Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Lysine Carboxypeptidase: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acid from peptides and proteins, with preference shown for lysine over arginine. It is a plasma zinc enzyme that inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Esophagectomy: Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Kallidin: A decapeptide bradykinin homolog cleaved from kininogen by kallikreins. It is a smooth-muscle stimulant and hypotensive agent that acts by vasodilatation.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Thoracic Cavity: The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: A group of religious bodies tracing their origin to Joseph Smith in 1830 and accepting the Book of Mormon as divine revelation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Delphinium: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.

Chimeric receptors of the human C3a receptor and C5a receptor (CD88). (1/117)

Chimeras were generated between the human anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors (C3aR and C5aR, respectively) to define the structural requirements for ligand binding and discrimination. Chimeric receptors were generated by systematically exchanging between the two receptors four receptor modules (the N terminus, transmembrane regions 1 to 4, the second extracellular loop, and transmembrane region 5 to the C terminus). The mutants were transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells (with or without Galpha-16) and analyzed for cell surface expression, binding of C3a and C5a, and functional responsiveness (calcium mobilization) toward C3a, C5a, and a C3a as well as a C5a analogue peptide. The data indicate that in both anaphylatoxin receptors the transmembrane regions and the second extracellular loop act as a functional unit that is disrupted by any reciprocal exchange. N-terminal substitution confirmed the two-binding site model for the human C5aR, in which the receptor N terminus is required for high affinity binding of the native ligand but not a C5a analogue peptide. In contrast, the human C3a receptor did not require the original N terminus for high affinity binding of and activation by C3a, a result that was confirmed by N-terminal deletion mutants. This indicates a completely different binding mode of the anaphylatoxins to their corresponding receptors. The C5a analogue peptide, but not C5a, was an agonist of the C3aR. Replacement of the C3aR N terminus by the C5aR sequence, however, lead to the generation of a true hybrid C3a/C5a receptor, which bound and functionally responded to both ligands, C3a and C5a.  (+info)

C3A binds to the seven transmembrane anaphylatoxin receptor expressed by epithelial cells and triggers the production of IL-8. (2/117)

The complement (C) plays an important role in many acute inflammatory processes. C3a is an inflammatory polypeptide named anaphylatoxin, generated during C activation and which acts through a specific receptor C3aR. In this study, we demonstrated that the epithelial cell line ECV 304 constitutively expressed C3aR (by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence) and that binding of purified C3a to epithelial cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent upregulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8). Pre-treatment of ECV 304 with pertussis toxin inhibited IL-8 response induced by C3a, indicating that the action of C3a was mediated by a G protein coupled pathway.  (+info)

In-vitro activation of complement system by lactic acidosis in newborn and adults. (3/117)

INTRODUCTION: Complement activation occurs secondary to a variety of external stimuli. Lactic acidosis has been previously shown to activate the complement factors C3a and C5a. In the present investigation we examined the differential effect of lactic acidosis on anaphylatoxin levels in cord and adult blood. Furthermore we aimed to determine if the entire complement cascade could be activated by lactic acidosis. METHODS: Cord and adult blood samples (n = 20 each) were collected and incubated for one hour in either untreated condition or with the addition of lactate in two concentrations (5.5 mmol/l vs. 22 mmol/l). Following incubation, levels of C3a, C5a and sC5b-9, and blood gas parameters were determined. RESULTS: Anaphylatoxin (C3a and C5a) and sC5b-9 levels increased with the addition of lactate in a dose-dependent manner in cord and adult blood (C3a: 1 h, 5.5 mmo/l, 22 mmol/l: 418/498/622 microg/l in cord blood; 1010/1056/1381 microg/l in adult blood, p<0,05; similar results were found for C5a and sC5b-9). CONCLUSION: Lactic acidosis leads to an activation of the entire complement system in neonates and in adults. This activation is dose-dependent and more pronounced in adults as compared to neonates.  (+info)

Application of C1-esterase inhibitor during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium: dose-related beneficial versus detrimental effects. (4/117)

BACKGROUND: Complement activation during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium augments myocardial injury, and complement inhibition with C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) at the time of reperfusion exerts marked cardioprotective effects in experimental studies. Application of C1-INH in newborns, however, was recently reported to have dangerous and even lethal side effects. This study addresses the essential role of dosage in studies using C1-INH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardioprotection by C1-INH was examined in a pig model with 60 minutes of coronary occlusion followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. C1-INH was administered intravenously 5 to 10 minutes before coronary reperfusion without heparin at a dose of 40, 100, and 200 IU/kg body wt. Compared with the NaCl controls, C1-INH 40 IU/kg reduced myocardial injury (44.1+/-13.8% versus 76.7+/-4.6% necrosis of area at risk, P/=100 IU/kg) of C1-INH will provoke detrimental side effects, probably via its procoagulatory action.  (+info)

The orphan receptor C5L2 has high affinity binding sites for complement fragments C5a and C5a des-Arg(74). (5/117)

The substantial variations in the responses of cells to the anaphylatoxin C5a and its desarginated form, C5adR(74), suggest that more than one type of cell surface receptor for these ligands might exist. However, only a single receptor for C5a and C5adR(74), CD88, has been characterized to date. Here we report that the orphan receptor C5L2/gpr77, which shares 35% amino acid identity with CD88, binds C5a with high affinity but has a 10-fold higher affinity for C5adR(74) than CD88. C5L2 also has a moderate affinity for anaphylatoxin C3a, but cross-competition studies suggest that C3a binds to a distinct site from C5a. C4a was able to displace C3a, suggesting that C5L2, like the C3a receptor, may have a low binding affinity for this anaphylatoxin. Unlike CD88 and C3a receptor, C5L2 transfected into RBL-2H3 cells does not support degranulation or increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] and is not rapidly internalized in response to ligand binding. However, ligation of C5L2 by anaphylatoxin did potentiate the degranulation response to cross-linkage of the high affinity IgE receptor by a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. These results suggest that C5L2 is an anaphylatoxin-binding protein with unique ligand binding and signaling properties.  (+info)

Effects of human soluble thrombomodulin on experimental glomerulonephritis. (6/117)

BACKGROUND: Coagulation and inflammation are both important processes that contribute to glomerular injury. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (RHS-TM) in a lethal model of thrombotic glomerulonephritis and to investigate the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Thrombotic glomerulonephritis was induced in rats by administration of lipopolysaccharide and rabbit anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antibody. One hour later, RHS-TM or heparin was administered, and the histological findings, renal functions, and coagulation parameters were evaluated. To evaluate the contribution of carboxypeptidase R (CPR) to the results obtained in rats treated with RHS-TM, plasma CPR levels were measured. Then, carboxypeptidase inhibitor (CPI), which prevents the function of CPR, was administered. RESULTS: Massive glomerular thrombosis and lung hemorrhage developed within five hours of disease induction, and all rats died within 24 hours. RHS-TM (3 mg/kg) prevented the progression of the disease and all rats survived. Heparin (250 U/kg/h) showed similar anti-thrombotic effect, but induced massive hemorrhage in the lungs or stomach. RHS-TM attenuated leukocyte/neutrophil infiltration in the glomerulus but heparin did not, suggesting that RHS-TM has anti-inflammatory properties. CPR levels in plasma were about threefold higher in rats treated with RHS-TM compared to those in rats treated with heparin. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of RHS-TM on leukocyte/neutrophil infiltration was significantly diminished by injection of CPI. CONCLUSION: RHS-TM effectively attenuates the injuries of thrombotic glomerulonephritis in rats. The results indicate that RHS-TM, in addition to its anti-thrombotic action, may exert its anti-inflammatory properties by converting proCPR to CPR, which then inactivates anaphylatoxins. RHS-TM is a potential novel therapeutic tool for thrombotic glomerular injury and related disorders.  (+info)

Complement c3a and c5a induce different signal transduction cascades in endothelial cells. (7/117)

In leukocytes, C3a and C5a cause chemotaxis in a G(i)-dependent, pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive fashion. Because we found that HUVECs and immortalized human dermal microvascular endothelial cells express small numbers of C3aRs and C5aRs, we asked what the function of these receptors was on these cells. Activation of the C3aR caused transient formation of actin stress fibers, which was not PT-sensitive, but depended on rho activation implying coupling to G(alpha12) or G(alpha13). Activation of the C5aR caused a delayed and sustained cytoskeletal response, which was blocked by PT, and resulted in cell retraction, increased paracellular permeability, and facilitated eosinophil transmigration. C5a, but not C3a, was chemotactic for human immortalized dermal microvascular endothelial cells. The response to C5a was blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, src kinase, and of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) as well as by neutralizing Abs against the EGFR and heparin-binding EGF-like factor. Furthermore, immune precipitations showed that the EGFR was phosphorylated following stimulation with C5a. The C5aR in endothelial cells thus uses a signaling cascade-transactivation of the EGFR-that does not exist in leukocytes, while the C3aR couples to a different G protein, presumably G(alpha12/13).  (+info)

Complement component anaphylatoxins upregulate chemokine expression by human astrocytes. (8/117)

The complement (C) system, a major component of the innate immune system, has been described as a factor implicated in some brain disorders. C activation leads to the release of anaphylatoxins, two proinflammatory polypeptides acting through specific receptors that have been detected on brain cells. Here, we examined the effect of anaphylatoxins on chemokine expression by human astrocytes. We showed that anaphylatoxins significantly increase chemokine mRNA expression. However, anaphylatoxin-induced chemokine secretion (interleukin-8) was observed only in the presence of interleukin-1beta. Thus, anaphylatoxins could initiate a chemokine cascade and, at least in part, be involved in pathogenesis of the brain.  (+info)

OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) more frequently than non-pregnant women. The reasons for this remain unknown. The complement system is a complex set of self-assembling proteins that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ARDS and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine if activation of the complement system occurs in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of C3a, C4a and C5a (i.e., complement split products) in pregnant patients with acute pyelonephritis (n=38) and normal pregnant women (n=38). The complement split products C3a, C4a and C5a were measured using ELISA. Data were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. RESULTS: 1) The median plasma concentration of C5a in pregnant patients with acute pyelonephritis was significantly higher than that in normal pregnant women (p,0.001); 2) there was no statistical ...
The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An anti-inflammatory function for the complement anaphylatoxin C5a-binding protein, C5L2. AU - Gerard, Norma P.. AU - Lu, Bao. AU - Liu, Pixu. AU - Craig, Stewart. AU - Fujiwara, Yuko. AU - Okinaga, Shoji. AU - Gerard, Craig. PY - 2005/12/2. Y1 - 2005/12/2. N2 - C5L2 is an enigmatic serpentine receptor that is co-expressed with the C5a receptor on many cells including polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The apparent absence of coupling of C5L2 with G proteins suggests that this receptor may modulate the biological activity of C5a, perhaps by acting as a decoy receptor. Alternatively, C5L2 may affect C5a function through formation of a heteromeric complex with the C5aR, or it may utilize a G protein-independent signaling pathway. Here we show that in mice bearing a targeted deletion of C5L2, the biological activity of C5a/C5adesArg is enhanced both in vivo and in vitro. The biological role of C5L2 thus appears to be limiting to the pro-inflammatory response to the anaphylatoxin. ...
Background: Elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and complement activation are associated with detrimental effects of inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD). The complement anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a interact with their receptors; the highly inflammatory C5aR1, and the C5aR2 and C3aR. We evaluated the effect of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-antagonist tocilizumab on the expression of the anaphylatoxin receptors in whole blood from non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. Separately, anaphylatoxin receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with different entities of CAD was investigated. Materials and Methods: NSTEMI patients were randomized to one dose of tocilizumab (n = 28) or placebo (n = 32) and observed for 6 months. Whole blood samples drawn at inclusion, at day 2, 3 and after 6 months were used for mRNA isolation. Plasma was prepared for analysis of complement activation measured as sC5b-9 by ELISA. Furthermore, patients with different CAD ...
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The CD5(+) B cell population is prominent in early life and produce low avidity and, thereby, polyreactive antibodies. CD5(+) B cells are receptive to cytokines and interleukin-10 seems to be influential in the regulation of some of these CD5(+) B ce
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Now, they may soon add a new risk factor to the list: activation of the complement system. The complement system is usually implicated in immune responses, but now theres a role for it in cardiovascular disease. In a new research report appearing in the January 2011 print issue of the FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org), scientists from Europe and the United States show that anaphylatoxin C5a, a protein released when complement is activated, contributes to atherosclerotic disease. C5a causes plaques to break free from where they would be anchored to ultimately cause blockages elsewhere in the body. This new discovery not only shows that C5a is a new marker for identifying risk for heart attack and stroke, but it also establishes C5a as a new therapeutic target for preventing these problems.. "Given the huge impact of cardiovascular disease in general, and atherosclerosis in particular, on public health, we feel that unraveling mechanisms involved in the development and progression of the ...
The complement cascade is responsible for more than just the lysis of the foreign cell; the different subcomponents released at each stage are responsible for a number of other biological functions.. Opsonisation. Opsonisation is the process of making a foreign cell more appealing to a phagocytic cell. This is useful as it helps to remove the foreign cell by phagocytosis. The complement component responsible for the opsonisation of cells is C3b. It increases the efficiency of phagocytes as they have specific receptors for the C3b component (C3bR). When the C3b binds to its receptor on the phagocyte, the process of phagocytosis begins and the foreign cell is engulfed.. Anaphylatoxin Formation. The peptide subcomponents C3a and C5a are anaphylatoxins meaning they have a number of inflammation properties. They are able to increase vascular permeability at the site of infection and they are also chemotactic. This means they are able to attract phagocytes into the site of infected tissue.. Both C3a ...
Patzelt, J.; Mueller, K. A. L.; Breuning, S.; Karathanos, A.; Schleicher, R.; Seizer, P.; Gawaz, M.; Langer, H. F.; Geisler, T. ...
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The substance causing the allergic reaction is the "allergen" and the symptoms it gives rise to are "allergic reactions". When an allergen penetrates the body of an allergic subject, the immune system reacts producing a large amount of antibodies known as IgE. These antibodies attach to cells called mastocytes that are in the skin, nose, bronchia, etc.. Successive exposures to the same allergen lead to an increase in the IgE antibodies that attach to the allergen over the mastocytes. The bonding of the allergen with IgE antibodies causes the mastocytes to release chemical mediators, particularly histamine, the produce the typical allergic reactions.. ...
This gene encodes a G-protein coupled receptor 1 family member involved in the complement system of the innate immune response. Unlike classical G-protein coupled receptors, the encoded protein does not associate with intracellular G-proteins. It may instead modulate signal transduction through the beta-arrestin pathway, and may alternatively act as a decoy receptor. This gene may be involved in coronary artery disease and in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012 ...
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In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. Complement activation end products and their receptors mediate cell-cell interactions that regulate several biological functions in the extravascular tissue. Signaling of anaphylatoxin receptors or assembly of membrane attack complex promotes cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration in addition to reducing apoptosis. As a result, complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis. In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of ...
In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. Complement activation end products and their receptors mediate cell-cell interactions that regulate several biological functions in the extravascular tissue. Signaling of anaphylatoxin receptors or assembly of membrane attack complex promotes cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration in addition to reducing apoptosis. As a result, complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis. In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of ...
Natural antibodies serve as the bodys first line of defense against pneumococcal challenge. Polyreactive human pneumococcal polysaccharide IgG antibodies have not been extensively studied. We analyzed human polyreactive antibodies that bind multiple pneumococcal polysaccharides, including PPS14 and PPS23F. These antibodies were isolated from single pneumococcal polysaccharide specific B cells allowing for the analysis of human immunoglobulins with natively paired variable regions. Although isolated individually, these antibodies demonstrated similar characteristics. Most antibodies possessed a variable light chain with a CDR3 length made up of nine amino acids and relatively high number of flexible amino acids in combined VH/VL. While these antibodies were polyreactive and structurally alike, kinetic analysis revealed unique KD values. Variable chains are responsible for antigen recognition whereas antibody fine specificity is affected by isotype structure. To investigate the contribution of the
highlighting the link between complement gene expression and IQ, in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. The study demonstrated a broad association between variations in complement gene expression and perturbed neurodevelopment. We were particularly interested to see that the final sentence of the paper stated that When complement gene-sets are taken as a whole, their relevance is to neurodevelopment, not illness . Their conclusion rightly touches on the emerging understanding of non-immune roles for complement in diverse biological processes (Hawksworth et al., 2018) .The complement group of proteins is ancient in evolutionary terms. Recognised complement components are found strewn throughout the animal kingdom including in rudimentary diploblastic species (Kimura et al., 2009) . In the human adult, complement functions as an essential pillar of the innate immune system. It is activated by various noxious stimuli and results in the production of the anaphylatoxins and membrane attack
Results : CNV resulted in an increase in splenic IL-17-producing γδT- and Th17-cells; yet in the CNV eye, only elevated levels of γδT-cells could be observed. Administration of anti-C5 or anti-C5a-blocking antibodies to reduce levels of C5a production in the eye, blunted the CNV-induced production of splenic Th17- and γδT-cells, reduced CNV size (anti-C5: 3666 ± 359.9 pixels; anti-C5a: 3453 ± 253.8) when compared to control (12B4: 5572 ± 630.6; p ≤ 0.01) and eliminated ocular γδT-cell infiltration. In ARPE-19 cell monolayers, IL-17 triggered a pro-inflammatory state; and T-cell proliferation was elevated in response to ocular proteins Conclusions : Taken together, we demonstrated that CNV lesions trigger a systemic immune response, augmenting local ocular inflammation via the infiltration of IL-17-producing γδT-cells, which are presumably recruited to the eye in a C5a-dependent manner. Finally, understanding complement-mediated pathological mechanisms will aid in the development ...
C5a / C5a des Arg antibody [2942] (complement component 5) for IA, WB. Anti-C5a / C5a des Arg mAb (GTX11877) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Mastocytes were proven to have a central rule in their development of the lipoid plaque of the vascular system. Mastocytes also has an important role in the stabilisation of the plaque in the building of the brain barrier. Different animal studies show that the inhibition of the mastocyte activity decreases significantly the risk of secondary bleeding post ischaemic stroke.It was also shown that post stroke inflammation process was also blocked by the inhibition of mastocytes.Other studies showed up to 100% decrease in the brain barrier disruption and post stroke oedema, after treatment with mastocyte inhibitors ...
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Synonyms for granulocytopenia in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for granulocytopenia. 2 synonyms for granulocytopenia: agranulocytosis, agranulosis. What are synonyms for granulocytopenia?
New Issues about Nitric Oxide and its Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract. Mart�n, M.J.; Jim�nez, M.D.; Motilva, V. // Current Pharmaceutical Design;Jul2001, Vol. 7 Issue 10, p881 Over the last years the important role of nitric oxide (NO) as endogenous modulator of numerous physiological functions has been shown. NO is involved in the regulation of blood flow, maintenance of vascular tone, control of platelet aggregation, and modulation of the activity of the mastocytes.... ...
Esophageal carcinoma is a common malignancy worldwide, with a low 5‑year survival rate. As the majority of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, there is an urgent need for an effective biomarker for early diagnosis of esophageal cancer patients. Surface‑enhanced laser desorption ionization time‑of‑flight mass spectrometry (SELDI‑TOF‑MS) was applied to detect the serum protein expression in esophageal cancer patients using ProteinChip software, and the results were analyzed and screened using Biomarker Patterns and SPSS16.0 software. The ELISA method was conducted to determine the concentration of anaphylatoxin C3a, which is one of the complement proteins, in the serum of esophageal cancer patients and non‑esophageal cancer participants. A total of 144 effective differential expression protein peaks in the window of 1‑10 kDa were obtained ( ...
U.S., June 15 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03182491) titled Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis on June 7. Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to explore different mechanisms for anaphylaxis and find novel biomarkers for this hypersensitivity syndrome. The study participants are patients with anaphylaxis, patients with mild allergic reactions, and patients with febrile transfusion reactions. We will also include a group of healthy controls. Study Start Date: Study Type: Observational [Patient Registry] Condition: Anaphylaxis Allergy Transfusion Reaction Febrile Transfusion Reaction Intervention: Diagnostic Test: Biomarkers (platelet activating factor [PAF], anaphylatoxins) and basophil activation test (BAT) Analysis of biomarkers and basophil activation test Recruitment Status: Recruiting Sponsor: Haukeland University Hospital Information provided by (Responsible Party): Haukeland University Hospital Published by HT Digital Content Services with ...
Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. It is caused by the release (degranulation) of substances from mast cells or basophils under the influence of anaphylatoxins. It causes difficulty in breathing which can be very mild to severe. Bronchospasms appear as the feature of asthma, chronic bronchitis and anaphylaxis. Bronchospasms are a possible side effect of some drugs: pilocarpine (which is used to treat illness resulting from the ingestion of deadly nightshade, as well as other things), beta blockers (used to treat hypertension), a paradoxical result of using LABA drugs (to treat COPD) and other drugs. Bronchospasms can present as a sign of giardiasis. Bronchospasms are one of several conditions associated with cold housing. Some of the things that can cause bronchospasms are: consuming foods, taking medicines, allergic responses to insects, and fluctuating hormone levels, particularly in women. A few of the more common ...
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C3a is an anaphylatoxin that triggers a response by stimulating inflammatory cells to release histamine, enzymes, cytokines and other mediators.
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Glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) are central to the pathogenesis of progressive glomeruli-associated renal diseases. However, molecular mechanisms underlying changes in MC functions still remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in MCs, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) induces, via its specific receptor (uPAR, CD87), upregulated expression of the complement anaphylatoxin C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88), and modulates C5a-dependent functional responses. This effect is mediated via the interaction of the uPA-specific receptor (uPAR, CD87) and gp130, a signal transducing subunit of the receptor complexes for the IL-6 cytokine family. The Janus kinase Tyk2 and the transcription factor Stat3 serve as downstream components in the signaling cascade resulting in upregulation of C5aR expression. In vivo, expression of C5aR and uPAR was increased in the mesangium of wild-type mice in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of inflammation, whereas in uPAR -/- animals C5aR expression remained ...
Activation of complement C5 generates the potent anaphylatoxin C5a and leads to pathogen lysis, inflammation and cell damage. The therapeutic potential of C5 inhibition has been demonstrated by eculizumab, one of the worlds most expensive drugs. However, the mechanism of C5 activation by C5 convertases remains elusive, thus limiting development of therapeutics. Here we identify and characterize a new protein family of tick-derived C5 inhibitors. Structures of C5 in complex with the new inhibitors, the phase I and phase II inhibitor OmCI, or an eculizumab Fab reveal three distinct binding sites on C5 that all prevent activation of C5. The positions of the inhibitor-binding sites and the ability of all three C5-inhibitor complexes to competitively inhibit the C5 convertase conflict with earlier steric-inhibition models, thus suggesting that a priming event is needed for activation.
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Floreani AA, Heires AJ, Welniak LA et al. (1998). "Expression of receptors for C5a anaphylatoxin (CD88) on human bronchial epithelial cells: enhancement of C5a-mediated release of IL-8 upon exposure to cigarette smoke.". J. Immunol. 160 (10): 5073-81. PMID 9590258. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. (link) ...
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Lisoprotérénol est un relativement sélectif bêta2-adrénergiques bronchodilatateur. Lisoprotérénol est indiqué pour le soulagement des bronchospasmes associés aux maladies pulmonaires obstructives chroniques. Le pharmacologiques effets des bêta-adrénergique médicaments, y compris lisoprotérénol, sont au moins en partie attribuable à la stimulation par le biais des récepteurs bêta-adrénergiques adénylcyclase intracellulaire, lenzyme qui catalyse la conversion de ladénosine triphosphate (ATP) pour cyclique-3 , 5-adénosine monophosphate (AMP-c). Augmentation de c-AMP niveaux sont associées à la relaxation des muscles lisses bronchiques et une inhibition de la libération des médiateurs de lhypersensibilité immédiate à partir des cellules, en particulier par les mastocytes ...
granulocytopenia definition: An abnormally reduced focus of certain white blood cells called granulocytes in blood. This problem reduces the bodys resistance to numerous attacks.; an acute blood disorder…
The mammalian neocortex is parcellated into anatomically and functionally distinct areas. The establishment of area-specific neuronal diversity and circuit connectivity enables distinct neocortical regions to control diverse and specialized functional outputs, yet underlying molecular controls remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a central role for the transcriptional regulator Lim-only 4 (Lmo4) in establishing the diversity of neuronal subtypes within rostral mouse motor cortex, where projection neurons have particularly diverse and multi-projection connectivity compared with caudal motor cortex. In rostral motor cortex, we report that both subcerebral projection neurons (SCPN), which send projections away from the cerebrum, and callosal projection neurons (CPN), which send projections to contralateral cortex, express Lmo4, whereas more caudal SCPN and CPN do not. Lmo4-expressing SCPN and CPN populations are comprised of multiple hodologically distinct subtypes. SCPN in rostral layer Va ...
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from a variety of organisms effectively induced C consumption in humans, bovines, and porcines with developmental agammaglobulinemia; birds with experimental agammaglobulinemia; and humans with agammaglobulinemia syndromes. This interaction proceeded even in precolostral piglet sera which contained less than 2.5 x 10-6 mg/ml gamma globulin, and led to generation of neutrophil chemotactic factor and anaphylatoxin in these sera. Hence, the LPS-C interaction can proceed in sera markedly deficient in immunoglobulin. The question of whether immunoglobulins can be bypassed in the LPS-C interaction, or whether they are regularly utilized in a way so efficient that their participation is masked, was considered. ...
granulocytopenia definition: Noun (uncountable) 1. (pathology) An abnormally low concentration of certain white blood cells called granulocytes in the blood. This condition reduces the bodys resistance to many infections....
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Vaz RJ, Gao Z, Pribish J, Chen X, Levell J, Davis L, Albert E, Brollo M, Ugolini A, Cramer DM, Cairns J, Sides K, Liu F, Kwong J, Kang J, Rebello S, Elliot M, Lim H, Chellaraj V, Singleton RW, Li Y., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 14(24), 2004 ...
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It inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins. Plummer, T.H. Jr.; Erdös, E.G. (1981). "Human plasma carboxypeptidase N". Methods ... Lysine carboxypeptidase (EC 3.4.17.3, carboxypeptidase N, arginine carboxypeptidase, kininase I, anaphylatoxin inactivator, ...
The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is ... Moon KE, Gorski JP, Hugli TE (Aug 1981). "Complete primary structure of human C4a anaphylatoxin". The Journal of Biological ... Hugli TE (1987). "Biochemistry and biology of anaphylatoxins". Complement. 3 (3): 111-27. PMID 3542363. Yu CY (1999). " ...
"Anaphylatoxin Receptors: C5a". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Boulay F, Mery L, Tardif M, Brouchon L, Vignais P (March 1991). "Expression cloning of a receptor for C5a anaphylatoxin on ... Giannini E, Brouchon L, Boulay F (August 1995). "Identification of the major phosphorylation sites in human C5a anaphylatoxin ... Gerard NP, Gerard C (February 1991). "The chemotactic receptor for human C5a anaphylatoxin". Nature. 349 (6310): 614-7. doi: ...
Davoust N, Jones J, Stahel PF, Ames RS, Barnum SR (May 1999). "Receptor for the C3a anaphylatoxin is expressed by neurons and ... "Anaphylatoxin Receptors: C3a". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Kirchhoff K, Weinmann O, Zwirner J, Begemann G, Götze O, Kapp A, Werfel T (June 2001). "Detection of anaphylatoxin receptors on ... Sayegh ET, Bloch O, Parsa AT (August 2014). "Complement anaphylatoxins as immune regulators in cancer". Cancer Medicine. 3 (4 ...
Like other anaphylatoxins, C3a is regulated by cleavage of its carboxy-terminal arginine, which results in a molecule with ... C3a is a 77 residue anaphylatoxin that binds to the C3a receptor (C3aR), a class A G protein-coupled receptor. It plays a large ... C3a, like other anaphylatoxins, has a C-terminal arginine residue. Serum carboxypeptidase B, a protease, cleaves the arginine ... Anaphylatoxins are small complement peptides that induce proinflammatory responses in tissues. C3a is primarily regarded for ...
Jem.rupress The Nature of Anaphylatoxin Anthropology ... - Page 283 Google Books Result Katalog der Deutschen ... and complement is accompanied by the manufacture of anaphylatoxin, a word he used for the poison that was supposed to be the ...
C5a is a chemotactic agent and an anaphylatoxin; it is essential in the innate immunity but it is also linked with the adaptive ... C5a is an anaphylatoxin, causing increased expression of adhesion molecules on endothelium, contraction of smooth muscle, and ... C5a des-Arg is a much less potent anaphylatoxin. Both C5a and C5a des-Arg can trigger mast cell degranulation, releasing ...
Li R, Coulthard LG, Wu MC, Taylor SM, Woodruff TM (Mar 2013). "C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a ...
"C5A anaphylatoxin and its seven transmembrane-segment receptor". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 12: 775-808. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy. ...
Li R, Coulthard LG, Wu MC, Taylor SM, Woodruff TM (Mar 2013). "C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a ... a second C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor C5a2 (C5L2), a second C5a receptor of debated function which has the structure ...
Gerard C, Gerard NP (1994). "C5A anaphylatoxin and its seven transmembrane-segment receptor". Annual Review of Immunology. 12 ( ...
Corporale, L. L H.; Tippett, P. S.; Erickson, B. W.; and Hugli, T. E. (1980) The Active Site of C3a Anaphylatoxin. J. Biol. ...
1995). "[Chemico-enzymatic synthesis, cloning and expression of a gene for an analog of human anaphylatoxin C5a]". Bioorg. Khim ... Oppermann M, Götze O (1995). "Plasma clearance of the human C5a anaphylatoxin by binding to leucocyte C5a receptors". ... An activation peptide, C5a, which is an anaphylatoxin that possesses potent spasmogenic and chemotactic activity, is derived ... Fernandez HN, Hugli TE (1978). "Primary structural analysis of the polypeptide portion of human C5a anaphylatoxin. Polypeptide ...
In addition, OSCS induced generation of C3a and C5a, potent anaphylatoxins derived from complement proteins. Chondroitin ...
C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor C5a2 also known as C5L2, G protein-coupled receptor 77, is a protein that in humans is ... The anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a, and C5a are cationic fragments generated during the complement cascade that participate in host ... 2007). "Ligand specificity of the anaphylatoxin C5L2 receptor and its regulation on myeloid and epithelial cell lines". J. Biol ... In the case of inappropriate complement activation, anaphylatoxins may be involved in autoimmunity and sepsis. C5a2 is ...
This enzyme then cleaves C5 to C5a, a potent anaphylatoxin, and C5b. The C5b then recruits and assembles C6, C7, C8 and ... Both C3a and C5a have anaphylatoxin activity, directly triggering degranulation of mast cells as well as increasing vascular ...
"Anaphylatoxin Receptors: C5a". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Gerard C, Gerard NP (1994). "C5A anaphylatoxin and its seven transmembrane-segment receptor". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 12: 775-808. ... 1996). "Molecular cloning and characterization of the human anaphylatoxin C3a receptor.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (34): 20231-4. ... Gerard NP, Gerard C (1991). "The chemotactic receptor for human C5a anaphylatoxin.". Nature 349 (6310): 614-7. PMID 1847994. ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human anaphylatoxin C5a receptor". J. Biol. ...
The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is ...
Hugli TE (1986). "Biochemistry and biology of anaphylatoxins". Complement 3 (3): 111-27. PMID 3542363. ...
It is caused by the release (degranulation) of substances from mast cells or basophils under the influence of anaphylatoxins. ...
However, there are some differences between the two molecules, for example unlike C3, TEP1 lacks an anaphylatoxin domain. The ...
While the anaphylatoxin C3a interacts with its C3a receptor (C3aR) to recruit leukocytes, C3b contributes to further downstream ... Like C3a, C5a is also an anaphylatoxin with interacts with its cognate C5a receptor (C5aR) to attract leukocytes. Subsequent ...
The enzyme is important in the regulation of peptides like kinins and anaphylatoxins, and has also been known as kininase-1 and ... anaphylatoxin inactivator. This enzyme is a tetramer composed of two identical regulatory subunits and two identical catalytic ...
In 1914 Hirszfeld was made an academic lecturer on the basis of his work on anaphylaxis and anaphylatoxin and their ...
anaphylatoxin. *anaphylatoxin. *anaphylatoxin inactivator. *anaphylatoxin inhibitor. *anaphylatoxin inhibitor. *Anaphylatoxins ...
Acute Disease; Adolescent; Adult; Anaphylatoxins/analysis/immunology; Complement C5a/*analysis/immunology; Cross-Sectional ...
Anaphylatoxins, or complement peptides, are fragments (C3a, C4a and C5a) that are produced as part of the activation of the ... Anaphylatoxin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the ... Anaphylatoxins are able to trigger degranulation (release of substances) of endothelial cells, mast cells or phagocytes, which ... Anaphylatoxins indirectly mediate: smooth muscle cells contraction, for example bronchospasms increase in the permeability of ...
Structure and function of the anaphylatoxins.. Hugli TE.. Abstract. Chemical and physical characterization of the anaphylatoxin ... and it is apparent that the three anaphylatoxins are genetically related. The anaphylatoxin protein chains very in length from ... A variety of responses to anaphylatoxins are known to occur at the cellular level and are mediated in a hormone-like fashion. ... Biologic characterization of the anaphylatoxins continues at a rapid pace and each advance provides a clearer view of the role ...
The anaphylatoxin receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors which bind anaphylatoxins. Members of this family ... "Anaphylatoxin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology ... "Characterization of receptors to the anaphylatoxins on isolated cells". Dermatologica. 179 Suppl 1: 35-40. PMID 2528484. " ...
The role of the anaphylatoxins in health and disease.. Klos A1, Tenner AJ, Johswich KO, Ager RR, Reis ES, Köhl J. ... The anaphylatoxin (AT) C3a, C5a and C5a-desArg are generally considered pro-inflammatory polypeptides generated after ...
The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine. ... Mast cell anaphylatoxin receptor expression can enhance IgE-dependent skin inflammation in mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 ... The anaphylatoxin C3a downregulates the Th2 response to epicutaneously introduced antigen. J Clin Invest. 2004 Aug; 114(3):399- ... "Anaphylatoxins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, ... Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins ... Journal Article: Structural and functional characterization of human and murine C5a anaphylatoxins ... discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins ...
The anaphylatoxin C3a downregulates the Th2 response to epicutaneously introduced antigen. Seiji Kawamoto,1,2 Ali Yalcindag,1 ... Structure and function of C3a anaphylatoxin. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 1990. 153:181-208. View this article via: PubMed ... Detection of anaphylatoxin receptors on CD83+ dendritic cells derived from human skin. Immunology. 2001. 103:210-217. View this ... A role for the C3a anaphylatoxin receptor in the effector phase of asthma. Nature. 2000. 406:998-1001. View this article via: ...
Receptor for the chemotactic and inflammatory peptide anaphylatoxin C5a (PubMed:1847994, PubMed:8182049, PubMed:7622471, PubMed ... C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor 1Add BLAST. 350. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions ... "The chemotactic receptor for human C5a anaphylatoxin.". Gerard N.P., Gerard C.. Nature 349:614-617(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC ... "Expression cloning of a receptor for C5a anaphylatoxin on differentiated HL-60 cells.". Boulay F., Mery L., Tardif M., Brouchon ...
... Andreas Klos,a,1 Andrea J. Tenner,b,1 Kay-Ole Johswich,a Rahasson R. Ager ... Complement anaphylatoxin receptors on neurons: new tricks for old receptors? Trends Neurosci. 1999b;22:397-402. [PubMed] ... 3.1 Anaphylatoxins in sepsis. The sepsis syndrome is still the leading cause of death in intensive care units in the Western ... Köhl J. Anaphylatoxins and infectious and non-infectious inflammatory diseases. Mol Immunol. 2001;38:175-187. [PubMed] ...
... *Authors: *Xu Zhang ... The ELISA method was conducted to determine the concentration of anaphylatoxin C3a, which is one of the complement proteins, in ... Zhang, X., Sun, L.Anaphylatoxin C3a: A potential biomarker for esophageal cancer diagnosis. Molecular and Clinical Oncology ... Zhang, X., Sun, L.Anaphylatoxin C3a: A potential biomarker for esophageal cancer diagnosis. Molecular and Clinical Oncology 0 ...
"Up to now, anaphylatoxin C5a has been mainly implicated in immunologic diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis or lupus ... Home Blood, Heart and Circulation A new drug target in atherosclerosis: The anaphylatoxin C5a ... scientists from Europe and the United States show that anaphylatoxin C5a, a protein released when complement is activated, ...
The present invention refers to muteins of the C5a anaphylatoxin (C5a) which are C5a receptor antagonists, to nucleic acid ... Muteins of the c5a anaphylatoxin, nucleic acid molecules encoding such muteins, and pharmaceutical uses of muteins of the c5a ... 23] Köhl, The anaphylatoxins, in Complement: a practical approach (Dodds A. W. & Simm R. B, Eds., p. 135-163, IRL press, Oxford ... For instance, the anaphylatoxins, e.g., C5a, have been implicated as causative or aggravating factors in the pathogenesis of ...
Inhibitory activity against radiolabeled C5a receptor on neutrophil membranes expressing C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor ...
C5L2: A Controversial Receptor of Complement Anaphylatoxin, C5a Rui Li 1 , Liam G Coulthard, M C L Wu, Stephen M Taylor, Trent ... C5L2: A Controversial Receptor of Complement Anaphylatoxin, C5a Rui Li et al. FASEB J. Mar 2013 ... Disruption of the complement anaphylatoxin receptor C5L2 exacerbates inflammation in allergic contact dermatitis. Wang R, Lu B ... a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a. ...
Generation of anaphylatoxin C3a in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in trauma patients at risk for the adult respiratory ... Complement anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a) and their receptors (C3aR, C5aR/CD88) as therapeutic targets in inflammation. J. D. ... The mouse anaphylatoxin C3a receptor: molecular cloning, genomic organization, and functional expression. J. Immunol. 158: 5277 ... Potentiation of the anaphylatoxins in vivo using an inhibitor of serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN). I. Lethality and pathologic ...
Compound was evaluated for the antagonistic activity against C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor in human neutrophil C5a ...
Cardiac dysfunction caused by recombinant human C5A anaphylatoxin: mediation by histamine, adenosine and cyclooxygenase ... Cardiac dysfunction caused by recombinant human C5A anaphylatoxin: mediation by histamine, adenosine and cyclooxygenase ... Cardiac dysfunction caused by recombinant human C5A anaphylatoxin: mediation by histamine, adenosine and cyclooxygenase ... Cardiac dysfunction caused by recombinant human C5A anaphylatoxin: mediation by histamine, adenosine and cyclooxygenase ...
In contrast, anaphylatoxin-treated primary astrocytes had suppressed cytokine and chemokine production compared to untreated ... We found that the MAPK pathway proteins JNK1 and ERK1/2 were activated in glia upon stimulation with recombinant anaphylatoxin ... To determine the effects of anaphylatoxins on individual glial subsets, we created murine recombinant C3a and C5a proteins. ... Overall, our findings show that anaphylatoxin production in the brain plays a negative proinflammatory role during ...
... previously reported that pretreatment of murine cortico-hippocampal neuronal cultures with the complement-derived anaphylatoxin ... Complement anaphylatoxin C5a neuroprotects through mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibition of caspase 3.. @ ... article{Mukherjee2001ComplementAC, title={Complement anaphylatoxin C5a neuroprotects through mitogen-activated protein kinase- ... previously reported that pretreatment of murine cortico-hippocampal neuronal cultures with the complement-derived anaphylatoxin ...
Complement anaphylatoxin C5a neuroprotects through regulation of glutamate receptor subunit 2 in vitro and in vivo. ... van Beek J, Nicole O, Ali C, Ischenko A, MacKenzie ET, Buisson A, Fontaine M: Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is selectively ... Mukherjee P, Pasinetti GM: The role of complement anaphylatoxin C5a in neurodegeneration: implications in Alzheimers disease. ... Osaka H, Mukherjee P, Aisen PS, Pasinetti GM: Complement-derived anaphylatoxin C5a protects against glutamate-mediated ...
Home › C5a anaphylatoxin Polyclonal Antibody, Cy5 Conjugated C5a anaphylatoxin Polyclonal Antibody, Cy5 Conjugated. ... Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C5, C5 anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. Binding to ...
Objective: The main objective of the present in vitro study was to learn more about the effects of anaphylatoxin C5a and ... Ziel: Das Ziel dieser in vitro Studie ist die Wechselwirkung des Anaphylatoxins C5a und von Leukozyten mit Tendozyten sowohl in ... Komplementregulation in Sehnenzellen, vermittelt durch das Anaphylatoxin C5a und Leukozyten. Haupttitel: Komplementregulation ...
... Bürgi, Béatrice. ... The degradation product of C5a anaphylatoxin C5a desarg retains potent basophil-activating properties. * Home ... The degradation product of C5a anaphylatoxin C5a desarg retains potent basophil-activating properties. Publikationstyp:. ... The degradation product of C5a anaphylatoxin C5a desarg retains potent basophil-activating properties. In: European Journal of ...
  • Chemical and physical characterization of the anaphylatoxin molecules have provided a reasonably clear description of the architecture of these bioactive proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, the structural data now accumulated for anaphylatoxins permit molecular modelling of these proteins, designates favored conformational arrangements of the native structures, and specifically localizes the effector sites. (nih.gov)
  • The ELISA method was conducted to determine the concentration of anaphylatoxin C3a, which is one of the complement proteins, in the serum of esophageal cancer patients and non‑esophageal cancer participants. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To determine the effects of anaphylatoxins on individual glial subsets, we created murine recombinant C3a and C5a proteins. (uiowa.edu)
  • We found that the MAPK pathway proteins JNK1 and ERK1/2 were activated in glia upon stimulation with recombinant anaphylatoxin proteins. (uiowa.edu)
  • In vitro, primary microglia and astrocytes did not significantly migrate in response to stimulation with C3a or C5a proteins, suggesting migration may not be a primary anaphylatoxin-mediated function in the CNS. (uiowa.edu)
  • Overall, our findings show that anaphylatoxin production in the brain plays a negative proinflammatory role during demyelination and that anaphylatoxin proteins can activate individual subsets of glia, initiating the production of inflammatory mediators. (uiowa.edu)
  • Complement activation leads to the production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, which are basic polypeptides of 74-77 aa derived from the α-chains of their parent proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. (osti.gov)
  • Objective: The main objective of the present in vitro study was to learn more about the effects of anaphylatoxin C5a and leukocytes on tenocytes in respect to gene regulation of C5aR and CRP (CD46, CD55 and CD59). (fu-berlin.de)
  • Combined application of C3a and C5a decreased C3 mRNA expression in ARPE-19 cells when compared to the unstimulated control, whereas mRNA levels of C3aR, C5 and C5aR were not affected by anaphylatoxin stimulation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, these data suggest that the C5a anaphylatoxin mediates previously unrecognized functions by binding to tissue cells that express the C5aR. (wustl.edu)
  • Anaphylatoxins are able to trigger degranulation (release of substances) of endothelial cells, mast cells or phagocytes, which produce a local inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some drugs (morphine, codeine, synthetic ACTH) and some neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, substance P) are important mediators of degranulation of mast cells or basophils, they are generally not called anaphylatoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anaphylatoxin protein chains very in length from 74 to 78 residues and no fewer than 30% of the residues are homologous when comparing C3a, C4a, and C5a within or between species. (nih.gov)
  • Complement anaphylatoxin C5a neuroprotects through mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibition of caspase 3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RPE cells show active changes in the activity of intracellular kinases, the transcription factors FOXO1 and FoxP3 as well as an altered protein secretion in response to anaphylatoxins. (arvojournals.org)
  • Biologic characterization of the anaphylatoxins continues at a rapid pace and each advance provides a clearer view of the role of these humoral mediators in host defense. (nih.gov)
  • Thrombomodulin also promotes activation of plasma procarboxypeptidase B to accelerate inactivation of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Activation of the complement cascade generates anaphylatoxins including C5a and C3a. (ovid.com)
  • Those resembling erythema nodosum (EN) show small vessel vasculitis and perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrin deposition in the vessel wall, while the punched out ulcers are characterized by a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (neutrophil infiltrate) with fibrinoid necrosis. (angelfire.com)
  • Although the primary functions of the anaphylatoxins are in host defense, their excessive or sustained generation causes tissue damage and adversely affects the course of inflammatory conditions. (sinobiological.com)
  • Anaphylatoxins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)