The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

SWM1, a developmentally regulated gene, is required for spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (1/853)

Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is followed by encapsulation of haploid nuclei within multilayered spore walls. Formation of this spore-specific wall requires the coordinated activity of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of its components. Completion of late events in the sporulation program, leading to spore wall formation, requires the SWM1 gene. SWM1 is expressed at low levels during vegetative growth but its transcription is strongly induced under sporulating conditions, with kinetics similar to those of middle sporulation-specific genes. Homozygous swm1Delta diploids proceed normally through both meiotic divisions but fail to produce mature asci. Consistent with this finding, swm1Delta mutant asci display enhanced sensitivity to enzymatic digestion and heat shock. Deletion of SWM1 specifically affects the expression of mid-late and late sporulation-specific genes. All of the phenotypes observed are similar to those found for the deletion of SPS1 or SMK1, two putative components of a sporulation-specific MAP kinase cascade. However, epistasis analyses indicate that Swm1p does not form part of the Sps1p-Smk1p-MAP kinase pathway. We propose that Swm1p, a nuclear protein, would participate in a different signal transduction pathway that is also required for the coordination of the biochemical and morphological events occurring during the last phase of the sporulation program.  (+info)

Inhibitory phosphorylation of the APC regulator Hct1 is controlled by the kinase Cdc28 and the phosphatase Cdc14. (2/853)

BACKGROUND: Exit from mitosis requires inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Activation of the APC requires its association with substoichiometric activating subunits termed Cdc20 and Hct1 (also known as Cdh1). Here, we explore the molecular function and regulation of the APC regulatory subunit Hct1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Recombinant Hct1 activated the cyclin-ubiquitin ligase activity of APC isolated from multiple cell cycle stages. APC isolated from cells arrested in G1, or in late mitosis due to the cdc14-1 mutation, was more responsive to Hct1 than APC isolated from other stages. We found that Hct1 was phosphorylated in vivo at multiple CDK consensus sites during cell cycle stages when activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 is high and APC activity is low. Purified Hct1 was phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolished the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. The phosphatase Cdc14, which is known to be required for APC activation in vivo, was able to reverse the effects of Cdc28 by catalyzing Hct1 dephosphorylation and activation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that Hct1 phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism in the control of cyclin destruction. Phosphorylation of Hct1 provides a mechanism by which Cdc28 blocks its own inactivation during S phase and early mitosis. Following anaphase, dephosphorylation of Hct1 by Cdc14 may help initiate cyclin destruction.  (+info)

The schizosaccharomyces pombe dim1(+) gene interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) component lid1(+) and is required for APC/C function. (3/853)

The Schizosaccharomyces pombe dim1(+) gene is required for entry into mitosis and for chromosome segregation during mitosis. To further understand dim1p function, we undertook a synthetic lethal screen with the temperature-sensitive dim1-35 mutant and isolated lid (for lethal in dim1-35) mutants. Here, we describe the temperature-sensitive lid1-6 mutant. At the restrictive temperature of 36 degrees C, lid1-6 mutant cells arrest with a "cut" phenotype similar to that of cut4 and cut9 mutants. An epitope-tagged version of lid1p is a component of a multiprotein approximately 20S complex; the presence of lid1p in this complex depends upon functional cut9(+). lid1p-myc coimmunoprecipitates with several other proteins, including cut9p and nuc2p, and the presence of cut9p in a 20S complex depends upon the activity of lid1(+). Further, lid1(+) function is required for the multiubiquitination of cut2p, an anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) target. Thus, lid1p is a component of the S. pombe APC/C. In dim1 mutants, the abundances of lid1p and the APC/C complex decline significantly, and the ubiquitination of an APC/C target is abolished. These data suggest that at least one role of dim1p is to maintain or establish the steady-state level of the APC/C.  (+info)

Reconstitution of G1 cyclin ubiquitination with complexes containing SCFGrr1 and Rbx1. (4/853)

Control of cyclin levels is critical for proper cell cycle regulation. In yeast, the stability of the G1 cyclin Cln1 is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Here it is shown that this reaction can be reconstituted in vitro with an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Phosphorylated Cln1 was ubiquitinated by SCF (Skp1-Cdc53-F-box protein) complexes containing the F-box protein Grr1, Rbx1, and the E2 Cdc34. Rbx1 promotes association of Cdc34 with Cdc53 and stimulates Cdc34 auto-ubiquitination in the context of Cdc53 or SCF complexes. Rbx1, which is also a component of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor complex, may define a previously unrecognized class of E3-associated proteins.  (+info)

ROC1, a homolog of APC11, represents a family of cullin partners with an associated ubiquitin ligase activity. (5/853)

We have identified two highly conserved RING finger proteins, ROC1 and ROC2, that are homologous to APC11, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ROC1 and ROC2 commonly interact with all cullins while APC11 specifically interacts with APC2, a cullin-related APC subunit. YeastROC1 encodes an essential gene whose reduced expression resulted in multiple, elongated buds and accumulation of Sic1p and Cln2p. ROC1 and APC11 immunocomplexes can catalyze isopeptide ligations to form polyubiquitin chains in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. ROC1 mutations completely abolished their ligase activity without noticeable changes in associated proteins. Ubiquitination of phosphorylated I kappa B alpha can be catalyzed by the ROC1 immunocomplex in vitro. Hence, combinations of ROC/APC11 and cullin proteins proteins potentially constitute a wide variety of ubiquitin ligases.  (+info)

Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex. (6/853)

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) is a ubiquitin-protein ligase whose activity is essential for progression through mitosis. The vertebrate APC is thought to be composed of 8 subunits, whereas in budding yeast several additional APC-associated proteins have been identified, including a 33-kDa protein called Doc1 or Apc10. Here, we show that Doc1/Apc10 is a subunit of the yeast APC throughout the cell cycle. Mutation of Doc1/Apc10 inactivates the APC without destabilizing the complex. An ortholog of Doc1/Apc10, which we call APC10, is associated with the APC in different vertebrates, including humans and frogs. Biochemical fractionation experiments and mass spectrometric analysis of a component of the purified human APC show that APC10 is a genuine APC subunit whose cellular levels or association with the APC are not cell cycle-regulated. We have further identified an APC10 homology region, which we propose to call the DOC domain, in several protein sequences that also contain either cullin or HECT domains. Cullins are present in several ubiquitination complexes including the APC, whereas HECT domains represent the catalytic core of a different type of ubiquitin-protein ligase. DOC domains may therefore be important for reactions catalyzed by several types of ubiquitin-protein ligases.  (+info)

Cyclin-dependent kinase and Cks/Suc1 interact with the proteasome in yeast to control proteolysis of M-phase targets. (7/853)

Cell cycle-specific proteolysis is critical for proper execution of mitosis in all eukaryotes. Ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis of the mitotic regulators Clb2 and Pds1 depend on the cyclosome/APC and the 26S proteasome. We report here that components of the cell cycle machinery in yeast, specifically the cell cycle regulatory cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 and a conserved associated protein Cks1/Suc1, interact genetically, physically, and functionally with components of the 26S proteasome. A mutation in Cdc28 (cdc28-1N) that interferes with Cks1 binding, or inactivation of Cks1 itself, confers stabilization of Clb2, the principal mitotic B-type cyclin in budding yeast. Surprisingly, Clb2-ubiquitination in vivo and in vitro is not affected by mutations in cks1, indicating that Cks1 is not essential for cyclosome/APC activity. However, mutant Cks1 proteins no longer physically interact with the proteasome, suggesting that Cks1 is required for some aspect of proteasome function during M-phase-specific proteolysis. We further provide evidence that Cks1 function is required for degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. Stabilization of Pds1 is partially responsible for the metaphase arrest phenotype of cks1 mutants because deletion of PDS1 partially relieves the metaphase block in these mutants.  (+info)

Sister chromatid separation and chromosome re-duplication are regulated by different mechanisms in response to spindle damage. (8/853)

In yeast, anaphase entry depends on Pds1 proteolysis, while chromosome re-duplication in the subsequent S-phase involves degradation of mitotic cyclins such as Clb2. Sequential proteolysis of Pds1 and mitotic cyclins is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Lagging chromosomes or spindle damage are detected by surveillance mechanisms (checkpoints) which block anaphase onset, cytokinesis and DNA re-replication. Until now, the MAD and BUB genes implicated in this regulation were thought to function in a single pathway that blocks APC activity. We show that spindle damage blocks sister chromatid separation solely by inhibiting APCCdc20-dependent Pds1 proteolysis and that this process requires Mad2. Blocking APCCdh1-mediated Clb2 proteolysis and chromosome re-duplication does not require Mad2 but a different protein, Bub2. Our data imply that Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and Bub1 regulate APCCdc20, whereas Bub2 regulates APCCdh1.  (+info)

Anaphase is a stage in the cell division process called mitosis, where sister chromatids (the two copies of each chromosome formed during DNA replication) separate at the centromeres and move toward opposite poles of the cell. This separation is facilitated by the attachment of microtubules from the spindle apparatus to the kinetochores, protein structures located on the centromeres of each sister chromatid. Anaphase is followed by telophase, during which the nuclear membrane reforms around each set of separated chromosomes, and cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.

The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle. It is responsible for targeting specific proteins for degradation by the proteasome, which is a multi-subunit protein complex that mediates the controlled breakdown of ubiquitinated proteins.

During anaphase, the final stage of mitosis, the APC/C becomes active and triggers the degradation of several key regulatory proteins, including securin and cyclin B. The destruction of these proteins allows for the separation of chromosomes and the completion of cell division.

The APC/C is composed of multiple subunits, including a catalytic core that binds to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and several coactivators that regulate its activity. The activation of the APC/C requires the binding of one of two coactivators, Cdc20 or CDH1, which recognize specific substrates for degradation.

Dysregulation of the APC/C has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate its activity is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or altering their function, localization, or interaction with other proteins.

The ubiquitination process involves three main steps:

1. Ubiquitin activation: Ubiquitin is activated by an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme in an ATP-dependent reaction.
2. Ubiquitin conjugation: The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme.
3. Ubiquitin ligation: Finally, the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme interacts with a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which facilitates the transfer and ligation of ubiquitin to the target protein.

Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific substrate proteins, ensuring that ubiquitination occurs on the correct targets. They can be divided into three main categories based on their structural features and mechanisms of action:

1. Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain a RING finger domain, which directly interacts with both the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and the substrate protein. They facilitate the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to the target protein by bringing them into close proximity.
2. Homologous to E6-AP C terminus (HECT) E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain a HECT domain, which interacts with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and forms a thioester bond with ubiquitin before transferring it to the substrate protein.
3. RING-between-RING (RBR) E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain both RING finger and HECT-like domains, which allow them to function similarly to both RING finger and HECT E3 ligases. They first form a thioester bond with ubiquitin using their RING1 domain before transferring it to the substrate protein via their RING2 domain.

Dysregulation of Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding their mechanisms and functions can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies.

CDC20 proteins are a type of regulatory protein that play a crucial role in the cell cycle, which is the process by which cells grow and divide. Specifically, CDC20 proteins are involved in the transition from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, the phase of the cell cycle where chromosomes are separated and distributed to two daughter cells.

CDC20 proteins function as part of a larger complex called the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which targets specific proteins for degradation by the proteasome. During metaphase, CDC20 binds to the APC/C and helps to activate it, leading to the degradation of securin and cyclin B, two proteins that are essential for maintaining the proper attachment of chromosomes to the spindle apparatus.

Once these proteins are degraded, the sister chromatids can be separated and moved to opposite poles of the cell, allowing for the completion of mitosis and the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells. In addition to their role in mitosis, CDC20 proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes, including meiosis, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

Cdh1 proteins are part of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Cdh1, specifically, is a regulatory subunit of the APC/C and is essential for the proper progression through the cell cycle.

Cdh1 binds to and activates the APC/C in late mitosis and early G1 phase, targeting specific proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. This helps to ensure that key events of the cell cycle, such as chromosome segregation and mitotic exit, occur in a timely and orderly fashion.

Cdh1 has been shown to regulate the degradation of several important cell cycle regulators, including cyclins A and B, securin, and aurora kinase A. By targeting these proteins for destruction, Cdh1 helps to prevent premature entry into mitosis and ensures that cells do not exit mitosis until all chromosomes have been properly aligned and segregated.

Mutations in the genes encoding Cdh1 and other components of the APC/C have been implicated in a variety of human cancers, highlighting the importance of this complex in maintaining genomic stability.

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which the genetic material of a single cell, called the mother cell, is equally distributed into two identical daughter cells. It's a fundamental process that occurs in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair, as well as in unicellular organisms for reproduction.

The process of mitosis can be broken down into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In prometaphase, the nuclear membrane is completely disassembled, and the mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres.

During metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line equidistant from the two spindle poles. In anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles of the cell. Finally, in telophase, new nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense and become less visible.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, a process that divides the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two separate daughter cells. The result of mitosis and cytokinesis is two genetically identical cells, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell.

APC3 (Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome) subunit, also known as CDC27 or ANAPC4, is a component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Specifically, APC3 is a part of the core subcomplex of the APC/C and helps to mediate the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of key regulatory proteins involved in mitosis and meiosis, such as securin and cyclin B. This allows for the proper progression of these cell cycle stages and ensures faithful chromosome segregation. Mutations in APC3 have been implicated in various human cancers, highlighting its importance in maintaining genomic stability.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

APC1 (Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome) subunit is a component of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex known as the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle, specifically during mitosis and meiosis.

The APC/C is responsible for targeting specific proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This degradation leads to the regulation of various cell cycle events, such as sister chromatid separation during anaphase and the exit from mitosis.

APC1 is one of the several subunits that make up the APC/C complex. It serves as a scaffold protein, helping to assemble and maintain the structural integrity of the complex. Additionally, APC1 has been shown to play a role in substrate recognition by the APC/C, contributing to the specificity of ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins.

The medical relevance of understanding the APC/C and its subunits, including APC1, lies in their essential roles in cell cycle regulation. Dysregulation of these processes can lead to various diseases, such as cancer, where uncontrolled cell division is a hallmark feature. Studying the APC/C and its components may provide insights into potential therapeutic targets for treating such conditions.

The spindle apparatus is a microtubule-based structure that plays a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. It consists of three main components:

1. The spindle poles: These are organized structures composed of microtubules and associated proteins that serve as the anchoring points for the spindle fibers. In animal cells, these poles are typically formed by centrosomes, while in plant cells, they form around nucleation sites called microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs).
2. The spindle fibers: These are dynamic arrays of microtubules that extend between the two spindle poles. They can be categorized into three types: kinetochore fibers, which connect to the kinetochores on chromosomes; astral fibers, which radiate from the spindle poles and help position the spindle within the cell; and interpolar fibers, which lie between the two spindle poles and contribute to their separation during anaphase.
3. Regulatory proteins: Various motor proteins, such as dynein and kinesin, as well as non-motor proteins like tubulin and septins, are involved in the assembly, maintenance, and dynamics of the spindle apparatus. These proteins help to generate forces that move chromosomes, position the spindle, and ultimately segregate genetic material between two daughter cells during cell division.

The spindle apparatus is essential for ensuring accurate chromosome separation and maintaining genomic stability during cell division. Dysfunction of the spindle apparatus can lead to various abnormalities, including aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) and chromosomal instability, which have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and developmental disorders.

Securin is not a medical term, but rather a biological concept related to cell division. It's a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of chromosome separation during cell division (mitosis).

During mitosis, sister chromatids (identical copies of a chromosome) are held together by cohesin proteins until it's time for them to separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Securin is one of the proteins that helps regulate this process. Specifically, securin inhibits an enzyme called separase, which is responsible for cleaving the cohesin rings that hold sister chromatids together.

Once the cell is ready to separate its chromosomes, a protease called separase is activated and degrades securin. This allows separase to cleave the cohesin rings, leading to the separation of sister chromatids and the continuation of mitosis. If securin function is disrupted, it can lead to errors in chromosome segregation, which can contribute to genomic instability and diseases like cancer.

Cyclin B is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, specifically the transition from G2 phase to mitosis (M phase) in eukaryotic cells. Cyclin B binds and activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), forming the complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF). This complex triggers the events leading to cell division, such as chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, and spindle formation. The levels of cyclin B increase during the G2 phase and are degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) at the onset of anaphase, allowing the cell cycle to progress into the next phase.

F-box proteins are a family of proteins that are characterized by the presence of an F-box domain, which is a motif of about 40-50 amino acids. This domain is responsible for binding to Skp1, a component of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. The F-box proteins serve as the substrate recognition subunit of this complex and are involved in targeting specific proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome.

There are multiple types of F-box proteins, including FBXW (also known as β-TrCP), FBXL, and FBLX, each with different substrate specificities. These proteins play important roles in various cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, and DNA damage response by controlling the stability of key regulatory proteins.

Abnormal regulation of F-box proteins has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Metaphase is a phase in the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) where the chromosomes align in the middle of the cell, also known as the metaphase plate or equatorial plane. During this stage, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids attached to each other by a protein complex called the centromere. The spindle fibers from opposite poles of the cell attach to the centromeres of each chromosome, and through a process called congression, they align the chromosomes in the middle of the cell. This alignment allows for accurate segregation of genetic material during the subsequent anaphase stage.

Ligases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between two molecules, usually involving the joining of two nucleotides in a DNA or RNA strand. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In DNA ligases, the enzyme seals nicks or breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA molecule by catalyzing the formation of an ester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group and the 5'-phosphate group of adjacent nucleotides. This process is essential for maintaining genomic integrity and stability.

Cyclin A2 is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, which is the series of events that cells undergo as they grow and divide. Specifically, Cyclin A2 plays a role in the progression from the G1 phase to the S phase (DNA synthesis phase) and from the G2 phase to the M phase (mitosis phase) of the cell cycle. It does this by binding to and activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which are enzymes that help regulate the cell cycle.

Cyclin A2 is expressed at various points during the cell cycle, but its levels peak during the S and G2 phases. The protein is degraded during mitosis, ensuring that it is not present in excess during the next cell cycle. Dysregulation of Cyclin A2 has been implicated in the development of cancer, as uncontrolled cell growth and division are hallmarks of this disease.

M Phase cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms that ensure the proper completion of the M phase (mitosis or meiosis) of the cell cycle. These checkpoints verify that certain conditions are met before the cell proceeds to the next phase of the cell cycle, thus helping to maintain genomic stability and prevent errors such as chromosomal mutations or aneuploidy.

There are two main M Phase cell cycle checkpoints:

1. The G2/M Checkpoint: This checkpoint is activated at the end of the G2 phase and verifies that all DNA has been replicated accurately, and that there are no DNA damages or other issues that could interfere with mitosis. If any problems are detected, the cell cycle is halted until they can be resolved.
2. The Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint: This checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes have attached properly to the spindle apparatus and that they will be equally distributed to the two resulting daughter cells during mitosis. If any chromosomes are not properly attached or if there is an issue with the spindle apparatus, the cell cycle is paused until these problems are corrected.

These checkpoints play a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing the development of cancer and other diseases.

Chromosome segregation is the process that occurs during cell division (mitosis or meiosis) where replicated chromosomes are separated and distributed equally into two daughter cells. Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids, which are identical copies of genetic material. During chromosome segregation, these sister chromatids are pulled apart by a structure called the mitotic spindle and moved to opposite poles of the cell. This ensures that each new cell receives one copy of each chromosome, preserving the correct number and composition of chromosomes in the organism.

Cyclin B1 is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, specifically the transition from G2 phase to mitosis (M phase) in eukaryotic cells. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), also known as CDC2. During the G2 phase, Cyclin B1 levels accumulate and upon reaching a certain threshold, it binds to CDK1 to form the maturation promoting factor (MPF). The activation of MPF triggers the onset of mitosis by promoting nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, and other events required for cell division. After the completion of mitosis, Cyclin B1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, allowing the cell cycle to progress back into G1 phase.

The Mad2 (Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2) proteins are a part of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which is a crucial surveillance mechanism that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. The primary function of Mad2 proteins is to prevent the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes have achieved proper attachment and tension on the mitotic spindle.

Mad2 proteins exist in two major conformational states: open (O-Mad2) and closed (C-Mad2). The transition between these two forms plays a critical role in the regulation of the SAC. In response to unattached kinetochores, Mad2 proteins bind to and inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), thereby preventing premature chromosome separation.

There are two main isoforms of Mad2 in humans: Mad2L1 (Mad2A) and Mad2L2 (Mad2B). While both isoforms share similar functions, they exhibit distinct biochemical properties and interact with other SAC components differently. Dysregulation of the Mad2 proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or for other regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases catalyze the final step in this process by binding to both the ubiquitin protein and the target protein, facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to the target protein. There are several different types of ubiquitin-protein ligases, each with their own specificity for particular target proteins and regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases have been implicated in various cellular processes such as protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, and regulation of the cell cycle. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory responses. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligases is an important area of research in biology and medicine.

APC5 subunit, also known as APC5 protein or Ancient ubiquitous protein 5, is a component of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in eukaryotic cells. The APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating cell cycle progression by targeting specific proteins for degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

The APC5 subunit is one of the essential components of the APC/C complex, and it forms part of its core structure. It is involved in the recognition and binding of substrates that are destined for degradation during various stages of the cell cycle. The APC5 subunit has been shown to interact with other subunits of the APC/C complex, such as APC1, APC2, and APC10, to form a functional ubiquitin ligase complex.

Mutations in the APC5 gene have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer and developmental disorders. For example, mutations in the APC5 gene can lead to an increased risk of colorectal cancer due to impaired regulation of cell cycle progression. Additionally, defects in the APC5 gene have been linked to a rare genetic disorder known as Mowat-Wilson syndrome, which is characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, and various physical abnormalities.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

Prometaphase is a stage in the cell division process called mitosis, where the nuclear membrane has broken down and the chromosomes are now moved into the center of the cell, also known as the metaphase plate. This movement is facilitated by the mitotic spindle, which attaches to specialized structures on the chromosomes called kinetochores. The prometaphase stage follows prophase and precedes metaphase in the mitosis process. It's characterized by the beginning of chromosome separation and the reorganization of the cell for the upcoming division into two daughter cells.

CDC2 protein kinase, also known as cell division cycle 2 or CDK1, is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the series of events that cells undergo as they grow, replicate their DNA, and divide into two daughter cells.

CDC2 protein kinase is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by binding to regulatory subunits called cyclins. CDC2 protein kinase is primarily associated with the regulation of the G2 phase and the entry into mitosis, the stage of the cell cycle where nuclear and cytoplasmic division occur.

CDC2 protein kinase functions by phosphorylating various target proteins, which alters their activity and contributes to the coordination of the different events that occur during the cell cycle. The activity of CDC2 protein kinase is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as well as the binding and destruction of cyclin subunits.

Dysregulation of CDC2 protein kinase has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, where uncontrolled cell division can lead to the formation of tumors. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of CDC2 protein kinase is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process in which a ubiquitin protein is covalently attached to a target protein. This process plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular functions, including protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction. The addition of ubiquitin can lead to different outcomes depending on the number and location of ubiquitin molecules attached to the target protein. Monoubiquitination (the attachment of a single ubiquitin molecule) or multiubiquitination (the attachment of multiple ubiquitin molecules) can mark proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, while specific types of ubiquitination (e.g., K63-linked polyubiquitination) can serve as a signal for nonproteolytic functions such as endocytosis, autophagy, or DNA repair. Ubiquitination is a highly regulated process that involves the coordinated action of three enzymes: E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Geminin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle, specifically in the process of DNA replication. It functions as a regulatory protein that helps ensure the proper timing and completion of DNA replication before cell division occurs.

In more detail, Geminin binds to and inhibits the activity of several proteins involved in initiating DNA replication, such as CDT1 and CDC6. By doing so, it prevents the premature re-replication of DNA during the same cell cycle, which is essential for maintaining genomic stability.

Geminin is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with its levels peaking during the S and G2 phases, when DNA replication occurs, and declining during mitosis. This precise regulation of Geminin expression and activity helps coordinate the various stages of the cell cycle and ensures that DNA replication and cell division occur in a controlled and orderly fashion.

It's worth noting that deregulation of Geminin expression or function has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, where abnormal cell cycle control can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins" is not a medical term or concept. Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a type of single-celled microorganism called a yeast, which is often used as a model organism in scientific research. Proteins are complex molecules that do most of the work in cells and are necessary for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

In the context of scientific research, "Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins" would refer to the specific proteins found in or studied using this particular type of yeast. These proteins may have similarities to human proteins and can be used to help understand basic biological processes, as well as diseases that occur in humans. However, it is important to note that while research using model organisms like Schizosaccharomyces pombe has led to many important discoveries, the findings may not always translate directly to humans.

Cyclin A is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the progression of the cell cycle, particularly through the G1 and S phases. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit for cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), specifically CDK2 and CDK1. The activation of Cyclin A-CDK complexes leads to phosphorylation of various target proteins, which in turn regulates DNA replication and the transition to mitosis.

Cyclin A levels rise during the late G1 phase and peak during the S phase, after which they decline rapidly during the G2 phase. Any abnormalities in Cyclin A regulation or expression can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and cancer development.

Separase is not a medical term itself, but it is a biological term used in the field of cell biology and genetics. Separase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the separation of chromosomes during cell division (mitosis and meiosis).

In more detail, separase is a protease enzyme that contributes to the breakdown of cohesin complexes, which are protein structures that hold sister chromatids together after DNA replication. Separase's function is essential for the proper separation of chromosomes during anaphase, the stage of mitosis where sister chromatids are pulled apart and moved to opposite poles of the cell.

While not a medical term per se, understanding separase and its role in cell division can help researchers better understand certain genetic disorders or diseases that may be caused by errors in cell division.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Schizosaccharomyces" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the field of microbiology and genetics, referring to a group of budding, tear-shaped yeasts that are widely used as model organisms in scientific research. The most well-known species within this genus is Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has been extensively studied for its cell cycle regulation, DNA repair mechanisms, and other fundamental biological processes.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help.

Nocodazole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a pharmacological agent used in medical research and clinical settings. It's a synthetic chemical compound that belongs to the class of drugs known as microtubule inhibitors. Nocodazole works by binding to and disrupting the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules, which are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton and play a critical role in cell division.

Nocodazole is primarily used in research settings as a tool for studying cell biology and mitosis, the process by which cells divide. It can be used to synchronize cells in the cell cycle or to induce mitotic arrest, making it useful for investigating various aspects of cell division and chromosome behavior.

In clinical settings, nocodazole has been used off-label as a component of some cancer treatment regimens, particularly in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Its ability to disrupt microtubules can interfere with the proliferation of cancer cells and enhance the effectiveness of certain anti-cancer drugs. However, its use is not widespread due to potential side effects and the availability of alternative treatments.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

Telophase is a phase in the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) where the chromosomes reach their most condensed form and move to the poles of the cell. The nuclear membrane begins to reform around each set of chromosomes, and the spindle fibers that were used to separate the chromosomes break down. This phase is followed by cytokinesis, where the cytoplasm of the cell divides, resulting in two separate daughter cells. In telophase I of meiosis, crossing over between homologous chromosomes has already occurred during prophase I and sister chromatids remain together until anaphase II.

Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in the regulation of cell division. There are three members of the Aurora kinase family, designated as Aurora A, Aurora B, and Aurora C. These kinases are involved in the proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various types of cancer.

Aurora A is primarily located at the centrosomes and spindle poles during cell division, where it regulates centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, and chromosome segregation. Aurora B, on the other hand, is a component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that localizes to the centromeres during prophase and moves to the spindle midzone during anaphase. It plays essential roles in kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome alignment, and cytokinesis. Aurora C is most similar to Aurora B and appears to have overlapping functions with it, although its specific roles are less well understood.

Dysregulation of Aurora kinases has been associated with various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colon, and lung cancers. Overexpression or amplification of Aurora A is observed in many cancers, leading to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Inhibition of Aurora kinases has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, with several small molecule inhibitors currently under investigation in clinical trials.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-mos are a type of serine/threonine protein kinase that play crucial roles in cell cycle regulation, particularly during the G2 phase and the transition to mitosis. The c-mos gene is a normal version of an oncogene, which can become cancer-causing when mutated or overexpressed. In its normal form, the c-mos protein is involved in controlling the progression of the cell cycle, meiosis, and also has been implicated in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of c-mos proto-oncogene proteins can contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer development.

Chromatids are defined as the individual strands that make up a duplicated chromosome. They are formed during the S phase of the cell cycle, when replication occurs and each chromosome is copied, resulting in two identical sister chromatids. These chromatids are connected at a region called the centromere and are held together by cohesin protein complexes until they are separated during mitosis or meiosis.

During mitosis, the sister chromatids are pulled apart by the mitotic spindle apparatus and distributed equally to each daughter cell. In meiosis, which is a type of cell division that occurs in the production of gametes (sex cells), homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over. After crossing over, each homologous chromosome consists of two recombinant chromatids that are separated during meiosis I, and then sister chromatids are separated during meiosis II.

Chromatids play an essential role in the faithful transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next, ensuring that each daughter cell or gamete receives a complete set of chromosomes with intact and functional genes.

APC8 (Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome) subunit, also known as APC5 or CDC27, is a crucial component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Specifically, APC8 is one of the essential subunits that make up the core structure of the APC/C and is involved in its recognition and binding to specific substrates.

APC/C targets various proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby controlling different stages of mitosis and meiosis. During anaphase, APC/C-mediated degradation of securin and cyclin B leads to sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis.

APC8 is a highly conserved protein found in many eukaryotes, including yeast, flies, and humans. Mutations in the gene encoding APC8 have been associated with various human diseases, such as cancer and developmental disorders.

"Xenopus proteins" refer to the proteins that are expressed or isolated from the Xenopus species, which are primarily used as model organisms in biological and biomedical research. The most commonly used Xenopus species for research are the African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes and functions, and they serve as valuable tools to study different aspects of molecular biology, developmental biology, genetics, and biochemistry.

Some examples of Xenopus proteins that are widely studied include:

1. Xenopus Histones: These are the proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, which are the fundamental units of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. They play a significant role in gene regulation and epigenetic modifications.
2. Xenopus Cyclins and Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): These proteins regulate the cell cycle and control cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis.
3. Xenopus Transcription factors: These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression during development and in response to various stimuli.
4. Xenopus Signaling molecules: These proteins are involved in intracellular signaling pathways that control various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, migration, and survival.
5. Xenopus Cytoskeletal proteins: These proteins provide structural support to the cells and regulate their shape, motility, and organization.
6. Xenopus Enzymes: These proteins catalyze various biochemical reactions in the cell, such as metabolic pathways, DNA replication, transcription, and translation.

Overall, Xenopus proteins are essential tools for understanding fundamental biological processes and have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of molecular biology, genetics, and developmental biology.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

APC2 (Anaphase-Promoting Complex Subunit 2) is a regulatory subunit of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex known as the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C plays a critical role in regulating cell division by targeting specific proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

The APC/C is responsible for marking proteins with ubiquitin molecules, which signals their recognition and destruction by the 26S proteasome. This process is essential for proper progression through the cell cycle, including the regulation of mitotic exit and the onset of anaphase during cell division.

APC2, along with APC1 (also known as CDC27), forms the core structural scaffold of the APC/C complex. The APC2 subunit is involved in binding both the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and the ubiquitin-protein ligase components of the complex, thereby facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin molecules to target proteins.

The activity of the APC/C is tightly regulated throughout the cell cycle by various cofactors that bind to and modulate its function. The binding of these cofactors determines the substrate specificity of the complex, allowing it to target different proteins at distinct stages of the cell cycle.

In summary, APC2 is a crucial subunit of the APC/C complex, which plays an essential role in regulating the cell cycle through targeted protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

The G1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first phase of the cell cycle, during which the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. During this phase, the cell also checks its growth and makes sure that it is large enough to proceed through the cell cycle. If the cell is not large enough, it will arrest in the G1 phase until it has grown sufficiently. The G1 phase is followed by the S phase, during which DNA replication occurs.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight mistake in your question. The abbreviation "cdc" is not typically associated with genetics or genes in the context of medical definitions.

If you meant to ask for a definition of "genes," here it is:

Genes are segments of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of all living organisms. They are the basic units of heredity, passed down from one generation to the next. Genes encode specific proteins or RNA molecules that play critical roles in the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs.

If you had a different term in mind, please let me know, and I will be happy to provide a definition for it!

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBCs or E2 enzymes) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process, which is a post-translational modification of proteins. This process involves the covalent attachment of the protein ubiquitin to specific lysine residues on target proteins, ultimately leading to their degradation by the 26S proteasome.

Ubiquitination is a multi-step process that requires the coordinated action of three types of enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are responsible for transferring ubiquitin from the E1 enzyme to the target protein, which is facilitated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The human genome encodes around 40 different UBCs, each with unique substrate specificities and functions in various cellular processes, such as protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction.

Ubiquitination is a highly regulated process that can be reversed by the action of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin molecules from target proteins. Dysregulation of the ubiquitination pathway has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that is present in all eukaryotic cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, such as protein degradation, DNA repair, and stress response. It is involved in marking proteins for destruction by attaching to them, a process known as ubiquitination. This modification can target proteins for degradation by the proteasome, a large protein complex that breaks down unneeded or damaged proteins in the cell. Ubiquitin also has other functions, such as regulating the localization and activity of certain proteins. The ability of ubiquitin to modify many different proteins and play a role in multiple cellular processes makes it an essential player in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

SKP (S-phase kinase associated protein) Cullin F-box protein ligases, also known as SCF complexes, are a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of proteins. These complexes are composed of several subunits: SKP1, Cul1 (Cullin 1), Rbx1 (Ring-box 1), and an F-box protein. The F-box protein is a variable component that determines the substrate specificity of the SCF complex.

The ubiquitination process mediated by SCF complexes involves the sequential transfer of ubiquitin molecules to a target protein, leading to its degradation by the 26S proteasome. This pathway is essential for various cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, and DNA damage response.

Dysregulation of SCF complexes has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

Kinetochores are specialized protein structures that form on the centromere region of a chromosome. They play a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. The primary function of kinetochores is to connect the chromosomes to the microtubules of the spindle apparatus, which is responsible for separating the sister chromatids during cell division. Through this connection, kinetochores facilitate the movement of chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell during anaphase, ensuring equal distribution of genetic material to each resulting daughter cell.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

"Xenopus" is not a medical term, but it is a genus of highly invasive aquatic frogs native to sub-Saharan Africa. They are often used in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology and genetics. The most commonly studied species is Xenopus laevis, also known as the African clawed frog.

In a medical context, Xenopus might be mentioned when discussing their use in research or as a model organism to study various biological processes or diseases.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that is present in most tissues in the body. It plays a critical role in regulating many important cellular processes, such as protein degradation and DNA repair. Ubiquitin can attach to other proteins in a process called ubiquitination, which can target the protein for degradation or modify its function.

Ubiquitination involves a series of enzymatic reactions that ultimately result in the attachment of ubiquitin molecules to specific lysine residues on the target protein. The addition of a single ubiquitin molecule is called monoubiquitination, while the addition of multiple ubiquitin molecules is called polyubiquitination.

Polyubiquitination can serve as a signal for proteasomal degradation, where the target protein is broken down into its component amino acids by the 26S proteasome complex. Monoubiquitination and other forms of ubiquitination can also regulate various cellular processes, such as endocytosis, DNA repair, and gene expression.

Dysregulation of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

The Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle. The APC/C complex targets specific proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, thereby controlling various processes such as mitotic exit, chromosome segregation, and the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

APC6, also known as APC5 or CDC23, is one of the essential subunits of the APC/C complex. It is a conserved protein found in all eukaryotes and is required for the stability and activity of the APC/C complex. The APC6 subunit forms part of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, which is responsible for binding other subunits and regulating the substrate specificity of the APC/C complex.

Therefore, the medical definition of 'APC6 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome' refers to a critical component of the APC/C complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle by targeting specific proteins for degradation.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells. It usually begins after telophase, and it involves the constriction of a contractile ring composed of actin filaments and myosin motor proteins that forms at the equatorial plane of the cell. This results in the formation of a cleavage furrow, which deepens and eventually leads to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Cytokinesis is essential for cell reproduction and growth in multicellular organisms, and its failure can lead to various developmental abnormalities or diseases.

In the context of cell biology, "S phase" refers to the part of the cell cycle during which DNA replication occurs. The "S" stands for synthesis, reflecting the active DNA synthesis that takes place during this phase. It is preceded by G1 phase (gap 1) and followed by G2 phase (gap 2), with mitosis (M phase) being the final stage of the cell cycle.

During S phase, the cell's DNA content effectively doubles as each chromosome is replicated to ensure that the two resulting daughter cells will have the same genetic material as the parent cell. This process is carefully regulated and coordinated with other events in the cell cycle to maintain genomic stability.

The proteasome endopeptidase complex is a large protein complex found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms, as well as in archaea and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in the degradation of damaged or unneeded proteins through a process called proteolysis. The proteasome complex contains multiple subunits, including both regulatory and catalytic particles.

The catalytic core of the proteasome is composed of four stacked rings, each containing seven subunits, forming a structure known as the 20S core particle. Three of these rings are made up of beta-subunits that contain the proteolytic active sites, while the fourth ring consists of alpha-subunits that control access to the interior of the complex.

The regulatory particles, called 19S or 11S regulators, cap the ends of the 20S core particle and are responsible for recognizing, unfolding, and translocating targeted proteins into the catalytic chamber. The proteasome endopeptidase complex can cleave peptide bonds in various ways, including hydrolysis of ubiquitinated proteins, which is an essential mechanism for maintaining protein quality control and regulating numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and stress response.

In summary, the proteasome endopeptidase complex is a crucial intracellular machinery responsible for targeted protein degradation through proteolysis, contributing to various essential regulatory functions in cells.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

The G2 phase, also known as the "gap 2 phase," is a stage in the cell cycle that occurs after DNA replication (S phase) and before cell division (mitosis). During this phase, the cell prepares for mitosis by completing the synthesis of proteins and organelles needed for chromosome separation. The cell also checks for any errors or damage to the DNA before entering mitosis. This phase is a critical point in the cell cycle where proper regulation ensures the faithful transmission of genetic information from one generation of cells to the next. If significant DNA damage is detected during G2, the cell may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) instead of dividing.

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a diverse group of proteins that have the ability to bind calcium ions (Ca^2+^) with high affinity and specificity. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and protection against oxidative stress.

The binding of calcium ions to these proteins induces conformational changes that can either activate or inhibit their functions. Some well-known CaBPs include calmodulin, troponin C, S100 proteins, and parvalbumins. These proteins are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis within cells and for mediating the effects of calcium as a second messenger in various cellular signaling pathways.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A centromere is a specialized region found on chromosomes that plays a crucial role in the separation of replicated chromosomes during cell division. It is the point where the sister chromatids (the two copies of a chromosome formed during DNA replication) are joined together. The centromere contains highly repeated DNA sequences and proteins that form a complex structure known as the kinetochore, which serves as an attachment site for microtubules of the mitotic spindle during cell division.

During mitosis or meiosis, the kinetochore facilitates the movement of chromosomes by interacting with the microtubules, allowing for the accurate distribution of genetic material to the daughter cells. Centromeres can vary in their position and structure among different species, ranging from being located near the middle of the chromosome (metacentric) to being positioned closer to one end (acrocentric). The precise location and characteristics of centromeres are essential for proper chromosome segregation and maintenance of genomic stability.

Amino acid motifs are recurring patterns or sequences of amino acids in a protein molecule. These motifs can be identified through various sequence analysis techniques and often have functional or structural significance. They can be as short as two amino acids in length, but typically contain at least three to five residues.

Some common examples of amino acid motifs include:

1. Active site motifs: These are specific sequences of amino acids that form the active site of an enzyme and participate in catalyzing chemical reactions. For example, the catalytic triad in serine proteases consists of three residues (serine, histidine, and aspartate) that work together to hydrolyze peptide bonds.
2. Signal peptide motifs: These are sequences of amino acids that target proteins for secretion or localization to specific organelles within the cell. For example, a typical signal peptide consists of a positively charged n-region, a hydrophobic h-region, and a polar c-region that directs the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for translocation.
3. Zinc finger motifs: These are structural domains that contain conserved sequences of amino acids that bind zinc ions and play important roles in DNA recognition and regulation of gene expression.
4. Transmembrane motifs: These are sequences of hydrophobic amino acids that span the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and anchor transmembrane proteins in place.
5. Phosphorylation sites: These are specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by protein kinases to regulate protein function.

Understanding amino acid motifs is important for predicting protein structure and function, as well as for identifying potential drug targets in disease-associated proteins.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place as a cell grows, divides, and produces two daughter cells. They are called cyclins because their levels fluctuate or cycle during the different stages of the cell cycle.

Cyclins function as subunits of serine/threonine protein kinase complexes, forming an active enzyme that adds phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modifying their activity. This post-translational modification is a critical mechanism for controlling various cellular processes, including the regulation of the cell cycle.

There are several types of cyclins (A, B, D, and E), each of which is active during specific phases of the cell cycle:

1. Cyclin D: Expressed in the G1 phase, it helps to initiate the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that promote progression through the G1 restriction point.
2. Cyclin E: Active during late G1 and early S phases, it forms a complex with CDK2 to regulate the transition from G1 to S phase, where DNA replication occurs.
3. Cyclin A: Expressed in the S and G2 phases, it associates with both CDK2 and CDK1 to control the progression through the S and G2 phases and entry into mitosis (M phase).
4. Cyclin B: Active during late G2 and M phases, it partners with CDK1 to regulate the onset of mitosis by controlling the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, chromosome condensation, and spindle formation.

The activity of cyclins is tightly controlled through several mechanisms, including transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. Dysregulation of cyclin expression or function can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation, which are hallmarks of cancer.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Cadherins are a type of cell adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of intercellular junctions. They are transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent homophilic binding between adjacent cells, meaning that they bind to identical cadherin molecules on neighboring cells.

There are several types of cadherins, including classical cadherins, desmosomal cadherins, and protocadherins, each with distinct functions and localization in tissues. Classical cadherins, also known as type I cadherins, are the most well-studied and are essential for the formation of adherens junctions, which help to maintain cell-to-cell contact and tissue architecture.

Desmosomal cadherins, on the other hand, are critical for the formation and maintenance of desmosomes, which are specialized intercellular junctions that provide mechanical strength and stability to tissues. Protocadherins are a diverse family of cadherin-related proteins that have been implicated in various developmental processes, including neuronal connectivity and tissue patterning.

Mutations in cadherin genes have been associated with several human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and heart defects. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of cadherins is essential for elucidating their roles in health and disease.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

Protein stability refers to the ability of a protein to maintain its native structure and function under various physiological conditions. It is determined by the balance between forces that promote a stable conformation, such as intramolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic effects), and those that destabilize it, such as thermal motion, chemical denaturation, and environmental factors like pH and salt concentration. A protein with high stability is more resistant to changes in its structure and function, even under harsh conditions, while a protein with low stability is more prone to unfolding or aggregation, which can lead to loss of function or disease states, such as protein misfolding diseases.

Chromosomal proteins, non-histone, are a diverse group of proteins that are associated with chromatin, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, but do not have the characteristic structure of histones. These proteins play important roles in various nuclear processes such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, recombination, and chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division. They can be broadly classified into several categories based on their functions, including architectural proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, and structural proteins. Examples of non-histone chromosomal proteins include high mobility group (HMG) proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), and condensins.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Post-translational protein processing refers to the modifications and changes that proteins undergo after their synthesis on ribosomes, which are complex molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. These modifications occur through various biochemical processes and play a crucial role in determining the final structure, function, and stability of the protein.

The process begins with the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into a linear polypeptide chain, which is then subjected to several post-translational modifications. These modifications can include:

1. Proteolytic cleavage: The removal of specific segments or domains from the polypeptide chain by proteases, resulting in the formation of mature, functional protein subunits.
2. Chemical modifications: Addition or modification of chemical groups to the side chains of amino acids, such as phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate group), glycosylation (addition of sugar moieties), methylation (addition of a methyl group), acetylation (addition of an acetyl group), and ubiquitination (addition of a ubiquitin protein).
3. Disulfide bond formation: The oxidation of specific cysteine residues within the polypeptide chain, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds between them. This process helps stabilize the three-dimensional structure of proteins, particularly in extracellular environments.
4. Folding and assembly: The acquisition of a specific three-dimensional conformation by the polypeptide chain, which is essential for its function. Chaperone proteins assist in this process to ensure proper folding and prevent aggregation.
5. Protein targeting: The directed transport of proteins to their appropriate cellular locations, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or plasma membrane. This is often facilitated by specific signal sequences within the protein that are recognized and bound by transport machinery.

Collectively, these post-translational modifications contribute to the functional diversity of proteins in living organisms, allowing them to perform a wide range of cellular processes, including signaling, catalysis, regulation, and structural support.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, transcription, and other cellular processes. They are activated by binding to cyclin proteins, which accumulate and degrade at specific stages of the cell cycle. The activation of CDKs leads to phosphorylation of various downstream target proteins, resulting in the promotion or inhibition of different cell cycle events. Dysregulation of CDKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, and they are considered important targets for drug development.

Medical Definition:
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a diverse group of proteins that bind to microtubules, which are key components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. MAPs play crucial roles in regulating microtubule dynamics and stability, as well as in mediating interactions between microtubules and other cellular structures. They can be classified into several categories based on their functions, including:

1. Microtubule stabilizers: These MAPs promote the assembly of microtubules and protect them from disassembly by enhancing their stability. Examples include tau proteins and MAP2.
2. Microtubule dynamics regulators: These MAPs modulate the rate of microtubule polymerization and depolymerization, allowing for dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton during cell division and other processes. Examples include stathmin and XMAP215.
3. Microtubule motor proteins: These MAPs use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, transporting various cargoes within the cell. Examples include kinesin and dynein.
4. Adapter proteins: These MAPs facilitate interactions between microtubules and other cellular structures, such as membranes, organelles, or signaling molecules. Examples include MAP4 and CLASPs.

Dysregulation of MAPs has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (where tau proteins form abnormal aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles) and cancer (where altered microtubule dynamics can contribute to uncontrolled cell division).

Kinesin is not a medical term per se, but a term from the field of cellular biology. However, understanding how kinesins work is important in the context of medical and cellular research.

Kinesins are a family of motor proteins that play a crucial role in transporting various cargoes within cells, such as vesicles, organelles, and chromosomes. They move along microtubule filaments, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to generate mechanical force and motion. This process is essential for several cellular functions, including intracellular transport, mitosis, and meiosis.

In a medical context, understanding kinesin function can provide insights into various diseases and conditions related to impaired intracellular transport, such as neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease) and certain genetic disorders affecting motor neurons. Research on kinesins can potentially lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting these conditions.

Prophase is the first phase of mitosis, the process by which eukaryotic cells divide and reproduce. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible. The nuclear envelope breaks down, allowing the spindle fibers to attach to the centromeres of each chromatid in the chromosome. This is a critical step in preparing for the separation of genetic material during cell division. Prophase is also marked by the movement of the centrosomes to opposite poles of the cell, forming the mitotic spindle.

Bivalvia is a class of mollusks, also known as "pelecypods," that have a laterally compressed body and two shells or valves. These valves are hinged together on one side and can be opened and closed to allow the animal to feed or withdraw into its shell for protection.

Bivalves include clams, oysters, mussels, scallops, and numerous other species. They are characterized by their simple body structure, which consists of a muscular foot used for burrowing or anchoring, a soft mantle that secretes the shell, and gills that serve both as respiratory organs and feeding structures.

Bivalves play an important role in aquatic ecosystems as filter feeders, helping to maintain water quality by removing particles and organic matter from the water column. They are also commercially important as a source of food for humans and other animals, and their shells have been used historically for various purposes such as tools, jewelry, and building materials.

APC11 subunit is a component of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. The APC/C complex is responsible for targeting specific proteins for degradation by the proteasome, thereby controlling various stages of mitosis and the transition to G1 phase of the cell cycle.

APC11 is one of the essential subunits of the APC/C complex, and it functions as a part of the catalytic core that mediates the transfer of ubiquitin molecules to the target proteins. Specifically, APC11 interacts with another subunit, APC2, to form the catalytic site of the APC/C complex. Together, they facilitate the formation of a polyubiquitin chain on the target protein, marking it for degradation by the 26S proteasome.

APC11 has been shown to be critical for the proper functioning of the APC/C complex and is required for the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of several key cell cycle regulators, including securin, cyclin A, and cyclin B. Mutations in the APC11 gene have been associated with various types of cancer, highlighting its importance in maintaining genomic stability.

Endoreduplication is a process of cell cycle regulation where duplicate copies of chromosomes are produced within the nucleus of a single cell without subsequent separation into daughter cells. This results in an increase in the ploidy level, or the number of sets of chromosomes, within the cell. It is a form of genome amplification that can occur through repeated rounds of DNA replication during the G2 phase of the cell cycle, without cytokinesis or cell division.

Endoreduplication is a natural process in some tissues and organisms, such as plants and insects, where it plays a role in growth, development, and differentiation. In cancer cells, endoreduplication can contribute to genomic instability, tumor progression, and drug resistance.

Aurora Kinase B is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell division and mitosis. It is a member of the Aurora kinase family, which includes three different isoforms (Aurora A, B, and C). Among these, Aurora Kinase B is specifically involved in the proper alignment and separation of chromosomes during cell division.

During mitosis, Aurora Kinase B forms a complex with other proteins to form the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which plays a critical role in ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The CPC is responsible for regulating various events during mitosis, including the attachment of microtubules to kinetochores (protein structures that connect chromosomes to spindle fibers), the correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and the regulation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which targets specific proteins for degradation during mitosis.

Dysregulation of Aurora Kinase B has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or amplification of this kinase can lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, contributing to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As a result, Aurora Kinase B is considered a promising target for the development of anti-cancer therapies, with several inhibitors currently being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies.

Spermatocytes are a type of cell that is involved in the process of spermatogenesis, which is the formation of sperm in the testes. Specifically, spermatocytes are the cells that undergo meiosis, a special type of cell division that results in the production of four haploid daughter cells, each containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

There are two types of spermatocytes: primary and secondary. Primary spermatocytes are diploid cells that contain 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). During meiosis I, these cells undergo a process called crossing over, in which genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes. After crossing over, the primary spermatocytes divide into two secondary spermatocytes, each containing 23 chromosomes (but still with 23 pairs).

Secondary spermatocytes then undergo meiosis II, which results in the formation of four haploid spermatids. Each spermatid contains 23 single chromosomes and will eventually develop into a mature sperm cell through a process called spermiogenesis.

It's worth noting that spermatocytes are only found in males, as they are specific to the male reproductive system.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Interphase is a phase in the cell cycle during which the cell primarily performs its functions of growth and DNA replication. It is the longest phase of the cell cycle, consisting of G1 phase (during which the cell grows and prepares for DNA replication), S phase (during which DNA replication occurs), and G2 phase (during which the cell grows further and prepares for mitosis). During interphase, the chromosomes are in their relaxed, extended form and are not visible under the microscope. Interphase is followed by mitosis, during which the chromosomes condense and separate to form two genetically identical daughter cells.

Tubulin is a type of protein that forms microtubules, which are hollow cylindrical structures involved in the cell's cytoskeleton. These structures play important roles in various cellular processes, including maintaining cell shape, cell division, and intracellular transport. There are two main types of tubulin proteins: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. They polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into microtubules. The assembly and disassembly of microtubules are dynamic processes that are regulated by various factors, including GTP hydrolysis, motor proteins, and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Tubulin is an essential component of the eukaryotic cell and has been a target for anti-cancer drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids.

Endopeptidases are a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins by cleaving peptide bonds inside the polypeptide chain. They are also known as proteinases or endoproteinases. These enzymes work within the interior of the protein molecule, cutting it at specific points along its length, as opposed to exopeptidases, which remove individual amino acids from the ends of the protein chain.

Endopeptidases play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They are classified based on their catalytic mechanism and the structure of their active site. Some examples of endopeptidase families include serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases.

It is important to note that while endopeptidases are essential for normal physiological functions, they can also contribute to disease processes when their activity is unregulated or misdirected. For instance, excessive endopeptidase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and inflammatory conditions.

APC7 subunit is a component of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Specifically, APC/C targets specific proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during various stages of the cell cycle.

APC7 is one of the essential subunits of the APC/C complex and is required for its stability and activity. It is involved in the recognition and binding of substrates, as well as the regulation of the complex's catalytic activity. The APC/C-APC7 complex is responsible for targeting several key regulatory proteins for degradation during mitosis, including securin and cyclin B, which helps to ensure proper chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis.

Mutations in the gene encoding the APC7 subunit have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer and developmental disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of the APC/C-APC7 complex is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

A centrosome is a microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells. It consists of two barrel-shaped structures called centrioles, which are surrounded by a protein matrix called the pericentriolar material. The centrosome plays a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that form the cell's cytoskeleton and help to shape the cell, as well as in separating the chromosomes during cell division.

During mitosis, the two centrioles of the centrosome separate and move to opposite poles of the cell, where they nucleate the formation of the spindle fibers that pull the chromosomes apart. The centrosome also helps to ensure that the genetic material is equally distributed between the two resulting daughter cells.

It's worth noting that while centrioles are present in many animal cells, they are not always present in all types of cells. For example, plant cells do not have centrioles or centrosomes, and instead rely on other mechanisms to organize their microtubules.

Macropodidae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic family in the order Diprotodontia, which includes large marsupials commonly known as kangaroos, wallabies, and tree-kangaroos. These animals are native to Australia and New Guinea. They are characterized by their strong hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, and a long muscular tail used for balance. Some members of this family, particularly the larger kangaroo species, can pose a risk to humans in certain situations, such as vehicle collisions or aggressive encounters during breeding season. However, they are not typically associated with medical conditions or human health.

A protein subunit refers to a distinct and independently folding polypeptide chain that makes up a larger protein complex. Proteins are often composed of multiple subunits, which can be identical or different, that come together to form the functional unit of the protein. These subunits can interact with each other through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces, as well as covalent bonds like disulfide bridges. The arrangement and interaction of these subunits contribute to the overall structure and function of the protein.

Saccharomycetales is an order of fungi that are commonly known as "true yeasts." They are characterized by their single-celled growth and ability to reproduce through budding or fission. These organisms are widely distributed in nature and can be found in a variety of environments, including soil, water, and on the surfaces of plants and animals.

Many species of Saccharomycetales are used in industrial processes, such as the production of bread, beer, and wine. They are also used in biotechnology to produce various enzymes, vaccines, and other products. Some species of Saccharomycetales can cause diseases in humans and animals, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections, known as candidiasis or thrush, can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, and genital area.

A nonmammalian embryo refers to the developing organism in animals other than mammals, from the fertilized egg (zygote) stage until hatching or birth. In nonmammalian species, the developmental stages and terminology differ from those used in mammals. The term "embryo" is generally applied to the developing organism up until a specific stage of development that is characterized by the formation of major organs and structures. After this point, the developing organism is referred to as a "larva," "juvenile," or other species-specific terminology.

The study of nonmammalian embryos has played an important role in our understanding of developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). By comparing the developmental processes across different animal groups, researchers can gain insights into the evolutionary origins and diversification of body plans and structures. Additionally, nonmammalian embryos are often used as model systems for studying basic biological processes, such as cell division, gene regulation, and pattern formation.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Nondisjunction is a genetic term that refers to the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to properly separate during cell division, resulting in an abnormal number of chromosomes in the daughter cells. This can occur during either mitosis (resulting in somatic mutations) or meiosis (leading to gametes with an incorrect number of chromosomes).

In humans, nondisjunction of chromosome 21 during meiosis is the most common cause of Down syndrome, resulting in three copies of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) in the affected individual. Nondisjunction can also result in other aneuploidies, such as Turner syndrome (X monosomy), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), and Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18).

Nondisjunction is typically a random event, although maternal age has been identified as a risk factor for nondisjunction during meiosis. In some cases, structural chromosomal abnormalities or genetic factors may predispose an individual to nondisjunction events.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Chromosomes in fungi are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, composed of DNA and proteins, present in the nucleus of a cell. Unlike humans and other eukaryotes that have a diploid number of chromosomes in their somatic cells, fungal chromosome numbers can vary widely between and within species.

Fungal chromosomes are typically smaller and fewer in number compared to those found in plants and animals. The chromosomal organization in fungi is also different from other eukaryotes. In many fungi, the chromosomes are condensed throughout the cell cycle, whereas in other eukaryotes, chromosomes are only condensed during cell division.

Fungi can have linear or circular chromosomes, depending on the species. For example, the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has a set of 16 small circular chromosomes, while other fungi like Neurospora crassa (red bread mold) and Aspergillus nidulans (a filamentous fungus) have linear chromosomes.

Fungal chromosomes play an essential role in the growth, development, reproduction, and survival of fungi. They carry genetic information that determines various traits such as morphology, metabolism, pathogenicity, and resistance to environmental stresses. Advances in genomic technologies have facilitated the study of fungal chromosomes, leading to a better understanding of their structure, function, and evolution.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, i.e., DNA and proteins, present in the nucleus of human cells. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each diploid cell. Twenty-two of these pairs are called autosomal chromosomes, which come in identical pairs and contain genes that determine various traits unrelated to sex.

The last pair is referred to as the sex chromosomes (X and Y), which determines a person's biological sex. Females have two X chromosomes (46, XX), while males possess one X and one Y chromosome (46, XY). Chromosomes vary in size, with the largest being chromosome 1 and the smallest being the Y chromosome.

Human chromosomes are typically visualized during mitosis or meiosis using staining techniques that highlight their banding patterns, allowing for identification of specific regions and genes. Chromosomal abnormalities can lead to various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Turner syndrome (monosomy X), and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY).

Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle and ensure the accurate and timely progression through different phases of the cell cycle. These checkpoints monitor specific cellular events, such as DNA replication and damage, chromosome separation, and proper attachment of the mitotic spindle to the chromosomes. If any of these events fail to occur properly or are delayed, the cell cycle checkpoints trigger a response that can halt the cell cycle until the problem is resolved. This helps to prevent cells with damaged or incomplete genomes from dividing and potentially becoming cancerous.

There are three main types of cell cycle checkpoints:

1. G1 Checkpoint: Also known as the restriction point, this checkpoint controls the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It monitors the availability of nutrients, growth factors, and the integrity of the genome before allowing the cell to proceed into DNA replication.
2. G2 Checkpoint: This checkpoint regulates the transition from the G2 phase to the M phase of the cell cycle. It checks for completion of DNA replication and absence of DNA damage before allowing the cell to enter mitosis.
3. Mitotic (M) Checkpoint: Also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint, this checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle before anaphase begins. It prevents the separation of sister chromatids until all kinetochores are correctly attached and tension is established between them.

Cell cycle checkpoints play a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability, preventing tumorigenesis, and ensuring proper cell division. Dysregulation of these checkpoints can lead to various diseases, including cancer.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Dyneins are a type of motor protein that play an essential role in the movement of cellular components and structures within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for generating force and motion along microtubules, which are critical components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Dyneins are involved in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, organelle positioning, and cell division.

There are several types of dyneins, but the two main categories are cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins. Cytoplasmic dyneins are responsible for moving various cargoes, such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA complexes, toward the minus-end of microtubules, which is usually located near the cell center. Axonemal dyneins, on the other hand, are found in cilia and flagella and are responsible for their movement by sliding adjacent microtubules past each other.

Dyneins consist of multiple subunits, including heavy chains, intermediate chains, light-intermediate chains, and light chains. The heavy chains contain the motor domain that binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force. Dysfunction in dynein proteins has been linked to various human diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, ciliopathies, and cancer.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' is a species of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of biology and genetics. It has a simple anatomy, short lifespan, and fully sequenced genome, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes and diseases.

Some notable features of C. elegans include:

* Small size: Adult hermaphrodites are about 1 mm in length.
* Short lifespan: The average lifespan of C. elegans is around 2-3 weeks, although some strains can live up to 4 weeks under laboratory conditions.
* Development: C. elegans has a well-characterized developmental process, with adults developing from eggs in just 3 days at 20°C.
* Transparency: The transparent body of C. elegans allows researchers to observe its internal structures and processes easily.
* Genetics: C. elegans has a fully sequenced genome, which contains approximately 20,000 genes. Many of these genes have human homologs, making it an excellent model for studying human diseases.
* Neurobiology: C. elegans has a simple nervous system, with only 302 neurons in the hermaphrodite and 383 in the male. This simplicity makes it an ideal organism for studying neural development, function, and behavior.

Research using C. elegans has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including cell division, apoptosis, aging, learning, and memory. Additionally, studies on C. elegans have led to the discovery of many genes associated with human diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Potoroidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic family within the order Diprotodontia, which includes several species of rat-kangaroos that are native to Australia. These small marsupials are known for their hopping locomotion and nocturnal behavior. If you have any questions about veterinary or medical terminology, I would be happy to help with those!

Catenated DNA refers to the linking or interlocking of two or more DNA molecules in a circular form, where the circles are topologically entangled. This occurs during DNA replication when the sister chromatids (identical copies of DNA) are formed and remain interlinked before they are separated during cell division. The term "catenane" is used to describe this interlocking structure. It is important to note that in linear DNA, the term "catenated" does not apply since there is no circular formation.

The nucleolus is a structure found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells (cells that contain a true nucleus). It plays a central role in the production and assembly of ribosomes, which are complex molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. The nucleolus is not a distinct organelle with a membrane surrounding it, but rather a condensed region within the nucleus where ribosomal biogenesis takes place.

The process of ribosome formation begins in the nucleolus with the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes into long precursor RNA molecules called rRNAs (ribosomal RNAs). Within the nucleolus, these rRNA molecules are cleaved, modified, and assembled together with ribosomal proteins to form small and large ribosomal subunits. Once formed, these subunits are transported through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm, where they come together to form functional ribosomes that can engage in protein synthesis.

In addition to its role in ribosome biogenesis, the nucleolus has been implicated in other cellular processes such as stress response, cell cycle regulation, and aging. Changes in nucleolar structure and function have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

'Dipodomys' is the genus name for kangaroo rats, which are small rodents native to North America. They are called kangaroo rats due to their powerful hind legs and long tails, which they use to hop around like kangaroos. Kangaroo rats are known for their ability to survive in arid environments, as they are able to obtain moisture from the seeds they eat and can concentrate their urine to conserve water. They are also famous for their highly specialized kidneys, which allow them to produce extremely dry urine.

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a type of genetic recombination that takes place between two identical sister chromatids during the DNA repair process in meiosis or mitosis. It results in an exchange of genetic material between the two chromatids, creating a new combination of genes on each chromatid. This event is a normal part of cell division and helps to increase genetic variability within a population. However, an increased rate of SCEs can also be indicative of exposure to certain genotoxic agents or conditions that cause DNA damage.

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and signal transduction. PTPs function by removing phosphate groups from tyrosine residues on proteins, thereby counteracting the effects of tyrosine kinases, which add phosphate groups to tyrosine residues to activate proteins.

PTPs are classified into several subfamilies based on their structure and function, including classical PTPs, dual-specificity PTPs (DSPs), and low molecular weight PTPs (LMW-PTPs). Each subfamily has distinct substrate specificities and regulatory mechanisms.

Classical PTPs are further divided into receptor-like PTPs (RPTPs) and non-receptor PTPs (NRPTPs). RPTPs contain a transmembrane domain and extracellular regions that mediate cell-cell interactions, while NRPTPs are soluble enzymes located in the cytoplasm.

DSPs can dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on proteins and play a critical role in regulating various signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.

LMW-PTPs are a group of small molecular weight PTPs that localize to different cellular compartments, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and regulate various cellular processes, including protein folding and apoptosis.

Overall, PTPs play a critical role in maintaining the balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events in cells, and dysregulation of PTP activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Aneuploidy is a medical term that refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information in the form of genes.

In humans, the normal number of chromosomes in a cell is 46, arranged in 23 pairs. Aneuploidy occurs when there is an extra or missing chromosome in one or more of these pairs. For example, Down syndrome is a condition that results from an extra copy of chromosome 21, also known as trisomy 21.

Aneuploidy can arise during the formation of gametes (sperm or egg cells) due to errors in the process of cell division called meiosis. These errors can result in eggs or sperm with an abnormal number of chromosomes, which can then lead to aneuploidy in the resulting embryo.

Aneuploidy is a significant cause of birth defects and miscarriages. The severity of the condition depends on which chromosomes are affected and the extent of the abnormality. In some cases, aneuploidy may have no noticeable effects, while in others it can lead to serious health problems or developmental delays.

Gene expression regulation in fungi refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins and other functional gene products in response to various internal and external stimuli. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and adaptation of fungal cells to changing environmental conditions.

In fungi, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational modifications. Key regulatory mechanisms include:

1. Transcription factors (TFs): These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes and either activate or repress their transcription. Fungi have a diverse array of TFs that respond to various signals, such as nutrient availability, stress, developmental cues, and quorum sensing.
2. Chromatin remodeling: The organization and compaction of DNA into chromatin can influence gene expression. Fungi utilize ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifying enzymes to alter chromatin structure, thereby facilitating or inhibiting the access of transcriptional machinery to genes.
3. Non-coding RNAs: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in fungi. These sncRNAs can guide RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complexes to specific target loci, leading to the repression of gene expression through histone modifications and DNA methylation.
4. Alternative splicing: Fungi employ alternative splicing mechanisms to generate multiple mRNA isoforms from a single gene, thereby increasing proteome diversity. This process can be regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize specific sequence motifs in pre-mRNAs and promote or inhibit splicing events.
5. Protein stability and activity: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, can influence their stability, localization, and activity. These PTMs play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction, stress response, and cell cycle progression.

Understanding the complex interplay between these regulatory mechanisms is essential for elucidating the molecular basis of fungal development, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. This knowledge can be harnessed to develop novel strategies for combating fungal infections and improving agricultural productivity.

Diptera is an order of insects that includes flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. The name "Diptera" comes from the Greek words "di," meaning two, and "pteron," meaning wing. This refers to the fact that all members of this order have a single pair of functional wings for flying, while the other pair is reduced to small knob-like structures called halteres, which help with balance and maneuverability during flight.

Some common examples of Diptera include houseflies, fruit flies, horseflies, tsetse flies, and midges. Many species in this order are important pollinators, while others can be significant pests or disease vectors. The study of Diptera is called dipterology.

Proteolysis is the biological process of breaking down proteins into smaller polypeptides or individual amino acids by the action of enzymes called proteases. This process is essential for various physiological functions, including digestion, protein catabolism, cell signaling, and regulation of numerous biological activities. Dysregulation of proteolysis can contribute to several pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

A two-hybrid system technique is a type of genetic screening method used in molecular biology to identify protein-protein interactions within an organism, most commonly baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Escherichia coli. The name "two-hybrid" refers to the fact that two separate proteins are being examined for their ability to interact with each other.

The technique is based on the modular nature of transcription factors, which typically consist of two distinct domains: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an activation domain (AD). In a two-hybrid system, one protein of interest is fused to the DBD, while the second protein of interest is fused to the AD. If the two proteins interact, the DBD and AD are brought in close proximity, allowing for transcriptional activation of a reporter gene that is linked to a specific promoter sequence recognized by the DBD.

The main components of a two-hybrid system include:

1. Bait protein (fused to the DNA-binding domain)
2. Prey protein (fused to the activation domain)
3. Reporter gene (transcribed upon interaction between bait and prey proteins)
4. Promoter sequence (recognized by the DBD when brought in proximity due to interaction)

The two-hybrid system technique has several advantages, including:

1. Ability to screen large libraries of potential interacting partners
2. High sensitivity for detecting weak or transient interactions
3. Applicability to various organisms and protein types
4. Potential for high-throughput analysis

However, there are also limitations to the technique, such as false positives (interactions that do not occur in vivo) and false negatives (lack of detection of true interactions). Additionally, the fusion proteins may not always fold or localize correctly, leading to potential artifacts. Despite these limitations, two-hybrid system techniques remain a valuable tool for studying protein-protein interactions and have contributed significantly to our understanding of various cellular processes.

Chromosomal instability is a term used in genetics to describe a type of genetic alteration where there are abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes within cells. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain our genetic material, and they usually exist in pairs in the nucleus of a cell.

Chromosomal instability can arise due to various factors, including errors in DNA replication or repair, problems during cell division, or exposure to environmental mutagens. This instability can lead to an increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities, such as deletions, duplications, translocations, or changes in the number of chromosomes.

Chromosomal instability is associated with several human diseases, including cancer. In cancer cells, chromosomal instability can contribute to tumor heterogeneity, drug resistance, and disease progression. It is also observed in certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, where an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, and in some rare inherited syndromes, such as Bloom syndrome and Fanconi anemia, which are characterized by a high risk of cancer and other health problems.

Video microscopy is a medical technique that involves the use of a microscope equipped with a video camera to capture and display real-time images of specimens on a monitor. This allows for the observation and documentation of dynamic processes, such as cell movement or chemical reactions, at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve with the naked eye. Video microscopy can also be used in conjunction with image analysis software to measure various parameters, such as size, shape, and motion, of individual cells or structures within the specimen.

There are several types of video microscopy, including brightfield, darkfield, phase contrast, fluorescence, and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Each type uses different optical techniques to enhance contrast and reveal specific features of the specimen. For example, fluorescence microscopy uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to label specific structures within the specimen, allowing them to be visualized against a dark background.

Video microscopy is used in various fields of medicine, including pathology, microbiology, and neuroscience. It can help researchers and clinicians diagnose diseases, study disease mechanisms, develop new therapies, and understand fundamental biological processes at the cellular and molecular level.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Salamandridae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic designation in the field of biology. It refers to a family of amphibians commonly known as newts and salamanders. These creatures are characterized by their slender bodies, moist skin, and four legs. Some species have the ability to regenerate lost body parts, including limbs, spinal cord, heart, and more.

If you're looking for a medical term, please provide more context or check if you may have made a typo in your question.

"MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (23 ... Without Cdc20, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) cannot become activated and anaphase is not triggered. Mad2 was shown to ... It is speculated that once formed, Cdc20:Mad2 complexes can amplify the anaphase wait signal by stimulating further conversion ... Given that Mad1:Mad2 is a stable complex and Cdc20 and Mad1 bind Mad 2 in the very same binding site, it is highly unlikely ...
The instability and drop in TPX2 at mitotic exit is dependent on both the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and an ... Stewart S, Fang G (December 2005). "Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome controls the stability of TPX2 during mitotic exit". ... Stewart S, Fang G (December 2005). "Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome controls the stability of TPX2 during mitotic exit". ... Harper JW, Burton JL, Solomon MJ (September 2002). "The anaphase-promoting complex: it's not just for mitosis any more". Genes ...
This particular ligase is referred to as (APC/C) anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome. When the APC/C is inhibited, cyclin B ... The end result is each chromosome is attached to the spindle in the initial stage of anaphase. During normal mitosis, the SAC ...
"The DNA damage response mediator MDC1 directly interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". J Biol Chem. 282 (44 ... This domain also binds to anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades cyclins. The BRCT ... de Jager M, van Noort J, van Gent DC, Dekker C, Kanaar R, Wyman C (Nov 2001). "Human Rad50/Mre11 is a flexible complex that can ... The MDC1s role in DDR is to function both as a mediator/adaptor protein mediating a complex of other DDR proteins at the site ...
... a regulator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... "Overexpression of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome inhibitor Emi1 leads to tetraploidy and genomic instability of p53- ... "Emi1 stably binds and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor". Genes & Development. ... Hansen DV, Loktev AV, Ban KH, Jackson PK (December 2004). "Plk1 regulates activation of the anaphase promoting complex by ...
April 2015). "Structure of an APC3-APC16 complex: insights into assembly of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". Journal ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... anaphase-promoting+complex at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 3D electron microscopy ... Evidence shows that APC3 and APC7 serve to recruit Cdh1 to the anaphase-promoting complex. This further supports that Cdh1 is ...
Qiao D, Yang X, Meyer K, Friedl A (July 2008). "Glypican-1 regulates anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome substrates and cell ... In Drosophila, the glypican dally assists diffusion of the BMP-family growth-promoting morphogen Decapentaplegic in the ...
Another key component of the cell cycle that is regulated by CBP is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). This ... "Intricate Regulatory Mechanisms of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome and Its Role in Chromatin Regulation". Frontiers in ... Zhang H, Kong Q, Wang J, Jiang Y, Hua H (November 2020). "Complex roles of cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling in cancer". Experimental ... In these diseases, association of CBP with β-catenin has been shown to promote cancer cell proliferation and disease ...
Zielke N; Querings S; Rottig C; Lehner C; Sprenger F (2008). "The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is required for ... Cdh/fzr is responsible for activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and subsequent proteolysis of the mitotic cyclins ... The cytological picture in the tapetum is further complicated by restitution in anaphase and fusion of metaphase and anaphase ... Narbonne-Reveau K; Senger S; Pal M; Herr A; Richardson HE; Asano M; Deak P; Lilly MA (2008). "APC/CFzr/Cdh1 promotes cell cycle ...
"KEN-box-dependent degradation of the Bub1 spindle checkpoint kinase by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". The Journal ... Zhang Y, Lees E (Aug 2001). "Identification of an overlapping binding domain on Cdc20 for Mad2 and anaphase-promoting complex: ... Metaphase-to-anaphase transition is halted by the SAC as long as single kinetochores lack bipolar microtubule attachment, ... In turn APC/C, now in complex with Cdh1, also acts on Bub1 by priming it for degradation to exit mitosis. In addition, ...
A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... 2004). "The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome: molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit". ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC2 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC2 anaphase promoting complex subunit 2". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ...
There, he discovered the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and other enzymes required for chromosome segregation. In ... and was promoted to Senior Scientist in 2002. In 2011, he became the institute's Scientific Deputy Director and in 2013 ...
... forms a complex with BUB1 (BUB1/BUB3 complex) to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) as soon as ... "Two different mitotic checkpoint inhibitors of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome antagonize the action of the activator ... inhibit the action of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), preventing early anaphase entry and mitotic exit; this serves as a ... "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in mitosis and G1". Molecular Cell. 2 ( ...
The END network couples spindle pole assembly to inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome in early mitosis. ... Brito, Daniela A.; Yang, Zhenye; Rieder, Conly L. (2008-08-18). "Microtubules do not promote mitotic slippage when the spindle ... Heald, Rebecca; Khodjakov, Alexey (2015-12-14). "Thirty years of search and capture: The complex simplicity of mitotic spindle ...
Cyclins are targeted for proteolytic degradation by the anaphase promoting complex (APC), also known as the cyclosome, a ... "Mitotic spindle disassembly occurs via distinct subprocesses driven by the anaphase-promoting complex, Aurora B kinase, and ... The anaphase-mediated distancing of chromosomes from the metaphase plate may trigger spatial cues for the onset of telophase. ... The nuclear pore complex is assembled and integrated in the nuclear envelope in an organized manner, consecutively adding ...
Zhao WM, Fang G (September 2005). "Anillin is a substrate of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) that controls spatial ... It has been observed that anillin proteolysis is triggered after mitotic exit by the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC). Most ... Anillin may also be involved in promoting the polymerization of F-actin by stabilizing formin mDia2 in an active form. Anillin ... The hypothesis from such observations is that anillin promotes EMT and cell migration through cytoskeletal remodeling, leading ...
... a meiosis-specific anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activator." PLOS Genetics 3 (11):e202. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030202 ... They have shown that cortex protein specifically triggers the anaphase-promoting complex in ovaries and the degradation of ...
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... Kramer ER, Gieffers C, Hölzl G, Hengstschläger M, Peters JM (Nov 1998). "Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by ... Stroschein SL, Bonni S, Wrana JL, Luo K (Nov 2001). "Smad3 recruits the anaphase-promoting complex for ubiquitination and ...
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... The poly(A)-binding protein (PAB or PABP), which is found complexed to the 3' poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNA, is required for ... tail and a c-fos RNA coding determinant via a protein complex". Cell. 103 (1): 29-40. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00102-1. PMID ...
2004). "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. The anaphase-promoting complex ... "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ...
... and inhibits the metaphase to anaphase transition by preventing the activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC ... Thereby it inhibits the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Homologues of Mad1 are conserved in ... The spindle assembly checkpoint inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex by preventing degradation of downstream ... Mad1 recruits the anaphase inhibitor Mad2 to unattached kinetochores and is essential for Mad2-Cdc20 complex formation in vivo ...
... and the ANAPC2 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome; both CUL9 and ANAPC2 have ubiquitin ligase activity. The N- ... part of the Anaphase-promoting complex. CUL1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 5 and 7 each form part of a multi-subunit ubiquitin complex. Cullin ... The human genome contains eight cullin genes CUL1, part of SCF complex CUL2, part of ECS complex (Elongin C - CUL2 - SOCS-box) ... CUL3, part of CUL3-BTB complex CUL4A CUL4B CUL5 CUL7 CUL9, also known as PARC There is also a more distant member called ANAPC2 ...
"Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to control anaphase ... protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to control anaphase ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ...
"Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (Sep 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex ... Stroschein SL, Bonni S, Wrana JL, Luo K (Nov 2001). "Smad3 recruits the anaphase-promoting complex for ubiquitination and ...
A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC4 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ... 1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ...
... protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ( ... Fang G (March 2002). "Checkpoint protein BubR1 acts synergistically with Mad2 to inhibit anaphase-promoting complex". Molecular ... Sudakin V, Chan GK, Yen TJ (September 2001). "Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of ... BubR1 promotes mitotic fidelity and protects against aneuploidy by ensuring proper chromosome segregation between daughter ...
This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC7 gene. Multiple transcript variants ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC7 anaphase promoting complex subunit 7". Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM ( ... Park KH, Choi SE, Eom M, Kang Y (2006). "Downregulation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)7 in invasive ductal carcinomas ...
... unattached or improperly attached kinetochores generate signals that prevent the activation of the anaphase promoting complex ( ... cyclosome or APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase which targets securin and cyclin B for degradation via the proteosome. As long as ... Sister chromatids require active separase to hydrolyze the cohesin that bind them together prior to progression to anaphase. ... they are at their most condensed in anaphase). These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the ...
... cell-cycle regulated activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) This disambiguation page lists articles ...
When anaphase onset is triggered, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C or Cyclosome) degrades securin. APC/C is a ring E3 ... After checkpoint deactivation and during the normal anaphase of the cell cycle, the anaphase promoting complex is activated ... Once activated, the spindle checkpoint blocks anaphase entry by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex via regulation of the ... The defining biochemical feature of this checkpoint is the stimulation of the anaphase-promoting complex by M-phase cyclin-CDK ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the cell ... article{2042270, abstract = {{The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that ... ULTRAVIOLET-B-INSENSITIVE4 maintains cell division activity by temporal inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ... ULTRAVIOLET-B-INSENSITIVE4 Maintains Cell Division Activity by Temporal Inhibition of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome ...
During cell growth and proliferation, ubiquitin plays an outsized role in promoting progression through the cell cycle. In ... The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome. Like other E3 ubiquitin ligases, the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ... Skp2 is targeted for degradation by the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome during G1-phase of the cell cycle [48, 49]. The ... Zhang J, Wan L, Dai X, Sun Y, Wei W. Functional characterization of anaphase promoting complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ...
See Article p.227 and Letter p.274 The large size of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) and its low natural ... have reconstituted the entire APC/C complex and, in combination with structural studies, provide a pseudo-atomic model for 70% ... of the complex. These results contribute towards a molecular understanding of the roles of individual subunits in APC/C ... Solving the structure of protein complexes is particularly challenging when they contain many subunits. In the case of the APC ...
Time-resolved cryo-EM (TR-EM) analysis of substrate polyubiquitination by the RING E3 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC ... Here, using cryogenic electron microscopy and cryoDRGN, the authors delineate how the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is ... Unexpectedly, multiple ubiquitin moieties are shown to interact with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome machinery, ... Dynamics of the DYNLL1-MRE11 complex regulate DNA end resection and recruitment of Shieldin to DSBs Here, the authors show that ...
"MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (23 ... Without Cdc20, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) cannot become activated and anaphase is not triggered. Mad2 was shown to ... It is speculated that once formed, Cdc20:Mad2 complexes can amplify the anaphase wait signal by stimulating further conversion ... Given that Mad1:Mad2 is a stable complex and Cdc20 and Mad1 bind Mad 2 in the very same binding site, it is highly unlikely ...
The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Is a Cellular Ageing Regulator X. D. Hu, X. J. Jin, X. L. Cao, Beidong Liu ... Retromer Complex and PI3K Complex II-Related Genes Mediate the Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Sodium Metabisulfite Resistance ... Mediator Promotes CENP-A Incorporation at Fission Yeast Centromeres Jonas O P Carlsten, Zsolt Szilagyi, Beidong Liu, Marcela ...
... physically interacts with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activator, Cdh1p; catalytic activity regulated by an N- ... Ubiquitin-specific protease involved in protein deubiquitination; forms a complex with AAA peroxins Pex1p and Pex6p; ...
anaphase promoting complex subunit 1, L000004053, YNL172W. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome; APC/C ... anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process [IMP]*exit from mitosis [IMP]* ... metaphase/anaphase transition of mitotic cell cycle [IMP]*negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; ...
2001). Cyclin B is not destroyed until anaphase by the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C). During the interval ... Destruction box-dependent degradation of aurora B is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and Cdh1.. Cancer Res ... CDK2 and DDK (Dbf4-dependent cdc7 kinase) promote MCM to form a CMG complex with GINS (a complex of Sld5-Psf1-Psf2-Psf3) and ... 2009). However, from anaphase to cytokinesis when CDK1 is inactive, Plk1 promotes its own recognition of the substrates such as ...
2007) Developmental role and regulation of cortex, a meiosis-specific anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activator PLoS ... PNG kinase complex up- and downregulates translation through changes in poly(A)-tail length. The PNG kinase, which is required ... 2014) Deadenylation of mRNA by the CCR4-NOT complex in Drosophila: molecular and developmental aspects Frontiers in Genetics 5: ... 2007a) The Drosophila PNG kinase complex regulates the translation of cyclin B Developmental Cell 12:157-166. ...
MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. ... MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. ... Abbreviations used in this paper: AdCre, adenovirus expressing the Cre recombinase; APC/C, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ... Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ...
... of the critical factors for the control of the protein levels during the cell cycle is the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome ... Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying Wg/Wnt regulation during development to promote cell differentiation is crucial ... as the degradation of Nek2 by the APC/C as well as the capacity of Nek2 to promote Wg signalling is conserved in humans. Since ... APC/C). This complex recognises proteins with specific signatures (or degrons) and targets them for degradation via the protein ...
The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which is part of the SCF family of ubiquitin ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important ... The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusuallycomplicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits and ... Structure of the Cul1-Rbx1-Skp1-F boxSkp2 SCF Ubiquitin Ligase Complex. ...
... biochemical and cell-based analyses of the heterodecameric core GID/CTLH E3 ligase complex reveal its molecular architecture, ... large E3 ubiquitin ligase of roughly half the size of the major cell-cycle regulator anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/ ... 2013) Recombinant expression, reconstitution and structure of human anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) Biochemical Journal 449: ... 2004) Autonomous regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex couples mitosis to S-phase entry Nature 432:588-595. ...
... and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), have also been evaluated in clinical practice and preclinical applications [ ... FOXM1-AS can promote the interaction between ALKBH5 and FOXM1 nascent transcripts, thereby promoting the recruitment of HuR. In ... PDCD4 subsequently promotes the activation of AKT and p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and then enhances the migration and invasion ... Wu C, Ma H, Qi G, Chen F, Chu J. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 promotes cell proliferation, migration ...
... share an evolutionary plasticity that has facilitated a rapid growth of their use and resulted in their ubiquity in complex ... a cell cycle phase-dependent manner through recognition of specific degron motifs by the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome ( ... Structural and biochemical characterization of two binding sites for nucleation-promoting factor WASp-VCA on Arp2/3 complex. ... Mutation of SHOC2 promotes aberrant protein N-myristoylation and causes Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. Nat Genet ...
Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome 24% 5 Scopus citations * NBS1-CtIP-mediated DNA end resection suppresses cGAS binding to ... ATM phosphorylates the FATC domain of DNA-PKcsat threonine 4102 to promote non-homologous end joining. Lu, H., Zhang, Q., ... DNA polymerase θ promotes CAG CTG repeat expansions in Huntingtons disease via insertion sequences of its catalytic domain. ... miR-551a and miR-551b-3p target GLIPR2 and promote tumor growth in high-risk head and neck cancer by modulating autophagy. ...
Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 3. 4.3E-23. 21. 101. PF13181. TPR_8. Tetratricopeptide repeat. 7.8E-02. 519. 547 ... Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 3. 3.1E-22. 15. 93. PF13374. TPR_10. Tetratricopeptide repeat. 2.1E-03. 506. 535 ... Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 3. 2.8E-07. 292. 368. PF13181. TPR_8. Tetratricopeptide repeat. 1.4E-03. 309. ... Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 3. Proteins with at least one of this domain. 3. ...
Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 3. 2.3E-25. 21. 101. PF13181. TPR_8. Tetratricopeptide repeat. 5.3E-03. 585. 616 ...
Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-CyclosomeNucleoplasminsDNA, SuperhelicalMicrococcal NucleaseDNATranscription FactorsProtein Subunits ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-CyclosomeNucleoplasminsChromatin ImmunoprecipitationTranscription, GeneticDNA, Superhelical ... Pre-replication complex. Assembly of the pre-replication complex only occurs during late M phase and early G1 phase of the cell ...
anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome 11 (TAIR:AT3G05870.2);. Has 293 Blast hits to 293 proteins in 137 species: Archae -. 0; ...
Stewart S, Fang G: Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome controls the stability of TPX2 during mitotic exit. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 ... Rankin S, Ayad NG, Kirschner MW: Sororin, a substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex, is required for sister chromatid ... are both degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex through direct interaction with K-E-N motifs [31, 32]. Interestingly, these ... It is tempting to speculate that their anaphase promoting complex-dependent degradation is regulated through phosphorylation by ...
The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase mediates degradation of cell cycle proteins during mitosis ... N2 - The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase mediates degradation of cell cycle proteins during ... AB - The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase mediates degradation of cell cycle proteins during ... abstract = "The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase mediates degradation of cell cycle proteins ...
The onset of anaphase is triggered by activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), following silencing of ... This promotes relocalisation of Aurora B kinase, and other components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC), from ... 2017) Identification of a Sgo2-dependent but Mad2-independent pathway controlling anaphase onset in fission yeast. Cell Reports ... Identification of a Sgo2-dependent but Mad2-independent pathway controlling anaphase onset in fission yeast ...
Cell Cycle Proteins - Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome PubMed MeSh Term * Cell Cycle Proteins - Aurora Kinases PubMed MeSh ... Drosophila MCM protein complexes. Journal Article * Drosophila Wee1 interacts with members of the gamma TURC and is required ... SKR-1, a homolog of Skp1 and a member of the SCFSEL-10 complex, regulates sex-determination and LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. ... Mcm10 and the MCM2-7 complex interact to initiate DNA synthesis and to release replication factors from origins Journal Article ...
Use of anaphase promoter complex genes to increase biomass. Scholarships in Brazil Master. Ingrid Andrade Rocha. Biological ... The Role of Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in Plant Reproduction. FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE, v. 12, FEB 24 2021 ... Characterization of the Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 4 (APC4) in Arabidopsis thaliana. 2023. Masters Dissertation - ... The anaphase promoter complex (APC) is a multiprotein complex - an ubiquitin E3 ubiquitin ligase - involved in ubiquitin- ...
Structural Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Regulation by the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome. ...
Structure of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacting with a mitotic checkpoint complex.. Herzog, F., Primorac, I ... CCAN Assembly Configures Composite Binding Interfaces to Promote Cross-Linking of Ndc80 Complexes at the Kinetochore.. Pekgöz ... Rio1 promotes rDNA stability and downregulates RNA polymerase I to ensure rDNA segregation.. Iacovella MG, Golfieri C, Massari ... HSPC117 is the essential subunit of a human tRNA splicing ligase complex.. Popow J, Englert M, Weitzer S, Schleiffer A, Mierzwa ...
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important events in mitosis, such as the initiation of anaphase and exit from telophase. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Enzymatic assays performed with APC purified fromstrains lacking each of the essential subunits revealed that onlycdc27Delta complexes retain detectable activity in the presence of Cdh1.This residual activity depends on the C-box domain of Cdh1, but not on theC-terminal IR domain, suggesting that the C-box mediates a productiveinteraction with an APC subunit other than Cdc27. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Particularly in yeast, an organism where gluconeogenesis and glycolytic activity are intermittently coordinated, the multi-subunit GID E3 ligase complex specifically targets the surplus of gluconeogenic enzymes, including the conserved Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (Fbp1), for proteasomal degradation. (elifesciences.org)
  • The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling. (lookformedical.com)
  • Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2. (lookformedical.com)
  • It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2. (lookformedical.com)
  • Characterization of the Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 4 (APC4) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (fapesp.br)
  • Mammalian respiratory complex I (CI) is a 45-subunit, redox-driven proton pump that generates an electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane to power ATP synthesis in mitochondria. (biomed.news)
  • Structural basis for the subunit assembly of the anaphase-promoting complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the cell cycle by marking key cell division proteins for destruction. (ugent.be)
  • BubR1 and Bub3 can also form complexes with Cdc20, but it remains to be seen if these proteins facilitate Cdc20 binding to Open Mad2. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the critical factors for the control of the protein levels during the cell cycle is the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). This complex recognises proteins with specific signatures (or degrons) and targets them for degradation via the protein destruction machinery called the proteasome. (europa.eu)
  • The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase mediates degradation of cell cycle proteins during mitosis and G1. (biu.ac.il)
  • The anaphase promoter complex (APC) is a multiprotein complex - an ubiquitin E3 ubiquitin ligase - involved in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins, and in which we include the destruction of mitotic cyclins during the metaphase-anaphase transition. (fapesp.br)
  • A synthetic peptide library for benchmarking crosslinking-mass spectrometry search engines for proteins and protein complexes. (imp.ac.at)
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (nih.gov)
  • Our structure explains how this TPR sub-complex, together with additional scaffolding subunits (Apc1, Apc4 and Apc5), coordinate the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module (Apc2, Apc11 and Apc10 (also known as Doc1)), and TPR-phosphorylation sites, relative to co-activator, regulatory proteins and substrates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The spindle checkpoint system is a regulatory system that restrains progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was shown to be present at unattached kinetochores and antibody inhibition studies demonstrated it was essential to execute a block in the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in response to the microtubule poison nocodazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • This diffusible signal propagation away from the kinetochore complexes could account for how vacancy of just one tiny kinetochore site can completely shut down the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we extend this work to show that hMDC1 regulates normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition through its ability to bind directly to the APC/C and modulate its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We suggest therefore that hMDC1 functionally regulates the normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition by modulating the Cdc20-dependent activation of the APC/C. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Solving the structure of protein complexes is particularly challenging when they contain many subunits. (nature.com)
  • Drosophila MCM protein complexes. (colorado.edu)
  • Unexpectedly, multiple ubiquitin moieties are shown to interact with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome machinery, including its activator Cdh1. (nature.com)
  • Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. (jefferson.edu)
  • The cell cycle surveillance mechanism that prevents sister-chromatid separation and transition into anaphase is called the spindle checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclosome-mediated proteolysis is definitely activated in the metaphase-anaphase transition and its activity is managed during early G1 where it contributes to the prevention of a premature rise of Clbp-Cdc28p kinase activity (Irniger et al. (bio2009.org)
  • Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of human cyclin A starts at the beginning of mitosis and is not subject to the spindle assembly checkpoint. (ximbio.com)
  • One of the most complex ubiquitin ligases is the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) - a 1.5-megadalton assemblage of 1-2 copies of each of 13 different subunits, as well as two diffusible activators. (nature.com)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusuallycomplicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits and either oftwo loosely associated regulatory subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Here, we identified all subunits of the mammalian GID/CTLH complex and provide a comprehensive map of its hierarchical organization and step-wise assembly. (elifesciences.org)
  • This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • 1995 blue right-pointing triangle) or anaphase-promoting complex consisting of eight subunits including Apc1p/bimEp/slice4p (Peters et al. (bio2009.org)
  • It also directly binds to BubR1, a kinetochore-associated kinase implicated in the mitotic checkpoint, the major cell cycle control pathway in which unattached kinetochores prevent anaphase onset. (rupress.org)
  • Regulation of AURKA activity by the cell is critically dependent on destruction mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/CFZR1) during mitotic exit and G1 phase and requires an atypical N-terminal degron in AURKA called the "A-box" in addition to a reported canonical D-box degron in the C-terminus. (bvsalud.org)
  • The group is interested in early mitotic events which regulate the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). MAD2L2 is a key protein for mitotic APC/C regulation, DNA damage tolerance (TLS) and other various cellular pathways. (zuckerman-scholars.org)
  • Indeed, Hbp1 accumulates in cells lacking GID/CTLH activity, and Hbp1 physically interacts and is ubiquitinated in vitro by reconstituted GID/CTLH complexes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Without Cdc20, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) cannot become activated and anaphase is not triggered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mad2 was shown to inhibit the activity of the APC by direct physical interaction in a ternary complex with Cdc20. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that Mad1:Mad2 is a stable complex and Cdc20 and Mad1 bind Mad 2 in the very same binding site, it is highly unlikely that Closed Mad2 releases Mad1 to bind Cdc20. (wikipedia.org)
  • A model, which accounts for Mad2 adopting a conformation capable of binding Cdc20, relies upon the formation of Mad1-Mad2 core complex first. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is speculated that once formed, Cdc20:Mad2 complexes can amplify the anaphase wait signal by stimulating further conversion of cytosolic Open Mad2 and free Cdc20 into more Cdc20:Closed Mad2 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also quite unclear how p31comet antagonizes the checkpoint and promotes the dissociation of Mad2-Cdc20. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second option entails ubiquitin-mediated degradation of B-type cyclins which requires the cyclosome (Sudakin et al. (bio2009.org)
  • The pre-replication complex (pre-RC) assembly or the DNA replication licensing is the first step in DNA replication initiation, characterized by the sequential recruitment of ORCs, Cdc6, Cdt1 and MCMs to the DNA replication origins to form the pre-RC at the end of mitosis ( Bell and Dutta 2002 ). (intechopen.com)
  • Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication. (jefferson.edu)
  • The onset of anaphase is triggered by activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), following silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). (warwick.ac.uk)
  • however, when inhibition is relieved, activated separase cleaves the cohesin complex which links the sister chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of cell cycle regulators, including APC/C, as well as the genes regulating cells' responses to external cues, are very similar between Drosophila and mammals, although the genetic circuit in Drosophila is relatively simple and less complex compared to mammals. (europa.eu)
  • Required for full ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and may confer substrate specificity upon the complex. (cusabio.com)
  • Here, using cryogenic electron microscopy and cryoDRGN, the authors delineate how the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is reconfigurated to interact with its cognate E2s and thus polyubiquitinate its target. (nature.com)
  • Here, the authors unveil the intrinsic ability of the C terminus of SSX, as part of different oncogenic fusions, to determine fusion occupancy independent of the BAF complex by both recognizing and stimulating histone H2AK119 monoubiquitylation by PRC1.1. (nature.com)
  • During cell growth and proliferation, ubiquitin plays an outsized role in promoting progression through the cell cycle. (intechopen.com)
  • Progression from metaphase to anaphase is marked by sister chromatid separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a safeguard against chromosome segregation errors, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase until all sister chromatid pairs have become bipolarly attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • This promotes relocalisation of Aurora B kinase, and other components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC), from centromeres to the spindle midzone. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Biochemical reconstitution demonstrates that the mammalian complex possesses inherent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, using Ube2H as its cognate E2. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our biochemical and cellular analysis thus demonstrates that the GID/CTLH complex prevents cell cycle exit in G1, at least in part by degrading Hbp1. (elifesciences.org)
  • Entrance into anaphase is mediated by APCCdc20 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these regulatory modules are physicochemically distinct, they share an evolutionary plasticity that has facilitated a rapid growth of their use and resulted in their ubiquity in complex organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • anaphase-promoting complex, platform subcomplex scaffold. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The nascent RNA binding complex SFiNX licenses piRNA-guided heterochromatin formation. (imp.ac.at)
  • We explore MAD2L2's preferential complexes formation and its interactome in different pathways. (zuckerman-scholars.org)
  • This research is a superb example for the use of modeling and synthetic chemistry to facilitate the study of a complex biological system. (garnetcommunity.org.uk)
  • The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which is part of the SCF family of ubiquitin ligases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In order to develop a synthetic auxin signaling complex that was free from the complexities of varying protein family interactions, Keiko Torii and co-workers from the University of Washington and Nagoya University employed a bump-and-hole strategy. (garnetcommunity.org.uk)