Curie Actions have helped thousands of researchers of all ages, nationalities and disciplines develop their careers and realise their research dreams - no other scheme in the world offers such a wide variety of opportunities to such a broad range of researchers. By doing this, the Marie Curie Actions also promote the transfer of knowledge and skills across national and sectoral borders, and crucially, advance excellence in research and innovation across Europe.. The Initial Training Networks are one particular Marie Curie Action, which supports early stage researchers. Each network consists of a consortium of research partners and industry, with an integrated training programme in a particular topic. The Marie Curie Actions then fund a number of early stage ...
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Building on the momentum generated out of last weeks Families Against Narcotics (FAN) presentation, more than two dozen people gathered in the Avery Center Wednesday to decide where we - as a community - go from here.Prevention Coordinator Karen Senkus of the Chippewa County Health Department said she was pleased by the turnout before giving the crowd their instructions:
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Fixed term for 36 monthsApplications are invited for an Early Stage Researcher (ESR)/PhD studentship position funded by The Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA) Innovative Training Networks (ITN) programme
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Marie Curie (French: ; 7 November 1867 - 4 July 1934), née Maria SalomeaSkłodowska (Polish: ), was a Polish physicist and chemist, working mainly in France
Marie Besnard In France, in the 17th Century, alchemists became wealthy grinding arsenic rock into a colorless and odorless powder and selling the powder to their countrymen who wanted to do away with a wealthy old parent, grandparent, uncle or aunt. There was even an
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Mitt forskningsprosjekt omhandler endringsmekanismer og endringsprosesser i psykoterapi med traumatiserte barn og unge. Doktorgradsarbeidet inngår som en del av en større randomisert, kontrollert studie av traumefokusert kognitiv atferdsterapi (TF-CBT) med barn og unge eksponert for alvorlige traumer. Prosjektet ledes av professor Tine K. Jensen og er tilknyttet Nasjonalt Kunnskapssenter om Vold og Traumatisk Stress (NKVTS).. ...
ISSNs: 0961-8368. Additional searchable ISSN (Electronic): 1359-5040. Wiley-Blackwell, United States. BFI (2017): BFI-level 1, Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 2.68 SJR 1.685 SNIP 0.791, ISI indexed (2013): ISI indexed yes, Web of Science (2017): Indexed Yes. Central database. Journal ...
About Linköping University Electronic Press Linköping University Electronic Press, LiU E-Press, is an Open Access publisher with the aim to make the research at LiU as visible as possible, internally, nationally and, most important, internationally and it is a part of the LiU marketing. LiU E-Press supply students and researchers with support and service about the publishing strategy at LiU ...
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On display at Slate.com, What Marie Antoinette Really Wore, a vivid example of status details, the literary device that is both descriptive and revelatory. What strikes me is how much knowledge/or reporting it takes to get the details right. It...
The ImportanceOf A Small StoryCheers to The Courant and Ann Marie Somma for recognizing the importance of a small local story. (Parents Pan Classroom Pet Policy, Sept. 15).Imagine the disappointment
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Tobin, David; Wardi-Zonna, Katherine; Yezzi-Shareef, Ann Marie. Journal of Individual Psychology. Spring 2007, Vol. 63 Issue 1, p86-95. 10p. ...
Beautiful skin. Its not a vanity to desire it. In fact, doing whatever you can to get it may very well be Gods will. Marie Montaigne explains in 1913s How to
misc{69d123b7-64f0-476f-af7f-69f60ee4a86e, author = {Sydoff, Marie and Stenström, Kristina}, language = {eng}, title = {Development of an improved method for analysis of biological samples with small-scale AMS and a simplified graphitization process}, year = {2007 ...
Change your life! Meet Julie Perley, and try some gelato in Egg Harbor!By Donna Marie PociusSpecial to DoorCountyNavigator.com Julie Perley says making gelato gives her an opportunity to help people, just like working in the dental field used
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Anaplasmosis in cattle is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria known as Anaplasma marginale. The disease is common in Missouri. Clinical cases can occur at any time of the year, but the majority of cases are seen in late summer and fall. The economic impact of the disease to the state is unknown, but nationwide it is estimated to exceed $300 million a year.1 Economic losses are due to reduced production, treatment costs, death loss and abortion.. Anaplasma marginale causes disease by infecting red blood cells. The immune systems recognizes the infected cells as abnormal and removes them, thereby creating anemia. The severity of disease is related to the number of infected red blood cells and subsequent red blood cell loss. In mild cases, animals may exhibit symptoms such as elevated temperature, depression and pale mucous membranes. In severe cases, animals may be jaundiced, the most obvious symptom of which is a yellow tinge to the mucous membranes around the eyes; exhibit severe ...
Anaplasma, Anaplasma Marginale, Anaplasmataceae, Animal, Animals, Blood, Cattle, Deer, DNA, DNA Sequence, Ehrlichia, Ehrlichia Canis, Ehrlichia Ruminantium, Family, Genbank, Gene, Genotype, Infection, Parasites, PCR
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Susan Toth wrote - Join us for Maries Run to Beat Pancreatic Cancer in Shelton, CT on Saturday May 30th. The proceeds from this event will benefit Project Purple in its fight to raise awareness, help families fighting, and fund research for a cure to pancreatic cancer. Marie & Carl Siriani were married for 51 years and were lifelong Shelton, CT residents. Marie sadly lost her battle to pancreatic cancer in 2014, and her family wants to help others fighting this disease. Maries Run is dedicated to all those lost and all those fighting. There will be a variety of runs inclduing a 1/4 mile kids run, 1 mile walk, and the highlight of the event, a 1 mile sprint. Prizes will be given to top female and male winners, along with many fun divisions inclduing middle school, high school, age, Cross Fit, Corporate, Police, and Firefighters. Start Location: In front of 4 Reasearch Drive, Shelton CT Time: 8:45AM - Kids Fun Run starts at 9AM - the first wave will go off for the mile run and 1/2
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... s identity remains obscure, but it is clear that she was a woman of French origin writing in England in the later decades of the twelfth century, widely educated, and in touch with the royal court. She dedicates her book of Lais to a noble King who was probably Henry II, and she may have been his kinswoman, possibly an illegitimate half-sister. Maries works draw into that courtly culture the languages and traditions of the English and Celtic past. She rewrote a Latin narrative about the origin of Saint Patricks Purgatory and the adventure of an Irish knight there; and she retold the fables of Aesop using an English translation that she attributed to King Alfred. The Lais, she says, came to her through oral transmission, and she connects them with the Bretons.. Writing a generation after Geoffrey of Monmouth and not long before Gerald of Wales, Marie brings a quite different and rather critical set of preoccupations to her Arthurian story. She opens her tale with a realistic ...
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The os centrale carpi is an accessory ossicle of the wrist positioned dorsally between the scaphoid, the trapezoid and the capitate bones 1. As with most other accessory ossicles of the wrist, the os centrale carpi is a rare finding on imaging an...
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Joseph Fisher almost a 100 years ago decided that the junction of the St. Maries and St. Joseph rivers would be a good place for a sawmill. There was lots of timber and he chose the spot because there was good transportation. St Maries would become a main transport for the timber in the area. As the transportation improved and so did the distance that logs could be economically transported to the mills of the area. After the turn of the century, the city became incorporated. Two larger mills had been built and the steamboats which plied the St. Joe and Coeur dAlene Lake provided cheap, rapid transportation. The coming of the transcontinental Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad in 1909, plus the opening of the Coeur dAlene Indian Reservation to homesteading provided stimuli for further growth in the first decade and a half. The Milwaukee Road pushed a branch line south and east to Elk River and numerous narrow gauges logging railroads criss-crossed the area ...
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Suzanna has been a tower of strength in this time of limbo. It is tiring for both of us, but hey ho.. I have made a new friend. Her name is Marie. She is a local taxi driver and we have become very good friends. Marie visits me when she can and chats on text to me often. Marie is the only one that i have EVER allowed to rib me josh with me. Even Suzanna cant! lol. Marie is one of those people with a kind heart and has been a tower of strength to me when I have been down. There have been times (and anyone with constant pain will understand) when you just want it to stop. you dont care how, you just want it to stop.. That is the time when you need you family and friends around you. Marie has been there for me(as has my family).. So I say on here a BIG thank you to my new friend Marie. you have been a tower of strength to me in the last few months. You have given me a kick up the ass when needed and understood when I just couldnt take any more.. As for the new year?. well more tests, ...
Research at Centrale Nantes is carried out in highly competetif laboratories internationally recognized collaborations with industry. All fields of investigation are related to the science of engineering, i.e. automatic control, robotics, tele-communication, oceanic engineering, mechanics of materials and calculation of structures and civil engineering ...
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Name: Marie Speed Residence: Ocean Ridge Birthplace: Alexandria, Va. Career: Group editor at JES Publishing, employee since 1991 Organization: Caridad Center in Boynton Beach, the largest health
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Director of Partner Delivery Services. Marie is the Director of Partner Delivery Services at Kantar Shopcom. She is responsible for managing the team that on-boards new clients into the Shopcom Partner Network, delivers automated analytical solutions to Partners from the Shopcom Kannects™ Platform, as well as implements & trains Partners for new analytical & data solutions. Marie brings a great balance of data expertise, process orientation, and client focus to the Shopcom Team with over 20 years in the consumer data industry. Prior to joining Kantar, Marie led the Client Service and Training groups at Nielsen Segmentation and Local Market Solutions (Claritas) managing a team of client service team members servicing over 500 accounts. Also while at Nielsen, Marie managed large Key Accounts relationships and served as a Consultant for the Financial Services industry vertical. Her career also includes working at Fidelity Investments for many years in various roles including distribution planning ...
A Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellowship has been awarded to thirteen researchers for research projects at the University of Amsterdam (UvA). The projects will focus, among other things, on sexual communication between moths and emotion regulation in youths.
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En taxonomía, Anaplasma es un género de bacterias perteneciente al orden de los rickettsiales. Anaplasma bovis (Donatien and Lestoquard 1936) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001. Anaplasma caudatum (Kreier and Ristic 1963) Ristic & Kreier 1984. Anaplasma centrale (ex Theiler 1911) Ristic & Kreier 1984. Anaplasma marginale Theiler 1910. Anaplasma ovis Lestoquard 1924. Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie 1951) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001. Anaplasma platys (French and Harvey 1983) Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa & Rurangirwa 2001. MeSH: Anaplasma (en inglés) Anaplasma Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Anaplasma Genomes (at DOEs IMG system ...
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans.
Tick-borne pathogens cause emerging zoonoses, and include fastidious organisms such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Because of their obligate intracellular nature, methods for mutagenesis and transformation have not been available. To facilitate genetic manipulation, we transformed A. phagocytophilum (Ap) to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the Himar1 transposase system and selection with the clinically irrelevant antibiotic spectinomycin. These transformed bacteria (GFP/Ap) grow at normal rates and are brightly fluorescent in human, monkey, and tick cell culture. Molecular characterization of the GFP/Ap genomic DNA confirmed transposition and the flanking genomic insertion locations were sequenced. Three mice inoculated with GFP/Ap by intraperitoneal injection became infected as demonstrated by the appearance of morulae in a peripheral blood neutrophil and re-isolation of the bacteria in culture.
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is the second most common tick-borne disease in the United States. The causative agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is an obligat...
Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings.
5/6/09. The Earth Institute at Columbia University is pleased to announce the 2009-2010 Marie Tharp Fellows - two women who are making noteworthy contributions to the fields of geochemistry and paleoceanography.. The 2009-2010 Marie Tharp Fellows are: Kathy Licht, Associate Professor of Earth Sciences, Indiana University, and Laura Robinson, Assistant Scientist in Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.. Each of the Marie Tharp Fellows will spend three months working at Columbia University. The Fellowship is named after Marie Tharp, a former Columbia scientist who left an indelible mark on the study of oceanography by being the first to map the ocean floor on a global scale. Tharp, who joined the University in 1948, published the pivotal interpretations of mid-ocean ridges that led to the eventual acceptance of the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift.. The Marie Tharp Fellowship is sponsored by the Earth Institute ADVANCE Program, a National Science ...
A TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the Anaplasma citrate synthase gene, gltA, was developed and used for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 765 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and cats in northern Norway (n = 669) and Telemark county in southern Norway (n = 96). Among the ticks from northern Norway the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 3.0 %, while the prevalence in southern Norway was 2.1 % (p = 0.63). The gltA PCR assay showed a high analytical sensitivity (30 genomic units) and efficiency (98.5 %), and its utility in clinical diagnostics should be evaluated in future studies. This is the first report of A. phagocytophilum occurrence in ticks collected north of the Arctic Circle in Norway. The prevalence is comparable to that found in Telemark county in southern Norway.

Frontiers | The Pathogen-Occupied Vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Interact with the Endoplasmic...Frontiers | The Pathogen-Occupied Vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Interact with the Endoplasmic...

A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In ... A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In ... marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV ... marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2016.00022/full

DIGITAL.CSIC: Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a: a marker of strain diversity with implications for control of...DIGITAL.CSIC: Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a: a marker of strain diversity with implications for control of...

Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a: a marker of strain diversity with implications for control of bovine anaplasmosis ... Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, ... Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for ... Herein, we discuss a molecular taxonomic approach for classification of A. marginale strain diversity. Taxonomic analysis of ...
more infohttps://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/141745

BacMapBacMap

Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale (Anaplasma centrale (strain Israel)) is a naturally occurring attenuated strain has been ... Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne pathogen of cattle. It is transmitted by ixodid ticks. Symptoms of acute ... A. marginale subsp. centrale contains 10 putative genes not found in the genomes of senso stricto strains, while 18 genes found ... A.marginale establishes life-long persistent infection in animals that survive disease. These animals are clinically healthy ...
more infohttp://bacmap.wishartlab.com/organisms/1006

Transformation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum | BMC Biotechnology | Full TextTransformation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum | BMC Biotechnology | Full Text

... and include fastidious organisms such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Because of their obligate intracellular nature, methods for ... Identification of functional promoters in the msp2 expression loci of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Gene. ... The T7 promoter of pET28 was replaced with the tr promoter from Anaplasma marginale (Am) [22] by PCR of the vector using the ... Infection of endothelial cells with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Vet Microbiol. 2004, 101: 53-64. 10.1016/j. ...
more infohttps://bmcbiotechnol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6750-6-42

Guidelines for the direct detection of Anaplasma spp. In diagnosis and epidemiological studies | The Pirbright InstituteGuidelines for the direct detection of Anaplasma spp. In diagnosis and epidemiological studies | The Pirbright Institute

Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. ... The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly ... Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. ... Anaplasma infections are usually challenging to diagnose, clinically presenting with nonspecific symptoms that vary greatly ...
more infohttp://www.pirbright.ac.uk/publications/guidelines-direct-detection-anaplasma-spp-diagnosis-and-epidemiological-studies

Identification of Anaplasma marginale Type IV Secretion System Effector ProteinsIdentification of Anaplasma marginale Type IV Secretion System Effector Proteins

L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale ... Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS is one of seven ... The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector ... Conclusions The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0027724

dermacentor variabilis[Text Word] AND anaplasma marginale[Text Wor - PubMed - NCBI"dermacentor variabilis"[Text Word] AND "anaplasma marginale"[Text Wor - PubMed - NCBI

Experimental transmission of bovine anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma marginale) by means of Dermacentor variabilis and D. ... Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale-tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor ... Infection exclusion of the rickettsial pathogen anaplasma marginale in the tick vector Dermacentor variabilis. ... Vaccination of cattle with Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture and bovine erythrocytes followed by challenge- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22dermacentor+variabilis%22%5BText+Word%5D+AND+%22anaplasma+marginale%22%5BText+Word%5D

KEGG PATHWAY: Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis - Anaplasma marginale FloridaKEGG PATHWAY: Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis - Anaplasma marginale Florida

Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis - Anaplasma marginale Florida [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?amf00130

Anaplasma marginale | Article about Anaplasma marginale by The Free DictionaryAnaplasma marginale | Article about Anaplasma marginale by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Anaplasma marginale. A genus of the family Anaplasmataceae; organisms form inclusions in red blood ... Anaplasma. (redirected from Anaplasma marginale). Also found in: Medical. Anaplasma. [‚an·ə′plaz·mə] (microbiology) A genus of ... Anaplasma marginale , Article about Anaplasma marginale by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ... and Anaplasma marginale (among bacteria) and African trypanosomes, Plasmodium falciparum, and Babesia bovis (among parasites) ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Anaplasma+marginale

Functional and Immunological Relevance of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a Sequence and Structural AnalysisFunctional and Immunological Relevance of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a Sequence and Structural Analysis

Anaplasma marginale. The major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) has been used as a genetic marker for identifying A. marginale ... Here we propose one nomenclature for A. marginale strain classification based on MSP1a. All tandem repeats among A. marginale ... marginale strains. The analysis of MSP1a sequences provides relevant information about the biology of A. marginale to design ... A total of 224 different strains of A. marginale were classified, showing 11 genotypes based on the 5′-UTR microsatellite and ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0065243

Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of Anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesisKnockout of an outer membrane protein operon of Anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis

... ( PDF ). Supplement 1 ( PDF ). ... Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of Anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis. Physical Description: Mixed ... Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of Anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis. ... Figure1 Redfluorescent A.marginale .A .Plasmidmapof pHimarcisA7mCherry-SS usedfortheelectroporationof A.marginale str. Virginia ...
more infohttp://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00024414/00001

Nanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Anaplasma marginale Membrane Proteins; VirB9-1 and VirB10...Nanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Anaplasma marginale Membrane Proteins; VirB9-1 and VirB10...

... marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self- ... marginale outer membrane fractions, suggesting formulations will be useful for bovine immunisation and protection studies. ... Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma ... marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/6/11/201

Characterization of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale Strains by Use of msp1aS Genotyping Reveals a Wildlife Reservoir |...Characterization of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale Strains by Use of msp1aS Genotyping Reveals a Wildlife Reservoir |...

Vaccination with Anaplasma centrale: Response after an experimental challenge with Anaplasma marginale. Trop Anim Health Prod ... Duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection and quantification of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ... marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale infection. One study using the cELISA showed high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. ... marginale is globally prevalent and results in anemia, with mortality rates of up to 30% (2). Anaplasma marginale subspecies ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/54/10/2503

Highly Conserved Regions of the Immunodominant Major Surface Protein 2 of the Genogroup II Ehrlichial Pathogen Anaplasma...Highly Conserved Regions of the Immunodominant Major Surface Protein 2 of the Genogroup II Ehrlichial Pathogen Anaplasma...

Recognition of conserved surface protein epitopes on Anaplasma centrale and Anaplasma marginale isolates from Israel, Kenya and ... Anaplasma strains and preparation of homogenates, MSP2, and MSP2-derived peptides. The A. marginale strains used in this study ... Expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 variants during persistent cyclic rickettsemia. Infect. Immun. 66: ... The immunoprotective Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 (MSP-2) is encoded by a polymorphic multigene family. Infect. ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/166/2/1114

Global transcriptional analysis reveals surface remodeling of Anaplasma marginale in the tick vector | Parasites & Vectors |...Global transcriptional analysis reveals surface remodeling of Anaplasma marginale in the tick vector | Parasites & Vectors |...

Differential gene transcription, especially of potential vaccine candidates, is of interest in Anaplasma marginale, the tick- ... Quantitative PCR was used to assess transcription of a set of genes in A. marginale infected tick midguts and salivary glands ... Genes belonging to fourteen pathways or component groups were found to be differentially transcribed in A. marginale in the ... RNA-seq technology allowed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional status of A. marginale genes in two conditions: ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-7-193

Strain Diversity in Major Surface Protein 2 Expression during Tick Transmission of Anaplasma marginale | Infection and ImmunityStrain Diversity in Major Surface Protein 2 Expression during Tick Transmission of Anaplasma marginale | Infection and Immunity

1993) Development of Anaplasma marginale in salivary glands of male Dermacentor andersoni. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54:107-112. ... Strain Diversity in Major Surface Protein 2 Expression during Tick Transmission of Anaplasma marginale Fred R. Rurangirwa, ... Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne pathogen of cattle that causes severe anemia during acute rickettsemia (13). Individuals ... 1989) Detection and quantitation of Anaplasma marginale in carrier cattle by using a nucleic acid probe. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27 ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/68/5/3023?ijkey=ddd655a76f2cf935e9074647d8853a2d83037860&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Co-infections with multiple genotypes of Anaplasma marginale in cattle indicate pathogen diversityCo-infections with multiple genotypes of Anaplasma marginale in cattle indicate pathogen diversity

BACKGROUND : Only a few studies have examined the presence of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in South Africa, and ... Anaplasma marginale was prevalent in the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga and absent in the Northern Cape. Anaplasma ... Co-infections with multiple genotypes of Anaplasma marginale in cattle indicate pathogen diversity. Hove, Paidashe; Chaisi, ... Co-infections with multiple genotypes of Anaplasma marginale in cattle indicate pathogen diversity. Login ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/64337

Composition of the Surface Proteome of Anaplasma marginale and Its Role in Protective Immunity Induced by Outer Membrane...Composition of the Surface Proteome of Anaplasma marginale and Its Role in Protective Immunity Induced by Outer Membrane...

... including Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ruminantium, and ... marginale isolated from ISE6 cells. Similar to A. marginale isolated from erythrocytes, cross-linking of A. marginale from tick ... Molecular and biological characterization of a newly isolated Anaplasma marginale strain. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 6:435-441. ... Expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 operon-associated proteins during mammalian and arthropod infection. ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/76/5/2219?ijkey=3f3f6353f66e36c2053c151dd066c3694315f17b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

IDEALS @ Illinois: Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma...IDEALS @ Illinois: Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma...

Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma Caudatum (Illinois ... Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma Caudatum (Illinois ... Identification and Partial Characterization of the Antigens of Anaplasma Marginale (Florida) and Anaplasma Caudatum (Illinois ... The Anaplasma antigens had a neutral pI, were heat stable, and lost their antigenicity after treatment with chymotrypsin. The ...
more infohttps://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/71333

Diagnostic accuracy of methods for detecting Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto RicoDiagnostic accuracy of methods for detecting Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico

... Login ... The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of assays for detection of Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating ... Diagnostic accuracy of methods for detecting Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico. Fosgate, ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/15556

Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale in two autochthonous South American wild species revealed an identical new...Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale in two autochthonous South American wild species revealed an identical new...

... marginale sequences were studied by applying, eBURST algorithm and AMOVA analysis. Anaplasma marginale DNA was identified in ... In the present publication we report the identification of A. marginale DNA in a novel ruminant (Hippocamelus antisense) and ... marginale in livestock. Further analysis is needed to understand whether these two hosts contribute to the anaplasmosis ... marginale DNA through msp5 gene fragment amplification. Further characterization was done through MSP1a tandem repeats analysis ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-016-1555-9

Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. - Semantic...Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. - Semantic...

... we used a functional genomics approach to characterize tick genes regulated in response to Anaplasma marginale infection. ... Four genes, which encode putative GST, salivary selenoprotein M, vATPase, and ubiquitin, affected A. marginale infection in ... marginale. Nine of 17 of these genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR to be differentially regulated in ticks and/or IDE8 ... tick cells in response to A. marginale infection. RNA interference was used for functional studies. Six genes, which encode ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Functional-genomic-studies-of-tick-cells-in-to-with-Fuente-Blouin/1a74c39a74155ec384b1313076ffe01aad017b3c

A pcr for differentiate between anaplasma marginale and a. centrale  - pdf descargarA pcr for differentiate between anaplasma marginale and a. centrale - pdf descargar

A pcr for differentiate between anaplasma marginale and a. centrale . João Martins ; Aoi Masuda ; Adriana Seixas ; Itabajara da ... During production of the vaccine, accidental contamination with Anaplasma marginale (A.. marginale) is a risk that can ... A pcr for differentiate between anaplasma marginale and a. centrale - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para ... 1270 ISSN 1679-9216 A PCR for Differentiate between Anaplasma marginale and A.. centrale Ana Carolina Joazeiro1,2, João ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jul6/150030398942-A-pcr-for-differentiate-between-anaplasma-marginale-and-a-centrale.php

NAVER Academic | Conserved recombinant antigens of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia equi for serologic diagnosisNAVER Academic | Conserved recombinant antigens of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia equi for serologic diagnosis

Molecular clones expressing a conserved 19 kDa protein of Anaplasma marginale and a 34 kDa protein of Babesia equi were derived ... The 19 kDa A. marginale protein, conserved in all recognized Anaplasma species, and present in the infected tick salivary gland ... marginale and 34 kDa B. equi proteins in a CI-ELISA format. ... Identification of Anaplasma marginale long-term carrier cattle ... Transformation of Anaplasma marginale. (2010) Roderick F Felsheim et al. * Detection of equine antibody to Babesia equi ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/article.naver?doc_id=139552284

A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates  - Murdoch...A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates - Murdoch...

Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, a disease which can be protected by vaccination with the ... A molecular test specific for A. marginale would be ideal for the identification of Anaplasma species in wild ruminants, as ... A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates ... 2002) A msp1α polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates. ...
more infohttp://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/25323/
  • Taxonomic analysis of this important molecule provides the opportunity to understand A. marginale strain diversity as it relates geographic and ecological factors and to the development of effective vaccines for control of bovine anaplasmosis worldwide. (csic.es)
  • Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species' vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles' lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for strain identity, is both an adhesin necessary for infection of cells and an immuno-reactive protein and is also an indicator of the evolution of strain diversity. (csic.es)
  • Herein, we discuss a molecular taxonomic approach for classification of A. marginale strain diversity. (csic.es)
  • The extent of A. marginale strain diversity, formerly underappreciated, has contributed to the challenges of classification which, in turn, likely impacts the design and development of improved vaccines. (csic.es)
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