A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Genus of gram-negative, intracytoplasmic bacteria that are found primarily in VACUOLES of MONOCYTES in the BLOOD and MACROPHAGES of lymphoid or other tissues of DOGS; HORSES, and humans. (From Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2001) 51:2145-2165)
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sicily" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. Sicily is actually the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and it is located off the southern coast of Italy. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term or concept; it is a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those!
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
An island of the West Indies. Its capital is St. George's. It was discovered in 1498 by Columbus who called it Concepcion. It was held at different times by the French and the British during the 18th century. The British suppressed a native uprising in 1795. It was an associate state of Great Britain 1967-74 but became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth in 1974. The original name referred to the Feast of the Immaculate Conception but it was later renamed for the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p467 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p219)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.

Restriction of major surface protein 2 (MSP2) variants during tick transmission of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale. (1/149)

Anaplasma marginale is an ehrlichial pathogen of cattle that establishes lifelong persistent infection. Persistence is characterized by rickettsemic cycles in which new A. marginale variant types, defined by the sequence of the expressed msp2 transcripts, emerge. The polymorphic msp2 transcripts encode structurally distinct MSP2 proteins and result in an antigenically diverse and continually changing A. marginale population within the blood. In this manuscript, we used sequence analysis of msp2 transcripts to show that a restricted repertoire of variant types, designated SGV1 and SGV2, is expressed within the tick salivary gland. The same SGV1 and SGV2 variant types were expressed in ticks regardless of the variant types expressed in the blood of infected cattle at the time of acquisition feeding by the ticks. Importantly, subsequent tick transmission to susceptible cattle resulted in acute rickettsemia composed of organisms expressing only the same SGV1 and SGV2 variant types. This indicates that the msp2 expressed by organisms within the tick salivary gland predicts the variant type responsible for acute rickettsemia and disease. This restriction of transmitted A. marginale variant types, in contrast to the marked diversity within persistently infected cattle, supports development of MSP2 vaccines to prevent acute rickettsemia in tick-transmitted infections.  (+info)

Biased immunoglobulin G1 isotype responses induced in cattle with DNA expressing msp1a of Anaplasma marginale. (2/149)

Immunization with the native major surface protein 1 (MSP1) (a heterodimer containing disulfide and noncovalently bonded polypeptides designated MSP1a and MSP1b) of the erythrocytic stage of Anaplasma marginale conferred protection against homologous challenge (G. H. Palmer, A. F. Barbet, W. C. Davis, and T. C. McGuire, Science 231:1299-1302, 1986). The MSP1a polypeptide possesses a conserved neutralization-sensitive epitope. In the present study, the immune response to DNA-mediated immunization using msp1a was studied. The plasmid pVCL/MSP1a, which encodes the complete msp1a gene of A. marginale under the control of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer/promoter and intron A, was constructed. The immune responses elicited by immunization with pVCL/MSP1a into cardiotoxin-induced regenerating muscle were evaluated in mice and cattle. Antibody reactive with native MSP1a was detected in pooled sera of immunized BALB/c mice 3 weeks following primary immunization. Two calves seronegative for A. marginale were immunized four times, at weeks 0, 3, 7, and 13, with pVCL/MSP1a. By 8 weeks, both calves responded to MSP1a with an antibody titer of 1:100, which peaked at 1:1,600 and 1:800 by 16 weeks after the initial immunization. Interestingly, immunoblotting with anti-immunoglobulin G1 (anti-IgG1) and anti-IgG2 specific monoclonal antibodies revealed a restricted IgG1 anti-MSP1a response in both animals. T-lymphocyte lines, established after the fourth immunization, proliferated specifically against A. marginale homogenate and purified MSP1 in a dose-dependent manner. These data provide a basis for an immunization strategy to direct bovine immune responses by using DNA vaccine vectors containing single or multiple genes encoding major surface proteins of A. marginale.  (+info)

Emergence of Anaplasma marginale antigenic variants during persistent rickettsemia. (3/149)

Anaplasma marginale is an ehrlichial pathogen of cattle, in the order Rickettsiales, that establishes persistent cyclic rickettsemia in the infected host. Within each rickettsemic cycle, A. marginale expressing antigenically variant major surface protein 2 (MSP2) emerge. By cloning 17 full-length msp2 transcripts expressed during cyclic rickettsemia, we determined that emergent variants have a single, central hypervariable region encoding variant B-cell epitopes. The N- and C-terminal regions are highly conserved among the expressed A. marginale variants, and similar sequences define the MSP2 homologues in the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). This is in contrast to the MSP2 homologues in ehrlichial genogroup I pathogens, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Cowdria ruminantium, that have multiple hypervariable regions. By defining the variable and conserved regions, we were able to show that the single hypervariable region of A. marginale MSP2 encodes epitopes that are immunogenic and induce variant-specific antibody responses during persistent infection. These findings demonstrate that the MSP2 structural variants that emerge during each cycle of persistent rickettsemia are true antigenic variants, consistent with MSP2 antigenic variation as a mechanism of A. marginale persistence.  (+info)

Interleukin-12 as an adjuvant promotes immunoglobulin G and type 1 cytokine recall responses to major surface protein 2 of the ehrlichial pathogen Anaplasma marginale. (4/149)

Anaplasma marginale is a tick-transmitted pathogen of cattle closely related to the human ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). These pathogens have in common a structurally conserved outer membrane protein (OMP) designated the major surface protein 2 (MSP-2) in A. marginale and HGE and OMP-1 in E. chaffeensis. Protective immunity against ehrlichial pathogens is believed to require induction of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and opsonizing immunoglobulin (Ig) subclasses directed against OMP epitopes that, in concert, activate macrophages for phagocytosis and killing. Because interleukin-12 (IL-12) acts as an adjuvant for protein immunization to induce IFN-gamma and protective immunity against intracellular pathogens, we hypothesized that as an adjuvant with MSP-2, IL-12 would augment type 1 recall responses to A. marginale. IL-12 was coadsorbed with MSP-2 to alum and shown to significantly enhance IFN-gamma production by lymph node cells (LNC) and LNC-derived CD4(+) T-cell lines from immunized calves following recall stimulation with A. marginale. LNC proliferation and IL-2 production were also enhanced in IL-12-treated calves. Elevated recall proliferative responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were still evident 9 months after immunization. Serum IgG levels were consistently increased in IL-12 immunized calves, predominantly due to higher IgG1 responses. The results support the use of IL-12 coadsorbed with OMP of ehrlichial pathogens in alum to amplify both antibody and type-1 cytokine responses important for protective immunity.  (+info)

Expression of polymorphic msp1beta genes during acute anaplasma Marginale rickettsemia. (5/149)

Immunization of cattle with native MSP1 induces protection against Anaplasma marginale. The native immunogen is composed of a single MSP1a protein and multiple, undefined MSP1b polypeptides. In addition to the originally sequenced gene, designated msp1beta(F1), we identified three complete msp1beta genes in the Florida strain: msp1beta(F2), msp1beta(F3), and msp1beta(F4). Each of these polymorphic genes encodes a structurally unique MSP1b protein, and unique transcripts can be identified during acute A. marginale rickettsemia. The structural polymorphism is clustered in discrete variable regions, and each MSP1b protein results from a unique mosaic of five variable regions. Although each of the MSP1b proteins in the Florida strain contains epitopes recognized by serum antibody induced by protective immunization with the native MSP1 complex, the variable regions also include epitopes expressed by some but not all of the MSP1b proteins. These data support testing recombinant vaccines composed of the multiple antigenically and structurally unique MSP1b proteins combined with MSP1a in order to mimic the efficacy of native MSP1 immunization.  (+info)

Strain diversity in major surface protein 2 expression during tick transmission of Anaplasma marginale. (6/149)

Specific major surface protein 2 (MSP2) variants are expressed by Anaplasma marginale within the tick salivary gland and, following transmission, are expressed during acute rickettsemia. In previous work, we have shown that a restricted pattern of MSP2 variants is expressed in the salivary glands of Dermacentor andersoni ticks infected with the South Idaho strain of A. marginale. Now we demonstrate that the identical restriction does not apply to two other strains of A. marginale, and that different variants are also expressed when the same strain is transmitted by different Dermacentor spp. This indicates that antigenic diversity among strains is maintained in tick transmission and may be a significant constraint to MSP2 vaccine development.  (+info)

Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens. (7/149)

Several pathogens of humans and domestic animals depend on hematophagous arthropods to transmit them from one vertebrate reservoir host to another and maintain them in an environment. These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of transmission. By convergent evolution, bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. Borrelia spp. and Anaplasma marginale (among bacteria) and African trypanosomes, Plasmodium falciparum, and Babesia bovis (among parasites) are examples of pathogens using these mechanisms. Antigenic variation poses a challenge in the development of vaccines against vector-borne pathogens.  (+info)

Antigenic variation of Anaplasma marginale by expression of MSP2 mosaics. (8/149)

Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne pathogen, one of several closely related ehrlichial organisms that cause disease in animals and humans. These Ehrlichia species have complex life cycles that require, in addition to replication and development within the tick vector, evasion of the immune system in order to persist in the mammalian reservoir host. This complexity requires efficient use of the small ehrlichial genome. A. marginale and related ehrlichiae express immunoprotective, variable outer membrane proteins that have similar structures and are encoded by polymorphic multigene families. We show here that the major outer membrane protein of A. marginale, MSP2, is encoded on a polycistronic mRNA. The genomic expression site for this mRNA is polymorphic and encodes numerous amino acid sequence variants in bloodstream populations of A. marginale. A potential mechanism for persistence is segmental gene conversion of the expression site to link hypervariable msp2 sequences to the promoter and polycistron.  (+info)

Anaplasma is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infect and parasitize the white blood cells of various animals, including humans. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. The most common species that infect humans are Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tick-borne disease characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and leukopenia. It infects granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, and can cause severe complications such as respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death in some cases.

Anaplasma platys causes canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, a disease that affects dogs and is characterized by recurring low platelet counts. It infects platelets, another type of blood cell involved in clotting, and can cause bleeding disorders in affected animals.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma infections typically involves the detection of antibodies against the bacteria or the direct identification of the organism through molecular methods such as PCR. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against both species of Anaplasma. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas and using insect repellents and protective clothing to reduce the risk of tick bites.

'Anaplasma phagocytophilum' is a gram-negative bacterium that causes Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease in humans. It infects and survives within granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and chills. In severe cases, it can cause complications like respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the United States and the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) in Europe. Proper diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing this infection.

'Anaplasma marginale' is a gram-negative bacterium that infects red blood cells in various species of animals, including cattle. It is the causative agent of Anaplasmosis, which is a tick-borne disease that can lead to severe anemia, abortion, and even death in infected animals. The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected ticks or through contaminated blood transfusions, needles, or surgical instruments.

The bacterium has a unique life cycle, where it infects and replicates within the red blood cells, causing them to rupture and release more bacteria into the bloodstream. This results in the characteristic symptoms of Anaplasmosis, such as fever, weakness, icterus (yellowing of the mucous membranes), and anemia.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmosis can be confirmed through various laboratory tests, including blood smears, PCR assays, and serological tests. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which can help to reduce the severity of symptoms and clear the infection. Preventive measures include the control of tick populations, the use of protective clothing and insect repellents, and the implementation of strict biosecurity protocols in veterinary practices and farms.

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States and western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in the western United States.

The bacterium infects and reproduces within certain white blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills that typically appear within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Other possible symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, and a rash (although a rash is uncommon).

Anaplasmosis can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against the bacterium or the DNA of the organism itself. It is usually treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline, which are most effective when started early in the course of the disease.

Preventing tick bites is the best way to avoid anaplasmosis and other tick-borne diseases. This can be done by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors. If a tick is found, it should be removed promptly using fine-tipped tweezers, grasping the tick as close to the skin as possible and pulling straight upwards with steady pressure.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with Ehrlichia bacteria. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms of ehrlichiosis can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If left untreated, ehrlichiosis can cause serious complications, including damage to the central nervous system and other organs. It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have been exposed to ehrlichiosis and are experiencing symptoms of the disease. A healthcare provider can diagnose ehrlichiosis through laboratory tests and can recommend appropriate treatment, which typically involves antibiotics. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can help reduce the risk of ehrlichiosis and other tick-borne diseases.

Anaplasma centrale is a bacterial species that belongs to the order Rickettsiales and the family Anaplasmataceae. It is an intracellular pathogen that primarily infects red blood cells in ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. The bacteria are transmitted through tick vectors, particularly ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus.

The infection caused by A. centrale is often asymptomatic or mild in affected animals, but it can lead to anemia and decreased productivity in livestock. In some cases, the disease may also cause abortion or death in young animals. There are no known human infections associated with A. centrale.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma centrale infection typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears, PCR testing, and serological assays such as ELISA or complement fixation tests. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which are effective against intracellular bacteria. Preventive measures include tick control and vaccination of livestock.

Anaplasma ovis is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that belongs to the order Rickettsiales. It is the etiological agent of ovine anaplasmosis, which primarily affects sheep and goats. The bacteria infect and replicate within the host's erythrocytes (red blood cells), causing clinical signs such as anemia, jaundice, weight loss, and abortion in pregnant animals. Transmission typically occurs through tick vectors, with the most common vector being Ixodes ricinus in Europe and Ixodes holocyclus in Australia.

In humans, Anaplasma ovis is not known to cause disease, and there are no reports of human infection or illness associated with this bacterium. However, other species within the Anaplasma genus, such as A. phagocytophilum and A. platys, can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively.

It is essential to consult a medical or veterinary professional for accurate information regarding specific pathogens and their associated diseases.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Dermacentor is a genus of ticks that includes several species known to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Some of the notable species in this genus are:

1. Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick): This species is widely distributed across western North America and can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and tularemia.
2. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick): Found throughout the United States, this tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and human ehrlichiosis.
3. Dermacentor reticulatus (Ornate cow tick or Marsh tick): This species is distributed in Europe and parts of Asia and can transmit diseases like tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, and babesiosis.
4. Dermacentor marginatus (Marginated tick): Found primarily in Europe, this tick transmits various pathogens causing diseases such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and rickettsialpox.
5. Dermacentor nitens (Brazilian pampas tick): This species is native to South America and can transmit Rickettsia rickettsii, the bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Dermacentor ticks are known for their hard, shield-like structures called scutums on their backs and their long mouthparts called hypostomes, which they use to feed on the blood of their hosts. They typically prefer large mammals as hosts but will also feed on humans and other animals if necessary.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

Anaplasmataceae infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae. These bacteria include Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Neorickettsia genera, which infect various mammalian hosts, including humans. The most well-known diseases caused by these bacteria are human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS).

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which infects neutrophils in humans. Symptoms of HGA include fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as respiratory failure, neurological symptoms, and even death.

Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii, which infect monocytes in humans. Symptoms of HME are similar to those of HGA but may also include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash. Severe cases can lead to complications such as kidney failure, respiratory distress, and neurological symptoms.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by Dabie bandavirus, a member of the genus Bandavirus within the family Phenuiviridae. It was previously classified as a member of the family Anaplasmataceae. SFTS is transmitted to humans through tick bites and causes symptoms such as fever, fatigue, muscle pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to complications such as multi-organ failure, shock, and death.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmataceae infections typically involves laboratory tests that detect the presence of bacterial DNA or antibodies against the bacteria in the blood. Treatment usually includes antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against all three genera of bacteria within the family Anaplasmataceae. Preventing tick bites through the use of insect repellent and protective clothing can help reduce the risk of infection.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

Anaplasmataceae is a family of gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that includes several human pathogens. These bacteria are known to infect and parasitize the white blood cells (such as granulocytes, monocytes, or erythrocytes) of various mammals, including humans. The bacterial genus within Anaplasmataceae include Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Orientia.

Some notable human pathogens in this family are:

1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Causes Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), which is transmitted primarily through the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus).
2. Ehrlichia chaffeensis - Causes Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME), which is transmitted mainly by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
3. Ehrlichia ewingii - Associated with Human Ewingii Ehrlichiosis, primarily transmitted through the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
4. Neorickettsia sennetsu - Causes Sennetsu fever, which is a rare infectious disease in humans and is usually found in Japan and Southeast Asia. It's transmitted by the swallow bug or through the consumption of raw fish.
5. Orientia tsutsugamushi - Causes Scrub typhus, a widespread mite-borne disease in the Asia-Pacific region.

These bacterial infections can lead to flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, they may cause complications like respiratory failure, organ damage, or even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Ehrlichia is a genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that infect and replicate within the vacuoles of host cells. These bacteria are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropods, such as ticks. Infection with Ehrlichia can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some species of Ehrlichia, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are known to cause human disease, including ehrlichiosis.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that can range in severity from mild to severe and can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as neurological problems, respiratory failure, or kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you may have been infected with Ehrlichia, as early treatment can help prevent serious complications. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

'Babesia microti' is a species of intracellular parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause babesiosis, a type of tick-borne disease. The transmission of this parasite to humans usually occurs through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis).

The life cycle of 'Babesia microti' involves two hosts: the tick and the mammalian host (such as a mouse or human). In the tick, the parasite undergoes development in the midgut, salivary glands, and ovaries. When an infected tick bites a mammalian host, it injects sporozoites into the skin, which then enter the bloodstream and invade red blood cells. Inside the red blood cells, the parasites multiply asexually, leading to their rupture and release of merozoites that infect other red blood cells.

The symptoms of babesiosis can range from mild to severe, depending on the patient's age, immune status, and the presence of other medical conditions. Mild cases may present with flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe cases can lead to complications such as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of parasites, as well as serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can also be used to detect the genetic material of 'Babesia microti' in blood samples.

Treatment of babesiosis usually involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs such as atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and complications. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after outdoor activities.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nymph" does not have a medical definition. In general, nymph is a term used in mythology to refer to a minor nature deity typically represented as an attractive maiden or beautiful young woman who animates nature and is often associated with various natural phenomena.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

'Ehrlichia chaffeensis' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that causes human ehrlichiosis, a tick-borne disease. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). The bacteria infect and replicate within white blood cells, causing symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, ehrlichiosis can cause damage to organs and may be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antibiotics.

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is named after Dr. William A. Ehrlich, who first described the bacterium in 1937, and Fort Chaffee in Arkansas, where the tick vector was first identified.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

HL-60 cells are a type of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. They are named after the hospital where they were first isolated, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) and the 60th culture attempt to grow these cells.

HL-60 cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, such as granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, when exposed to certain chemical compounds or under specific culturing conditions. This makes them a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

HL-60 cells are also often used in toxicity studies, drug discovery and development, and research on cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. They can be easily grown in the lab and have a stable genotype, making them ideal for use in standardized experiments and comparisons between different studies.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

'Borrelia burgdorferi' is a species of spirochete bacteria that is the primary cause of Lyme disease in humans. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern, midwestern, and eastern parts of the United States; Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast).

The bacterium was first identified and named after Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the spirochete in the mid-1980s. The infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Antibiotic treatment is usually effective in eliminating the bacteria and resolving symptoms, especially when initiated early in the course of the disease. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms even after treatment, a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The exact cause of PTLDS remains unclear, with ongoing research investigating potential factors such as residual bacterial infection, autoimmune responses, or tissue damage.

Neorickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that are known to cause various diseases in animals and humans. These bacteria have a complex life cycle involving arthropod vectors, such as ticks or flies, and vertebrate hosts. They are gram-negative, pleomorphic, and have a small genome size. Some notable species of Neorickettsia include N. risticii, which causes Potomac horse fever, and N. sennetsu, which can cause a mild febrile illness in humans. Infection with these bacteria typically results in symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. Diagnosis of Neorickettsia infections is often challenging due to their intracellular location and the need for specialized laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, such as tetracyclines or chloramphenicol.

Ixodidae is a family of arachnids commonly known as hard ticks. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Ixodidae is a family of tick species, also known as hard ticks, which are obligate ectoparasites of many different terrestrial vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have a hard, shield-like structure on their dorsal surface called the scutum, and a prominent mouthpart called the hypostome, which helps them anchor themselves onto their host's skin during feeding.

Hard ticks are vectors of various bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases that can affect both humans and animals. Some of the diseases transmitted by Ixodidae include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and tularemia.

Ixodidae species have a complex life cycle that involves three developmental stages: larva, nymph, and adult. Each stage requires a blood meal from a host to progress to the next stage or to reproduce. The length of the life cycle varies depending on the species and environmental conditions but can take up to several years to complete.

Proper identification and control of Ixodidae populations are essential for preventing tick-borne diseases and protecting public health.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

'Ehrlichia ruminantium' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that belongs to the family Anaplasmataceae. It is the etiological agent of heartwater, a tick-borne disease that affects mainly ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The bacteria infect endothelial cells in various organs, including the brain and heart, causing vasculitis, edema, and hemorrhage, which can lead to severe clinical signs and death in infected animals.

The bacterium is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, mainly from the genus Amblyomma. The disease is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. Heartwater is a major constraint to livestock production in affected areas, causing significant economic losses to farmers and pastoralists.

Prevention and control measures for heartwater include the use of acaricides to control tick infestations, vaccination of susceptible animals, and quarantine measures to prevent the introduction of infected animals into disease-free areas.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

'Ehrlichia canis' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that belongs to the family Anaplasmataceae. It is the etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), which is a tick-borne disease in dogs. The bacteria are transmitted to dogs through the bite of infected brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).

The infection can cause a variety of clinical signs, including fever, lethargy, anorexia, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhages. In severe cases, the infection may lead to serious complications such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), neurological disorders, and even death.

Diagnosis of CME is typically made through detection of Ehrlichia canis antibodies in the dog's serum or by PCR-based methods to detect the bacterial DNA. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which has been shown to be effective against Ehrlichia canis.

It is important to note that 'Ehrlichia canis' can also infect humans, causing a similar disease known as human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). However, this is rare and usually occurs in individuals who are immunocompromised or have been exposed to infected dogs or ticks.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Goat diseases" refers to illnesses that affect goats specifically. It does not mean diseases that are caused by goats or related to them in some way. Here are some examples of goat diseases:

1. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects goats, causing arthritis, pneumonia, and sometimes encephalitis.
2. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A bacterial disease that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes of goats.
3. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by mycoplasma bacteria.
4. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
5. Pasteurellosis: A bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia, septicemia, and other infections in goats.
6. Salmonellosis: A bacterial disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can cause diarrhea, fever, and septicemia in goats.
7. Soremouth (Orf): A viral disease that causes sores and scabs around the mouth and nose of goats.

These are just a few examples of diseases that can affect goats. If you have any specific questions about goat health or diseases, I would recommend consulting with a veterinarian who specializes in small ruminants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sicily" is not a medical term. It is actually a large island located in the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, and it is one of the five autonomous regions of Italy. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

"Rhipicephalus" is a genus of ticks that are commonly found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Europe, and Asia. These ticks are known to parasitize various mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can transmit a variety of diseases to their hosts. Some species of Rhipicephalus ticks are capable of transmitting serious diseases to humans, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and African tick-bite fever. These ticks are usually found in grassy or wooded areas, and can be carried by animals such as cattle, sheep, and deer. They are typically reddish-brown in color and have a hard, shield-shaped body. Proper identification and prevention measures are important for avoiding tick bites and reducing the risk of tick-borne diseases.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Rickettsia is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. They are the etiologic agents of several important human diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, and scrub typhus. Rickettsia are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as ticks, fleas, and lice. Once inside a host cell, Rickettsia manipulate the host cell's cytoskeleton and membrane-trafficking machinery to gain entry and replicate within the host cell's cytoplasm. They can cause significant damage to the endothelial cells that line blood vessels, leading to vasculitis, tissue necrosis, and potentially fatal outcomes if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antibiotics.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term. It is a country in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Antigenic variation is a mechanism used by some microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, to evade the immune system and establish persistent infections. This occurs when these pathogens change or modify their surface antigens, which are molecules that can be recognized by the host's immune system and trigger an immune response.

The changes in the surface antigens can occur due to various mechanisms, such as gene mutation, gene rearrangement, or gene transfer. These changes can result in the production of new variants of the microorganism that are different enough from the original strain to avoid recognition by the host's immune system.

Antigenic variation is a significant challenge in developing effective vaccines against certain infectious diseases, such as malaria and influenza, because the constantly changing surface antigens make it difficult for the immune system to mount an effective response. Therefore, researchers are working on developing vaccines that target conserved regions of the microorganism that do not undergo antigenic variation or using a combination of antigens to increase the likelihood of recognition by the immune system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Grenada" is not a medical term. It is a country, specifically an island nation in the Caribbean. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

"Borrelia" is a genus of spirochete bacteria that are known to cause several tick-borne diseases in humans, the most notable being Lyme disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast).

The Borrelia species are gram-negative, helical-shaped bacteria with distinctive endoflagella that allow them to move in a corkscrew-like motion. They are microaerophilic, meaning they require a low oxygen environment for growth. The bacteria can survive in a variety of environments, including the digestive tracts of ticks and mammals, as well as in soil and water.

Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. It typically presents with a characteristic rash called erythema migrans, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, causing arthritis, neurological problems, and cardiac issues.

Other Borrelia species, such as B. afzelii and B. garinii, are responsible for causing Lyme disease in Europe and Asia. Additionally, some Borrelia species have been linked to other tick-borne illnesses, including relapsing fever and tick-borne meningoencephalitis.

Prevention of Borrelia infections involves avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks. If a tick bite is suspected, it's important to seek medical attention and monitor for symptoms of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can help prevent the development of chronic symptoms.

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

Rickettsiaceae is a family of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are primarily parasitic in arthropods and mammals. They are the causative agents of several important human diseases, including typhus fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and rickettsialpox. These bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods such as ticks, fleas, or lice.

The bacteria in Rickettsiaceae are small, non-motile, and have a unique bipolar appearance with tapered ends. They can only replicate inside host cells, where they manipulate the host cell's machinery to create a protective niche for themselves. This makes them difficult to culture and study outside of their hosts.

Rickettsiaceae bacteria are divided into several genera based on their genetic and antigenic characteristics, including Rickettsia, Orientia, and Coxiella. Each genus contains several species that can cause different diseases in humans. For example, Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, while Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus.

Overall, Rickettsiaceae bacteria are important pathogens that can cause serious and sometimes fatal diseases in humans. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics is essential for a successful outcome.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Parasitic diseases, animal, refer to conditions in animals that are caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive benefits from the host at its expense. Parasites can be classified into different groups such as protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., ticks, fleas).

Parasitic diseases in animals can cause a wide range of clinical signs depending on the type of parasite, the animal species affected, and the location and extent of infection. Some common examples of parasitic diseases in animals include:

* Heartworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Dirofilaria immitis
* Coccidiosis in various animals caused by different species of Eimeria
* Toxoplasmosis in cats and other animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii
* Giardiasis in many animal species caused by Giardia spp.
* Lungworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Angiostrongylus vasorum or Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
* Tapeworm infection in dogs, cats, and other animals caused by different species of Taenia or Dipylidium caninum

Prevention and control of parasitic diseases in animals typically involve a combination of strategies such as regular veterinary care, appropriate use of medications, environmental management, and good hygiene practices.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

"Theileria" is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoans belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. These parasites are primarily transmitted by ticks and infect various species of mammals, including cattle, sheep, and humans. Theileria species are known to cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to the diseases they cause, which can result in severe anemia, fever, and even death in infected animals.

Theileria parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: the tick vector and the mammalian host. The parasites infect and multiply within the tick's salivary glands and are transmitted to the mammalian host during feeding. Once inside the host, the parasites invade and multiply within the host's white blood cells, causing a variety of clinical symptoms depending on the species of Theileria involved.

One of the most well-known species of Theileria is Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever in cattle. This disease is highly fatal and can result in mortality rates of up to 90% in infected animals if left untreated. Other notable species include Theileria annulata, which causes Tropical Theileriosis in cattle, and Theileria lestoquardi, which infects sheep and goats.

The diagnosis of Theileria infections typically involves the examination of blood smears or other clinical samples using microscopy, as well as molecular techniques such as PCR to identify the specific species of parasite involved. Treatment options for Theileria infections include the use of antiprotozoal drugs such as buparvaquone and halofuginone, as well as supportive care such as fluid therapy and blood transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures include the use of tick control strategies such as acaricides and vaccination.

Theileriasis is a disease caused by the intracellular parasitic protozoa of the genus Theileria, which primarily infects and affects the erythrocytes (red blood cells) and lymphocytes (white blood cells) of various animals, including domestic and wild ruminants. This disease is mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks.

Infection with Theileria parasites can lead to a wide range of clinical signs in affected animals, depending on the specific Theileria species involved and the immune status of the host. Some common symptoms include fever, anemia, weakness, weight loss, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), jaundice, and abortion in pregnant animals.

Two major Theileria species that cause significant economic losses in livestock are:

1. Theileria parva: This species is responsible for East Coast fever in cattle, which is a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Eastern and Southern Africa.
2. Theileria annulata: This species causes Tropical theileriosis or Mediterranean coast fever in cattle and buffaloes, primarily found in regions around the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and Asia.

Preventive measures for theileriasis include tick control, use of live vaccines, and management practices that reduce exposure to infected ticks. Treatment options are limited but may involve chemotherapeutic agents such as buparvaquone or parvaquone, which can help control parasitemia (parasite multiplication in the blood) and alleviate clinical signs. However, these treatments do not provide complete immunity against reinfection.

... marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the U.S. ... Anaplasma platys in dogs The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare zoonosis, the Sparouine anaplasmosis, ... including tropical and semitropical areas of the world for intraerythrocytic Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma species are biologically ...
... HZ Genome Page Anaplasma+phagocytophilum at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Page Anaplasma on lpsn.dsmz.de Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, et al. (2001). "Reorganization of genera in the families ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its tropism to ... Thomas V, Fikrig E (July 2007). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during ...
"Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild ... Anaplasma bovis is currently one of 6 recognized species within the Genus Anaplasma. Other members of this genus include the ... Other species of Anaplasma, most commonly A. marginale, are well documented to cause disease in cattle. Anaplasma species ... Rymaszewska, A. (2008). "Bacteria of the genus Anaplasma - characteristics of Anaplasma and their vectors: a review" (PDF). ...
... (formerly Ehrlichia platys) is a Gram-negative bacterium. Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, et al. (2001). " ... unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions ...
Baneth, G. (2010). Ehrlichia and anaplasma infections. Paper presented at World small animal veterinary congress. Retrieved ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis. Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii ...
December 2005). "Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1828-34 ... and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a coastal region of California". J. Med. Entomol. 40 (4): 534-9. ...
... are found in Anaplasma and those which interact with Anaplasma can mainly be found in A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum shares its tick vector with other human pathogens, and about 10% of patients with HGA show serologic ... Anaplasma MSPs can not only cooperate with vertebrates, but also invertebrates, which make these phenotypes evolve faster than ... Lee HC, Kioi M, Han J, Puri RK, Goodman JL (September 2008). "Anaplasma phagocytophilum-induced gene expression in both human ...
136). Mackerras, I. M., Mackerras, M. J., & Mulhearn, C. R. (1942). Attempted transmission of Anaplasma marginale Theiler by ...
"mCherry - MCherry fluorescent protein - Anaplasma marginale - mCherry gene & protein". Uniprot. Retrieved 2018-11-11. Shu, X.; ...
Strains of Anaplasma bovis have also been found in rabbit ticks, which was discovered in a Nantucket tick study of the bacteria ... Goethert, H.K.; S.R. Telford III (2003). "Enzootic Transmission of Anaplasma bovis in Nantucket Cottontail Rabbits". Journal of ...
21: Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Bartonella". Microbiology and Immunology On-line. University of ...
T4SS has two effector proteins: firstly, ATS-1, which stands for Anaplasma translocated substrate 1, and secondly AnkA, which ... Rikihisa Y, Lin M, Niu H (September 2010). "Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma ...
The two major species that cause anaplasmosis in ruminants include Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anaplasma ... Anaplasma phagocytophilium has a prevalence of 11.9% in sheep, and 15.2% in goats. There are many strains of Anaplasma ... The two major bacterial pathogens are Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. These microorganisms are Gram-negative ... Atif FA (November 2015). "Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public ...
... such as Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis ... "Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infections in German Horses". Animals. 13 (12 ...
... and Anaplasma". Topics in Companion Animal Medicine. 26 (4): 173-7. doi:10.1053/j.tcam.2011.09.002. PMID 22152604. Callaway, ...
anaplasmosis Infection with Anaplasma, a genus of Sporozoa that infests red blood cells. anasa wilt A wilt disease of cucurbits ...
Like Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infects neutrophils. ...
NM belongs to the family Anaplasmataceae together with Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Neorickettsia, Aegyptianella and Wolbachia. ... Rar, Vera; Golovljova, Irina (2011). "Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" bacteria: Pathogenicity, biodiversity ...
Evidence of Anaplasma marginale Transmission by Sucking Lice Haematopinus tuberculatus". Journal of Parasitology. 99 (3): 546- ...
... and its closely related genus Anaplasma show extreme diversity in the structure and content of their genomes. This ... "Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants". Molecular ...
... and the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. Horses may be infected with Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophila, and the viral ... Anaplasma phagocytophila), Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), Boutonneuse fever (Rickettsia conorii), ...
Additionally Spiroplasma bacteria are suspected symbionts, besides potentially the pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, ...
Rickettsia Coxiella Certain species of Mycobacterium such as Mycobacterium leprae, that survive in phagocytes Anaplasma ... "Antigen diversity in the parasitic bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum arises from selectively-represented, spatially clustered ...
Mi-Jin Lee; Joon-Seok Chae (2010). "Molecular detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma bovis in the salivary glands ... and Anaplasma bovis have been detected in H. longicornis. It has been associated with Russian spring-summer encephalitis, ...
Several pathogens have been reported from the leech, specifically Anaplasma, Bartonella, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and ...
2007). "Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilum for infection of human promyelocytic cells". ...
It is also closely related to Wolbachia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia bacteria, with Rickettsia as a more distant genus. ... Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko (2003-09-01). "Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum lack genes for lipid A ... unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions ...
It is a potential vector of many babesiosis pathogens like Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Anaplasma marginale. Its ...
The dominant parasites were Theileria species, T. buffeli, T. bicornis, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma marginale and A. bovis. ...
Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Anaplasma genomes in the JGI genome browser Anaplasma at the U.S. ... Anaplasma platys in dogs The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare zoonosis, the Sparouine anaplasmosis, ... including tropical and semitropical areas of the world for intraerythrocytic Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma species are biologically ...
The MSDS of Anaplasma for sp.Real-Time is available from Karlan upon request. ... Anaplasma sp.Real-Time PCR, 100 rxs. - 1 vial is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. ... The MSDS of Anaplasma for sp.Real-Time is available from Karlan upon request. ... The MSDS of Anaplasma for sp.Real-Time is available from Karlan upon request. ...
The MSDS of Anaplasma for phagocytophilum is available from Karlan upon request. ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum Real-Time PCR, 100 rxs. - 1 vial is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. ... The MSDS of Anaplasma for phagocytophilum is available from Karlan upon request. ... The MSDS of Anaplasma for phagocytophilum is available from Karlan upon request. ...
"Single Genotype of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Identified from Ticks, Camargue, France" 19, no. 5 (2013). Chastagner, Amélie et ... "Single Genotype of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Identified from Ticks, Camargue, France" vol. 19, no. 5, 2013. Export RIS Citation ... 2013). Single Genotype of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Identified from Ticks, Camargue, France. 19(5). Chastagner, Amélie et al. " ... Title : Single Genotype of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Identified from Ticks, Camargue, France Personal Author(s) : Chastagner, ...
DNA extraction was performed only on 24 blood samples which were positive for Anaplasma spp. by ELISA test, the extracted DNA ... DNA extraction was performed only on 24 blood samples which were positive for Anaplasma spp. by ELISA test, the extracted DNA ... test and to determine the species of genus Anaplasma by using RFLP-PCR technique and by also measuring some biochemical ... in corresponding PCR product of Anaplasma marginale and cut it in the position 68 and 509, whereas the used restriction enzyme ...
Inoculation of AmRio 2 strain of Anaplasma marginale. The inoculum used for application to animals was the AmRio 2 strain of A ... Characterization of Anaplasma marginale infection in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 57:76-78. and Reddy et al. (1988)Reddy G.R ... Characterization of Anaplasma marginale infection in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 57:76-78., Silva et al. 2014cSilva J.B., ... Sequencing of msp1α gene in Anaplasma marginale From the samples selected for sequencing, it was found that five animals ( ...
Anaplasma bovis-Like Infections in Humans, United States, 2015-2017 Cite CITE. Title : Anaplasma bovis-Like Infections in ... Two Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Canada Cite CITE. Title : Two Anaplasma phagocytophilum ... Anaplasma Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Animals Article Dermacentor Dermacentor Andersoni Female Male Rickettsia Washington ... 2023). Anaplasma bovis-Like Infections in Humans, United States, 2015-2017. 29(9). Karpathy, Sandor E. et al. "Anaplasma bovis- ...
Coinfections of Anaplasma with Other Tickborne Pathogens. The tick vector responsible for A. phagocytophilum transmission in ... Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and related intracellular bacteria [Chapter 65]. In: Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Carroll KC, et al., eds. ... Increasing incidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the United States, 2000-2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a predilection for granulocytes, and blood smear or bone marrow examination might reveal morulae ...
Access Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Infection case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis after infection of ... de la Fuente, J., Manzano-Roman, R., Blouin, E.F. et al. Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma ... Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilumfor infection of human promyelocytic cells. *José de la ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is an obligate intracellular tick-borne pathogen that causes human ...
Seroprevalence and Attempted Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi from Naturally Infected Ticks ... Seroprevalence and Attempted Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi from Naturally Infected Ticks ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants in ... Stuen, S., Granquist, E. & Silaghi, C. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - pathogen with a zoonotic potential. Parasites Vectors 7 ( ...
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be divided into 2 broad categories: those primarily involving the meninges (meningitis; see the image below) and those primarily confined to the parenchyma (encephalitis).{file37574}Meningitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by inflammation of the meninges, the 3 layers of membranes that...
An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of ... Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia Authors. * G Javkhlan ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1%) Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. ...
Anaplasma marginale; Anaplasmose; Doenças dos Bovinos; Rhipicephalus; Masculino; Bovinos; Animais; Feminino; Ovinos; Anaplasma ... Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne haemoparasite of cattle and causes huge economic losses to the dairy ... Molecular prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in ruminants and Rhipicephalus ticks in northern Pakistan. ... Molecular prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in ruminants and Rhipicephalus ticks in northe ...
Ehrlichia chaffeensis (human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis), ... It is caused by the rickettsial bacteria called Anaplasma phagocytophilum. ...
Anaplasma centrale. qPCR as an approach to detecting and simultaneously quantifying pathogens is the method of choice given its ... Anaplasma centrale. Product code: PKIT12001. *150 tests per kit: exceptional cost per data point ...
Major surface protein Msp5 is conserved among the Anaplasma species and expressed in the salivary glands of infected ticks. ... disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Anaplasma ...
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... we summarize some important facts for diagnoses Anaplasma platys. ... Anaplasma platys (transmitted by the brown dog tick) is the ... Cytology is an unreliable method of diagnosis due to cyclic parasitemia and artifacts similar to the Anaplasma inclusion bodies ... In the following slides (infographics) we summarize some important facts for diagnoses Anaplasma platys. ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, ... Auwaerter, Paul G. "Anaplasma Phagocytophilum." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2022. Pediatrics Central ... The organism is currently known as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis (black-legged deer tick) on the ... Anaplasma Phagocytophilum [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2022. [cited 2023 December 07 ...
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Learn and reinforce your understanding of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. ... Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... Ehrlichia and Anaplasma are bacteria that are transmitted by ticks. Ehrlichia causes ehrlichiosis, whereas Anaplasma causes ... Anaplasma, on the other hand, primarily targets neutrophils, and infects them with the help of a P-selectin glycoprotein which ...
My BC just finished 3 months of doxy for Anaplasma and my Doberman was just diagnose. We are in the Hudson Valley,NY too. My ... Well, my BC was dxed positive for Anaplasma in December, while my cocker is currently fighting for his life; supposedly only ...
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and Anaplasma spp. appear to harbor subclinical infections so it is important to learn the potential symptoms. Continue…. ...
  • FASTest® Anaplasma-Ehrlichia combitest (10 stk. (lifetest.dk)
  • FAST est® ANAPLASMA - EHRLICHA til hund og kat er en hurtig immunokromatografisk kombitest til kvalitativ påvisning af antistoffer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys og Ehrlichia canis. (lifetest.dk)
  • Ehrlichia and Anaplasma are two genera of Gram-negative pleomorphic bacteria, which means they can take different shapes - round like a coccus, or coccobacillary, which means somewhere between a spherical coccus and a rod-like bacillus. (osmosis.org)
  • The most common species that cause disease in humans are Ehrlichia chaffeensis, which causes a disease called human monocytic ehrlichiosis, or HME, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes a disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis, or HGA. (osmosis.org)
  • Now, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma have a thin peptidoglycan layer, so they don't retain the crystal violet dye during Gram staining. (osmosis.org)
  • Finally, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma don't grow on routine culture media and they need to be cultivated in vitro in different cell lines. (osmosis.org)
  • So, Ehrlichia chaffeensis can be isolated in DH82 canine histiocytic cell line and Anaplasma phagocytophilum can be isolated in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line. (osmosis.org)
  • Now, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma enter circulation following a tick bite and once inside the body , they infect circulating leukocytes. (osmosis.org)
  • Once inside the cell, both Ehrlichia and Anaplasma live in an early endosome, which normally merge with lysosomes to kill invading bacteria. (osmosis.org)
  • Ehrlichia and Anaplasma are bacteria that are transmitted by ticks. (osmosis.org)
  • Ehrlichia causes ehrlichiosis, whereas Anaplasma causes anaplasmosis . (osmosis.org)
  • 450-033-Series Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Ehrlichia spp. (biogx.com)
  • Today we're going to explore two of these silent and sneaky invaders known as Anaplasma and Ehrlichia . (jillcarnahan.com)
  • Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are actually the names of two distinct bacterial species. (jillcarnahan.com)
  • And Anaplasma and Ehrlichia have been identified as co-infections to Lyme disease - which is the most commonly contracted tick-borne illness. (jillcarnahan.com)
  • 4 Now let's take a look at exactly what kind of symptoms co-infections with Anaplasma and Ehrlichia can cause. (jillcarnahan.com)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia ? (jillcarnahan.com)
  • You might be wondering, with such a wide range of symptoms, how exactly can you be sure if you've contracted Anaplasma or Ehrlichia ? (jillcarnahan.com)
  • How Are Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Diagnosed? (jillcarnahan.com)
  • Diagnosing Anaplasma and Ehrlichia can be tricky and often requires some detective work. (jillcarnahan.com)
  • How to Use Leishmania + Anaplasma + Ehrlichia + Heartworm Combo Rapid Test Kit? (vetfor.com)
  • Read along to learn more about these infections and how they are detected with the Leishmania + Anaplasma + Ehrlichia + Heartworm Combo Rapid Test Kit. (vetfor.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia , and Borrelia in ticks in southern China. (zoonoses-journal.org)
  • Tick-borne Anaplasma , Ehrlichia , Babesia , and Borrelia were tested by PCR assays, and analyzed by sequencing and phylogenetics. (zoonoses-journal.org)
  • Using PCR and phylogenetic analysis we showed that these ticks carried Anaplasma platys , Ehrlichia canis , Borrelia miyamotoi , Babesia vogeli , and an unclassified Ehrlichia species in Rhipicephalus ticks. (zoonoses-journal.org)
  • Characterization of the Anaplasma marginale msp2 locus and its synteny with the omp1/p30 loci of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. canis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Anaplasma species are biologically transmitted by Ixodes deer-tick vectors, and the prototypical species, A. marginale, can be mechanically transmitted by biting flies and iatrogenically with blood-contaminated instruments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of veterinary interest include: Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs, cats, and horses (see human granulocytic anaplasmosis) Anaplasma platys in dogs The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare zoonosis, the Sparouine anaplasmosis, detected only in French Guiana, South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • by ELISA test, the extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by PCR and PCR-RFLP technique using primers derived from 16S rRNA gene and restriction endonuclease Bst 1107I enzyme which can recognize the sequence (GTATAC) in corresponding PCR product of Anaplasma marginale and cut it in the position 68 and 509, whereas the used restriction enzyme cannot cut the corresponding PCR product of other Aanaplasma spp. (academicjournals.org)
  • The study aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical, laboratory and pathological aspects of buffalo and bovine experimentally infected with AmRio 2 strain of Anaplasma marginale . (scielo.br)
  • O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e patológicos de búfalos e bovinos infectados experimentalmente com estirpe AmRio 2 de Anaplasma marginale . (scielo.br)
  • Molecular prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in ruminants and Rhipicephalus ticks in northern Pakistan. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick -borne haemoparasite of cattle and causes huge economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaplasma marginale infects cattle. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To detect Anaplasma marginale among carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, 64 blood samples, fromhealthy cows in abattoir of Al- Nasiriyah city were collected from June till August, 2017 in this study. (vetmedmosul.com)
  • Molecular study of Anaplasma marginale parasite in carrier cattle in Al-Nasiriyah city', Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 32(2), pp. 299-301. (vetmedmosul.com)
  • These pathogens include Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum, which cause bovine and granulocytic anaplasmosis, respectively. (usda.gov)
  • Using Anaplasma marginale, which causes bovine anaplasmosis, and Dermacentor andersoni tick cells, we determine that iron is required for pathogen replication in tick cells. (usda.gov)
  • Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) is an immunodominant and antigenically variant protein in the outer membrane of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. (usda.gov)
  • Association between chronic Anaplasma marginale and Babesia spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • infection and hematological parameters of taurine heifers / Associação entre infecção crônica por Anaplasma marginale e Babesia spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaplasma species reside in host blood cells and lead to the disease anaplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most sensitive method for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis is the method of polymerase chain reaction, DNA extraction was performed only on 24 blood samples which were positive for Anaplasma spp. (academicjournals.org)
  • and 5) anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum ( 2 ), also called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The tick-borne intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis after infection of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All samples of blood and ticks were collected through random sampling from March 2021 to January 2022 from cattle , sheep and goats and screened through PCR for anaplasmosis by using primer pairs of Anaplasma spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • The zoonotic disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (surmodics.com)
  • Background: Anaplasmosis is an emerging tick borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (uu.nl)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tickborne infection caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys . (vetfor.com)
  • Neutrophilic canine anaplasmosis, the most common form of anaplasma, is an acute febrile disease primarily spread by the bite of black-legged ticks. (vetfor.com)
  • Thrombocytotropic anaplasmosis, on the other hand, is caused by Anaplasma platys and is more commonly spread by brown dog ticks. (vetfor.com)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (tn.gov)
  • Anaplasmosis is diagnosed by a healthcare provider, who can order blood tests to look for evidence of Anaplasma infection. (tn.gov)
  • anaplasmosis is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (msdmanuals.com)
  • An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. (who.int)
  • infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. (who.int)
  • Anaplasma platys (transmitted by the brown dog tick) is the cause of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia. (biogal.com)
  • Javkhlan G, Enkhtaivan B, Baigal B, Myagmarsuren P, Battur B, Battsetseg B. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia. (who.int)
  • Title : Rickettsia and Anaplasma species in Dermacentor andersoni ticks from Washington Personal Author(s) : Francis, Lily;Paddock, Christopher D.;Dykstra, Elizabeth A.;Karpathy, Sandor E. (cdc.gov)
  • Major surface protein Msp5 is conserved among the Anaplasma species and expressed in the salivary glands of infected ticks. (surmodics.com)
  • This bacterial infection is triggered by an organism more specifically known as Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (jillcarnahan.com)
  • Anaplasma the variation of P44 protein species in further confirmed the specific reaction phagocytophilum HL60 cells ( 2 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular typing showed that Anaplasma sparouinense is distinct to all known species and more genetically related to recently described Anaplasma species causing infections in rainforest wild fauna of Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomes from at least three different Anaplasma species have been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be able to properly implement this management in order to achieve this goal, more knowledge of Anaplasma in different ungulate species is needed. (uu.nl)
  • Conclusion: The significant lower prevalence rate and the low relative importance of wild boar indicates that their role in the lifecycle of Anaplasma phagocytophilum is less important, and ungulate management can better be targeted at deer species. (uu.nl)
  • OVC Master's student Megan Neely discusses the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ontario horses project. (oahn.ca)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants in Ixodes ricinus -infested areas in northern Europe. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. (who.int)
  • Anaplasma is a genus of gram-negative bacteria of the alphaproteobacterial order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is caused by the rickettsial bacteria called Anaplasma phagocytophilum . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anaplasmataceae includes the genera Anaplasma, Neorickettsia , and Wolbachia . (frontiersin.org)
  • All samples were tested for the detection of D. immitis antigens, and for antibodies against L. infantum, Anaplasma spp. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of four major canine vector-borne diseases ( Dirofilaria immitis, Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasma , on the other hand, primarily targets neutrophils , and infects them with the help of a P-selectin glycoprotein which binds on the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, or PSGL-1 found on the surface of neutrophils . (osmosis.org)
  • The disease most commonly occurs in areas where competent tick vectors are indigenous, including tropical and semitropical areas of the world for intraerythrocytic Anaplasma spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 2012-2022, there was an average of 2 cases per county reporting positive Anaplasma infections. (tn.gov)
  • The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. (who.int)
  • Of the studied dogs, 22.14% were positive for one or several diseases while the prevalence was 6.25% (CI: 5.59-6.98) for D. immitis , and the seroprevalences were 10.36% (CI: 9.52-11.27) for L. infantum , 5.06% (CI: 4.47-5.73) for Anaplasma spp. (nih.gov)
  • mice and Myodes glareolus reservoirs for Borrelia miyamotoi, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum? (nih.gov)
  • For the obligate intracellular human pathogens of the order Rickettsiales-including Anaplasma , Ehrilichia , Orientia and Rickettsia species-these tools have long lagged behind those available for extracellular bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular screening of ticks for pathogens included RT-qPCR for the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), qPCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, PCR for Babesia species and Rickettsia species, and nested PCR for Borrelia species. (springer.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.3%), Rickettsia spp. (nih.gov)
  • Anaplasma species reside in host blood cells and lead to the disease anaplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of veterinary interest include: Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma mesaeterum in sheep and goats Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs, cats, and horses (see human granulocytic anaplasmosis) Anaplasma platys in dogs The Anaplasma sparouinense species is responsible for a rare zoonosis, the Sparouine anaplasmosis, detected only in French Guiana, South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasmosis is caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum and is transmitted to humans by tick bites primarily from the black-legged (deer) tick ( Ixodes scapularis ) and the western black-legged tick ( Ixodes pacificus ). (us.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular bacterium that replicates in membrane-bound vacuoles and causes a disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. (medscape.com)
  • Anaplasma Series Symptom Relief 10M is for the temporary relief of symptoms of Anaplasmosis, including head discomfort, muscle complaints, joint ailments and chills. (digestivewarrior.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly E. phagocytophila ) causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which occurs in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, upper Midwest and West Coast of the US, where its arthropod vector (ixodid ticks) is endemic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Anaplasmosis is an infectious, noncontagious disease of ruminant animals caused by the pathogenic microorganism Anaplasma marginale. (usda.gov)
  • Anaplasmosis is an infectious, noncontagious disease of ruminants caused by ricksettiae in the genus Anaplasma. (usda.gov)
  • NY) Anaplasmosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum was diagnosed via PCR on EDTA whole blood from a 7 month old foal. (cornell.edu)
  • Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA) is an infection caused by the intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (canlyme.com)
  • 5% of Lyme patients have anaplasmosis [HGA] caused by the intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (canlyme.com)
  • Scientists analyzed how neutrophils from healthy blood donors respond to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a tick-borne bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in people, dogs, horses and cows. (scienceblog.com)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Babesia spp. (nih.gov)
  • Co-infection with Borrelia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Babesia spp. (aaem.pl)
  • Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in northern New Jersey. (aaem.pl)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma ovis, tick-borne pathogens with zoonotic potential, have been detected in small ruminants in Europe and North America in the past. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • This study aims to detect blood pathogens namely Theileria species, Anaplasma species, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos and Trypanosoma evansi , and determine their phylogenetic relationships and haemato-biochemical abnormalities in naturally infected cattle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Javkhlan G, Enkhtaivan B, Baigal B, Myagmarsuren P, Battur B, Battsetseg B. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia. (who.int)
  • Grzeszczuk A, Puzanowska B, Mięgoć H, Prokopowicz D: Incidence and prevalence of infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, prospective study in healthy individuals exposed to ticks. (aaem.pl)
  • Exposure to Anaplasma -infected ticks is expected to spread, although the major risk areas remain in the Northeast and Upper Midwest. (avma.org)
  • Ixodes scapularis can be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. (nih.gov)
  • Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prevalence of serpositivity to spotted fever group rickettsiae and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a large, dempgraphically diverse US sample. (medscape.com)
  • abstract = "A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. (nau.edu)
  • En los humanos causa la EHRLICHIOSIS granulocítica humana. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. (who.int)
  • Nov. 5th, 2019 A Yarmouth, N.S., horse owner wants others to know about anaplasma, a tick-borne disease that her horse, Sloane, contracted before Halloween. (canlyme.com)
  • An Atypical Presentation of a Severe Case of Anaplasma Phagocytophilum. (bvsalud.org)