Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Dominica: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Dictionaries, MedicalChromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Mediator Complex: A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Maus Elberfeld virus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

Evidence for a relatively random array of human chromosomes on the mitotic ring. (1/1090)

We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to study the positions of human chromosomes on the mitotic rings of cultured human lymphocytes, MRC-5 fibroblasts, and CCD-34Lu fibroblasts. The homologous chromosomes of all three cell types had relatively random positions with respect to each other on the mitotic rings of prometaphase rosettes and anaphase cells. Also, the positions of the X and Y chromosomes, colocalized with the somatic homologues in male cells, were highly variable from one mitotic ring to another. Although random chromosomal positions were found in different pairs of CCD-34Lu and MRC-5 late-anaphases, the separations between the same homologous chromosomes in paired late-anaphase and telophase chromosomal masses were highly correlated. Thus, although some loose spatial associations of chromosomes secondary to interphase positioning may exist on the mitotic rings of some cells, a fixed order of human chromosomes and/or a rigorous separation of homologous chromosomes on the mitotic ring are not necessary for normal mitosis. Furthermore, the relative chromosomal positions on each individual metaphase plate are most likely carried through anaphase into telophase.  (+info)

Ctf19p: A novel kinetochore protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a potential link between the kinetochore and mitotic spindle. (2/1090)

A genetic synthetic dosage lethality (SDL) screen using CTF13 encoding a known kinetochore protein as the overexpressed reference gene identified two chromosome transmission fidelity (ctf) mutants, YCTF58 and YCTF26. These mutant strains carry independent alleles of a novel gene, which we have designated CTF19. In light of its potential role in kinetochore function, we have cloned and characterized the CTF19 gene in detail. CTF19 encodes a nonessential 369-amino acid protein. ctf19 mutant strains display a severe chromosome missegregation phenotype, are hypersensitive to benomyl, and accumulate at G2/M in cycling cells. CTF19 genetically interacts with kinetochore structural mutants and mitotic checkpoint mutants. In addition, ctf19 mutants show a defect in the ability of centromeres on minichromosomes to bind microtubules in an in vitro assay. In vivo cross-linking and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that Ctf19p specifically interacts with CEN DNA. Furthermore, Ctf19-HAp localizes to the nuclear face of the spindle pole body and genetically interacts with a spindle-associated protein. We propose that Ctf19p is part of a macromolecular kinetochore complex, which may function as a link between the kinetochore and the mitotic spindle.  (+info)

Phosphorylation-induced rearrangement of the histone H3 NH2-terminal domain during mitotic chromosome condensation. (3/1090)

The NH2-terminal domain (N-tail) of histone H3 has been implicated in chromatin compaction and its phosphorylation at Ser10 is tightly correlated with mitotic chromosome condensation. We have developed one mAb that specifically recognizes histone H3 N-tails phosphorylated at Ser10 (H3P Ab) and another that recognizes phosphorylated and unphosphorylated H3 N-tails equally well (H3 Ab). Immunocytochemistry with the H3P Ab shows that Ser10 phosphorylation begins in early prophase, peaks before metaphase, and decreases during anaphase and telophase. Unexpectedly, the H3 Ab shows stronger immunofluorescence in mitosis than interphase, indicating that the H3 N-tail is more accessible in condensed mitotic chromatin than in decondensed interphase chromatin. In vivo ultraviolet laser cross-linking indicates that the H3 N-tail is bound to DNA in interphase cells and that binding is reduced in mitotic cells. Treatment of mitotic cells with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine causes histone H3 dephosphorylation and chromosome decondensation. It also decreases the accessibility of the H3 N-tail to H3 Ab and increases the binding of the N-tail to DNA. These results indicate that a phosphorylation-dependent weakening of the association between the H3 N-tail and DNA plays a role in mitotic chromosome condensation.  (+info)

ASH1 mRNA localization in yeast involves multiple secondary structural elements and Ash1 protein translation. (4/1090)

Localization of ASH1 mRNA to the distal cortex of daughter but not mother cells at the end of anaphase is responsible for the two cells' differential mating-type switching during the subsequent cell cycle. This localization depends on actin filaments and a type V myosin (She1/Myo4). The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of ASH1 mRNA is reportedly capable of directing heterologous RNAs to a mother cell's bud [1] [2]. Surprisingly, however, its replacement has little or no effect on the localisation of ASH1 mRNA. We show here that, unlike all other known localization sequences that have been found in 3' UTRs, all the elements involved in ASH1 mRNA localization are located at least partly within its coding region. A 77 nucleotide region stretching from 7 nucleotides 5' to 67 nucleotides 3' of the stop codon of ASH1 mRNA is sufficient to localize mRNAs to buds; the secondary structure of this region, in particular two stems, is important for its localizing activity. Two regions entirely within coding sequences, both sufficient to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP) mRNA to growing buds, are necessary for ASH1 mRNA localization during anaphase. These three regions can anchor GFP mRNA to the distal cortex of daughter cells only inefficiently. The tight anchoring of ASH1 mRNA to the cortex of the daughter cell depends on translation of the carboxy-terminal sequences of Ash1 protein.  (+info)

Structural elements required for the localization of ASH1 mRNA and of a green fluorescent protein reporter particle in vivo. (5/1090)

The sorting of the Ash1 protein to the daughter nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in late anaphase of the budding cycle correlates with the localization of ASH1 mRNA at the bud tip [1] [2]. Although the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of ASH1 is sufficient to localize a reporter mRNA, it is not necessary, a result which indicates that other sequences are involved [1]. We report the identification of three additional cis-acting elements in the coding region. Each element alone, when fused to a lacZ reporter gene, was sufficient for the localization of the lacZ mRNA reporter to the bud. A fine-structure analysis of the 3' UTR element showed that its function in mRNA localization did not depend on a specific sequence but on the secondary and tertiary structure of a minimal 118 nucleotide stem-loop. Mutations in the stem-loop that affect the localization of the lacZ mRNA reporter also affected the formation of the localization particles, in living cells, composed of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) complexed with lacZ-ASH1-3' UTR mRNA [3]. A specific stem-loop in the 3' UTR of the ASH1 mRNA is therefore required for both localization and particle formation, suggesting that complex formation is part of the localization mechanism. An analysis on one of the coding-region elements revealed a comparable stem-loop structure with similar functional requirements.  (+info)

The Pds1 anaphase inhibitor and Mec1 kinase define distinct checkpoints coupling S phase with mitosis in budding yeast. (6/1090)

In most eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is confined to S phase of the cell cycle [1]. During this interval, S-phase checkpoint controls restrain mitosis until replication is complete [2]. In budding yeast, the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p has been associated with the checkpoint arrest of mitosis when DNA is damaged or when mitotic spindles have formed aberrantly [3] [4], but not when DNA replication is blocked with hydroxyurea (HU). Previous studies have implicated the protein kinase Mec1p in S-phase checkpoint control [5]. Unlike mec1 mutants, pds1 mutants efficiently inhibit anaphase when replication is blocked. This does not, however, exclude an essential S-phase checkpoint function of Pds1 beyond the early S-phase arrest point of a HU block. Here, we show that Pds1p is an essential component of a previously unsuspected checkpoint control system that couples the completion of S phase with mitosis. Further, the S-phase checkpoint comprises at least two distinct pathways. A Mec1p-dependent pathway operates early in S phase, but a Pds1p-dependent pathway becomes essential part way through S phase.  (+info)

The maize homologue of the cell cycle checkpoint protein MAD2 reveals kinetochore substructure and contrasting mitotic and meiotic localization patterns. (7/1090)

We have identified a maize homologue of yeast MAD2, an essential component in the spindle checkpoint pathway that ensures metaphase is complete before anaphase begins. Combined immunolocalization of MAD2 and a recently cloned maize CENPC homologue indicates that MAD2 localizes to an outer domain of the prometaphase kinetochore. MAD2 staining was primarily observed on mitotic kinetochores that lacked attached microtubules; i.e., at prometaphase or when the microtubules were depolymerized with oryzalin. In contrast, the loss of MAD2 staining in meiosis was not correlated with initial microtubule attachment but was correlated with a measure of tension: the distance between homologous or sister kinetochores (in meiosis I and II, respectively). Further, the tension-sensitive 3F3/2 phosphoepitope colocalized, and was lost concomitantly, with MAD2 staining at the meiotic kinetochore. The mechanism of spindle assembly (discussed here with respect to maize mitosis and meiosis) is likely to affect the relative contributions of attachment and tension. We support the idea that MAD2 is attachment-sensitive and that tension stabilizes microtubule attachments.  (+info)

A Bub2p-dependent spindle checkpoint pathway regulates the Dbf2p kinase in budding yeast. (8/1090)

Exit from mitosis in all eukaroytes requires inactivation of the mitotic kinase. This occurs principally by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of the cyclin subunit controlled by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, an abnormal spindle and/or unattached kinetochores activates a conserved spindle checkpoint that blocks APC function. This leads to high mitotic kinase activity and prevents mitotic exit. DBF2 belongs to a group of budding yeast cell cycle genes that when mutated prevent cyclin degradation and block exit from mitosis. DBF2 encodes a protein kinase which is cell cycle regulated, peaking in metaphase-anaphase B/telophase, but its function remains unknown. Here, we show the Dbf2p kinase activity to be a target of the spindle checkpoint. It is controlled specifically by Bub2p, one of the checkpoint components that is conserved in fission yeast and higher eukaroytic cells. Significantly, in budding yeast, Bub2p shows few genetic or biochemical interactions with other members of the spindle checkpoint. Our data now point to the protein kinase Mps1p triggering a new parallel branch of the spindle checkpoint in which Bub2p blocks Dbf2p function.  (+info)

*Anaphase

Once anaphase is complete, the cell moves into telophase. Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration.[ ... Anaphase starts when the anaphase promoting complex marks an inhibitory chaperone called securin with ubiquitin for destruction ... Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Telophase Anaphase I Anaphase II Cdc20 "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". ... Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes ...

*Anaphase lag

... is one of several causes of aneuploidy and one of several causes of mosaicism. Anaphase lag can also cause a ... Anaphase lag describes a delayed movement during anaphase, where one homologous chromosome in meiosis or one chromatid in ...

*Anaphase-promoting complex

... (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... The molecular basis of the delay is unknown, but is believed to involve the key to the correct timing of anaphase initiation. ... anaphase-promoting complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 3D electron microscopy ... The APC/C's main function is to trigger the transition from metaphase to anaphase by tagging specific proteins for degradation ...

*Mitosis

Anaphase lag occurs when the movement of one chromatid is impeded during anaphase. This may be caused by a failure of the ... During anaphase B, polar microtubules push against each other, causing the cell to elongate. In late anaphase, chromosomes also ... In most animal cells, anaphase A precedes anaphase B, but some vertebrate egg cells demonstrate the opposite order of events. ... FitzHarris G (March 2012). "Anaphase B precedes anaphase A in the mouse egg". Current Biology. 22 (5): 437-44. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Telophase

Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Yael, Avisar; Choi, Jung; DeSaix, Jean; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Wise, Robert; Rye, Connie ...

*Securin

... is a protein involved in control of the metaphase-anaphase transition and anaphase onset. Following bi-orientation of ... However, yeast does not appear to require securin to form functional separase as anaphase occurs in yeast with a securin ... Separase is vital for onset of anaphase. This securin-separase complex is maintained when securin is phosphorylated by Cdk1 , ... Dephosphorylated securin is recognized by the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) bound primarily to Cdc20 (Cdh1 is also an ...

*Neocentromere

Rhoades, M. M.; Vilkomerson, H. (1942-10-01). "On the Anaphase Movement of Chromosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...

*Nondisjunction

In the anaphase of mitosis, sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite cell poles before the cell divides. ... During anaphase, cohesion is cleaved by separase. Topoisomerase II and condensin are responsible for removing catenations. The ... This is known as a chromatin bridge or an anaphase bridge. Mitotic nondisjunction results in somatic mosaicism, since only ... Only then, SAC releases its inhibition of the anaphase promoting complex (APC), which in turn irreversibly triggers progression ...

*Spindle checkpoint

After checkpoint deactivation and during the normal anaphase of the cell cycle, the anaphase promoting complex is activated ... Once activated, the spindle checkpoint blocks anaphase entry by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex via regulation of the ... When anaphase onset is triggered, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C or Cyclosome) degrades securin. APC/C is a ring E3 ... Yet in the same study it was shown that, once the transition from metaphase to anaphase is initiated in one part of the cell, ...

*Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion

Smc3 remains acetylated until at least anaphase. Once cohesin has been removed from the chromatin, Smc3 is deacetylated by Hos1 ...

*Biochemical switches in the cell cycle

... which is tightly bound by the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 that is destroyed by the anaphase-promoting complex. In order to verify ... In this theory, anaphase promoting complex (APC), a class of ubiquitin ligase, facilitates degradation of mitotic cyclins (Clb2 ... FEAR (Cdc14 early anaphase release) pathway facilitates Clb2-Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Net1 which transiently releases ... Once cells are in mitosis, cyclin B-Cdk1 activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which in turn inactivates cyclin B- ...

*Mad2

Without Cdc20, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) cannot become activated and anaphase is not triggered. Mad2 was shown to ... Entrance into anaphase is mediated by APCCdc20 activation. APCCdc20 is a ubiquitin-protein ligase that tags the protein, ... It is speculated that once formed, Cdc20:Mad2 complexes can amplify the anaphase wait signal by stimulating further conversion ... The spindle checkpoint system is a regulatory system that restrains progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. ...

*APC/C activator protein CDH1

Li M, Shin YH, Hou L, Huang X, Wei Z, Klann E, Zhang P (2008). "The adaptor protein of the anaphase promoting complex Cdh1 is ... The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/c) is an ubiquitin E3-ligase complex. Once activated it attaches chains of ... Thornton BR, Ng TM, Matyskiela ME, Carroll CW, Morgan DO, Toczyski DP (2006). "An architectural map of the anaphase-promoting ... Cdh1 is one of the substrate adaptor protein of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces ...

*ANAPC7

Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC7 gene. Multiple transcript variants ... Park KH, Choi SE, Eom M, Kang Y (2006). "Downregulation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)7 in invasive ductal carcinomas ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ... 1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ...

*Chromatin bridge

Because this event is most prevalent during anaphase, the term anaphase bridge is often used as a substitute. After the ... Hoffelder D, Luo L, Burke N, Watkins S, Gollin S, Saunders W (2004). "Resolution of anaphase bridges in cancer cells" (PDF). ... Chan KL, Hickson ID (2011). "New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges". Semin Cell Dev ... Kok Lung Chan (October 2011). "New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges". Seminars in cell ...

*ANAPC4

A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC4 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...

*ANAPC10

Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC10 gene. ANAPC10 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC10 anaphase promoting complex subunit 10". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ... 2001). "Crystal structure of the APC10/DOC1 subunit of the human anaphase-promoting complex". Nat. Struct. Biol. 8 (9): 784-8. ...

*ANAPC5

Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. The anaphase-promoting complex ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ... 1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ...

*Pattern hair loss

Hair follicles in anaphase express four different caspases. The diagnosis of androgenic alopecia can be usually established ...

*ANAPC1

... is one of at least ten subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which functions at the metaphase-to-anaphase ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC1 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: ANAPC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit 1". Vodermaier, Hartmut C; Gieffers, Christian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...

*Cell cycle

A critical complex activated during this process is a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which ... LeMaire-Adkins R, Radke K, Hunt PA (December 1997). "Lack of checkpoint control at the metaphase/anaphase transition: a ... These phases are sequentially known as: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic ... These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During the process of mitosis the pairs of ...

*Cdc14

During anaphase, Cdc14 is "uncaged" and spreads to the rest of the cell. Two networks mediate the release of Cdc14 from the ... Cdh1 associates with the APC and leads to APC activity (anaphase promoting complex); activated APC is a key driver in mitotic ... FEAR (Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release) complex proteins, SLK19 and SPO12 regulate the release of Cdc14. The release of ... The abnormality arises due to delay in dissembling of spindle during Anaphase I. However, the segregation of chromosomes ...

*Cleavage furrow

The chromosomes move to opposite poles during anaphase and remain attached to the spindle fibers by their centromeres. Animal ... Mitosis includes four phases, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Prophase is the initial phase when spindle fibers ... which forms during early anaphase. Myosin is present in the region of the contractile ring as concentrated microfilaments and ...

*Schizosaccharomyces pombe

The site of cell division is determined before anaphase. The anaphase spindle (in green on the figure) is then positioned so ...

*Metaphase

This would be accomplished by regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex, securin, and separase. The analysis of metaphase ... Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Anaphase Telophase "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". Science Daily. Retrieved 12 June ... they are at their most condensed in anaphase). These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the ... does the cell enter anaphase. It is thought that unattached or improperly attached kinetochores generate a signal to prevent ...
Meiosis is a reproductive cell division since it gives rise to gametes. The resulting cells following meiosis contain half of the number of the chromosomes in the parent cell. That is because the parent cell undergoes two meiotic divisions called first meiotic division (meiosis I) and second meiotic division (meiosis II). Each of them has four major phases. These are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Each of these phases is designated as I or II depending where it occurs, i.e. in meiosis I or in meiosis II. Anaphase II is the third stage in meiosis II. It is the stage after metaphase II, which is that phase wherein the chromosomes are at the equatorial plane and spindle fibers are attached to the kinetochores. Anaphase II is the stage when sister chromatids of every chromosome separate and begin to move towards the opposite ends of the cell. The separation and the movement is due to the shortening of the kinetochore microtubules. Anaphase II precedes telophase II. Meiotic anaphase II ...
The SPOC regulates the phosphorylation of Bfa1 by Cdc5 at SPBs. (A and B) DYN1 CDC5-GFP and dyn1Δ CDC5-GFP cells in anaphase with a correctly aligned or misoriented anaphase spindle were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. (A) Measurement of the relative fluorescence intensity of the Cdc5-GFP SPB signal of DYN1 CDC5-GFP cells with a correctly aligned anaphase spindle and dyn1Δ CDC5-GFP cells with the anaphase spindle misaligned in the mother cell body. The signals associated with the preexisting old (orange) and new (blue) SPBs were measured. (B) Cdc5-GFP signal at SPBs of DYN1 CDC5-GFP and dyn1Δ CDC5-GFP cells. Spc42-eqFP611 was used as an SPB marker. Note that Spc42-eqFP611 labeled the old SPB in the mother cell body more strongly because of a delay in the folding of the eqFP611 molecule (Pereira et al., 2001; Wiedenmann et al., 2002). DNA was stained with DAPI. (C) CDC5 and cdc5-10 cells were synchronized in G1 with α factor at 23°C and released at 37°C, the restrictive temperature of ...
Chromosome segregation in most animal cells is brought about through two events: the movement of the chromosomes to the poles (anaphase A) and the movement of the poles away from each other (anaphase B). Essential to an understanding of the mechanism of mitosis is information on the relative movements of components of the spindle and identification of sites of subunit loss from shortening microtubules. Through use of tubulin derivatized with X-rhodamine, photobleaching, and digital imaging microscopy of living cells, we directly determined the relative movements of poles, chromosomes, and a marked domain on kinetochore fibers during anaphase. During chromosome movement and pole-pole separation, the marked domain did not move significantly with respect to the near pole. Therefore, the kinetochore microtubules were shortened by the loss of subunits at the kinetochore, although a small amount of subunit loss elsewhere was not excluded. In anaphase A, chromosomes moved on kinetochore microtubules ...
J Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;123(2):387-403. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
During mitosis in Ptk1 cells anaphase is not initiated until, on average, 23 +/- 1 min after the last monooriented chromosome acquires a bipolar attachment to the spindle--an event that may require 3 h (Rieder, C. L., A. Schultz, R. W. Cole, and G. Sluder. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 127:1301-1310). To determine the nature of this cell-cycle checkpoint signal, and its site of production, we followed PtK1 cells by video microscopy prior to and after destroying specific chromosomal regions by laser irradiation. The checkpoint was relieved, and cells entered anaphase, 17 +/- 1 min after the centromere (and both of its associated sister kinetochores) was destroyed on the last monooriented chromosome. Thus, the checkpoint mechanism monitors an inhibitor of anaphase produced in the centromere of monooriented chromosomes. Next, in the presence of one monooriented chromosome, we destroyed one kinetochore on a bioriented chromosome to create a second monooriented chromosome lacking an unattached kinetochore. ...
Biology Assignment Help, Anaphase, Anaphase This phase is of shortest duration. It begins with a sudden separation of the two chromatids of each due to splitting of its centromere and then a slow movement of separted chromatids towards opposite poles of mitotic
Definition of anaphase - the third stage of cell division, between metaphase and telophase, during which the chromosomes move away from one another to oppo
Subunit Of The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); Which Is A Ubiquitin-protein Ligase Required For Degradation Of Anaphase Inhibitors, Including Mitotic Cyclins, During The Metaphase/anaphase Transition; Component Of The Catalytic Core Of The APC/C; Has Similarity To Cullin Cdc53p
Anaphase is a stage during eukaryotic cell division in which the chromosomes are segregated to opposite poles of the cell. The stage before anaphase, metaphase, the chromosomes are pulled to the metaphase plate, in the middle of the cell.
2008: Correct division of cellular contents between two daughter cells depends upon spatial and temporal cues; anaphases microtubular system organizes itself at the spindle midzone and functions to orient the cell division plane in the center of the segregating chromosomes. The signalling pathway responsible for this is not understood, but this molecular study[87] explores how the phosphorylation of Aurora B kinase; a regulator of mitosis, ultimately leads to a gradient which centers at the spindle midzone. The study is therefore successful in the discovery of a possible regulatory mechanism for the anaphase phosphorylation gradient, and suggests that its findings may be useful in the future development of a model for anaphases spatial patterning. The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome or APC/C moderates mitosis by adding ubiquitin chains to cell cycle regulators, to initiate the formation of these chains the APC/C binds ubiquitin to lysine in substrates and elongates chains via lysine ...
Surveillance mechanisms stop progression throughthe cell cycle at specific checkpoints (at the G1 → S, G2 → M and metaphase → anaphase transitions) if certain crucial requirements have not been met
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase involved in regulation of the cell cycle through ubiquitination-dependent substrate proteolysis. Many viral proteins have been shown to interact with the APC/C, derailing cell cyc
Read "Three Cdk1 sites in the kinesin-5 Cin8 catalytic domain coordinate motor localization and activity during anaphase, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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collections, groups of modules structured into books or course notes, or for other uses. Our open license allows for free use and reuse of all our content. ...
I wish Id known that mnemonic when I was doing Biology A level, how brilliant that would have been! I had to make up my own one for remembering stages of cell division. IPMAT. (Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase). I remember it to this day - unfortunately it means fuck all as a word, but I figure if its the only cell biology I remember 11 years after my exams, it cant be bad ...
Leaves: 8 to 16, ensiform, distichous, erect, coriaceous, glaucous, closely ribbed, narrowed gradually to the point, finally up to 50 cm. long, 2,5 to 6 cm broad, hairy on the margin, not ciliated, often much undulated; peduncle stout, ancipitous, glaucous, 1/2-1 ft. long ...
Exit from mitosis in animal cells is substantially delayed when spindle assembly is inhibited, spindle bipolarity is disrupted, or when a monopolar spindle is formed. These observations have led to the proposal that animal cells have a spindle assembly checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors bipolar spindle organization. However, the existence of such a checkpoint is uncertain because perturbations in spindle organization can produce unattached kinetochores, which by themselves are known to delay anaphase onset. In this study we have tested if cells monitor bipolar spindle organization, independent of kinetochore attachment, by analyzing the duration of mitosis in sea urchin zygotes and vertebrate somatic cells containing multipolar spindles in which all kinetochores are attached to spindle poles. We found that sea urchin zygotes containing tripolar or tetrapolar spindles progressed from nuclear envelope breakdown to anaphase onset with normal timing. We also found that ...
ORDERED temporal degradation of proteins is an important regulatory mechanism that controls progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle (Reed 2006). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is the E3 subunit of an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme composed of at least thirteen subunits that targets proteins for proteolysis during the cell cycle (Peters 2006). APC/C function is critical for progression through mitosis where it degrades Pds1 (securin in higher eukaryotic cells) and other substrates to promote anaphase and the exit from mitosis (Pines 2006). APC/C cofactors Cdc20 and Cdh1 are important for conferring substrate specificity during different stages in the cell cycle (Peters 2006). It is unclear, however, how the APC/C chooses substrates for ubiquitylation and the specific role of each subunit in this process (Acquaviva and Pines 2006). The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures the formation of a bipolar spindle and proper attachment of kinetochores (Lew and Burke 2003). The ...
Many stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation. In Drosophila testes, two stem cell populations, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), cohere and regulate one another. Here, we report that CySCs divide asymmetrically through repositioning the mitotic spindle around anaphase. CySC spindle repositioning requires functional centrosomes, Dynein and the actin-membrane linker Moesin. Anaphase spindle repositioning is required to achieve high-fidelity asymmetric divisions in CySCs, thus maintaining both GSC and CySC numbers. We propose that dynamic spindle repositioning allows CySCs to divide asymmetrically while accommodating the structure of the GSCs they encapsulate.. ...
Two closely connected mechanisms safeguard the fidelity of chromosome segregation in eukaryotic cells. The mitotic checkpoint monitors the attachment of kinetochores to microtubules and delays anaphase onset until all sister kinetochores have become attached to opposite poles. In addition, an error correction mechanism destabilizes erroneous attachments that do not lead to tension at sister kinetochores. Aurora B kinase, the catalytic subunit of the CPC (chromosomal passenger complex), acts as a sensor and effector in both pathways. In this review we focus on a poorly understood but important aspect of mitotic control: what prevents the mitotic checkpoint from springing into action when sister centromeres are split and tension is suddenly lost at anaphase onset? Recent work has shown that disjunction of sister chromatids, in principle, engages the mitotic checkpoint, and probably also the error correction mechanism, with potentially catastrophic consequences for cell division. Eukaryotic cells ...
Separase is a highly conserved cysteine protease required for proper chromosome segregation, and several other aspects of anaphase during both meiotic and mitotic stages of cell division (Peters et al. 2008). Separase proteolytic activity is inhibited during interphase and early mitosis by its pseudosubstrate inhibitor, securin (Nasmyth 2002). The protease activity of separase is critical for the cleavage of kleisin subunits of the cohesin complex (Uhlmann et al. 2000; Hauf et al. 2001). Cohesin holds sister chromatids together prior to their proper attachment to spindles and alignment on the metaphase plate preceding anaphase (Nasmyth and Haering 2009). Separase has also been implicated in various cell cycle regulatory functions. In budding yeast, separase stabilizes the anaphase spindle by cleaving the spindle and kinetochore-associated protein Slk19 (Sullivan et al. 2001). It is also involved in the release of the essential mitotic phosphatase Cdc14 in budding yeast (Sullivan and Uhlmann ...
FC: Biology Cell Book , By Joe Johnson. 1: Table Of Content , 1.Title Page 2.Table of content 3.Interphase 4.First Growth 5.synthesis 6.Second Growth 7.Mitosis 8.Prophase 9.Metephase 10.Anaphase 11.Telophase 12.Cytokensis. 2: Interphase , Interphase is made up of g1,s,and g2 The cell spends most of it time in this stage. 3: First Growth , Cell grows rapidly and carriers out routine functions. 4: Synthesis , DNA is copied.Each chromosome consist of 2 chromatids held together by a centromere. 5: Second Growth , Nuclues gets ready to divide and the cell grows more. 6: Four phases of mitosis (PMAT): 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase , Mitosis. 7: Prophase , Two chromatids become visible. Nuclear membrane dissolves and spindle fibers forms. 8: Metaphase , Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.. 9: Anaphase , Centromeres divide and Chromosomes move towards opposite poles.. 10: Telophase , Nuclear envelope forms at each pole. Chromosomes uncoil and the spindle fibers ...
As a result of checkpoint activation, a signalling cascade is initiated and a number of complexes between the checkpoint components are formed. This leads to the inhibition of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), which is the ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting mitotic proteins: securing and cyclin B for degradation by the 26S proteasome. The complexes formed include the MCC, or Mitotic Checkpoint Complex, which in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) consists of Mad2, Mad3 checkpoint proteins together with the APC activator, Slp1 (the Cdc20 homologue). The MCC has been shown to bind and inhibit the APC in HeLa cells. In my PhD I focused on the interactions between the MCC and the APC, in particular on Mad3 protein. Mad3 is a conserved checkpoint component, homologous to human BubR1. It carries 2 putative KEN boxes, motifs, which typically target proteins for degradation (like D-boxes). We mutated both KEN boxes in S. pombe Mad3 and show that they are essential for Mad3 checkpoint ...
Skip to Next Section Cks is a small highly conserved protein that plays an important role in cell cycle control in different eukaryotes. Cks proteins have been implicated in entry into and exit from mitosis, by promoting Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity on mitotic substrates. In yeast, Cks can promote exit from mitosis by transcriptional regulation of cell cycle regulators. Cks proteins have also been found to promote S-phase via an interaction with the SCFSkp2 Ubiquitination complex. We have characterized the Drosophila Cks gene, Cks30A and we find that it is required for progression through female meiosis and the mitotic divisions of the early embryo through an interaction with Cdk1. Cks30A mutants are compromised for Cyclin A destruction, resulting in an arrest or delay at the metaphase/anaphase transition, both in female meiosis and in the early syncytial embryo. Cks30A appears to regulate Cyclin A levels through the activity of a female germline-specific anaphase-promoting complex, CDC20
Supplemental Figure S1 - Fig. S1. CySC morphology throughout the cell cycle. (A) Selected confocal images at different z-focal planes show an interphase CySC (demarcated with a broken line) attached to the hub (asterisk) through a thin projection. Arrowheads indicate the attachment to the hub. (B) Selected confocal images at different z-focal planes show a rounder cell body during mitosis appearing closer to the hub. (C) A mitotic CySC with a long thin projection attached to the hub. Notice that the greater part of the cell body with condensed chromosomes is relatively far away from the hub. Red, Moe-Myc; green, GFP; Blue, Vasa (germ cells); gray, Thr 3-phosphorylated histone H3 (Phospho-H3; mitotic chromatin). Heatshock-FLP; Actin,FRT-stop-FRT,Gal4, UAS-GFP/UAS-Moe-Myc flies were subjected to 2-hour heatshock at 37°C, and then dissected 24 hours later. Upon heat shock, only a subset of cells activated Actin-Gal4 driver and expressed GFP and Moe-Myc. ...
Definition of Kinetochore fibres with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
What are Non-Disjunction Disorders?! Non-disjunction is a failure of chromosomes to separate properly (i.e there is an imbalance of genetic information) Occurs when: Homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly in Anaphase I Sister chromatids fail to separate properly during Anaphase II Having abnormal amounts of karyotypes will overload the cells, which may result in: The death of the zygote A person with a non-disjunction disorder being born
The Ding gene was found to be somatically mutated in eight CIN cancers. These tumors did not overlap with those containing mutations in MRE11, hRod, hZw10, or hZwilch. One mutation affected the splice donor site two bases downstream of the last codon in exon 7. Another mutation resulted in a stop codon within exon 14 and the other six mutations were missense changes (Fig. 1 ⇓ ; Table 1 ⇓ ). Ding is a previously uncharacterized gene (KIAA0853) that was selected for sequence analysis because its COOH terminus is homologous (20% identity, 46% similarity) with the yeast protein Pds1. Pds1 is an anaphase inhibitor in budding yeast and plays a critical role in the control of anaphase (28 , 29) . Its human ortholog, hSecurin is essential for the proper function and processing of the separin protease, for separin-dependent cleavage of the cohesion subunit Scc1, and for maintaining chromosome stability (30) .. These data provide novel evidence to support the hypothesis that CIN has a genetic basis. ...
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According to Tusculum College, homologues, or homologous chromosomes, separate during anaphase I of meiosis I. BiologyCorner.com states, the spindle fibers move homologous chromosomes to opposite...
In the cell cycle DNA synthesis occurs during ________________. At the beginning of prophase _______________ condenses and chromosomes become visible. The end of prophase is characterized by the breakdown of the __________________________. The chromosomes become attached to the equator of the ______________ during ______________________. At anaphase the chromosome splits at the centromere and one copy heads towards each pole of the spindle. The final phase is called _______________ and it involves the formation of two new separate nuclei. In animal cells this phase is followed by ___________________. ...
Cytokinesis is the final stage of the cell cycle. It partitions sister genomes and separates the cytoplasm of nascent daughter cells. Cytokinesis is initiated by the formation of a cleavage furrow whose ingression is powered by an actomyosin network known as the contractile ring. Following furrow ingression, the process of cell separation is completed by a membrane scission reaction. For the accurate inheritance of genetic information, it is crucial that furrow formation is initiated at the cell equator between segregating chromosomes and that this occurs after chromatin has cleared the cleavage plane. In animal cells, the mitotic spindle plays a pivotal role in the formation and placement of the cleavage furrow. The coupling of cytokinesis and chromosome segregation to the mitotic spindle ensures that nuclear and cytoplasmic division are tightly coordinated. The spindle midzone, a structure that is formed at anaphase onset between segregating sister genomes, is thought to play an important ...
Proteolysis controls key transitions at several points in the cell cycle. In mitosis, the activation of a large ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), is required for anaphase initiation and for exit from mitosis. We show that APC is under complex control by a network of regulatory factors, CDC20, CDH1 and MAD2. CDC20 and CDH1 are activators of APC; they bind directly to APC and activate its cyclin ubiquitination activity. CDC20 activates APC at the onset of anaphase in a destruction box (DB)-dependent manner, while CDH1 activates APC from late anaphase through G1 with apparently a much relaxed specificity for the DB. Therefore, CDC20 and CDH1 control both the temporal order of activation and the substrate specificity of APC, and hence regulate different events during mitosis and G1. Counteracting the effect of CDC20, the checkpoint protein MAD2 acts as an inhibitor of APC. When the spindle-assembly checkpoint is activated, MAD2 forms a ternary complex with CDC20 and APC ...
View Nuclear Organization from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. • M- Nuclear division (mitosis) • mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase • C -Cytoplasmic division
Using the acetocarmine squash technique to examine pollen mother cells, the meiotic chromosome behavior of each of 16 Rhoeo spathacea plants housed in the Ball State University greenhouse was analyzed with respect to the frequencies of several types of atnormalities and documented with suitable photomicrographs. Among the aberrant types of chromosome behavior resulting from multiple translocations among the 12 chromosomes of each plant were the followings ring and chain formation of chromosomes at diakinesis and metaphase I, adjacent versus alternate chromosome alignment patterns at metaphse I and anaphase I, various abnormal anaphase I and telophase I disjunction patterns, and the presence of excluded chromosomes and micronuclei at telophase I. As a further consequence of the multiple translocations and abnormal chromosome disjunction, many of the pollen grains formed by meiosis were found to be defective and non-viable.Ball State UniversityMuncie, IN ...
In conclusion, we propose that the mitotic spindle protein She1 functions as an MT cross-linking protein to maintain proper spindle stability during metaphase (Fig. 6 H). There are three major lines of evidence supporting this conclusion: (1) she1-ΔN89 and she1-ΔN126 cells display dynein-independent spindle defects, (2) She1 cross-links MTs in vitro, and (3) the she1-ΔN126 spindle phenotype is complemented by inactivation of Ipl1/Aurora B or by overexpression of she1-ΔN126. The latter shows that premature loading of Ipl1/Aurora B in metaphase inhibits the spindle stabilization effect of she1-ΔN126. Furthermore, we show that this novel activity of She1 is negatively regulated by Ipl1/CPC translocation during anaphase.. Recent work suggested that, during the establishment of a functional metaphase spindle midzone (Hepperla et al., 2014), passive cross-linking proteins are required to maintain proper bundling within the spindle once ipMTs are aligned along the spindle axis by kinesin-14 ...
Mitosis and meiosis are certainly among the most spectacular events in all of biology. These processes are brought about by protein kinase complexes consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (also called Cdc2) and a mitotic cyclin (in animals, an A-type cyclin or a B-type cyclin). The abrupt activation of cyclin-CDK1 at the onset of mitosis, and the abrupt inactivation of cyclin-CDK1 at the metaphase/anaphase transition near the end of mitosis, constitute the climax of the cell cycle and result in the division of one cell into two. In some circumstances, the eukaryotic cell cycle can be best described as a succession of contingent events. For example, in most somatic cells in culture, cell growth is followed by DNA replication, then more cell growth, then mitotic entry and chromosome congression, then sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit. Entry into a new phase of the cell cycle may depend upon the successful completion of some important event in the previous phase. E.g., the cell ...
Mitosis and meiosis are certainly among the most spectacular events in all of biology. These processes are brought about by protein kinase complexes consisting of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (also called Cdc2) and a mitotic cyclin (in animals, an A-type cyclin or a B-type cyclin). The abrupt activation of cyclin-CDK1 at the onset of mitosis, and the abrupt inactivation of cyclin-CDK1 at the metaphase/anaphase transition near the end of mitosis, constitute the climax of the cell cycle and result in the division of one cell into two. In some circumstances, the eukaryotic cell cycle can be best described as a succession of contingent events. For example, in most somatic cells in culture, cell growth is followed by DNA replication, then more cell growth, then mitotic entry and chromosome congression, then sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit. Entry into a new phase of the cell cycle may depend upon the successful completion of some important event in the previous phase. E.g., the cell ...
Crosses between Drosophila melanogaster females and Drosophila simulans males produce hybrid sons that die at the larval stage. This hybrid lethality is suppressed by loss-of-function mutations in the D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) or in the D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) genes. Previous studies have shown that Hmr and Lhr interact with heterochromatin proteins and suppress expression of transposable elements within D. melanogaster. It also has been proposed that Hmr and Lhr function at the centromere. We examined mitotic divisions in larval brains from Hmr and Lhr single mutants and Hmr; Lhr double mutants in D. melanogaster. In none of the mutants did we observe defects in metaphase chromosome alignment or hyperploid cells, which are hallmarks of centromere or kinetochore dysfunction. In addition, we found that Hmr-HA and Lhr-HA do not colocalize with centromeres either during interphase or mitotic division. However, all mutants displayed anaphase bridges and chromosome ...
Cdc20 joins the APC/C in early mitosis and is then replaced by Cdh1 during anaphase. APC/C regulates mitosis by degrading cyclins, the regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which control the cell cycle by phosphorylation of specific cell cycle related proteins. In addition, the APC/C controls the degradation of securin and other proteins, thereby triggering chromosome segregation in anaphase (Di Fiore,2015). During the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, chromosomes are separated into two identical sets. After duplication in S phase, a large protein complex assembles at each centromere, called the kinetochore. Kinetochores serve as docking site for attachment of chromatids to spindle microtubules during anaphase, thereby generating tension across sister chromatids. To prevent deficient chromatid separation, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is responsible for surveillance of the cell cycle. In early mitosis, activation of SAC leads to the formation of a mitotic checkpoint ...
The spindle checkpoint is a key mechanism that ensures accurate distribution of the chromosomes during cell division by delaying completion of mitosis until kinetochores of the chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules and until tension is being applied to pull the sister kinetochores toward opposite spindle poles. Why, then, once anaphase begins and the sister chromatids begin to separate, is the checkpoint not reactivated? Palframan et al. describe a feedback loop of mutual inhibition between the APC (anaphase-promoting complex, a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex that targets proteins for degradation) and Mps1 (a protein kinase that is part of the checkpoint signaling pathway). Once the checkpoint conditions are satisfied and anaphase begins, the inhibition of APC by Mps appears to dip below a critical threshold. At this point, the APC apparently switches to an "on" state in which anaphase is promoted and Mps1 (which is itself a target of the APC) is degraded and can thus no longer activate ...
... - Cell Division of somatic cells. Study notes for basic courses in human biology and anatomy and physiology e.g. for training in nursing, therapies and other health sciences.
Recent upperward migration of plants and animals along altitudinal gradients and poleward movement of animal range boundaries have been confirmed by many studies. This phenomenon is considered to be part of the fingerprint of recent climate change on the biosphere. Here I examine whether poleward movement is occurring in the vascular plants of Great Britain. The ranges of plants were determined from detection/non-detection data in two periods, 1978 to 1994 and 1995 to 2011. From these, the centre of mass of the population was calculated and the magnitude and direction of range shifts were determined from movements of the centre of mass. A small, but significant, northward movement could be detected in plants with expanding ranges, but not among declining species. Species from warmer ranges were not more likely to be moving northward, nor was dispersal syndrome a predictor of migration success. It is concluded that simply looking at northward movement of species is not an effective way to identify the
Anaphase lyrics by Franco Battiato: I will go far away / Beyond the limits of the air / Towards the immensity / Above the astronauts
Some cells have a quality control checkpoint that can detect a single misattached chromosome and delay the onset of anaphase, thus allowing time for error correction. The mechanical error in attachment must somehow be linked to the chemical regulation of cell cycle progression. The 3F3 antibody detects phosphorylated kinetochore proteins that might serve as the required link (Gorbsky, G. J., and W. A. Ricketts. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 122:1311-1321). We show by direct micromanipulation experiments that tension alters the phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins. Tension, whether from a micromanipulation needle or from normal mitotic forces, causes dephosphorylation of the kinetochore proteins recognized by 3F3. If tension is absent, either naturally or as a result of chromosome detachment by micromanipulation, the proteins are phosphorylated. Equally direct experiments identify tension as the checkpoint signal: tension from a microneedle on a misattached chromosome leads to anaphase (Li, X., and R. ...
Protein Phosphatase Required For Mitotic Exit; Required For RDNA Segregation, Cytokinesis, Meiosis I Spindle Disassembly, And Environmental Stress Response; Maintained In Nucleolus By Cdc55p In Early Meiosis Until Liberated By The FEAR And Mitotic Exit Network In Anaphase, Enabling It To Effect A Decrease In CDK/B-cyclin Activity And Mitotic Exit; Sequestered In Metaphase II, Then Released Again Upon Entry Into Anaphase II
1. i need to draw a diploid organism that has a chromosome complement of 2n=6 at mitosis anaphase, meiosis anaphase 1 and meiosis anaphase 2. On the diagram i need to LABEL on each chromosome to show one set of possible locations for all the alleles for an individual of genotype AaBb given that there is no crossing over in this organism and that the two genes involved asoort independently ...
Bir1p localizes to interpolar microtubules and interacts with Ndc10p. (A) Bir1-GFP was imaged in premetaphase cells (top, arrow) and in anaphase cells (bottom,
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Name the stage of cell cycle at which one of the following events occur? (i) Chromosomes moves to spindle equator. (ii) Centromere splits and chromatids separate. (iii) Pairing between homologous chromosomes take place. (…
Fig. 2a-d. Male meiosis. a Pachytene. b Diplotene; c Metaphase I. d Anaphase I. N: nucleolus; G. gap bivalent; arrowheads: spindle fiber attachments; bar = 10 pm; lactic acetic orcein; phase contrast ...
After mitosis, the cell gets pinched off to form the 2 new cells. Thats whats starting to happen with the cell plate in plants. Keep in mind, the phases are slightly arbitrary. Theres not really a specific instance where you could say, "anaphase is over, now this is telophase." They overlap a little bit, but its important to know what happens in each phase and just realize that sometimes the next phase might get a bit of a head start (like that cell plate forming while telophase is still going on ...
Illustration of mitosis, the usual method of cell division. Mitosis is characterized typically by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates longitudinally into two parts, one part of each chromosome being retained in each of two new cells resulting from the original cell. The four main phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase ...
Stage Number of Cells in Part 1 Number of Cells in Part 2 Interphase 11 9 Prophase 7 4 Metaphase 5 3 Anaphase 9 7 Telophase 4 3 Cytokinesis 2 2 Create a
1)   Anaphase, G1 boundary ,  2)  Metaphase in mitosis ,  3)  S-G2 boundary ,  4)  G1-S boundary
One may infer from the poleward propagation of angular momentum that energy change in tropical regions may be manifested in polar regions through a poleward propagation. This idea does not seem to be
If Ottawa hopes to meet the exceedingly ambitious climate targets it has set for this country, they have to get serious with holdout provinces
We have the spy cam set up watching it (which is how we know it was Sora who peed on the steps), and so far can report that Nefer went into it and scratched around a bit, although I cant tell if she did anything else ...
Commercial firms specify ATCC strains as controls for rapid identification, minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility panels.
... It has been suggested (M. P. Maguire, MGN 51:86-87, 1977) that maintenance of dyad integrity between anaphase I and anaphase II may depend upon the same mechanism as that which seems responsible for chiasma maintenance during the period between loss of the synaptonemal complex and anaphase I, namely sister chromatid cohesiveness. As observed cytologically at anaphase I in normal material, dyads are composed of four, usually highly condensed, chromatid arms which tend to diverge from tightly paired sister centromere regions. During interkinesis there is some decondensation of these arms followed by their recondensation during prophase II. During early prophase II in good preparations the four arms of each dyad can be traced. If sister chromatids tend to cohere until anaphase II, except where they were separated at anaphase I as a result of crossing over, dyads would be expected to vary in their prophase II ...
Paclitaxel at low concentrations (10 nm for 20 h) induces ∼90% mitotic block at the metaphase/anaphase transition in HeLa cells, apparently by suppressing dynamics of spindle microtubules (M. A. Jordan et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 90: 9552-9556, 1993). It is not known, however, whether inhibition of mitosis by such low paclitaxel concentrations results in cell death. In the present work, we found that after removal of pacli-taxel (10 nm-1 µm), blocked cells did not resume proliferation. Instead, cells exited mitosis abnormally within 24 h. They did not progress through anaphase or cytokinesis but entered an interphase-like state (chromatin decondensed, and an interphase-like microtubule array and nuclear membranes reformed). Many cells (≥55%) contained multiple nuclei. Additional DNA synthesis and polyploidy did not occur. DNA degradation into nucleosome-sized fragments characteristic of apoptosis began during drug incubation and increased after drug removal. Cells died within 48-72 ...
Cohesion between sister chromatids opposes the splitting force exerted by microtubules, and loss of this cohesion is responsible for the subsequent separation of sister chromatids during anaphase. We describe three chromosmal proteins that prevent premature separation of sister chromatids in yeast. Two, Smc1p and Smc3p, are members of the SMC family, which are putative ATPases with coiled-coil domains. A third protein, which we call Scc1p, binds to chromosomes during S phase, dissociates from them at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, and is degraded by the anaphase promoting complex. Association of Scc1p with chromatin depends on Smc1p. Proteins homologous to Scc1p exist in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including humans. A common cohesion apparatus might be used by all eukaryotic cells during both mitosis and meiosis.
The chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate. Spindle fibers begin to pull on each one of the chromosomes from opposite directions. http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/meiosis/metaii.html Metaphase II of Meiosis Anaphase II of Meiosis http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/meiosis/compana.html As in anaphase in mitosis, spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart and towards opposite poles. Telophase II of Meiosis The chromatids reach the poles and new nuclear envelopes form ...
During cell division, complex signalling pathways ensure that the two daughter cells separate only when each has received a single complete set of chromosomes. Carlos Vázquez de Aldana and co-workers describe how, at high temperatures, the protein Swm1p is needed for the final stages of cell separation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (see p. 545). Swm1p is a core subunit in the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), the E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates the metaphase-anaphase transition and promotes mitotic exit once chromosome segregation is complete. The authors report that, at 38°C, swm1 cells - mutants lacking SWM1 - form chains instead of separating into single cells after chromosome segregation. This behaviour results from reduced expression of chitinase and other proteins involved in separation, all of which require the transcription factor Ace2p for their expression. The authors show that at 38°C Ace2p fails to move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (as happens at 28°C) at the end of ...
Budding Yeast Kinetochore Proteins, Chl4 and Ctf19, Are Required to Maintain SPB-Centromere Proximity during G1 and Late Anaphase. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Harvard Medical School. Specificity, Efficiency and Processivity in the Eukaryotic Protein Degradation System. Recommended Readings. Lu, Y., Lee, B. H., King, R. W., Finley, D., & Kirschner, M. W. (2015). Substrate degradation by the proteasome: A single-molecule kinetic analysis. Science, 348(6231), 1250834. doi: 10.1126/science.1250834.. Lu, Y., Wang, W., & Kirschner, M. W. (2015). Specificity of the anaphase-promoting complex: A single-molecule study. Science, 348(6231), 1248737. doi: 10.1126/science.1248737. ...
Cells that were aligned via their DNA centroid (see 1.) were rotated based on either the DNA or their cell boundary contours depending on their specific cell cycle category. For cells in interphase and prophase, the alignment contour was based on the two-dimensional cell membrane contour of the center slice of the z-stack of the cell. For cells in metaphase and anaphase, the alignment contour was based on the two-dimensional maximum intensity projection of the z-stack corresponding to the DNA. For cells in early prometaphase, the alignment contour was generated using one of the two techniques just described depending on the eccentricity of the largest connected component of the DNA. For instance, if that value were below 0.55 the cell would be aligned similar to cells in interphase and prophase; however, if the eccentricity exceeded 0.55, indicating a preferential direction for DNA, the cell would be aligned similar to cells in metaphase and anaphase. This ensured the best alignment performance ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
JILA is a joint physics institute of the University of Colorado at Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We support an eclectic and innovative research program that fosters creative collaborations among our scientists. Collaborations play a key role in the pioneering research JILA and the JILA Physics Frontier Center are known for around the world. To learn more, visit our About JILA page.. ...
UbcH3 plays an essential role in the progression of cells from the G1 to S phase of the cell division cycle. One pathway (requiring Cdc34) initiates DNA replication by degrading a CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. The second pathway, involves the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) which initiates chromosome egregation and exit from mitosis by degrading anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins ...
i.sister chromatids split apart 2.Spindle draws them to opposite poles 3. Anaphase begins with the release of linker of sister chromatids iv. chromatids are pulled to the spindle pole v.sets of chromosomes to opposite ends of the ...
Precise regulation of cell cycle events by the Cdk-control network is essential for cell proliferation and the perpetuation of life. The unidirectionality of cell cycle progression is governed by several critical irreversible transitions: the G1-to-S transition, the G2-to-M transition, and the M-to-G1 transition. Recent experimental and theoretical evidence has pulled into question the consensus view that irreversible protein degradation causes the irreversibility of those transitions. A new view has started to emerge, which explains the irreversibility of cell cycle transitions as a consequence of systems-level feedback rather than of proteolysis. This thesis applies mathematical modelling approaches to test this proposal for the Mto- G1 transition, which consists of two consecutive irreversible substeps: the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, and mitotic exit. The main objectives of the present work were: (i) to develop deterministic models to identify the essential molecular feedback loops and ...
M267 Lecture 4, Cell Cycle February 27, 2006. Cohesins. cyclin deg. cdc2/28. G 2. Prophase. Metaphase. Anaphase. Telophase. G 1. - p34 cdc2 cyB. +p34 cdc2 cyB. 0 15 30 50 0 15 30 50. min. min. interphase. mitotic. M extract. I extract. buffer. Slideshow 3620610 by tosca
Leaves: 8 to 16, ensiform, distichous, erect, coriaceous, glaucous, closely ribbed, narrowed gradually to the point, finally up to 50 cm. long, 2,5 to 6 cm broad, hairy on the margin, not ciliated, often much undulated; peduncle stout, ancipitous, glaucous, 1/2-1 ft. long ...
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona researchers have identified for the first time the triple mechanism that stops chromosome separation in response to
Welcome to the famous Daves Garden website. Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along with seeds and plants.
DUSTING HAS A NEW MEANING Huffing Method Made Possible By Keyboard Cleaner Police, counselors and even office supply stores are becoming aware of a new drug craze happening throughout the...
In the mitotic cell cycle, it is only when all chromosomes have appropriately established bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition can occur (Chen, 2004; Yu and Tang, 2005). Because kinetochores capture microtubules in a stochastic manner, three types of erroneous kinetochore attachments, including monotelic (only one of the sister kinetochores is attached to one spindle pole), syntelic (both sister kinetochores are attached to the same spindle pole), and merotelic (one kinetochore is attached to two opposing spindle poles) attachment, frequently occur (Gregan et al., 2011). Thus, there must be a surveillance mechanism that prevents the precocious separation of sister chromatids until all the improper kinetochore attachments are corrected, ensuring the fidelity of chromosome segregation (Meraldi and Sorger, 2005; Yu and Tang, 2005). The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is such a mechanism that delays anaphase onset when any kinetochore is not properly ...
Separase is a protease whose liberation from its inhibitory chaperone Securin triggers sister chromatid disjunction at anaphase onset in yeast by cleaving cohesins kleisin subunit. We have created conditional knockout alleles of the mouse Separase and Securin genes. Deletion of both copies of Separase but not Securin causes embryonic lethality. Loss of Securin reduces Separase activity because deletion of just one copy of the Separase gene is lethal to embryos lacking Securin. In embryonic fibroblasts, Separase depletion blocks sister chromatid separation but does not prevent other aspects of mitosis, cytokinesis, or chromosome replication. Thus, fibroblasts lacking Separase become highly polyploid. Hepatocytes stimulated to proliferate in vivo by hepatectomy also become unusually large and polyploid in the absence of Separase but are able to regenerate functional livers. Separase depletion in bone marrow causes aplasia and the presumed death of hematopoietic cells other than erythrocytes. Destruction
Now several years later we moved on and we found out that securin bound to this protein which we now called Separase and we didnt know…and Separase was required for the onset of anaphase. You could not separate sister chromatids without Separase. So we had this model that Separase bound securin. Like in that form it was inactive and the whole purpose of the anaphase promoting complex was to destroy the securin, liberate the Separase and then the Separase went off and did something magical to the chromosomes and maybe the spindle apparatus that would cause the sister chromatids to be pulled to opposite poles. And one of the big questions was what did Separase do, and it was really work that was done by a postdoc in my lab at the time a guy called Frank Uhlmann, who really cracked this problem. We had meanwhile identified many of the proteins that were directly involved in holding sister chromatids together. And again it was the discovery of the anaphase promoting complex and therefore the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dinaciclib induces anaphase catastrophe in lung cancer cells via inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2. AU - Danilov, Alexey. AU - Hu, Shanhu. AU - Orr, Bernardo. AU - Godek, Kristina. AU - Mustachio, Lisa Maria. AU - Sekula, David. AU - Liu, Xi. AU - Kawakami, Masanori. AU - Johnson, Faye M.. AU - Compton, Duane A.. AU - Freemantle, Sarah J.. AU - Dmitrovsky, Ethan. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Despite advances in targeted therapy, lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Chromosomal instability is a prominent feature in lung cancer and, because it rarely occurs in normal cells, it represents a potential therapeutic target. Our prior work discovered that lung cancer cells undergo anaphase catastrophe in response to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), followed by apoptosis and reduced growth. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of the multi-CDK inhibitor dinaciclib on lung cancer cells were ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING and APC/C E3 ligases text box), activated by its subunit CDC20 (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). High ...
The in vivo and in vitro observations reported here provide a biochemical clue as to how MAD2 executes the mitotic checkpoint. The in vivo association data suggests that a complex including MAD2 and the cyclosome is formed during mitotic checkpoint activation and dissociates once the checkpoint is satisfied. In vitro, the consequence of forcing this interaction by the addition of exogenous MAD2 was to inhibit the cyclin B ubiquitination by the cyclosome and is likely to affect the ubiquitination and degradation of other noncyclin substrates involved in the metaphase-anaphase transition (31-33). Interestingly, it has been shown recently in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that MAD2 behaves genetically as a negative regulator of the cyclosome and that overexpression leads to mitotic arrest (36) in support of the model being proposed here.. The biochemical mechanism that promotes the interaction of MAD2 with the cyclosome during checkpoint activation is unknown, but may rely on the ...
We constructed complexes between isolated chromosomes and microtubules made from purified tubulin to study the movement of chromosomes towards the minus end of microtubules in vitro, a process analogous to the movement of chromosomes towards the pole of the spindle at anaphase of mitosis. Our results show that the energy for this movement is derived solely from microtubule depolymerization, and indicate that anaphase movement of chromosomes is both powered and regulated by microtubule depolymerization at the kinetochore ...
Looking for online definition of central spindle in the Medical Dictionary? central spindle explanation free. What is central spindle? Meaning of central spindle medical term. What does central spindle mean?
Drawing on their earlier research, the authors found that curcumin specifically binds to and crosslinks to a protein that is involved in cell-cycle regulation. It is known as a checkpoint protein, she said, because it blocks the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes make proper attachments to the spindle. The mitotic checkpoint, or spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is the major cell-cycle control mechanism that delays the onset of anaphase during mitosis. One of the primary regulators of the SAC is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C ...
This newly developed model series shows the following 9 phases of mitosis on the basis of a typical mammal cell at an enlargement of approx. 10,000 times: 1. Interphase 2. Prophase 3. Early prometaphase 4. Later prometaphase 5. Metaphase 6. Early anaphase 7. Later anaphase 8. Telophase 9. Cytokinesis The three-dimensional relief models are painted according to the usual coloring methods of microscopy, making the process of cell division easy to understand. The cell organelles are shown as if opened up in the lower part of the models. The models are equipped with magnets at the back so that for teaching purposes they can be easily arranged on a magnetic board in the classroom. The model series is supplied in a storage system (40 x 60cm) which can be fastened to the wall. A detailed description and handouts for your lessons are included. Tip: As a useful addition and permanent eye catcher in the classroom we recommend the matching wall chart Mitosis (product number V2049U ...
The discovery of a cell with a haploid no. of diplochromosomes in prepns. of colchicine-treated onion root tips led to a search for haploid anaphases in treated roots permitted to recover in water. No haploid anaphases were seen. Apart from the divisional stages of diploid and tetraploid nuclei, cells with 2 pro-, meta-, and anaphases were obsd. The formation of distinct cell boundaries by each nucleus of an originally multinucleate cell indicated their potentialities in this direction. ...
Movie of anaphase B (spindle elongation) of meiosis I in primary spermatocytes of the crane-fly Nephrotoma suturalis. Time-lapse polarization microsc...
Fully grown mouse oocytes are normally competent to progress from prophase I to metaphase II without interruption. However, growing mouse oocytes initially become only partially competent to undergo meiotic maturation. Meiotic maturation in these oocytes does not progress beyond metaphase I. In contrast to the oocytes of most strains of mice, most oocytes of strain LT/Sv mice become arrested at metaphase I even when they are fully grown. The initiation of oocyte maturation is correlated with an increase in p34cdc2 kinase activity that continues to rise until metaphase I. The transition into anaphase I is normally correlated with a decrease in p34cdc2 kinase activity. This study demonstrated that metaphase I arrest in both partially competent growing oocytes and fully grown LT/Sv oocytes is correlated with a sustained elevation of p34cdc2 kinase activity. In fact, p34cdc2 activity continued to increase during the time when activity normally decreased. In normally maturing oocytes, some, but
Baxter J, Aragón L, 2010, Physical linkages between sister chromatids and their removal during yeast chromosome segregation., Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, Vol: 75, Pages: 389-394 The fidelity of chromosome inheritance is of paramount importance to all living organisms. In eukaryotic cells, the strategy to ensure physical segregation of chromosomes to daughter cells relies on two basic steps ordered in time: an initial linkage, or cohesion, of sister chromatids and its timely and complete dissolution during anaphase. The current view is that these two basic steps are accomplished around the regulation of a protein complex called cohesin that serves as clamp brackets distributed at intervals throughout the genome. However, many of the DNA metabolic activities during interphase also produce physical linking of chromatids. For example, during replication, intertwines between sister chromatids are formed. Here, we review our understanding of the processes that generate physical linkages ...
The mechanisms orchestrating spatial cell division control remain poorly understood. In animal cells, the position of the mitotic spindle dictates cleavage furrow placement, and thus plays a key role in governing spatial relationships between resulting daughter cells. The one-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is an attractive model system to investigate the mechanisms underlying spindle positioning in metazoans. In this review, the experimental advantages of this model system for an in vivo dissection of cell division processes are first discussed. Next, three lines of experiments that were conducted to dissect the mechanisms governing spindle positioning in one-cell stage C. elegans embryos are summarized. First, localized laser micro-irradiations were utilized to identify the forces acting on spindle poles during anaphase. This work revealed that there is a precise imbalance of pulling forces acting on the two spindle poles, with the forces acting on the posterior spindle pole being in ...
This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the kelch repeat-containing family, and contains an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain, a BACK domain and six C-terminal kelch repeats. The encoded protein is a component of a complex with cullin 3-based E3 ligase, which plays a role in mitosis. This protein complex is a cell cycle regulator, and functions in the organization and integrity of the spindle midzone in anaphase and the completion of cytokinesis. The complex is required for the removal of the chromosomal passenger protein aurora B from mitotic chromosomes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016 ...
Никогда не понимала истерик по поводу выпадения волос. И связано это, скорее всего, с тем, что сама с такой проблемой не сталкивалась никогда. Помнится, даже немного подтрунивала над братом и мужем подруги, которые покупали различные шампуни и сыворотки для предотвращения выпадения волос (да, стыд мне и позор, я знаю, самой неловко в этом признаваться). Но случился в моей жизни переезд в другую страну, который кардинально изменил отношение к данному вопросу. А всё потому, что волосы стали сыпаться просто катастрофически, причём не только у меня, но и ...
Animations show cell division, mitosis and meiosis. Follow chromosomes during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. See how carcinogens, oncogenes and mutations lead to cancer cells and tumours.
Tom Kucharski from the Teodoro Lab presented a talk at the recent cell cycle meeting at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory entitled: 53BP1 is a novel anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome mitotic substrate and regulator
Make a statement and embrace your sciencey self with this art print showing the stages of the cell cycle. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase! • Museum quality fine art ...
Accurate segregation of meiotic chromosomes requires that sister-chromatids remain physically associated from the time of their synthesis during S phase until they segregate toward opposite poles at anaphase II. In Drosophila melanogaster meiosis, physical association of sister chromatids, known as sister-chromatid cohesion, requires the protein product of the orientation disruptor (ord) gene. Genetic and cytological analyses of ord mutants indicate that sister chromatids separate precociously in the absence of ORD activity, resulting in random chromosome segregation during both meiotic divisions. To understand the molecular basis of ORD activity more fully, we localized ORD protein in Drosophila spermatocytes using immunofluorescence and demonstrate that ORD associates with centromeres of meiotic chromosomes from early G2 through anaphase II. Maintenance of ORD at centromeres until anaphase II requires functional MEI-S332 protein, as centromeric ORD signal disappears during anaphase I in ...
Meiosis I consists of 4 stages which are Prophase I, Anaphase I, Metaphase I and Telophase I. Meiosis II consists of 4 stages as well which are Prophase II, Anaphase II, Metaphase II and Telophase II. For Meiosis I, Prophase I is the longest phase in Meiosis. During prophase I a cell will undergo 5 stages which are leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis. At leptotene, the homologous chromosome starts to condense. At zygotene, the synaptonemal complex is formed. At pachytene, the synapsis process is completed and the homologous chromosomes start the crossing over. This stage can stay for days until the desynapsis occur. At diplotene stage, desynapsis occur causing the disappearance of synaptonemal complex and the chiasma is now visible. At diakinesis stage, the bivalent is ready for the segregation[2]. At the end of prophase I, the nuclear membrane disappears. At Metaphase I, the homologous chromosome aligns on the metaphase plate which is the middle of the cell. At Anaphase I, ...
Aurora B kinase activity is known to be required for chromosome alignment, segregation and cytokinesis. Its function in vivo has been characterized with small-molecule inhibitors, such as ZM447439, Hesperadin and VX-680. Since the inhibition of Aurora B kinase often results in a premature exit of mitosis without chromosome alignment, the events after chromosome segregation have yet to be fully analyzed. To monitor the typical events of mitosis and cytokinesis in the living state, we constructed two fluorescent human melanoma MDA-MB-435S cell lines, expressing mPlum-histoneH3/EGFP-survivin or mPlum-histone-H3/mOrange-actin. We examined the effect of the Aurora B kinase inhibitor AZD1152-HQPA on the entire process from the initiation of mitosis to the completion of cytokinesis. We extensively captured live cell images using a multi-point time lapse imaging system equipped with a PlanApo 60x objective. Although most of the mitotic cells showed premature mitotic exit, some populations of the cells ...
程金妹.,李建.,汤济鑫.,郝晓霞.,王志鹏.,...&刘以训.(2017).Merotelic Kinetochore Attachment in Oocyte Meiosis II Causes Sister Chromatids Segregation Errors in Aged Mice.Cell Cycle,16(15),1404-1413 ...
Essential component of the mitotic checkpoint. Required for normal mitosis progression. The mitotic checkpoint delays anaphase until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. One of its checkpoint functions is to inhibit the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by blocking the binding of CDC20 to APC/C, independently of its kinase activity. The other is to monitor kinetochore activities that depend on the kinetochore motor CENPE. Required for kinetochore localization of CENPE. Negatively regulates PLK1 activity in interphase cells and suppresses centrosome amplification. Also implicated in triggering apoptosis in polyploid cells that exit aberrantly from mitotic arrest. May play a role for tumor suppression ...

Anaphase - WikipediaAnaphase - Wikipedia

Once anaphase is complete, the cell moves into telophase. Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycles duration.[ ... Anaphase starts when the anaphase promoting complex marks an inhibitory chaperone called securin with ubiquitin for destruction ... Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Telophase Anaphase I Anaphase II Cdc20 "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". ... Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphase

Anaphase lag - WikipediaAnaphase lag - Wikipedia

Anaphase lag is one of several causes of aneuploidy and one of several causes of mosaicism. Anaphase lag can also cause a ... Anaphase lag describes a delayed movement during anaphase, where one homologous chromosome in meiosis or one chromatid in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphase_lag

File:Anaphase eukaryotic mitosis.svg - Wikimedia CommonsFile:Anaphase eukaryotic mitosis.svg - Wikimedia Commons

DescriptionAnaphase eukaryotic mitosis.svg. Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates. ... File:Anaphase eukaryotic mitosis.svg. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anaphase_eukaryotic_mitosis.svg&oldid=285787542" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anaphase_eukaryotic_mitosis.svg

What Is an Anaphase? (with pictures)What Is an Anaphase? (with pictures)

Anaphase is a stage in cell division in which two sister copies of DNA break apart and their respective chromosomes migrate to ... The stages before anaphase duplicate the chromosomes in the cell to create a set of chromatids. They also allow the cell to ... Anaphase is a stage in cell division where two sister copies of DNA called chromatids break apart, and their respective ... A phenomenon called anaphase lag can create errors if a chromosome fails to migrate; one daughter cell will have too many ...
more infohttps://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-anaphase.htm

Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Mitosis - Late AnaphaseMolecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Mitosis - Late Anaphase

Anaphase typically is a rapid process that lasts only a few minutes. When the chromosomes have completely migrated to the ... Mitosis: Late Anaphase. Anaphase typically is a rapid process that lasts only a few minutes. When the chromosomes have ... This is the junction between late anaphase and early telophase, the last stage in chromosome division. The photomicrograph ... above shows the positioning of the chromosomes in late anaphase. The polar microtubules are a clearly formed network and the ...
more infohttps://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/mitosis/lateanaphase.html

WikiGenes - AnaphaseWikiGenes - Anaphase

Associations of Anaphase with chemical compounds. *Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in ... Gene context of Anaphase. *An ESP1/PDS1 complex regulates loss of sister chromatid cohesion at the metaphase to anaphase ... Proteolysis of CLB2 is initiated in early anaphase, but a fraction of CLB2 remains stable until anaphase is complete [25]. ... Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anaphase. *We have studied microtubule behavior in late anaphase and ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/2896.html

Anaphase-promoting complex, subunit CDC26 (IPR018860) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIAnaphase-promoting complex, subunit CDC26 (IPR018860) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

GO:0031145 anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process GO:0030071 regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important ... The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting ... events in mitosis, such as the initiation of anaphase and exit from telophase. The APC, in conjunction with other enzymes, ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR018860

Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 (IPR024990) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIAnaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 (IPR024990) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Apc1 is the largest of the subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. The anaphase-promoting complex is a ... The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy.. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7 644-56 2006 ... Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex.. Gene 262 51-9 2001 ... Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR024990

Anaphase II - Biology-Online DictionaryAnaphase II - Biology-Online Dictionary

Anaphase II precedes telophase II. Meiotic anaphase II is similar to the anaphase in mitosis. Both mitotic anaphase and meiotic ... These are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Each of these phases is designated as I or II depending where it occurs ... Anaphase II is the third stage in meiosis II. It is the stage after metaphase II, which is that phase wherein the chromosomes ... Anaphase II is the stage when sister chromatids of every chromosome separate and begin to move towards the opposite ends of the ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Anaphase_II

Cdc14 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase I during anaphase.  - PubMed - NCBICdc14 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase I during anaphase. - PubMed - NCBI

Cdc14 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase I during anaphase.. Clemente-Blanco A1, Mayán-Santos M, Schneider DA, Machín F, ... d, Schematic representation of CDC14-dependent rRNA transcription inhibition during yeast anaphase. ... during anaphase. The phosphatase activity of Cdc14 is required for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) inhibition in vitro and in vivo. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158678?dopt=Abstract

System-level feedbacks make the anaphase switch irreversible.System-level feedbacks make the anaphase switch irreversible.

... anaphase) until all of its chromosomes are properly aligned on the metaphase plate, with the two copies of each chromosome at ... Anaphase / genetics*. Animals. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Chromatids / genetics. Chromosome Segregation / ... anaphase) until all of its chromosomes are properly aligned on the metaphase plate, with the two copies of each chromosome ... but during anaphase, these same tensionless chromosomes can no longer activate the checkpoint. These and other puzzles ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/System-level-feedbacks-make-anaphase/21617094.html

The anaphase-promoting complex: proteolysis in mitosis and beyond.  - PubMed - NCBIThe anaphase-promoting complex: proteolysis in mitosis and beyond. - PubMed - NCBI

The anaphase-promoting complex: proteolysis in mitosis and beyond.. Peters JM1. ... These events are mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligase that assembles ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12049731?dopt=Abstract

AnaphaseAnaphase

... , from the ancient Greek ἀνά (up) and φάσις (stage), is the stage of mitosis when chromosomes separate in a eukaryotic ... Early and late anaphase. Within anaphase two distinct processes occur. * During early anaphase (or Anaphase A) the chromatids ... Anaphase - Schéma de l anaphase L anaphase est une phase très rapide de la méiose et de la mitose où les chromatides sœurs ( ... anaphase lag. could happen.. Regulation. Anaphase begins abruptly with the regulated triggering of the metaphase-to-anaphase ...
more infohttps://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/120113

Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 (ANAPC13) AntikörperAnaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 (ANAPC13) Antikörper

Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 (ANAPC13) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick This gene encodes a component of the anaphase ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 Antikörper * 21 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 (ANAPC13) Antikörper. ANAPC13 encodes a component of the anaphase promoting complex ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 13 Interaktionspartner. Cow (Bovine) Anaphase Promoting Complex ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Anaphase+Promoting+Complex+Subunit+13+

Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) AntikörperAnaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper

Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase- ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Antikörper * 131 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper. ANAPC1 encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Interaktionspartner. Human Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ( ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Anaphase+Promoting+Complex+Subunit+1+

MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity | PNASMAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity | PNAS

Since a portion of MAD2 is localized at the kinetochore prior to the metaphase-anaphase transition in HeLa cells (21, 22), it ... MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity. Yong Li, Carlos Gorbea, David Mahaffey ... The metaphase-anaphase transition is monitored by the mitotic checkpoint, which senses spindle aberrations and responds by ... Once activated, this checkpoint arrests cells prior to the metaphase-anaphase transition with unsegregated chromosomes, stable ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/94/23/12431?ijkey=31f061a7f547faacdb9175c47e9bdd46b904c88a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Identification of a physiological E2 module for the human anaphase-promoting complex | PNASIdentification of a physiological E2 module for the human anaphase-promoting complex | PNAS

2006) The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome: A machine designed to destroy. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:644-656. ... 2004) Degradation of the SCF component Skp2 in cell-cycle phase G1 by the anaphase-promoting complex. Nature 428:194-198. ... 2001) Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of human cyclin A starts at the beginning of mitosis and is ... Ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is essential for proliferation in all eukaryotes. The human APC/C ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/106/43/18213?ijkey=6803e6fc346ade32dd2daf90d473ddccb641d948&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Mitosis, Anaphase, TEM - Stock Image C017/4204 - Science Photo LibraryMitosis, Anaphase, TEM - Stock Image C017/4204 - Science Photo Library

The four main phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. - Stock Image C017/4204 ... anaphase. No magnification given. Mitosis, the usual method of cell division, characterized typically by the resolving of the ... Keywords: anaphase, biology, cell, cell anatomy, cell division, cell structure, cellular, cellular division, cytology, electron ... Caption: Color enhanced transmission electron micrograph showing mitosis - anaphase. No magnification given. Mitosis, the usual ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/536566/view

British Library EThOS: Analysis of anaphase inhibitors in fission yeastBritish Library EThOS: Analysis of anaphase inhibitors in fission yeast

This leads to the inhibition of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), which is the ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting ...
more infohttp://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.661711

Anapc4 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Anapc4 gene & proteinAnapc4 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Anapc4 gene & protein

Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4Add BLAST. 807. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... anaphase-promoting complex Source: UniProtKB. *nuclear periphery Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori ... anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q91W96

ANAPC5 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 - Gallus gallus (Chicken) - ANAPC5 gene & proteinANAPC5 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 - Gallus gallus (Chicken) - ANAPC5 gene & protein

Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... sp,Q5ZKK3,APC5_CHICK Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 OS=Gallus gallus OX=9031 GN=ANAPC5 PE=2 SV=1 ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5Add BLAST. 756. ,p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q5ZKK3

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 16 - Q96DE5 (APC16 HUMAN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 16 - Q96DE5 (APC16 HUMAN)

Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q96DE5

Dominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase | GeneticsDominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase | Genetics

CDC20 overexpression was also able to overcome the anaphase delay caused by high levels of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p, but ... Dominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase. Eric J. Schott and M. Andrew Hoyt ... Dominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase. Eric J. Schott and M. Andrew Hoyt ... Dominant Alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 Reveal Its Role in Promoting Anaphase. Eric J. Schott and M. Andrew Hoyt ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/148/2/599.abstract

Anapc1 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:103097 - anaphase promoting complex subunit 1Anapc1 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:103097 - anaphase promoting complex subunit 1

View mouse Anapc1 Chr2:128610104-128687391 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:103097

Metaphase to Anaphase (mat) Transition-Defective Mutants inCaenorhabditis elegans | JCBMetaphase to Anaphase (mat) Transition-Defective Mutants inCaenorhabditis elegans | JCB

1994) Bypassing anaphase by fission yeast cut9 mutationrequirement of cut-9+ to initiate anaphase. J. Cell Biol 127:1655-1670, ... Metaphase to Anaphase (mat) Transition-Defective Mutants inCaenorhabditis elegans. Andy Golden, Penny L. Sadler, Matthew R. ... APC/C initiates the metaphase to anaphase transition by first targeting the destruction of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1/Cut2 ( ... 1989) Anaphase onset and dephosphorylation of mitotic phosphoproteins occur concomitantly. J. Cell Sci 94:245-258, pmid:2621223 ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/151/7/1469.long
  • Here we show that Cdc14, a protein phosphatase required for nucleolar segregation and mitotic exit, inhibits transcription of yeast ribosomal genes (rDNA) during anaphase. (nih.gov)
  • MCAK overexpression induces centromere-independent bundling and eventual loss of spindle microtubule polymer suggesting that centromere-associated bundling and/or depolymerization activity is required for anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • Cdc14 inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase I during anaphase. (nih.gov)
  • Recent work shows that targeted inhibition of these pathways prevents centrosome clustering and forces chromosomes to segregate to multiple daughter cells, an event triggering apoptosis that we refer to as anaphase catastrophe. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anaphase catastrophe specifically kills tumor cells with more than two centrosomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anaphase catastrophe is a previously unrecognized mechanism that can be pharmacologically induced for apoptotic death of cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • M. D. Ono, D. Preece, M. L. Duquette, and M. W. Berns, "Mitotic Tethers Connect Sister Chromosomes During Anaphase A in PtK2 Cells," in Optics in the Life Sciences Congress , OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper OtM4E.4. (osapublishing.org)
  • They] show, in Table 1, that increased levels of Nup96 had modest effects on mitotic timing in NRK cells causing a slight acceleration from NEBD to metaphase and from anaphase to cytokinesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Anaphase B drives separation of the sister centrosomes to their opposite poles through three forces. (academic.ru)