The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.

Evidence for a relatively random array of human chromosomes on the mitotic ring. (1/1090)

We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to study the positions of human chromosomes on the mitotic rings of cultured human lymphocytes, MRC-5 fibroblasts, and CCD-34Lu fibroblasts. The homologous chromosomes of all three cell types had relatively random positions with respect to each other on the mitotic rings of prometaphase rosettes and anaphase cells. Also, the positions of the X and Y chromosomes, colocalized with the somatic homologues in male cells, were highly variable from one mitotic ring to another. Although random chromosomal positions were found in different pairs of CCD-34Lu and MRC-5 late-anaphases, the separations between the same homologous chromosomes in paired late-anaphase and telophase chromosomal masses were highly correlated. Thus, although some loose spatial associations of chromosomes secondary to interphase positioning may exist on the mitotic rings of some cells, a fixed order of human chromosomes and/or a rigorous separation of homologous chromosomes on the mitotic ring are not necessary for normal mitosis. Furthermore, the relative chromosomal positions on each individual metaphase plate are most likely carried through anaphase into telophase.  (+info)

Ctf19p: A novel kinetochore protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a potential link between the kinetochore and mitotic spindle. (2/1090)

A genetic synthetic dosage lethality (SDL) screen using CTF13 encoding a known kinetochore protein as the overexpressed reference gene identified two chromosome transmission fidelity (ctf) mutants, YCTF58 and YCTF26. These mutant strains carry independent alleles of a novel gene, which we have designated CTF19. In light of its potential role in kinetochore function, we have cloned and characterized the CTF19 gene in detail. CTF19 encodes a nonessential 369-amino acid protein. ctf19 mutant strains display a severe chromosome missegregation phenotype, are hypersensitive to benomyl, and accumulate at G2/M in cycling cells. CTF19 genetically interacts with kinetochore structural mutants and mitotic checkpoint mutants. In addition, ctf19 mutants show a defect in the ability of centromeres on minichromosomes to bind microtubules in an in vitro assay. In vivo cross-linking and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that Ctf19p specifically interacts with CEN DNA. Furthermore, Ctf19-HAp localizes to the nuclear face of the spindle pole body and genetically interacts with a spindle-associated protein. We propose that Ctf19p is part of a macromolecular kinetochore complex, which may function as a link between the kinetochore and the mitotic spindle.  (+info)

Phosphorylation-induced rearrangement of the histone H3 NH2-terminal domain during mitotic chromosome condensation. (3/1090)

The NH2-terminal domain (N-tail) of histone H3 has been implicated in chromatin compaction and its phosphorylation at Ser10 is tightly correlated with mitotic chromosome condensation. We have developed one mAb that specifically recognizes histone H3 N-tails phosphorylated at Ser10 (H3P Ab) and another that recognizes phosphorylated and unphosphorylated H3 N-tails equally well (H3 Ab). Immunocytochemistry with the H3P Ab shows that Ser10 phosphorylation begins in early prophase, peaks before metaphase, and decreases during anaphase and telophase. Unexpectedly, the H3 Ab shows stronger immunofluorescence in mitosis than interphase, indicating that the H3 N-tail is more accessible in condensed mitotic chromatin than in decondensed interphase chromatin. In vivo ultraviolet laser cross-linking indicates that the H3 N-tail is bound to DNA in interphase cells and that binding is reduced in mitotic cells. Treatment of mitotic cells with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine causes histone H3 dephosphorylation and chromosome decondensation. It also decreases the accessibility of the H3 N-tail to H3 Ab and increases the binding of the N-tail to DNA. These results indicate that a phosphorylation-dependent weakening of the association between the H3 N-tail and DNA plays a role in mitotic chromosome condensation.  (+info)

ASH1 mRNA localization in yeast involves multiple secondary structural elements and Ash1 protein translation. (4/1090)

Localization of ASH1 mRNA to the distal cortex of daughter but not mother cells at the end of anaphase is responsible for the two cells' differential mating-type switching during the subsequent cell cycle. This localization depends on actin filaments and a type V myosin (She1/Myo4). The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of ASH1 mRNA is reportedly capable of directing heterologous RNAs to a mother cell's bud [1] [2]. Surprisingly, however, its replacement has little or no effect on the localisation of ASH1 mRNA. We show here that, unlike all other known localization sequences that have been found in 3' UTRs, all the elements involved in ASH1 mRNA localization are located at least partly within its coding region. A 77 nucleotide region stretching from 7 nucleotides 5' to 67 nucleotides 3' of the stop codon of ASH1 mRNA is sufficient to localize mRNAs to buds; the secondary structure of this region, in particular two stems, is important for its localizing activity. Two regions entirely within coding sequences, both sufficient to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP) mRNA to growing buds, are necessary for ASH1 mRNA localization during anaphase. These three regions can anchor GFP mRNA to the distal cortex of daughter cells only inefficiently. The tight anchoring of ASH1 mRNA to the cortex of the daughter cell depends on translation of the carboxy-terminal sequences of Ash1 protein.  (+info)

Structural elements required for the localization of ASH1 mRNA and of a green fluorescent protein reporter particle in vivo. (5/1090)

The sorting of the Ash1 protein to the daughter nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in late anaphase of the budding cycle correlates with the localization of ASH1 mRNA at the bud tip [1] [2]. Although the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of ASH1 is sufficient to localize a reporter mRNA, it is not necessary, a result which indicates that other sequences are involved [1]. We report the identification of three additional cis-acting elements in the coding region. Each element alone, when fused to a lacZ reporter gene, was sufficient for the localization of the lacZ mRNA reporter to the bud. A fine-structure analysis of the 3' UTR element showed that its function in mRNA localization did not depend on a specific sequence but on the secondary and tertiary structure of a minimal 118 nucleotide stem-loop. Mutations in the stem-loop that affect the localization of the lacZ mRNA reporter also affected the formation of the localization particles, in living cells, composed of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) complexed with lacZ-ASH1-3' UTR mRNA [3]. A specific stem-loop in the 3' UTR of the ASH1 mRNA is therefore required for both localization and particle formation, suggesting that complex formation is part of the localization mechanism. An analysis on one of the coding-region elements revealed a comparable stem-loop structure with similar functional requirements.  (+info)

The Pds1 anaphase inhibitor and Mec1 kinase define distinct checkpoints coupling S phase with mitosis in budding yeast. (6/1090)

In most eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is confined to S phase of the cell cycle [1]. During this interval, S-phase checkpoint controls restrain mitosis until replication is complete [2]. In budding yeast, the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p has been associated with the checkpoint arrest of mitosis when DNA is damaged or when mitotic spindles have formed aberrantly [3] [4], but not when DNA replication is blocked with hydroxyurea (HU). Previous studies have implicated the protein kinase Mec1p in S-phase checkpoint control [5]. Unlike mec1 mutants, pds1 mutants efficiently inhibit anaphase when replication is blocked. This does not, however, exclude an essential S-phase checkpoint function of Pds1 beyond the early S-phase arrest point of a HU block. Here, we show that Pds1p is an essential component of a previously unsuspected checkpoint control system that couples the completion of S phase with mitosis. Further, the S-phase checkpoint comprises at least two distinct pathways. A Mec1p-dependent pathway operates early in S phase, but a Pds1p-dependent pathway becomes essential part way through S phase.  (+info)

The maize homologue of the cell cycle checkpoint protein MAD2 reveals kinetochore substructure and contrasting mitotic and meiotic localization patterns. (7/1090)

We have identified a maize homologue of yeast MAD2, an essential component in the spindle checkpoint pathway that ensures metaphase is complete before anaphase begins. Combined immunolocalization of MAD2 and a recently cloned maize CENPC homologue indicates that MAD2 localizes to an outer domain of the prometaphase kinetochore. MAD2 staining was primarily observed on mitotic kinetochores that lacked attached microtubules; i.e., at prometaphase or when the microtubules were depolymerized with oryzalin. In contrast, the loss of MAD2 staining in meiosis was not correlated with initial microtubule attachment but was correlated with a measure of tension: the distance between homologous or sister kinetochores (in meiosis I and II, respectively). Further, the tension-sensitive 3F3/2 phosphoepitope colocalized, and was lost concomitantly, with MAD2 staining at the meiotic kinetochore. The mechanism of spindle assembly (discussed here with respect to maize mitosis and meiosis) is likely to affect the relative contributions of attachment and tension. We support the idea that MAD2 is attachment-sensitive and that tension stabilizes microtubule attachments.  (+info)

A Bub2p-dependent spindle checkpoint pathway regulates the Dbf2p kinase in budding yeast. (8/1090)

Exit from mitosis in all eukaroytes requires inactivation of the mitotic kinase. This occurs principally by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of the cyclin subunit controlled by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, an abnormal spindle and/or unattached kinetochores activates a conserved spindle checkpoint that blocks APC function. This leads to high mitotic kinase activity and prevents mitotic exit. DBF2 belongs to a group of budding yeast cell cycle genes that when mutated prevent cyclin degradation and block exit from mitosis. DBF2 encodes a protein kinase which is cell cycle regulated, peaking in metaphase-anaphase B/telophase, but its function remains unknown. Here, we show the Dbf2p kinase activity to be a target of the spindle checkpoint. It is controlled specifically by Bub2p, one of the checkpoint components that is conserved in fission yeast and higher eukaroytic cells. Significantly, in budding yeast, Bub2p shows few genetic or biochemical interactions with other members of the spindle checkpoint. Our data now point to the protein kinase Mps1p triggering a new parallel branch of the spindle checkpoint in which Bub2p blocks Dbf2p function.  (+info)

Meiosis is a reproductive cell division since it gives rise to gametes. The resulting cells following meiosis contain half of the number of the chromosomes in the parent cell. That is because the parent cell undergoes two meiotic divisions called first meiotic division (meiosis I) and second meiotic division (meiosis II). Each of them has four major phases. These are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Each of these phases is designated as I or II depending where it occurs, i.e. in meiosis I or in meiosis II. Anaphase II is the third stage in meiosis II. It is the stage after metaphase II, which is that phase wherein the chromosomes are at the equatorial plane and spindle fibers are attached to the kinetochores. Anaphase II is the stage when sister chromatids of every chromosome separate and begin to move towards the opposite ends of the cell. The separation and the movement is due to the shortening of the kinetochore microtubules. Anaphase II precedes telophase II. Meiotic anaphase II ...
The SPOC regulates the phosphorylation of Bfa1 by Cdc5 at SPBs. (A and B) DYN1 CDC5-GFP and dyn1Δ CDC5-GFP cells in anaphase with a correctly aligned or misoriented anaphase spindle were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. (A) Measurement of the relative fluorescence intensity of the Cdc5-GFP SPB signal of DYN1 CDC5-GFP cells with a correctly aligned anaphase spindle and dyn1Δ CDC5-GFP cells with the anaphase spindle misaligned in the mother cell body. The signals associated with the preexisting old (orange) and new (blue) SPBs were measured. (B) Cdc5-GFP signal at SPBs of DYN1 CDC5-GFP and dyn1Δ CDC5-GFP cells. Spc42-eqFP611 was used as an SPB marker. Note that Spc42-eqFP611 labeled the old SPB in the mother cell body more strongly because of a delay in the folding of the eqFP611 molecule (Pereira et al., 2001; Wiedenmann et al., 2002). DNA was stained with DAPI. (C) CDC5 and cdc5-10 cells were synchronized in G1 with α factor at 23°C and released at 37°C, the restrictive temperature of ...
Chromosome segregation in most animal cells is brought about through two events: the movement of the chromosomes to the poles (anaphase A) and the movement of the poles away from each other (anaphase B). Essential to an understanding of the mechanism of mitosis is information on the relative movements of components of the spindle and identification of sites of subunit loss from shortening microtubules. Through use of tubulin derivatized with X-rhodamine, photobleaching, and digital imaging microscopy of living cells, we directly determined the relative movements of poles, chromosomes, and a marked domain on kinetochore fibers during anaphase. During chromosome movement and pole-pole separation, the marked domain did not move significantly with respect to the near pole. Therefore, the kinetochore microtubules were shortened by the loss of subunits at the kinetochore, although a small amount of subunit loss elsewhere was not excluded. In anaphase A, chromosomes moved on kinetochore microtubules ...
J Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;123(2):387-403. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
ESP1-pRSG is an integrative plasmid carrying the ESP1 open reading frame in addition to 200 bases of the 5′ flanking sequence under the control of the GAL1 promoter. ESP1GFP-pRSG is derived from this plasmid by inserting a PCR-generated sequence encoding the GFP epitope (F64L, S65T, Q80R mutant) into a SmaI site introduced just before the stop codon. All pRSG-derived plasmids are linearized with StuI and integrants isolated by selecting for growth on dex-ura media. The parental pRSG plasmid is a derivative of pRS406 (Sikorski and Hieter 1989), where the NaeI-PvuI fragment spanning the multiple cloning site (MCS) linker has been substituted by the NaeI-PvuI fragment from pYES2 (Invitrogen) containing a MCS and the GAL1 promoter.. The ESP1myc18-pTRP1 plasmid was used to tag endogenous Esp1 protein with 18 myc epitopes at the COOH terminus. The integrative pTRP1 plasmid carries the sequence encoding six myc epitopes, which can be fused to a protein of interest at the NotI site (Mondesert et al. ...
To understand the role of ASE1 and of a focused midzone in spindle elongation in greater detail, we analyzed the kinetics of anaphase spindle extension of ASE1, ase1Δ, ASE17A, and ASE17D cells by time-lapse microscopy. The initial fast phase of anaphase spindle extension was identical in all cell types (Fig. 7 A, Table I, and Videos 3-6), indicating that Ase1 is not required for this step. Clear differences between WT and the ASE1 mutants were observed for the second phase. In ase1Δ cells, the second extension phase did not occur (Fig. 7 A). ASE17A cells extended the anaphase spindle with close to double the speed of ASE1 cells (Fig. 7 A and Table I). In addition, in 15% of ASE17A cells, the spindle broke during extension. However, this fracture was not permanent, as the spindle subsequently reformed and extension resumed (Fig. 7 B, t = 9 min; and Video 7). Such spindle breakage was not observed in ASE1 WT cells. ASE17D cells showed a mixed phenotype. 44% of ASE17D cells (12/27) behaved in a ...
The US producer delivers a varied release for Semteks label. On one side theres the whip-crackle percussion and acid tingle of Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase. These elements are combined with a brittle rhythm and dreamy synth-lines and it sounds like Gwyers attempt at making Detroit techno. On the flip there are more surprises in store; she meanders into lullaby ambience with And Again Those Eyes, while on Meiosis Gametes pits frazzled snares and clunky drum distortion against Beltran-esque serenity. Its a masterful, mixed release ...
The budding yeast Cdc14 phosphatase reverses Cdk1 phosphorylation to promote mitotic exit. Although Cdc14 activity is thought to be restricted to anaphase, we found that dephosphorylation of the Dsn1 kinetochore protein in metaphase requires Cdc14. These data suggest that there is a nonnucleolar pool of active Cdc14 prior to anaphase.
Definition of anaphase - the third stage of cell division, between metaphase and telophase, during which the chromosomes move away from one another to oppo
Anaphase is a stage during eukaryotic cell division in which the chromosomes are segregated to opposite poles of the cell. The stage before anaphase, metaphase, the chromosomes are pulled to the metaphase plate, in the middle of the cell.
2008: Correct division of cellular contents between two daughter cells depends upon spatial and temporal cues; anaphases microtubular system organizes itself at the spindle midzone and functions to orient the cell division plane in the center of the segregating chromosomes. The signalling pathway responsible for this is not understood, but this molecular study[91] explores how the phosphorylation of Aurora B kinase; a regulator of mitosis, ultimately leads to a gradient which centers at the spindle midzone. The study is therefore successful in the discovery of a possible regulatory mechanism for the anaphase phosphorylation gradient, and suggests that its findings may be useful in the future development of a model for anaphases spatial patterning. The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome or APC/C moderates mitosis by adding ubiquitin chains to cell cycle regulators, to initiate the formation of these chains the APC/C binds ubiquitin to lysine in substrates and elongates chains via lysine ...
2008: Correct division of cellular contents between two daughter cells depends upon spatial and temporal cues; anaphases microtubular system organizes itself at the spindle midzone and functions to orient the cell division plane in the center of the segregating chromosomes. The signalling pathway responsible for this is not understood, but this molecular study[95] explores how the phosphorylation of Aurora B kinase; a regulator of mitosis, ultimately leads to a gradient which centers at the spindle midzone. The study is therefore successful in the discovery of a possible regulatory mechanism for the anaphase phosphorylation gradient, and suggests that its findings may be useful in the future development of a model for anaphases spatial patterning. The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome or APC/C moderates mitosis by adding ubiquitin chains to cell cycle regulators, to initiate the formation of these chains the APC/C binds ubiquitin to lysine in substrates and elongates chains via lysine ...
Surveillance mechanisms stop progression throughthe cell cycle at specific checkpoints (at the G1 → S, G2 → M and metaphase → anaphase transitions) if certain crucial requirements have not been met
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved in organisms from yeast to humans. The exact function of this gene product is not known. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013 ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase involved in regulation of the cell cycle through ubiquitination-dependent substrate proteolysis. Many viral proteins have been shown to interact with the APC/C, derailing cell cyc
QUESTION 11 If an organism has 36 chromosomes during the anaphase stage of mitosis, how many chromatids does it have during this stage? *Hint Watch the video
Read Three Cdk1 sites in the kinesin-5 Cin8 catalytic domain coordinate motor localization and activity during anaphase, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Saçları beslemeye yardımcı olan Ducray Anaphase + Plus Saç Dökülmesine Karşı Bakım Şampuanı 400 mli, indirimli fiyatı ile Turuncu Kasadan alabilirsiniz.
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I wish Id known that mnemonic when I was doing Biology A level, how brilliant that would have been! I had to make up my own one for remembering stages of cell division. IPMAT. (Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase). I remember it to this day - unfortunately it means fuck all as a word, but I figure if its the only cell biology I remember 11 years after my exams, it cant be bad ...
Leaves: 8 to 16, ensiform, distichous, erect, coriaceous, glaucous, closely ribbed, narrowed gradually to the point, finally up to 50 cm. long, 2,5 to 6 cm broad, hairy on the margin, not ciliated, often much undulated; peduncle stout, ancipitous, glaucous, 1/2-1 ft. long ...
Exit from mitosis in animal cells is substantially delayed when spindle assembly is inhibited, spindle bipolarity is disrupted, or when a monopolar spindle is formed. These observations have led to the proposal that animal cells have a spindle assembly checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors bipolar spindle organization. However, the existence of such a checkpoint is uncertain because perturbations in spindle organization can produce unattached kinetochores, which by themselves are known to delay anaphase onset. In this study we have tested if cells monitor bipolar spindle organization, independent of kinetochore attachment, by analyzing the duration of mitosis in sea urchin zygotes and vertebrate somatic cells containing multipolar spindles in which all kinetochores are attached to spindle poles. We found that sea urchin zygotes containing tripolar or tetrapolar spindles progressed from nuclear envelope breakdown to anaphase onset with normal timing. We also found that ...
ORDERED temporal degradation of proteins is an important regulatory mechanism that controls progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle (Reed 2006). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is the E3 subunit of an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme composed of at least thirteen subunits that targets proteins for proteolysis during the cell cycle (Peters 2006). APC/C function is critical for progression through mitosis where it degrades Pds1 (securin in higher eukaryotic cells) and other substrates to promote anaphase and the exit from mitosis (Pines 2006). APC/C cofactors Cdc20 and Cdh1 are important for conferring substrate specificity during different stages in the cell cycle (Peters 2006). It is unclear, however, how the APC/C chooses substrates for ubiquitylation and the specific role of each subunit in this process (Acquaviva and Pines 2006). The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures the formation of a bipolar spindle and proper attachment of kinetochores (Lew and Burke 2003). The ...
Many stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation. In Drosophila testes, two stem cell populations, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), cohere and regulate one another. Here, we report that CySCs divide asymmetrically through repositioning the mitotic spindle around anaphase. CySC spindle repositioning requires functional centrosomes, Dynein and the actin-membrane linker Moesin. Anaphase spindle repositioning is required to achieve high-fidelity asymmetric divisions in CySCs, thus maintaining both GSC and CySC numbers. We propose that dynamic spindle repositioning allows CySCs to divide asymmetrically while accommodating the structure of the GSCs they encapsulate.. ...
Two closely connected mechanisms safeguard the fidelity of chromosome segregation in eukaryotic cells. The mitotic checkpoint monitors the attachment of kinetochores to microtubules and delays anaphase onset until all sister kinetochores have become attached to opposite poles. In addition, an error correction mechanism destabilizes erroneous attachments that do not lead to tension at sister kinetochores. Aurora B kinase, the catalytic subunit of the CPC (chromosomal passenger complex), acts as a sensor and effector in both pathways. In this review we focus on a poorly understood but important aspect of mitotic control: what prevents the mitotic checkpoint from springing into action when sister centromeres are split and tension is suddenly lost at anaphase onset? Recent work has shown that disjunction of sister chromatids, in principle, engages the mitotic checkpoint, and probably also the error correction mechanism, with potentially catastrophic consequences for cell division. Eukaryotic cells ...
Separase is a highly conserved cysteine protease required for proper chromosome segregation, and several other aspects of anaphase during both meiotic and mitotic stages of cell division (Peters et al. 2008). Separase proteolytic activity is inhibited during interphase and early mitosis by its pseudosubstrate inhibitor, securin (Nasmyth 2002). The protease activity of separase is critical for the cleavage of kleisin subunits of the cohesin complex (Uhlmann et al. 2000; Hauf et al. 2001). Cohesin holds sister chromatids together prior to their proper attachment to spindles and alignment on the metaphase plate preceding anaphase (Nasmyth and Haering 2009). Separase has also been implicated in various cell cycle regulatory functions. In budding yeast, separase stabilizes the anaphase spindle by cleaving the spindle and kinetochore-associated protein Slk19 (Sullivan et al. 2001). It is also involved in the release of the essential mitotic phosphatase Cdc14 in budding yeast (Sullivan and Uhlmann ...
As a result of checkpoint activation, a signalling cascade is initiated and a number of complexes between the checkpoint components are formed. This leads to the inhibition of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), which is the ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting mitotic proteins: securing and cyclin B for degradation by the 26S proteasome. The complexes formed include the MCC, or Mitotic Checkpoint Complex, which in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) consists of Mad2, Mad3 checkpoint proteins together with the APC activator, Slp1 (the Cdc20 homologue). The MCC has been shown to bind and inhibit the APC in HeLa cells. In my PhD I focused on the interactions between the MCC and the APC, in particular on Mad3 protein. Mad3 is a conserved checkpoint component, homologous to human BubR1. It carries 2 putative KEN boxes, motifs, which typically target proteins for degradation (like D-boxes). We mutated both KEN boxes in S. pombe Mad3 and show that they are essential for Mad3 checkpoint ...
Skip to Next Section Cks is a small highly conserved protein that plays an important role in cell cycle control in different eukaryotes. Cks proteins have been implicated in entry into and exit from mitosis, by promoting Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity on mitotic substrates. In yeast, Cks can promote exit from mitosis by transcriptional regulation of cell cycle regulators. Cks proteins have also been found to promote S-phase via an interaction with the SCFSkp2 Ubiquitination complex. We have characterized the Drosophila Cks gene, Cks30A and we find that it is required for progression through female meiosis and the mitotic divisions of the early embryo through an interaction with Cdk1. Cks30A mutants are compromised for Cyclin A destruction, resulting in an arrest or delay at the metaphase/anaphase transition, both in female meiosis and in the early syncytial embryo. Cks30A appears to regulate Cyclin A levels through the activity of a female germline-specific anaphase-promoting complex, CDC20
Supplemental Figure S1 - Fig. S1. CySC morphology throughout the cell cycle. (A) Selected confocal images at different z-focal planes show an interphase CySC (demarcated with a broken line) attached to the hub (asterisk) through a thin projection. Arrowheads indicate the attachment to the hub. (B) Selected confocal images at different z-focal planes show a rounder cell body during mitosis appearing closer to the hub. (C) A mitotic CySC with a long thin projection attached to the hub. Notice that the greater part of the cell body with condensed chromosomes is relatively far away from the hub. Red, Moe-Myc; green, GFP; Blue, Vasa (germ cells); gray, Thr 3-phosphorylated histone H3 (Phospho-H3; mitotic chromatin). Heatshock-FLP; Actin,FRT-stop-FRT,Gal4, UAS-GFP/UAS-Moe-Myc flies were subjected to 2-hour heatshock at 37°C, and then dissected 24 hours later. Upon heat shock, only a subset of cells activated Actin-Gal4 driver and expressed GFP and Moe-Myc. ...
What are Non-Disjunction Disorders?! Non-disjunction is a failure of chromosomes to separate properly (i.e there is an imbalance of genetic information) Occurs when: Homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly in Anaphase I Sister chromatids fail to separate properly during Anaphase II Having abnormal amounts of karyotypes will overload the cells, which may result in: The death of the zygote A person with a non-disjunction disorder being born
A set of 10 models showing resting cell, early prophase, prophase, late prophase, metaphase, late metaphase, anaphase, late anaphase, telophase and daughter cells, all mounted on board with Key Card.. ...
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In the cell cycle DNA synthesis occurs during ________________. At the beginning of prophase _______________ condenses and chromosomes become visible. The end of prophase is characterized by the breakdown of the __________________________. The chromosomes become attached to the equator of the ______________ during ______________________. At anaphase the chromosome splits at the centromere and one copy heads towards each pole of the spindle. The final phase is called _______________ and it involves the formation of two new separate nuclei. In animal cells this phase is followed by ___________________. ...
Cytokinesis is the final stage of the cell cycle. It partitions sister genomes and separates the cytoplasm of nascent daughter cells. Cytokinesis is initiated by the formation of a cleavage furrow whose ingression is powered by an actomyosin network known as the contractile ring. Following furrow ingression, the process of cell separation is completed by a membrane scission reaction. For the accurate inheritance of genetic information, it is crucial that furrow formation is initiated at the cell equator between segregating chromosomes and that this occurs after chromatin has cleared the cleavage plane. In animal cells, the mitotic spindle plays a pivotal role in the formation and placement of the cleavage furrow. The coupling of cytokinesis and chromosome segregation to the mitotic spindle ensures that nuclear and cytoplasmic division are tightly coordinated. The spindle midzone, a structure that is formed at anaphase onset between segregating sister genomes, is thought to play an important ...
Background: In budding yeast, the protein phosphatase Cdc14 coordinates late mitotic events and triggers exit from mitosis. During early anaphase, Cdc14 is activated by the FEAR network, but how signaling through the FEAR network occurs is poorly understood. Results: We find that the FEAR network component Spo12 is phosphorylated on S118. This phosphorylation is essential for Spo12 function and is restricted to early anaphase, when the FEAR network is active. The anaphase-specific phosphorylation of Spo12 requires mitotic CDKs and depends on the FEAR network components Separase and Slk19. Furthermore, we find that CDC14 is required to maintain Spo12 in the dephosphorylated state prior to anaphase. Conclusions: Our results show that anaphase-specific phosphorylation of Spo12 is essential for FEAR network function and raise the interesting possibility that Cdc14 itself helps to prevent the FEAR network from being prematurely activated ...
Centrosomes organize the bipolar mitotic spindle, and centrosomal defects cause chromosome instability. Protein phosphorylation modulates centrosome function, and we provide a comprehensive map of phosphorylation on intact yeast centrosomes (18 proteins). Mass spectrometry was used to identify 297 phosphorylation sites on centrosomes from different cell cycle stages. We observed different modes of phosphoregulation via specific protein kinases, phosphorylation site clustering, and conserved phosphorylated residues. Mutating all eight cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-directed sites within the core component, Spc42, resulted in lethality and reduced centrosomal assembly. Alternatively, mutation of one conserved Cdk site within γ-tubulin (Tub4-S360D) caused mitotic delay and aberrant anaphase spindle elongation. Our work establishes the extent and complexity of this prominent posttranslational modification in centrosome biology and provides specific examples of phosphorylation control in centrosome ...
View Nuclear Organization from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. • M- Nuclear division (mitosis) • mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase • C -Cytoplasmic division
Chromosomal loss and rearrangement are known to be important signs of genetic instability in cancer cells, but the mechanisms behind these changes are unclear. We have begun an investigation of the contribution of segregational errors to chromosomal instability using oral carcinoma cells as our model system. In these cultures, we found frequent variations in chromosome numbers and structure between different cells from the same tumor cell culture. We believe that many of these abnormalities can be explained by chromosomal segregational defects.. The OSCC cells clearly had difficulty achieving normal metaphase alignment and anaphase chromosome separation. One simple model is that the kinetochores are defective for movement, and that this single defect causes chromosomes to lag at both metaphase and anaphase. Consistent with this model, approximately equal numbers of lagging chromosomes were observed in both metaphase and anaphase cells. One way to test this directly would be a real-time analysis ...
In conclusion, we propose that the mitotic spindle protein She1 functions as an MT cross-linking protein to maintain proper spindle stability during metaphase (Fig. 6 H). There are three major lines of evidence supporting this conclusion: (1) she1-ΔN89 and she1-ΔN126 cells display dynein-independent spindle defects, (2) She1 cross-links MTs in vitro, and (3) the she1-ΔN126 spindle phenotype is complemented by inactivation of Ipl1/Aurora B or by overexpression of she1-ΔN126. The latter shows that premature loading of Ipl1/Aurora B in metaphase inhibits the spindle stabilization effect of she1-ΔN126. Furthermore, we show that this novel activity of She1 is negatively regulated by Ipl1/CPC translocation during anaphase.. Recent work suggested that, during the establishment of a functional metaphase spindle midzone (Hepperla et al., 2014), passive cross-linking proteins are required to maintain proper bundling within the spindle once ipMTs are aligned along the spindle axis by kinesin-14 ...
Mitosis and meiosis are certainly among the most spectacular events in all of biology. These processes are brought about by protein kinase complexes consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (also called Cdc2) and a mitotic cyclin (in animals, an A-type cyclin or a B-type cyclin). The abrupt activation of cyclin-CDK1 at the onset of mitosis, and the abrupt inactivation of cyclin-CDK1 at the metaphase/anaphase transition near the end of mitosis, constitute the climax of the cell cycle and result in the division of one cell into two. In some circumstances, the eukaryotic cell cycle can be best described as a succession of contingent events. For example, in most somatic cells in culture, cell growth is followed by DNA replication, then more cell growth, then mitotic entry and chromosome congression, then sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit. Entry into a new phase of the cell cycle may depend upon the successful completion of some important event in the previous phase. E.g., the cell ...
Mitosis and meiosis are certainly among the most spectacular events in all of biology. These processes are brought about by protein kinase complexes consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (also called Cdc2) and a mitotic cyclin (in animals, an A-type cyclin or a B-type cyclin). The abrupt activation of cyclin-CDK1 at the onset of mitosis, and the abrupt inactivation of cyclin-CDK1 at the metaphase/anaphase transition near the end of mitosis, constitute the climax of the cell cycle and result in the division of one cell into two. In some circumstances, the eukaryotic cell cycle can be best described as a succession of contingent events. For example, in most somatic cells in culture, cell growth is followed by DNA replication, then more cell growth, then mitotic entry and chromosome congression, then sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit. Entry into a new phase of the cell cycle may depend upon the successful completion of some important event in the previous phase. E.g., the cell ...
Crosses between Drosophila melanogaster females and Drosophila simulans males produce hybrid sons that die at the larval stage. This hybrid lethality is suppressed by loss-of-function mutations in the D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) or in the D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) genes. Previous studies have shown that Hmr and Lhr interact with heterochromatin proteins and suppress expression of transposable elements within D. melanogaster. It also has been proposed that Hmr and Lhr function at the centromere. We examined mitotic divisions in larval brains from Hmr and Lhr single mutants and Hmr; Lhr double mutants in D. melanogaster. In none of the mutants did we observe defects in metaphase chromosome alignment or hyperploid cells, which are hallmarks of centromere or kinetochore dysfunction. In addition, we found that Hmr-HA and Lhr-HA do not colocalize with centromeres either during interphase or mitotic division. However, all mutants displayed anaphase bridges and chromosome ...
The spindle checkpoint is a key mechanism that ensures accurate distribution of the chromosomes during cell division by delaying completion of mitosis until kinetochores of the chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules and until tension is being applied to pull the sister kinetochores toward opposite spindle poles. Why, then, once anaphase begins and the sister chromatids begin to separate, is the checkpoint not reactivated? Palframan et al. describe a feedback loop of mutual inhibition between the APC (anaphase-promoting complex, a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex that targets proteins for degradation) and Mps1 (a protein kinase that is part of the checkpoint signaling pathway). Once the checkpoint conditions are satisfied and anaphase begins, the inhibition of APC by Mps appears to dip below a critical threshold. At this point, the APC apparently switches to an on state in which anaphase is promoted and Mps1 (which is itself a target of the APC) is degraded and can thus no longer activate ...
The Cell Cycle - Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis - Cell Division of somatic cells. Study notes for basic courses in human biology and anatomy and physiology e.g. for training in nursing, therapies and other health sciences.
C. albicans is an important fungal pathogen of humans, and an understanding of the regulation of its cell cycle may reveal new targets for anti-fungal therapies. We previously characterized the C. albicans Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome regulatory co-factors Cdc20p and Cdh1p, and showed that they are important for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. In order to determine the mechanisms of action of Cdc20p, we searched the genome for factors that bind it in other systems, and found that C. albicans lacks the conserved Cdc20p target, securin. Securins bind and prevent separase from cleaving cohesin, and must be targeted for degradation by Cdc20p for separase-dependent sister chromatid separation. We hypothesized that C. albicans contains a divergent securin, which may be uncovered by identifying proteins that bind separase. We demonstrated that the C. albicans separase homologue, ESP1, is required for chromosome segregation. We then identified Esp1p-interacting factors ...
Most female meiotic spindles undergo striking morphological changes while transitioning from metaphase to anaphase. The ultra-structure of meiotic spindles, and how changes to this structure correlate with such dramatic spindle rearrangements remains largely unknown. To address this, we applied light microscopy, large-scale electron tomography and mathematical modeling of female meiotic Caenorhabditis elegans spindles. Combining these approaches, we find that meiotic spindles are dynamic arrays of short microtubules that turn over within seconds. The results show that the metaphase to anaphase transition correlates with an increase in microtubule numbers and a decrease in their average length. Detailed analysis of the tomographic data revealed that the microtubule length changes significantly during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. This effect is most pronounced for microtubules located within 150 nm of the chromosome surface. To understand the mechanisms that drive this transition, we ...
Protein Phosphatase Required For Mitotic Exit; Required For RDNA Segregation, Cytokinesis, Meiosis I Spindle Disassembly, And Environmental Stress Response; Maintained In Nucleolus By Cdc55p In Early Meiosis Until Liberated By The FEAR And Mitotic Exit Network In Anaphase, Enabling It To Effect A Decrease In CDK/B-cyclin Activity And Mitotic Exit; Sequestered In Metaphase II, Then Released Again Upon Entry Into Anaphase II
1. i need to draw a diploid organism that has a chromosome complement of 2n=6 at mitosis anaphase, meiosis anaphase 1 and meiosis anaphase 2. On the diagram i need to LABEL on each chromosome to show one set of possible locations for all the alleles for an individual of genotype AaBb given that there is no crossing over in this organism and that the two genes involved asoort independently ...
Bir1p localizes to interpolar microtubules and interacts with Ndc10p. (A) Bir1-GFP was imaged in premetaphase cells (top, arrow) and in anaphase cells (bottom,
Flashback to memories of your early courses in biology. One term-mitosis-may come to mind. Perhaps you even recall diagrams or animations of chromosome pairs organizing themselves along an imaginary plane equidistant from the cells poles, followed by impressive parting and separation of the chromosome pairs. Two identical pairs of chromosomes are produced from one. Mitosis occurs in stages termed prophase, metaphase, and anaphase. Real time anaphase proves to be the shortest but most impressive event. In only a few minutes the paired chromosomes are seen to separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Soon there are two new duplicate cells, each with a nucleus. All phases of mitosis are completed in just one hour. The new cells begin production of proteins and organelles. Growth of cells predominates over cell duplication. Wondrous events of prenatal development during human gestation all depend on successful mitosis events. Campbell and Reese in their AP textbook Biology state, As a ...
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Name the stage of cell cycle at which one of the following events occur? (i) Chromosomes moves to spindle equator. (ii) Centromere splits and chromatids separate. (iii) Pairing between homologous chromosomes take place. (…
Telophase is the stage of cell division following anaphase during which chromosomes have been pulled to each spindle pole. New nuclei begin to form, and chromosomes begin to unravel.. ...
Updated Mitosis Video. The Amoeba Sisters walk you through the reason for mitosis with mnemonics for prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. source
After mitosis, the cell gets pinched off to form the 2 new cells. Thats whats starting to happen with the cell plate in plants. Keep in mind, the phases are slightly arbitrary. Theres not really a specific instance where you could say, anaphase is over, now this is telophase. They overlap a little bit, but its important to know what happens in each phase and just realize that sometimes the next phase might get a bit of a head start (like that cell plate forming while telophase is still going on ...
Illustration of mitosis, the usual method of cell division. Mitosis is characterized typically by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates longitudinally into two parts, one part of each chromosome being retained in each of two new cells resulting from the original cell. The four main phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase ...
Stage Number of Cells in Part 1 Number of Cells in Part 2 Interphase 11 9 Prophase 7 4 Metaphase 5 3 Anaphase 9 7 Telophase 4 3 Cytokinesis 2 2 Create a
Here are my Mitosis Limericks. Visit the original posts for prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase for some background information ...
One may infer from the poleward propagation of angular momentum that energy change in tropical regions may be manifested in polar regions through a poleward propagation. This idea does not seem to be
If Ottawa hopes to meet the exceedingly ambitious climate targets it has set for this country, they have to get serious with holdout provinces
Commercial firms specify ATCC strains as controls for rapid identification, minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility panels.
Anaphase lag occurs when the movement of one chromatid is impeded during anaphase. This may be caused by a failure of the ... During anaphase B, polar microtubules push against each other, causing the cell to elongate. In late anaphase, chromosomes also ... In most animal cells, anaphase A precedes anaphase B, but some vertebrate egg cells demonstrate the opposite order of events. ... If the cell successfully passes through the metaphase checkpoint, it proceeds to anaphase. During anaphase A, the cohesins that ...
AnaphaseEdit. Anaphase is a very short stage of the cell cycle and occurs after the chromosomes align at the mitotic plate. ... Kinetochores emit anaphase-inhibition signals until their attachment to the mitotic spindle. Once the final chromosome is ... of the anaphase-promoting complex and its function of tagging degradation of proteins important towards the metaphase-anaphase ... are in a state of instability promoting their progression towards anaphase.[17] At this point, the chromosomes are ready to ...
Anaphase II Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-945962-14-4. .. *^ "ISBN Ranges". isbn-international.org. International ISBN Agency. ...
Rhoades, M. M.; Vilkomerson, H. (1942-10-01). "On the Anaphase Movement of Chromosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
In the anaphase of mitosis, sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite cell poles before the cell divides. ... During anaphase, cohesin is cleaved by separase. Topoisomerase II and condensin are responsible for removing catenations. The ... This is known as a chromatin bridge or an anaphase bridge. Mitotic nondisjunction results in somatic mosaicism, since only ... Only then, SAC releases its inhibition of the anaphase promoting complex (APC), which in turn irreversibly triggers progression ...
The anaphase-mediated distancing of chromosomes from the metaphase plate may trigger spatial cues for the onset of telophase. ... Experimental addition of non-degradable M-cyclin to cells induces cell cycle arrest in a post-anaphase/pre-telophase-like state ... Historically, it has been thought that anaphase and telophase are events that occur passively after satisfaction of the spindle ... The Cdc-14 Early Anaphase Release pathway, which stabilizes the spindle, also releases cdc14 from the nucleolus but restricts ...
After checkpoint deactivation and during the normal anaphase of the cell cycle, the anaphase promoting complex is activated ... Once activated, the spindle checkpoint blocks anaphase entry by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex via regulation of the ... When anaphase onset is triggered, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C or Cyclosome) degrades securin. APC/C is a ring E3 ... Yet in the same study it was shown that, once the transition from metaphase to anaphase is initiated in one part of the cell, ...
Smc3 remains acetylated until at least anaphase. Once cohesin has been removed from the chromatin, Smc3 is deacetylated by Hos1 ...
... which is tightly bound by the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 that is destroyed by the anaphase-promoting complex. In order to verify ... In this theory, anaphase promoting complex (APC), a class of ubiquitin ligase, facilitates degradation of mitotic cyclins (Clb2 ... FEAR (Cdc14 early anaphase release) pathway facilitates Clb2-Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Net1 which transiently releases ... Once cells are in mitosis, cyclin B-Cdk1 activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which in turn inactivates cyclin B- ...
Zhai Y, Kronebusch PJ, Borisy GG (November 1995). "Kinetochore microtubule dynamics and the metaphase-anaphase transition". The ...
Without Cdc20, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) cannot become activated and anaphase is not triggered. Mad2 was shown to ... Entrance into anaphase is mediated by APCCdc20 activation. APCCdc20 is a ubiquitin-protein ligase that tags the protein, ... It is speculated that once formed, Cdc20:Mad2 complexes can amplify the anaphase wait signal by stimulating further conversion ... The spindle checkpoint system is a regulatory system that restrains progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC7 gene. Multiple transcript variants ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC7 anaphase promoting complex subunit 7". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, ... Park KH, Choi SE, Eom M, Kang Y (2006). "Downregulation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)7 in invasive ductal carcinomas ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...
Because this event is most prevalent during anaphase, the term anaphase bridge is often used as a substitute. After the ... Hoffelder D, Luo L, Burke N, Watkins S, Gollin S, Saunders W (2004). "Resolution of anaphase bridges in cancer cells" (PDF). ... Chan KL, Hickson ID (2011). "New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges". Semin Cell Dev ... Kok Lung Chan (October 2011). "New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges". Seminars in Cell ...
A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC4 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC10 gene. ANAPC10 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC10 anaphase promoting complex subunit 10". Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM ... Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (September 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting ... Kurasawa Y, Todokoro K (September 1999). "Identification of human APC10/Doc1 as a subunit of anaphase promoting complex". ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. The anaphase-promoting complex ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ... 1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ...
Hair follicles in anaphase express four different caspases. Significant levels of inflammatory infiltrate have been found in ...
... is one of at least ten subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which functions at the metaphase-to-anaphase ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC1 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit 1". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...
During anaphase, Cdc14 is "uncaged" and spreads to the rest of the cell. Two networks mediate the release of Cdc14 from the ... Cdh1 associates with the APC and leads to APC activity (anaphase promoting complex); activated APC is a key driver in mitotic ... FEAR (Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release) complex proteins, SLK19 and SPO12 regulate the release of Cdc14. The release of ... The abnormality arises due to delay in dissembling of spindle during Anaphase I. However, the segregation of chromosomes ...
The chromosomes move to opposite poles during anaphase and remain attached to the spindle fibers by their centromeres. Animal ... Mitosis includes four phases, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Prophase is the initial phase when spindle fibers ... which forms during early anaphase. Myosin is present in the region of the contractile ring as concentrated microfilaments and ...
The site of cell division is determined before anaphase. The anaphase spindle (in green on the figure) is then positioned so ...
Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytoskeleton Marieb E (2000). Essentials of human anatomy and physiology. ...
20 July - The anaphase-promoting complex - one of the most important and complicated proteins involved in cell division - has ... "Molecular architecture and mechanism of the anaphase-promoting complex". Nature. 513 (7518): 388-393. Bibcode:2014Natur.513.. ...
The chromatids separate and the nuclei elongate in anaphase. This is followed by an increase in vesicles on the inner membrane ...
... is a component of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are ... Chen J, Fang G (2001). "MAD2B is an inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex". Genes Dev. 15 (14): 1765-1770. doi:10.1101/ ...
Anaphase I. The chromosomes are divided so that there are equal amounts on either side of the cell. As there are 46 chromosomes ... Anaphase II. The chromosomes get split into its two chromatids. Chromatids are the two strands of DNA (deoxyribo-nucleic acid) ... Just like mitosis, meiosis includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Prophase I. The chromosomes become visible, ...
She performed in vitro biochemical characterisation of the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and used cryo-EM to ... Structural and functional studies of the anaphase promoting complex (APC). london.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University Of London. ... "Doc1 mediates the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex by contributing to substrate recognition". The EMBO Journal. 22 (4 ... "Structural analysis of the anaphase-promoting complex reveals multiple active sites and insights into polyubiquitylation". ...
This protein acts to regulate microtubule dynamics in cells and is important for anaphase chromosome segregation and may be ... Maney T, Hunter AW, Wagenbach M, Wordeman L (1998). "Mitotic Centromere-associated Kinesin Is Important for Anaphase Chromosome ...
This would be accomplished by regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex, securin, and separase. The ana,ysis of metaphase ... Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytoskeleton "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". Science Daily. ... they are at their most condensed in anaphase). These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the ... does the cell enter anaphase. It is thought that unattached or improperly attached kinetochores generate a signal to prevent ...
Micronuclei form during anaphase from lagging acentric chromosome or chromatid fragments caused by incorrectly repaired or ... Micronuclei formation may also result from chromosome malsegregation during anaphase. Hypomethylation of cytosine in ... or flawed anaphase checkpoint genes. Micronucleus can contribute to genome instability by promoting a catastrophic mutational ... and telomeric end fusions that result in dicentric chromosomes that detach from the spindle during anaphase. Micronuclei ...
DescriptionAnaphase eukaryotic mitosis.svg. Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates. ... File:Anaphase eukaryotic mitosis.svg. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anaphase_eukaryotic_mitosis.svg&oldid=285787542" ...
Anaphase is characterized by two distinct motions. The first of these, anaphase A, moves chromosomes to either pole of a ... Anaphase starts when the anaphase promoting complex marks an inhibitory chaperone called securin for destruction by ... Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Telophase Cytoskeleton Anaphase I Anaphase II Cdc20 "Chromosome condensation through ... Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the process of metaphase, when replicated ...
Gene Ontology Term: anaphase. GO ID. GO:0051322 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. The cell cycle phase, following ...
GO:0031145 anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process GO:0030071 regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important ... The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting ... events in mitosis, such as the initiation of anaphase and exit from telophase. The APC, in conjunction with other enzymes, ...
Apc1 is the largest of the subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. The anaphase-promoting complex is a ... The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy.. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7 644-56 2006 ... Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex.. Gene 262 51-9 2001 ... Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with ...
Anaphase typically is a rapid process that lasts only a few minutes. When the chromosomes have completely migrated to the ... Mitosis: Late Anaphase. Anaphase typically is a rapid process that lasts only a few minutes. When the chromosomes have ... This is the junction between late anaphase and early telophase, the last stage in chromosome division. The photomicrograph ... above shows the positioning of the chromosomes in late anaphase. The polar microtubules are a clearly formed network and the ...
In either case, anaphase lag will cause one daughter cell to receive a complete set of chromosomes while the other lacks one ... Anaphase lag is a consequence of an event during cell division where sister chromatids do not properly separate from each other ... The chromosome or chromatid does not properly migrate during anaphase and the daughter cells will lose some genetic information ... There are two notable mechanisms that cause Anaphase Lag, each of which are characterized by merotelic attachments of ...
Anaphase B synonyms, Anaphase B pronunciation, Anaphase B translation, English dictionary definition of Anaphase B. n. The ... anaphase. (redirected from Anaphase B). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to Anaphase B: Spindle fibers ... Anaphase B - definition of Anaphase B by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Anaphase+B ... anaphase. (ˈænəˌfeɪz) n. 1. (Biology) the third stage of mitosis, during which the chromatids separate and migrate towards ...
On one side theres the whip-crackle percussion and acid tingle of Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase. These elements are ...
Anaphase is a stage in cell division in which two sister copies of DNA break apart and their respective chromosomes migrate to ... The stages before anaphase duplicate the chromosomes in the cell to create a set of chromatids. They also allow the cell to ... Anaphase is a stage in cell division where two sister copies of DNA called chromatids break apart, and their respective ... A phenomenon called anaphase lag can create errors if a chromosome fails to migrate; one daughter cell will have too many ...
Cdc14 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase I during anaphase.. Clemente-Blanco A1, Mayán-Santos M, Schneider DA, Machín F, ... d, Schematic representation of CDC14-dependent rRNA transcription inhibition during yeast anaphase. ... during anaphase. The phosphatase activity of Cdc14 is required for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) inhibition in vitro and in vivo. ...
Since a portion of MAD2 is localized at the kinetochore prior to the metaphase-anaphase transition in HeLa cells (21, 22), it ... MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity. Yong Li, Carlos Gorbea, David Mahaffey ... The metaphase-anaphase transition is monitored by the mitotic checkpoint, which senses spindle aberrations and responds by ... Once activated, this checkpoint arrests cells prior to the metaphase-anaphase transition with unsegregated chromosomes, stable ...
a) Anaphase I in control, KNL-1-depletion and KLP-19 depletion. Scale bar, 5 μm. (b) Kymographs initiated at anaphase I onset; ... Quantification of lagging chromosomes during anaphase I (MI) and anaphase II (MII) is on the right. Scale bar, 5 μm. (c) KLP-19 ... However, in contrast to mitosis, chromosome separation during meiotic anaphase is kinetochore-independent. Before anaphase, ... Ring domain proteins contribute to both pre-anaphase spindle assembly and anaphase separation ...
2006) The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome: A machine designed to destroy. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:644-656. ... 2004) Degradation of the SCF component Skp2 in cell-cycle phase G1 by the anaphase-promoting complex. Nature 428:194-198. ... 2001) Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of human cyclin A starts at the beginning of mitosis and is ... Ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is essential for proliferation in all eukaryotes. The human APC/C ...
Associations of Anaphase with chemical compounds. *Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in ... Gene context of Anaphase. *An ESP1/PDS1 complex regulates loss of sister chromatid cohesion at the metaphase to anaphase ... Proteolysis of CLB2 is initiated in early anaphase, but a fraction of CLB2 remains stable until anaphase is complete [25]. ... Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anaphase. *We have studied microtubule behavior in late anaphase and ...
... anaphase) until all of its chromosomes are properly aligned on the metaphase plate, with the two copies of each chromosome at ... Anaphase / genetics*. Animals. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Chromatids / genetics. Chromosome Segregation / ... anaphase) until all of its chromosomes are properly aligned on the metaphase plate, with the two copies of each chromosome ... but during anaphase, these same tensionless chromosomes can no longer activate the checkpoint. These and other puzzles ...
Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ...
Maria M. Viveiros, Marilyn OBrien, and John J. Eppig "Protein Kinase C Activity Regulates the Onset of Anaphase I in Mouse ... The metaphase-to-anaphase I transition is a key step in the completion of meiosis I. In mouse oocytes, competence to exit ... These data demonstrate that PKC plays an important role in regulating the onset of anaphase I in mouse oocytes. Moreover, it is ... Maria M. Viveiros, Marilyn OBrien, John J. Eppig "Protein Kinase C Activity Regulates the Onset of Anaphase I in Mouse Oocytes ...
CDC20 overexpression was also able to overcome the anaphase delay caused by high levels of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p, but ... Dominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase. Eric J. Schott and M. Andrew Hoyt ... Dominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase. Eric J. Schott and M. Andrew Hoyt ... Dominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase. Eric J. Schott and M. Andrew Hoyt ...
Anaphase Is the Subject Area "Anaphase" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4Add BLAST. 807. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... anaphase-promoting complex Source: UniProtKB. *nuclear periphery Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori ... anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p ...
Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... sp,Q5ZKK3,APC5_CHICK Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 OS=Gallus gallus OX=9031 GN=ANAPC5 PE=2 SV=1 ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5Add BLAST. 756. ,p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords ...
View mouse Anapc1 Chr2:128610104-128687391 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
This leads to the inhibition of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), which is the ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting ...
The four main phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. - Stock Image C017/4204 ... anaphase. No magnification given. Mitosis, the usual method of cell division, characterized typically by the resolving of the ... Keywords: anaphase, biology, cell, cell anatomy, cell division, cell structure, cellular, cellular division, cytology, electron ... Caption: Color enhanced transmission electron micrograph showing mitosis - anaphase. No magnification given. Mitosis, the usual ...
Anaphase II precedes telophase II. Meiotic anaphase II is similar to the anaphase in mitosis. Both mitotic anaphase and meiotic ... These are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Each of these phases is designated as I or II depending where it occurs ... Anaphase II is the third stage in meiosis II. It is the stage after metaphase II, which is that phase wherein the chromosomes ... Anaphase II is the stage when sister chromatids of every chromosome separate and begin to move towards the opposite ends of the ...
Compare anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely ... Guinea pig Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 (ANAPC5) ELISA Kit MyBioSource.com ... Your search returned 12 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 (ANAPC13) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick This gene encodes a component of the anaphase ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 Antikörper * 21 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 (ANAPC13) Antikörper. ANAPC13 encodes a component of the anaphase promoting complex ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 Interaktionspartner. Cow (Bovine) Anaphase Promoting Complex ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase- ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Antikörper * 131 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper. ANAPC1 encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Interaktionspartner. Human Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ( ...
Geley, S., E. Kramer, C. Gieffers, J. Gannon, J. M. Peters et al., 2001 Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent ... Peters, J. M., 2006 The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7: 644- ... Shirayama, M., A. Toth, M. Galova and K. Nasmyth, 1999 APC(Cdc20) promotes exit from mitosis by destroying the anaphase ... Acquaviva, C., and J. Pines, 2006 The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome: APC/C. J. Cell Sci. 119: 2401-2404. ...
  • Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the process of metaphase, when replicated chromosomes are split and the newly-copied chromosomes (daughter chromatids) are moved to opposite poles of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important events in mitosis, such as the initiation of anaphase and exit from telophase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex is a multiprotein subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that controls segregation of chromosomes and exit from mitosis in eukaryotes [ PMID: 11179667 , PMID: 16896351 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In mitosis, anaphase is preceded by metaphase and followed by telophase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In successful mitosis, anaphase allows the cell to create two identical copies. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, in contrast to mitosis, chromosome separation during meiotic anaphase is kinetochore-independent. (nih.gov)
  • Soon after anaphase onset, Cdc20 is degraded and replaced by Cdh1, which maintains APC/C activity during late mitosis and early G1 ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome ( APC /C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (rcsb.org)
  • Color enhanced transmission electron micrograph showing mitosis - anaphase. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Meiotic anaphase II is similar to the anaphase in mitosis . (biology-online.org)
  • APC/C function is critical for progression through mitosis where it degrades Pds1 (securin in higher eukaryotic cells) and other substrates to promote anaphase and the exit from mitosis ( P ines 2006 ). (genetics.org)
  • Not surprisingly, genetic studies of yeast mitosis suggest that the transition out of metaphase and through anaphase is highly regulated both in terms of the sequence of events and the existence of checkpoint regulators. (rupress.org)
  • Chromosome segregation in most animal cells is brought about through two events: the movement of the chromosomes to the poles (anaphase A) and the movement of the poles away from each other (anaphase B). Essential to an understanding of the mechanism of mitosis is information on the relative movements of components of the spindle and identification of sites of subunit loss from shortening microtubules. (rupress.org)
  • The proteolytic events triggered by the APC are required to release sister chromatid cohesion during anaphase, to control the exit from mitosis and to prevent premature entry into S-phase. (portlandpress.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that a major role of Plk1 in exit from mitosis is the regulation of inhibitors of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), such as the early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) and spindle checkpoint proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anaphase , from the ancient Greek "ἀνά" (up) and "φάσις" (stage), is the stage of mitosis when chromosome s separate in a eukaryotic cell . (academic.ru)
  • anaphase - The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes move from the equatorial plate toward the poles of the cell. (academic.ru)
  • In the cell cycle, timing of events from exit of mitosis through passage into G 1 is regulated by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), an enzyme that catalyzes ubiquitin conjugation to multiple lysines on substrate molecules, for proteasome-mediated degradation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mitotic exit and onset of endoreduplication do not correlate with an up-regulation of known cell cycle inhibitors but are the result of reduced levels of DP-E2F-LIKE1/E2Fe and UV-B-INSENSITIVE4, both inhibitors of the developmental transition from mitosis to endoreduplication by modulating anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activity, which are down-regulated rapidly after DELLA stabilization. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The steady-state levels of Ase1p are regulated in a manner that is consistent with a function during anaphase: they are low in G1, accumulate to maximal levels after S phase and then drop as cells exit mitosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A specific role for CDC55 was supported by demonstrating that the lethality of Cdc6 ectopic expression in a cdc16-264 mutant is suppressed by the deletion of CDC55, that endogenous Cdc6p coimmunoprecipitates with the Cdc55 and Tpd3 subunits of PP2A, that Cdc6p/Cdc55p/Tpd3 interaction occurs only during mitosis, and that Cdc6 affects PP2A-Cdc55 activity during anaphase. (caltech.edu)
  • The mitotic checkpoint, or spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is the major cell cycle control mechanism to delay the onset of anaphase during mitosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whereas APC/C CDC20 initiates the metaphase-anaphase transition, APC/C FZR1 promotes exit from mitosis and prevents premature entry into the S phase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Spindle elongation in anaphase of mitosis is a cell cycle-regulated process that requires coordination between polymerization, cross-linking, and sliding of microtubules (MTs). (rupress.org)
  • The aim of this protocol is to provide a comprehensive description of the materials, equipment and reproducible methods to detect and analyze anaphase bridges in immunofluorescence microscopy using DAPI to detect cells that failed to completely segregate during mitosis. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Anaphase is a stage in the process of cell division, which happens in both mitosis and meiosis. (knowswhy.com)
  • The metaphase to anaphase transition during mitosis is triggered by the destruction of mitotic cyclins. (reactome.org)
  • We find that intermediates persist until mitosis and form a distinct class of anaphase bridges, which we term homologous recombination ultra-fine bridges (HR-UFBs). (crick.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 represent an important checkpoint in mitosis. (vub.be)
  • In the present review, we discuss the nature of the cohesive forces that hold sister chromatids together, the mechanisms that trigger their physical separation, and the anaphase-specific changes that ensure proper segregation of single chromatids during the later stages of mitosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Once anaphase is complete, the cell moves into telophase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the junction between late anaphase and early telophase , the last stage in chromosome division. (fsu.edu)
  • It starts with interphase , moves into prophase, and is followed by metaphase to prepare for anaphase, ending in telophase. (wisegeek.com)
  • These are prophase , metaphase , anaphase and telophase . (biology-online.org)
  • Anaphase II precedes telophase II . (biology-online.org)
  • Legend: This Image shows that the transition from Anaphase to telophase can take 2 pathways.It dictates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) or a 'short cut' known as mitotic slippage. (edu.au)
  • This image depicts his or her simplistic interpretation of the 2 pathways from anaphase to telophase transition. (edu.au)
  • It begins with the regulated triggering of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metaphase to anaphase transition is a critical stage of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and, thus, it is highly regulated. (rupress.org)
  • We have named this class of mutants " mat " for metaphase to anaphase transition defective. (rupress.org)
  • Accurate chromosome segregation during the metaphase to anaphase transition is essential for proper cell function, since errors in chromosome segregation can lead to cell death, sterility, birth defects, or malignant cancers. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, Plk1 and the APC/C control mitotic regulators by both phosphorylation and targeted ubiquitylation to ensure the fidelity of chromosome separation at the metaphase to anaphase transition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells have solved this 'anaphase problem' by disabling the mitotic checkpoint at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Apc1 is the largest of the subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here we report that upon activation of the mitotic checkpoint, MAD2, an essential component of the mitotic checkpoint, associates with the cyclin B-ubiquitin ligase, known as the cyclosome or anaphase-promoting complex. (pnas.org)
  • The cyclin B-Ub ligase, also termed the cyclosome or anaphase-promoting complex (APC), has recently been isolated and shown to be required for cyclin B ubiquitination in vitro ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The cyclosome/APC is composed of at least eight subunits including the BIME, CDC16, CDC23 , and CDC27 gene products, which are required for the metaphase-anaphase transition ( 4 , 9 , 11 , 12 , 14 - 16 ), providing further evidence that the cyclosome is involved in the degradation of the inhibitor(s) of this transition as well as cyclin B ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Once activated, the mitotic checkpoint arrests the cell cycle prior to the metaphase-anaphase transition with unsegregated chromosomes and high levels of cyclin B, suggesting that the cyclosome might be the target of the response pathway. (pnas.org)
  • The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is the E3 subunit of an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme composed of at least thirteen subunits that targets proteins for proteolysis during the cell cycle ( P eters 2006 ). (genetics.org)
  • These mutants, representing six different complementation groups, all map near genes that encode subunits of the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome, and, here, we show that one of the genes, emb-27 , encodes the C. elegans CDC16 ortholog. (rupress.org)
  • Driving the process forward is a multiprotein E3-ubiquitin ligase complex known as the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) that functions to sequentially target key cellular components for proteolytic destruction ( Zachariae and Nasmyth 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • INTRODUCTION: The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase involved in regulation of the cell cycle through ubiquitination-dependent substrate proteolysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The ubiquitin E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) drives degradation of cell cycle regulators in cycling cells by associating with the coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1. (nih.gov)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here, cryo-EM and biochemistry show that the human E3 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its two partner E2s, UBE2C (aka UBCH10) and UBE2S, adopt specialized catalytic architectures for these two distinct forms of polyubiquitination. (rcsb.org)
  • One of the key regulators of the SAC is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) which ubiquitinates cyclin B and securin and targets them for proteolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two multisubunit RING ubiquitin E3-ligases, the SKP1-CUL1-F-box-protein (SCF) complex and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), are responsible for the ubiquitylation of many cell-cycle regulators. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. (sciencemag.org)
  • TAME is a small molecule anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) inhibitor. (csnpharm.cn)
  • TAME hydrochloride is an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C or APC), which binds to APC/C and prevents its activation by Cdc20 and Cdh1, produces mitotic arrest[1]. (csnpharm.cn)
  • Anaphase lag is a consequence of an event during cell division where sister chromatids do not properly separate from each other because of improper spindle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stag2 encodes a cohesin protein responsible for holding sister chromatids together pre-anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaphase II is the stage when sister chromatids of every chromosome separate and begin to move towards the opposite ends of the cell. (biology-online.org)
  • Both mitotic anaphase and meiotic anaphase II involves the separation of sister chromatids towards the opposite poles of the cell. (biology-online.org)
  • Centromeres move apart at the metaphase-anaphase transition and Cyclin B is degraded, but sister chromatids remain connected, resulting in chromatin bridging. (nih.gov)
  • Optical trapping of severed chromosome ends suggests this strain arises from a physical element which links sister chromatids during early anaphase. (osapublishing.org)
  • AnaphaseDuring anaphase, sister chromatids separate to opposite sides of the cell. (glogster.com)
  • Harrison BD, Hoang ML, Bloom K (2009) Persistent mechanical linkage between sister chromatids throughout anaphase. (springer.com)
  • Anaphase-B spindle elongation is the final phase of bipolar spindle morphogenesis, during which the spindle elongates dramatically, as much as two to five times its pre-anaphase length, thus spatially separating sister chromatids. (biologists.org)
  • Mitotic checkpoint inactivation at anaphase onset is required to prevent checkpoint re-engagement when sister chromatids split. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In this report, we review recent advances in our knowledge of how the complex process of chromosome segregation is coupled with cell cycle progression, and starts at onset of anaphase with sister chromatids separation of the replicated chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • For various reasons this process can be dysfunctional and as a result the sister chromatids are connected by DNA bridges, which most frequently happens during anaphase. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The chromosomes in anaphase 1 separate to opposite poles while the sister chromatids are together. (knowswhy.com)
  • Anaphase 1 leads to the separation of chromosomes while anaphase 2 leads to the separation of two sister chromatids. (knowswhy.com)
  • Once activated, this checkpoint arrests cells prior to the metaphase-anaphase transition with unsegregated chromosomes, stable cyclin B, and elevated M phase promoting factor activity. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, MAD2 links the mitotic checkpoint pathway to the cyclin B destruction machinery which is critical in controlling the metaphase-anaphase transition. (pnas.org)
  • The metaphase-anaphase transition is monitored by the mitotic checkpoint, which senses spindle aberrations and responds by arresting the cell cycle, thereby preventing aberrant chromosome segregation ( 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • The metaphase-to-anaphase I transition is a key step in the completion of meiosis I. In mouse oocytes, competence to exit metaphase I (MI) is developmentally regulated and typically not acquired until the preovulatory stage. (bioone.org)
  • Detailed research revealed that the involvement of Plk1 is crucial for the metaphase-anaphase transition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mechanisms that control the transition between the fast and slow anaphase-B phases have not yet been elucidated. (biologists.org)
  • Unequal inheritance of chromosomes (aneuploidy) is a cause of a number of disorders, particularly in humans, even though eukaryotic cells can arrest or delay the transition from metaphase to anaphase if an event critical to the completion of metaphase is impaired. (springer.com)
  • and the metaphase/anaphase transition is regulated by an APC activating enzyme (AAE). (cellml.org)
  • Time is in seconds relative to anaphase I onset. (nih.gov)
  • In both systems, transient suppression of endogenous PKC activity by treatment with a PKC-specific inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM), promoted the onset of anaphase I in a dose-dependent manner, while activation of PKC with the phorbol ester TPA blocked progression to MII. (bioone.org)
  • These data demonstrate that PKC plays an important role in regulating the onset of anaphase I in mouse oocytes. (bioone.org)
  • Previous studies indicated that loss of CDC20 function caused cell cycle arrest prior to the onset of anaphase. (genetics.org)
  • The SAC prevents the onset of anaphase by stabilizing Pds1 by inhibiting APC Cdc20 activity, allowing time for establishment of proper attachment, orientation, and alignment of chromosomes ( L ew and B urke 2003 ). (genetics.org)
  • Deletion of SLK19 , but not SPO12 , eliminated the mid-anaphase pause, caused premature anaphase onset and defects in DNA division during anaphase, and reduced viability in these cells. (biologists.org)
  • The mitotic checkpoint monitors the attachment of kinetochores to microtubules and delays anaphase onset until all sister kinetochores have become attached to opposite poles. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In this review we focus on a poorly understood but important aspect of mitotic control: what prevents the mitotic checkpoint from springing into action when sister centromeres are split and tension is suddenly lost at anaphase onset? (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • A combination of different forces have been observed acting on chromatids in anaphase A, but the primary force is exerted centrally. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, Activation of the Anaphase-promoting complex (APC) causes the APC to cleave the M-phase cyclin and the inhibitory protein securin which activates the separase protease to cleave the cohesin subunits holding the chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaphase is a stage in cell division where two sister copies of DNA called chromatids break apart, and their respective chromosomes migrate to the ends of the cell. (wisegeek.com)
  • The stages before anaphase duplicate the chromosomes in the cell to create a set of chromatids. (wisegeek.com)
  • The first step of anaphase involves the deployment of proteins to cleave the chromatids. (wisegeek.com)
  • We propose that this association is required for proper chromosomal segregation by facilitating the decatenation of chromatids at anaphase. (nih.gov)
  • During early anaphase (or Anaphase A) the chromatids abruptly separate and move towards the spindle poles. (academic.ru)
  • When the chromatids are fully separated late anaphase (or Anaphase B) begins. (academic.ru)
  • In anaphase 2, the arrangement of the chromatids plates is rotated about 90 degrees relative to the arrangement in anaphase 1. (knowswhy.com)
  • Upon entry into anaphase, however, the linkages that hold the two sister DNAs must be rapidly destroyed to allow physical separation of chromatids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Anaphase cells must therefore possess mechanisms that ensure faithful segregation of single chromatids that are now attached stably to the spindle in a manner no longer dependent on tension. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The first of these, anaphase A, moves chromosomes to either pole of a dividing cell (marked by centrosomes, from which mitotic microtubules are generated and organised). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two notable mechanisms that cause Anaphase Lag, each of which are characterized by merotelic attachments of kinetochores to the microtubules responsible for chromatid separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before anaphase, meiotic kinetochores and spindle poles disassemble along with the microtubules on the poleward side of chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • During anaphase, microtubules then form between the separating chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • In anaphase A, chromosomes moved on kinetochore microtubules that remained stationary with respect to the near pole. (rupress.org)
  • In anaphase B, the kinetochore fiber microtubules accompanied the near pole in its movement away from the opposite pole. (rupress.org)
  • These results eliminate models of anaphase in which microtubules are thought to be traction elements that are drawn to and depolymerized at the pole. (rupress.org)
  • Our results are compatible with models of anaphase in which the kinetochore fiber microtubules remain anchored at the pole and in which microtubule dynamics are centered at the kinetochore. (rupress.org)
  • As the condensed chromosomes attach to spindle microtubules and become properly aligned at the metaphase plate, a large multisubunit ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) becomes activated and degrades cyclin B ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Early anaphase involves shortening kinetochore microtubules by depolymerization at both ends. (academic.ru)
  • Late anaphase involves both the elongation of overlap microtubules and the use of two distinct sets of motor proteins: one of these pulls overlap microtubules past each other, the other pulls on astral microtubules that have attached to the cell cortex. (academic.ru)
  • Chromosomes also reach their overall maximum condensation in late anaphase, to help chromosome segregation and the re-formation of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The photomicrograph above shows the positioning of the chromosomes in late anaphase. (fsu.edu)
  • (c) KLP-19 depletion causes increased chromosome dispersal in late anaphase that is correlated with spindle instability at this stage. (nih.gov)
  • The contributions of early anaphase and late anaphase to anaphase as a whole vary with cell type. (academic.ru)
  • We also examined the effects of components of the FEAR pathway, which is involved in the early-anaphase activation of Cdc14 regulatory phosphatase, on anaphase spindle elongation in kip1 Δ cin8-F467A cells. (biologists.org)
  • a process that is governed by the FEAR (Cdc fourteen early anaphase release) pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Spo12 activation during early anaphase antagonizes the Fob1 functions, thus promoting the release of Cdc14 from the nucleolus. (biologists.org)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin- and dynein-related proteins required for anaphase chromosome segregation. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, the roles of these motor proteins in anaphase chromosome segregation were examined. (rupress.org)
  • Our findings indicate that the bulk of anaphase chromosome segregation in S. cerevisiae is accomplished by the combined actions of these three motors. (rupress.org)
  • The mitotic checkpoint prevents a eukaryotic cell from commencing to separate its replicated genome into two daughter cells (anaphase) until all of its chromosomes are properly aligned on the metaphase plate, with the two copies of each chromosome attached to opposite poles of the mitotic spindle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CDC20 overexpression was also able to overcome the anaphase delay caused by high levels of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p, but not a mutant form immune to anaphase-promoting complex- (APC-)mediated proteolysis. (genetics.org)
  • CDC20 overexpression was unable to promote anaphase in cells deficient in APC function. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, overriding of the pre-anaphase checkpoint by overexpression of Cdc20 also eliminated the mid-anaphase pause and caused DNA deformation during anaphase in kip1 Δ cin8 - F467A cells. (biologists.org)
  • TAME is a potent ubiquitin ligase inhibitor that specifically blocks Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) activation by directly binding to APC and disrupts the IR-tail-dependent interactions between APC and its activator proteins Cdc20 or Cdh1. (merckmillipore.com)
  • A kinetochore-independent mechanism drives anaphase chromosome separation during acentrosomal meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • Anaphase II is the third stage in meiosis II . (biology-online.org)
  • In these mutant embryos, the oocyte chromosomes arrest in metaphase of meiosis I without transitioning to anaphase or producing polar bodies. (rupress.org)
  • The activation of Smk1 by Ssp2 is positively regulated by a meiosis-specific coactivator of the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ama1. (asm.org)
  • Anaphase 1 occurs in diploid cells during meiosis 1while anaphase 2 happens in haploid cells during meiosis 2. (knowswhy.com)
  • Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ANAPC1 encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The mitotic checkpoint is also curious in the sense that, before metaphase alignment, chromosomes that are not being pulled in opposite directions by the mitotic spindle activate the checkpoint, but during anaphase, these same tensionless chromosomes can no longer activate the checkpoint. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The activity of APC is highly regulated by checkpoint mechanisms that prevent APC activation and entry into anaphase ( 15 , 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We propose that transient activation of the pre-anaphase checkpoint in kinesin-5-mutated cells induces a Slk19-dependent mid-anaphase pause, which might be important for proper DNA segregation. (biologists.org)
  • The second motion, anaphase B, involves the separation of these poles from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through use of tubulin derivatized with X-rhodamine, photobleaching, and digital imaging microscopy of living cells, we directly determined the relative movements of poles, chromosomes, and a marked domain on kinetochore fibers during anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we report that PSMA is localized to a membrane compartment in the vicinity of mitotic spindle poles and associates with the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anaphase B drives separation of the sister centrosomes to their opposite poles through three forces. (academic.ru)
  • The pole-kinetochore MTs interact at their plus end with kinetochores and move chromosomes to the spindle poles (anaphase A). The pole-pole MTs interdigitate in the middle of the spindle, thereby defining a spatially restricted region known as the central spindle or spindle midzone, and segregate chromosomes by elongating the spindle (anaphase B). (rupress.org)
  • M. D. Ono, D. Preece, M. L. Duquette, and M. W. Berns, "Mitotic Tethers Connect Sister Chromosomes During Anaphase A in PtK2 Cells," in Optics in the Life Sciences Congress , OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper OtM4E.4. (osapublishing.org)
  • Forer A, Duquette M, Paliulis LV, Fegaras E, Ono M, Preece D, Berns M (2017) Elastic 'tethers' connect separating anaphase chromosomes in a broad range of animal cells. (springer.com)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/746302/all/anaphase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Functional analysis implicated a set of proteins that localize to a ring-shaped domain between kinetochores during pre-anaphase spindle assembly and anaphase separation. (nih.gov)
  • This leads to the inhibition of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), which is the ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting mitotic proteins: securing and cyclin B for degradation by the 26S proteasome. (bl.uk)
  • The anaphase promoting complex (APC) targets proteins for degradation to promote progression through the cell cycle. (genetics.org)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
  • We examined spindle elongation in anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells mutated for the kinesin-5 motor proteins Cin8 and Kip1. (biologists.org)
  • However, the mechanisms by which kinesin-5 motor proteins perform their anaphase spindle-elongation functions are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Failure to dephosphorylate Ase1 delocalizes midzone proteins and delays the second, slower phase of anaphase B. In contrast, in cells expressing nonphosphorylated Ase1, anaphase spindle extension is faster, and spindles frequently break. (rupress.org)
  • Entry into anaphase and proteolysis of B-type cyclins depend on a complex containing the tetratricopeptide repeat proteins Cdc16p, Cdc23p, and Cdc27p. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the presence of excess Nup96, [they] observed a slight delay from metaphase to anaphase and from anaphase to cytokinesis (Table 1). (harvard.edu)
  • They] show, in Table 1, that increased levels of Nup96 had modest effects on mitotic timing in NRK cells causing a slight acceleration from NEBD to metaphase and from anaphase to cytokinesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we show that Cdc14, a protein phosphatase required for nucleolar segregation and mitotic exit, inhibits transcription of yeast ribosomal genes (rDNA) during anaphase. (nih.gov)
  • An important step leading to spindle midzone assembly is the dephosphorylation of Ase1 by the protein phosphatase Cdc14 at the beginning of anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • Infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) leads to cell cycle dysregulation, which is associated with the inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex [ PMID: 17942546 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ANAPC13 encodes a component of the anaphase promoting complex, a large ubiquitin-protein ligase that controls cell cycle progression by regulating the degradation of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an essential regulator of the cell cycle from metaphase until S phase in yeast and metazoans. (elsevier.com)
  • The Anaphase-Promoting Complex Inhibitor, TAME, also referenced under CAS 1784-03-8, controls the biological activity of Anaphase-Promoting Complex. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The chromosome or chromatid does not properly migrate during anaphase and the daughter cells will lose some genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with the phosphorylation of Cdh1 and the dissociation and relocalization of APC subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cdc14 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase I during anaphase. (nih.gov)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 Proteine (9) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Targeting the cyclin E-Cdk-2 complex, but not Cdk-1, resulted in marked growth inhibition through the induction of multipolar anaphases triggering apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Induction of multipolar anaphases leading to anaphase catastrophe is a previously unrecognized mechanism engaged by targeting the cyclin E-Cdk-2 complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a multiprotein complex with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is required for ubiquitination of securin and cyclin-B. Several APC-targeting molecules are reported to be oncogenes. (coloproctol.org)
  • Anaphase starts when the anaphase promoting complex marks an inhibitory chaperone called securin for destruction by ubiquinylating it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is essential for proliferation in all eukaryotes. (pnas.org)
  • The essential RING-E3 anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a key regulator of cell division in eukaryotes ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Your search returned 12 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • The encoded protein is evolutionarily conserved and is required for the integrity and ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Targeting the anaphase promoting complex: common pathways for viral infection and cancer therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? (portlandpress.com)
  • At this point the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) becomes activated. (academic.ru)
  • How is Anaphase Promoting Complex abbreviated? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They visualized the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a ubiquitin ligase critical for control of the cell division cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ectopic expression of Cdc6p results in mitotic delay, and this has been attributed to Cdc6p-mediated inhibition of Cdc28 protein kinase and failure to activate the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (caltech.edu)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic progression [ 1 2 ]. (coloproctol.org)
  • Indication Target/marker/pathway Summary Licensing status Publication and contact information Cancer Cancer Anaphase promoting complex (ANAPC) An in vitro study suggests that a small molecule that inhibits the ANAPC to induce mitotic arrest could help treat. (biocentury.com)
  • Here, we report that CySCs divide asymmetrically through repositioning the mitotic spindle around anaphase. (biologists.org)
  • Cells must avoid premature activation of APC/C and precocious exit from metaphase, because once chromosomes separate during anaphase, defects stemming from misaligned or stray chromosomes can no longer be corrected. (rupress.org)
  • Microtubule dynamics and chromosome motion visualized in living anaphase cells. (rupress.org)
  • Recent work shows that targeted inhibition of these pathways prevents centrosome clustering and forces chromosomes to segregate to multiple daughter cells, an event triggering apoptosis that we refer to as anaphase catastrophe. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anaphase catastrophe specifically kills tumor cells with more than two centrosomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anaphase catastrophe is a previously unrecognized mechanism that can be pharmacologically induced for apoptotic death of cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acilan, Ceyda is the author of 'Chromosomal Segregation Defects In Cancer Cells Formation Of Anaphase Bridges And Multipolar Spindles', published 2008 under ISBN 9783639106770 and ISBN 3639106776. (valorebooks.com)
  • We found that, in kinesin-5-mutated cells, predominantly in kip1 Δ cin8-F467A cells, anaphase spindle elongation was frequently interrupted after the fast phase, resulting in a mid-anaphase pause. (biologists.org)
  • In S. cerevisiae cells, anaphase-B spindle elongation proceeds in two phases. (biologists.org)
  • After anaphase 2, the cell can then completely separate into daughter cells, which results in four daughter cells at the end of the division. (knowswhy.com)
  • Moreover, degradation of hyperactive Plk1 T210D is impaired, suggesting that Plk1 inactivation during anaphase may be required for its timely degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Especially chromosomal fragile sites are associated with anaphase bridges ( e.g ., unprotected and unstable telomeres). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc15 mutants arrested at a late stage in anaphase are rescued by Xenopus cDNAs encoding N-ras or a protein with beta-transducin repeats. (asm.org)
  • Anaphase I - The meiotic spindle pulls the pairs of chromosomes apart. (coursepics.com)
  • The second part of anaphase is driven by its own distinct mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)

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