Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Relating to the size of solids.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.

Effects of sample dilution, peroxidase concentration, and chloride ion on the measurement of unbound bilirubin in premature newborns. (1/113)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of sample dilution, peroxidase concentration, and chloride ion (Cl(-)) on plasma unbound bilirubin (B(f)) measurements made using a commercial peroxidase methodology (UB Analyzer) in a study population of ill, premature newborns. DESIGN AND METHODS: B(f) was measured with a UB Analyzer in 74 samples at the standard 42-fold sample dilution and compared with B(f) measured at a 2-fold sample dilution using a FloPro Analyzer. B(f) was measured at two peroxidase concentrations to determine whether the peroxidase steady state B(f) (B(fss)) measurements were significantly less than the equilibrium B(f) (B(feq)), in which case it was necessary to calculate B(feq) from the two B(fss) measurements. B(f) was also measured before and after adding 100 mmol/L Cl(-) to the UB Analyzer assay buffer. RESULTS: B(feq) at the 42-fold dilution was nearly 10-fold less than but it correlated significantly with B(feq) at the 2-fold dilution (mean 8.2+/-5.2 nmol/L versus 73.5+/-70 nmol/L, respectively, p<0.0001; correlation r=0.6). The two UB Analyzer B(fss) measurements were significantly less than B(feq) in 42 of 74 (57%) samples, and Cl(-) increased B(feq) in 66 of 74 (89%) samples by a mean of 82+/-67%. CONCLUSIONS: B(fss) measured by the UB Analyzer at the standard 42-fold sample dilution using assay buffer without Cl(-) and a single peroxidase concentration is significantly less than the B(feq) in undiluted plasma. Accurate B(f) measurements can be made only in minimally diluted serum or plasma.  (+info)

Isolation of polysome-bound mRNA from solid tissues amenable for RT-PCR and profiling experiments. (2/113)

Using cell lines and primary cells, it has been shown that translation control plays a key role regulating gene expression during physiological and pathological conditions. The relevance of this type of regulation in vivo (tissues, organs) remains to be elucidated, due to the lack of an efficient method for polysome-bound fractionation of solid tissue RNA samples. A simple and efficient method is described, in which tissue samples were pulverized in liquid nitrogen and lysed with NP40-lysis buffer in the presence of the RNAse inhibitors RNAsin and vanadyl-ribonucleoside complex. After cell lysis, the cytoplasmic extract was loaded into sucrose gradients, fractionated, and RNA prepared from each fraction. The obtained RNA was reverse transcribed with a low efficiency, a problem that was overcome by purifying polyA+ RNA. Aiming to use small quantities of solid tissue samples (10-20 mg/sample), polyA+ RNA purification was discarded, and the different components were individually screened for a negative effect on reverse transcription. The polysaccharide heparin, which is present as a nonspecific RNAse inhibitor, inhibits reverse transcriptase activity, and must be removed from RNA samples for an efficient reaction. Heparin was successfully removed by precipitation of the RNA with lithium chloride, as demonstrated by the reversal of the inhibition on RT-PCR reactions. In summary, we present a reliable method allowing us to prepare high-quality polysome-bound mRNA from small quantities of liquid-nitrogen-frozen solid tissue samples from both human and mouse origin, amenable for Northern blotting, RT-PCR reactions, and expression profiling analyses.  (+info)

Metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of a nonpeptidic substance P receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, in normal healthy male volunteers: characterization of polar metabolites by chemical derivatization with dansyl chloride. (3/113)

The excretion, biotransformation, and pharmacokinetics of ezlopitant [(2-benzhydryl-1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-(5-isopropyl-2-methoxy-benzyl)-amine ], a substance P receptor antagonist, were investigated in healthy male volunteers after oral administration of a single 200-mg (approximately 93 microCi/subject) dose of [(14)C]ezlopitant. The total recovery of administered radioactive dose was 82.8 +/- 5.1, with 32.0 +/- 4.2% in the urine and 50.8 +/- 1.4% in the feces. Mean observed maximal serum concentrations for ezlopitant and total radioactivity were achieved at approximately 2 h after oral administration; thus, ezlopitant was rapidly absorbed. Ezlopitant was extensively metabolized in humans, since no unchanged drug was detected in urine and feces. The major pathway of ezlopitant in humans was the result of the oxidation of the isopropyl side chain to form the omega-hydroxy and omega-1-hydroxy (M16) metabolites. M16 and omega,omega-1-dihydroxy (1,2-dihydroxy, M12) were identified as the major circulating metabolites accounting for 64.6 and 15.4% of total circulating radioactivity, respectively. In feces, the major metabolite M14 was characterized as the propionic acid metabolite and formed by further oxidation of the omega-hydroxy metabolite. The urinary metabolites were the result of cleaved metabolites caused by oxidative dealkylation of the 2-benzhydryl-1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl moiety. The metabolites (M1A, M1B, and M4), approximately 34% of the total radioactivity in urine, were identified as benzyl amine derivatives. These were polar metabolites that were further characterized using the reaction with dansyl chloride to derivatize the primary amines and phenol moieties to less polar analytes. The other metabolites were the result of O-demethylation, dehydrogenation of the isopropyl group, and oxidation on the quinuclidine moiety.  (+info)

Arsenic determination in marine sediment using ultrasound for sample preparation. (4/113)

This work deals with As determination in marine sediment using ultrasound for sample preparation. It is shown that As can be quantitatively extracted from marine sediment using 20% (v/v) HCl and sonication. The slurry is centrifuged and the analyte is determined in the supernatant by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG AAS). A flow injection (FI) system is employed for hydride generation, with 0.5% (m/v) NaBH(4) used as reducdant and a 20% (v/v) HCl used as sample carrier. The limit of quantification is 1.6 microg g(-1) of As, which is based on 800 microl of sample solution and 0.200 g of sample mass in a volume of 50 mL. Certified and non certified marine sediment samples were analyzed; the results were in accordance with the certified or reference values. Speciation analysis by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that As(V) is the only detectable As species present in the supernatant of the centrifuged sample.  (+info)

On-plate digestion using a commercial microfraction collector for nano-HPLC matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight protein analysis. (5/113)

 (+info)

Synthesis of bis(amino alcohol)oxalamides and their usage for the preconcentration of trace metals by cloud point extraction. (6/113)

C(2)-Symmetric two bis(amino alcohol)oxalamides (diamidediols) were synthesized and fully characterized. A new method was developed and successfully applied for the simultaneous preconcentration of both trace and toxic metals in water, by using C(2)-symmetric compounds. Under the optimum experimental conditions (i.e. pH = 10.0 +/- 0.2, 2.75 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) N,N'-bis[(1R)-1-ethyl-2-hydroxyethyl]ethanediamide (DAD1), 1.75 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) N,N'-bis[(1S)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxyethyl]-ethanediamide (DAD2), 0.10% w/v octylphenoxy-polyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114)), calibration graphs were linear in the range of 2.5 - 25.0 ng mL(-1) for Cu and Cd, 5.0 - 25.0 ng mL(-1) for Co and Ni. The enrichment factors were 18, 23, 18 and 20 for Cd, Cu, Co and Ni in the case of DAD1, respectively; 20, 22, 17 and 20 for Cd, Cu, Co and Ni in the case of DAD2. The limits of detection for DAD1 were found to be 0.45, 0.50, 1.25 and 0.60 ng mL(-1) for Cd, Cu, Co and Ni, respectively, and for DAD2 were found to be 0.44, 0.25, 0.60 and 1.55 ng mL(-1) for Cd, Cu, Co and Ni, respectively. The developed method was applied to the determination of Cu, Cd, Co and Ni in water samples and certified reference materials with satisfactory results.  (+info)

Triple-phase single-drop microextraction of silver and its determination using graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. (7/113)

A new method is described for the determination of silver based on triple-phase microextraction using diethyldithio-carbamate (DDTC) and thioaminophenol. Ag is separated and preconcentrated from the matrix of the sample solution, and finally determined by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectroscopy. The parameters that affect the efficiency were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a 30-fold preconcentration factor with a detection limit of 0.05 microg L(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation was 10% (5 determinations). The developed method was applied to the determination of trace Ag in water samples.  (+info)

Moving known libraries to an addressable array: a site-selective hetero-Michael reaction. (8/113)

 (+info)

Analytical sample preparation methods refer to the procedures and techniques used to manipulate and treat samples in order to make them suitable for analysis by an analytical instrument. The main goal of these methods is to isolate, concentrate, and purify the analytes of interest from a complex matrix, while also minimizing interference and improving the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of the analysis.

Some common analytical sample preparation methods include:

1. Extraction: This involves separating the analyte from the sample matrix using a solvent or other medium. Examples include liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).
2. Purification: This step is used to remove impurities and interfering substances from the sample. Common methods include column chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and distillation.
3. Derivatization: This involves chemically modifying the analyte to improve its detectability or stability. Examples include silylation, acetylation, and esterification.
4. Digestion: This step is used to break down complex samples into smaller, more manageable components. Examples include acid digestion, dry ashing, and microwave digestion.
5. Concentration: This step is used to increase the amount of analyte in the sample, making it easier to detect. Examples include evaporation, lyophilization, and rotary evaporation.

These methods are widely used in various fields such as forensics, environmental science, food analysis, pharmaceuticals, and clinical diagnostics to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Analytical chemistry techniques are a collection of methods and tools used to identify and quantify the chemical composition of matter. These techniques can be used to analyze the presence and amount of various chemicals in a sample, including ions, molecules, and atoms. Some common analytical chemistry techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter to identify and quantify chemical species. There are many different types of spectroscopy, including UV-Vis, infrared (IR), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
2. Chromatography: This technique separates the components of a mixture based on their physical or chemical properties, such as size, charge, or polarity. Common types of chromatography include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Mass spectrometry: This technique uses the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to identify and quantify chemical species. It can be used in combination with other techniques, such as GC or LC, to provide structural information about unknown compounds.
4. Electrochemical methods: These techniques use the movement of electrons to measure the concentration of chemical species. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and amperometry.
5. Thermal analysis: This technique uses changes in the physical or chemical properties of a sample as it is heated or cooled to identify and quantify chemical species. Examples include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

These are just a few examples of the many analytical chemistry techniques that are available. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which to use will depend on the specific needs of the analysis.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that is used to analyze large biomolecules such as proteins and peptides. In this technique, the sample is mixed with a matrix compound, which absorbs laser energy and helps to vaporize and ionize the analyte molecules.

The matrix-analyte mixture is then placed on a target plate and hit with a laser beam, causing the matrix and analyte molecules to desorb from the plate and become ionized. The ions are then accelerated through an electric field and into a mass analyzer, which separates them based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

The separated ions are then detected and recorded as a mass spectrum, which can be used to identify and quantify the analyte molecules present in the sample. MALDI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of complex biological samples, such as tissue extracts or biological fluids, because it allows for the detection and identification of individual components within those mixtures.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Preserved food, in a medical context, refers to food that has been treated or processed in order to inhibit spoilage and prolong its shelf life. This is typically achieved through methods such as canning, pickling, smoking, drying, or freezing. These processes work by reducing the moisture content, increasing acidity, or introducing chemicals that prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness.

While preserved foods can be a valuable source of nutrition, especially in situations where fresh food is not available, it's important to note that some preservation methods can also introduce harmful substances, such as sodium nitrite in cured meats or acrylamide in fried or baked starchy foods. Therefore, preserved foods should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

"Cooking" is not a medical term, but it generally refers to the process of preparing and cooking food. In a medical or nutritional context, "cooking" may refer to the application of heat to food in order to make it safe and more palatable to eat, as well as to improve its nutritional value and digestibility.

Cooking can also have an impact on the nutrient content of food. For example, cooking certain vegetables can increase their bioavailability, or the amount of a nutrient that is available for absorption by the body. On the other hand, cooking some foods at high temperatures or for long periods of time can lead to the loss of certain nutrients, such as vitamins C and B.

It's important to note that the way food is cooked can also affect its safety. For example, undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood can harbor harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella and E. coli, which can cause foodborne illness. It's essential to cook these foods thoroughly to reduce the risk of infection.

In summary, while "cooking" is not a medical term, it has important implications for food safety, nutrition, and digestion.

Bisacodyl is a stimulant laxative that is used to treat constipation and to clean out the intestines before a colonoscopy or other medical procedures. It works by increasing the muscle contractions in the intestines, which helps to move stool through the bowels and promotes bowel movements. Bisacodyl is available as a tablet or suppository, and it is typically taken at night to produce a bowel movement the next morning.

Bisacodyl is a prescription medication, and it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully, as improper use can increase the risk of side effects such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and dependence on laxatives.

Some common side effects of bisacodyl include abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and nausea. These side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. However, if they are severe or persist, it is important to talk to a healthcare professional. In rare cases, bisacodyl can cause more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, heart problems, and intestinal inflammation. If you experience any of these side effects, seek medical attention immediately.

It is important to note that bisacodyl is not recommended for long-term use, as it can lead to dependence on laxatives and other health problems. It should only be used as directed by a healthcare professional and for the shortest duration necessary to treat constipation or prepare for a medical procedure.

Histocytoлогиcal preparation techniques are methods used to prepare tissue samples for examination under a microscope in order to study the structure and function of cells, specifically histiocytes. These techniques involve fixing, processing, embedding, sectioning, and staining the tissue samples to preserve their cellular details and enhance the visibility of various cellular components.

The process typically begins with fixing the tissue sample in a fixative solution, such as formalin or alcohol, to preserve its structure and prevent decomposition. The fixed tissue is then dehydrated using a series of increasing concentrations of ethanol and cleared with a clearing agent, such as xylene, to remove the ethanol and make the tissue more transparent.

Next, the tissue is infiltrated with a liquid embedding material, such as paraffin or plastic, and solidified into a block. The block is then cut into thin sections using a microtome, and the sections are mounted onto glass slides.

Finally, the sections are stained with various dyes to highlight different cellular components, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, or specific organelles. Common staining techniques used in histocytoлогиcal preparation include hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and special stains for specific cell types or structures.

These techniques allow pathologists to examine the tissue sample at a microscopic level, identify any abnormalities or diseases, and make an accurate diagnosis.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "microwaves" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; they are commonly used in communication devices and home appliances such as microwave ovens. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Reference standards in a medical context refer to the established and widely accepted norms or benchmarks used to compare, evaluate, or measure the performance, accuracy, or effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, or procedures. These standards are often based on extensive research, clinical trials, and expert consensus, and they help ensure that healthcare practices meet certain quality and safety thresholds.

For example, in laboratory medicine, reference standards may consist of well-characterized samples with known concentrations of analytes (such as chemicals or biological markers) that are used to calibrate instruments and validate testing methods. In clinical practice, reference standards may take the form of evidence-based guidelines or best practices that define appropriate care for specific conditions or patient populations.

By adhering to these reference standards, healthcare professionals can help minimize variability in test results, reduce errors, improve diagnostic accuracy, and ensure that patients receive consistent, high-quality care.

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technique used to identify and quantify specific molecules, such as proteins or metabolites, within complex mixtures. This method uses two or more sequential mass analyzers to first separate ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio and then further fragment the selected ions into smaller pieces for additional analysis. The fragmentation patterns generated in MS/MS experiments can be used to determine the structure and identity of the original molecule, making it a powerful tool in various fields such as proteomics, metabolomics, and forensic science.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Section C: This section was purely administrative Compilation and preparation of steganography methods of all types, in ... Requisitions for sampling check-up on German signal communication and evaluation of observations, in collaboration with Gen ... Its primary function was the direction of analytic operations of the service and consisted of the following groups: Group I ... New methods were developed to utilise the results of the point-to-point intercept of traffic by W-Leit, Southeast, and the air- ...
... analytic, deductive, inductive, and heuristic methods. For example, the difference between synthetic and analytic methods is ... For example, methodology should assist the researcher in deciding why one method of sampling is preferable to another in a ... Herbartianism identifies five essential components of teaching: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, and ... The method of conceptual analysis came to particular prominence with the advent of analytic philosophy. It studies concepts by ...
However, they all require long sample preparation times and destroy the sample. Nondestructive techniques for the forensic ... other analytic methods have been sufficient. Cosmetics, such as lipstick, recovered from a crime scene may provide valuable ... Additionally, increases in sample throughput from dozens of samples a day to hundreds of samples a day have revolutionized ... For other applications that may involve very viscous samples or samples that have particulate matter, a process known as sample ...
Chemical and physical characteristics of samples are studied and analyzed by the center. "Building Technologies" is created for ... The university has the Foundation Faculty, which is an intensive academic, scientific, and language preparation of students for ... "IRGETAS" is a common use center for carrying out analytic and materials engineering research. ... ", "Digital Earth Exploration Methods", "Precision Farming", with participation of the Technical University of Munich, Obuda ...
Students who do not use these courses often rely on material from university text books, GRE preparation books, sample tests, ... Critics have also stated that the computer-adaptive method of placing more weight on the first several questions is biased ... and 423 on the analytic, while white test-takers averaged 496, 538, and 564, respectively. The National Association of Test ... ETS provides preparation software called PowerPrep, which contains two practice tests of retired questions, as well as further ...
As part of that work he invented the method of "lithium dating" that revised the ages of young star clusters upward by 50% or ... Reiners, A.; Basri, G. (2010-02-01). "A Volume-Limited Sample of 63 M7-M9.5 Dwarfs. II. Activity, Magnetism, and the Fade of ... His work there originally focused on high-energy observations of stars (with Stuart Bowyer) in preparation for the eventual ... Basri, Gibor; Shah, Riya (2020-09-01). "The Information Content in Analytic Spot Models of Broadband Precision Light Curves. II ...
... require a sample preparation, or a pretreatment of the samples prior to being analysed. For example, it might be necessary to ... This "global" detection limit (including all the steps of the analysis method) is called the method detection limit (MDL). The ... Saah AJ, Hoover DR (1998). "[Sensitivity and specificity revisited: significance of the terms in analytic and diagnostic ... This estimation, however, ignores any uncertainty that arises from performing the sample preparation and will therefore ...
... the relative differences in expression among different spots within a sample and between samples is the preferred method of ... It is critical that information about the sample preparation and handling is discussed, in order to help identify the ... Class discovery analysis: This analytic approach, sometimes called unsupervised classification or knowledge discovery, tries to ... The two samples to be compared (pairwise comparison) are grown/acquired. In this example treated sample (case) and untreated ...
A more common method directly measures TOC in the sample by again acidifying the sample to a pH value of two or less to release ... Since the early 1970s, TOC has been an analytic technique used to measure water quality during the drinking water purification ... As many of these biotechnology operations include the preparation of medicines, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ... of sample can be handled making the methods less sensitive than chemical oxidation methods capable of digesting as much as 10 ...
More common, incomplete preparation produces a mixed quantum state. Wave function solutions of Schrödinger's equations of ... Historically definitions of quantum states used wavefunctions before the more formal methods were developed.: 268 The wave ... Subsequent measurements of the state produces samples from a probability distribution predicted by the quantum mechanical ... 205 Numerical or analytic solutions in quantum mechanics can be expressed as pure states. These solution states, called ...
This is due in large part to small increases in accuracy provided by the use of more complicated methods, and to its being a ... Souge, J. L. Analytic solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equation: a combinatorial inter-pretation. J. Phys. A.: Math. Gen ... The tip is lowered into the sample and a laser reflecting off the cantilever allows for precise measurements to be obtained. In ... Koshima, H.; Matsusaka, W. Yu, H. Preparation and photoreaction of organogels based on ben-zophenone. J. Photochemistry and ...
Other analytic methods can be subdivided into the physical, the gas chromatographical, and the chemosensory method. When ... To collect an odor sample, the samples are collected using specialized sample bags, which are made from an odor free material, ... He suggested the evolutionary pressure of diversification of food sources and increased complexity of food preparation ... The method is based on dilution of an odor sample to the odor threshold. The numerical value of the odor concentration is equal ...
A simple and cost-effective method for preparation of HIV proficiency testing panels and quality control materials for use in ... Rules such as the Westgard rules can be applied to see whether the results from the samples when the control was done can be ... Saah AJ, Hoover DR (1998). "[Sensitivity and specificity revisited: significance of the terms in analytic and diagnostic ... These methods are based on continuous monitoring of process variation. The control chart, also known as the Shewhart chart or ...
National Inpatient Sample (NIS) (formerly the Nationwide Inpatient Sample): A 20 percent stratified sample of all-payer, ... HCUP Methods Series Reports offer methodological information on the HCUP databases and software tools. HCUP Findings-At-A- ... ICD-9-CM codes were frozen in preparation for ICD-10-CM implementation and regular maintenance of the codes has been suspended ... While designed to be used with HCUP databases, the analytic tools may be applied to other administrative databases. The ...
May 2018). "Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 5: methods for integrating qualitative ... He used a meta-analytic approach to aggregate the outcomes of multiple clinical studies. In 1972 Archie Cochrane wrote: 'It is ... Recent visualisation innovations include the albatross plot, which plots p-values against sample sizes, with approximate effect ... provides guidance to authors for the preparation of Cochrane Intervention reviews.' The Cochrane Handbook also outlines the key ...
This method is preferred among most over the more traditional chromic acid bath for cleaning NMR tubes, because no traces of ... The preparation of aqua regia by directly mixing hydrochloric acid with nitric acid only became possible after the discovery in ... Aqua regia is also used in etching and in specific analytic procedures. It is also used in some laboratories to clean glassware ... Hoffman, R. (10 March 2005) How to make an NMR sample, Hebrew University. Accessed 31 October 2006. American Industrial Hygiene ...
Eventually, the manual method was modified so that a match could be notated in-match at courtside directly into a microcomputer ... But how many is enough? In the literature there are large differences in sample sizes. These problems have very serious direct ... This modelling of technical attainment has been replicated in many sports and form the basis of preparation at the highest ... The modelling of competitive sport is an informative analytic technique because it directs the attention of the modeller to the ...
R&D head Methods' development of the organization scintillation properties for single crystals on the basis of rare earth ... The reference book contains a brief biographical information on contemporary Ukrainian artists and samples of their signatures ... "Analytic geometry" (2003) (ISBN 978-966-8319-92-1). He is the initiator of the creation of a new scientific journal "Functional ... extreme urgency acquire developed a new organic and inorganic scintillators and processes for their preparation. Custom ...
... as well as sample pre-treatment and sample preparation on one chip. An emerging application area for biochips is clinical ... Due to the increase in safety concerns and operating costs of common analytic methods (ICP-MS, ICP-AAS, and ICP-OES), the ... In addition, microfluidics-based devices, capable of continuous sampling and real-time testing of air/water samples for ... Microfluidic flow enables fast sample throughput, automated imaging of large sample populations, as well as 3D capabilities. or ...
Hence, the latter method may be used on samples that test positive using other methods to help distinguish between the various ... Since the first preparation was reported in 1887, numerous synthetic routes to amphetamine have been developed. The most common ... Several other studies,[97-101] including a meta-analytic review[98] and a retrospective study,[97] suggested that stimulant ... method 5). Another method is the reaction of phenylacetone with ammonia, producing an imine intermediate that is reduced to the ...
... and Sample Phonics Lessons. Analytic phonics does not involve pronouncing individual sounds (phonemes) in isolation and ... For some teachers this is a method of teaching spelling by using the sounds (phonemes). However, it can also be a method of ... It goes on to say that teachers' preparation programs must include evidence-based practices, including the five essential ... In the 1970s, the whole language method was introduced. This method de-emphasizes the teaching of phonics out of context (e.g. ...
Out of a sample of 200, 100 of whom were dependent on cannabis and the other 100 emotionally healthy, the dependent group ... Meta-analytic evidence confirms that self-reported emotional intelligence predicting job performance is due to mixed-EI and ... Since its popularization in recent decades, methods of developing EI have become widely sought by people seeking to become more ... that several participants were good leaders because their emotional intelligence was developed in counselor preparations, where ...
... are the set of presplit sample indices, set of sample indices for which the split test is true, and set of sample indices for ... These methods may be applied to healthcare research with increased accuracy. Mirrors human decision making more closely than ... Requires little data preparation. Other techniques often require data normalization. Since trees can handle qualitative ... Provost, Foster, 1964- (2013). Data science for business : [what you need to know about data mining and data-analytic thinking ...
Reich sent a sample of the bacteria to a Norwegian biologist, Theodor Thjøtta of the Oslo Bacteriological Institute, who also ... Freud allowed him to start meeting with analytic patients in September that year, although Reich was just 22 years old and ... To counter this, he allowed the Norwegian pathologist Leiv Kreyberg to examine one of his bion preparations under a microscope ... His second wife, Ilse Ollendorf, said vegetotherapy replaced the psychoanalytic method of never touching a patient with "a ...
These artifacts are a sample chosen from the Field Museum's significant China collection. This collection was gathered by the ... Conservators at the Field Museum have made notable contributions to conservation science with methods of preservation of ... Field Museum collections are professionally managed by collection managers and conservators, who are skilled in preparation and ... important cornerstone of research infrastructure in that each specimen can be re-examined and with the advancement of analytic ...
The Manor had been built as a hunting lodge in 1799 and was improved by King in preparation for their honeymoon. It later ... The notes are around three times longer than the article itself and include (in Note G), in complete detail, a method for ... Babbage was impressed by Lovelace's intellect and analytic skills. He called her "The Enchantress of Number". In 1843, he wrote ... Bromley notes several dozen sample programs prepared by Babbage between 1837 and 1840, all substantially predating Lovelace's ...
... analytic number theory) Malgrange preparation theorem (singularity theory) Malgrange-Ehrenpreis theorem (differential equations ... Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem (information theory) Odd number theorem (physics) Open mapping theorem (complex analysis) Open ... voting methods) Girsanov's theorem (stochastic processes) Glaisher's theorem (number theory) Gleason's theorem (Hilbert space) ... analytic geometry) Cramér-Wold theorem (measure theory) Critical line theorem (number theory) Crooks fluctuation theorem ( ...
The focus is general methods that can be applied in various problem domains. M&S Applications solve real world problems by ... Examples are supporting deep water operation of the US Navy or the simulating the surface of neighbored planets in preparation ... 2013). "Simulation Study to Validate Sample Allocation for the National Compensation Survey" (PDF). JSM 2013 - Survey Research ... in order to blend algorithmic and analytic techniques through visualizations available directly to decision makers. A study ...
Design of experiments Block design and Analysis of variance Response surface methodology Sample Survey Sampling theory ... advisory Records management Reference Reference desk Reference management software Registrar Research methods Slow fire Special ... Marxism Philosophical traditions and schools Platonism Aristotelianism Analytic philosophy Continental philosophy Eastern ... Cooking Cuisine Culinary arts Culinary tourism Delicacy Diet Flavor Food choice Food pairing Food photography Food preparation ...
However, pure calcium cannot be prepared in bulk by this method and a workable commercial process for its production was not ... Other calcium preparations include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, and calcium gluconate. The intestine absorbs ... Calcium is readily complexed by oxygen chelates such as EDTA and polyphosphates, which are useful in analytic chemistry and ... in a sample compared to the same ratio in a standard reference material. 44Ca/40Ca varies by about 1% among common earth ...
Analytic Sample Preparation Methods / methods* * Atmospheric Pressure * Calibration * Halogenation* * Limit of Detection ... for the measurement of total inorganic mercury in air while allowing for the identification of HgX2 in collected samples. Both ...
... and the analytic methods used are summarized in Supplementary Material 3. DNA extraction and library preparation were conducted ... Material and method. Sampling strategy and selection criteria. This study is mainly based on molars, and in a few cases on ... The procedures for sample preparation and analysis are reported in Supplementary Material 3. Although most radiocarbon dates ... These samples actually exhibit lower Sr isotope ratios than any of the Late Neolithic samples, but similar ratios occur during ...
... subjected to the same sample preparation steps. Also, an internal standard was used in all sample preparations to correct ... Split sample data was not collected during NHANES 2003-2004. A comparison of the accuracy of methods was made with the use of ... Analytic Notes. Comparing Vitamin C in NHANES 2003-2004 to NHANES III (1988-1994) ... The methods differed in several ways. For 2003-2004, but not for NHANES III, calibrators were treated as samples in the assay, ...
Analytic Sample Preparation Methods/methods, Anisoles/analysis, Calibration, Chloroform/chemistry, Chromatography, Gas/methods ... The proposed method was applied to the analysis of real samples collected in the city of Almeria, Spain, where some PAHs were ... METHODS: Data from wave 1 (2006) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project China Survey, a face-to- ... METHODS: A cross sectional random telephone survey was performed in 2006 covering 1,004 Israelis aged 35-65; of these, 404 were ...
Please refer to the NHANES Analytic Guidelines and the on-line NHANES Tutorial for further details on the use of sample weights ... In the MEC, these methods include performing blind split samples collected on "dry run" sessions. In addition, contract ... Each laboratory staff member is observed for equipment operation, specimen collection and preparation; testing procedures and ... Samples that are negative for HPV and the β-globin control indicate lack of a suitable sample and are considered inadequate for ...
... validated and verified through sample preparation, characterization, and device demonstration. It will require new data ... The toolset will synergistically integrate advanced computational methods and visual analytics with data-enabled scientific ... analytic tools and statistical algorithms; advanced simulations of material properties in conjunction with new device ...
Please refer to the NHANES Analytic Guidelines and the on-line NHANES Tutorial for further details on the use of sample weights ... In the MEC, these methods include performing blind split samples collected during "dry run" sessions. In addition, contract ... Each laboratory staff member is observed for equipment operation, specimen collection and preparation; testing procedures and ... Laboratory Method Files. The method file will be available soon.. Laboratory Quality Assurance and Monitoring. Urine specimens ...
Manual procedures with multiple steps in sample or reagent preparation or the analytic process Virology. *Isolation and ... Automated or semi-automated procedures requiring operator intervention during the analytic process *Immunoassay methods ... Manual procedures with multiple steps in sample or reagent preparation or the analytic process *Automated or semi-automated ... Manual procedures with multiple steps in sample or reagent preparation or the analytic process *Automated or semi-automated ...
OLAP aside, most analytic methods require large data samples of highly detailed data drawn straight from operational sources. ... Careful data preparation is desirable in data warehousing for reports, but its actually a problem with analytics, because data ... For example, analytic methods that are on the rise need to correlate data points drawn from many sources, both in the ... Philip Russom: Im familiar with this analytic method, so I know that it requires a hefty platform for big data analytics. What ...
1 Analytic Sample Preparation Methods. *1 Apgar Score. *1 Australia. *1 Australian Collaborative Cerebral... ... Comparison of DNA extraction methods from small samples of newborn screening cards suitable for retrospective perinatal viral ...
2005-accredited method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples by LC-MS/MS. Download Prime ... Analytic Sample Preparation MethodsCalibrationChromatography, High Pressure LiquidEuropeFood ContaminationFood InspectionFruit ... Comparison of QuEChERS sample preparation methods for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. ... Validation and use of a fast sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in analysis of ultra- ...
Plan to address pre-analytic variables of the assay, such as sample collection and preparation, interference, as well as ... Plan to ensure appropriate standardization of samples and data that are used to validate the assay or method of detection ... Will the team be able to manage the further development of the detection method should the detection method be successful so ... Applicants collecting biofluid samples from prospectively enrolled study participants are encouraged to share samples through ...
app applied lives are: 1. consumer to Trace Environmental Quantitative Analysis( TEQA) -- 2. Sample Preparation Techniques to ... Check out the methods for determining median years to nuclear attacks of different sizes in the "Q"(Quick) be a shop a ... be shop a phonology and grammar; month; Trace sure undeniable target: geopolitics, ll, and ia . use, Analytic -- ... Nukefixs methods are based on Ike Jeanes book, Forecast and Solution, grappling with the nuclear At the shop a phonology and ...
Sample preparation is considered to be the most difficult step in analytic workflow. Current methods for extraction and ... Sample preparation is considered to be the most difficult step in analytic workflow. Current methods for extraction and ... An innovative sample preparation technique which has the potential to overcome these shortcomings will be developed in this ... An innovative sample preparation technique which has the potential to overcome these shortcomings will be developed in this ...
Analytic Sample Preparation Methods. *Binding, Competitive. *Biuret Reaction. *Calorimetry. *Chemical Fractionation. *Chemical ... The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that ... Flow injection tandem mass spectrometric measurement of ceramides of multiple chain lengths in biological samples. J Chromatogr ... propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or ...
Scientists have developed a new method for rapid authentication of Chinese herbal medicines, including Ganoderma (known as ... However, it is a labor-intensive and time-consuming method as it takes several hours to undergo the sample preparation and ... Moreover, with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a commonly used dataset analytic tool, wild and cultivated types can be ... The new method is quick and simple, which takes around 10 minutes to analyse one raw sample, achieving various ends including ...
The capabilities of these four instruments, coupled with the associated sample preparation and inspection resources also housed ... In particular it has a sensitivity to atomic species and location that is unmatched in other analytic instruments. The atom ... revealing the location and chemical composition of structures invisible to other methods. ... Because of the nature of helium ion-sample interactions , this tool also provides the ability to pattern samples without the ...
Sample preparation and derivatisation was carried out as follows. Approximately, 1 g of sample and 0·05 g Phenyl-β-d- ... Analytic procedures. Ileostomy fluid homogenate samples were analysed for iso, as well as glucose and fructose as hydrolysis ... Venous blood glucose samples were analysed by hexokinase method (Roche Diagnostics). Proinsulin concentration was determined ... Repeatability was calculated from ten replicate determinations of a sample (in each case completely separate sample preparation ...
2. Materials and Methods. 2.1. Sampling and Sample Preparation. Sampling sites for the bivalve mollusks studied under present ... This demands development of adequate monitoring approaches, selection of biomonitors and adequate analytic techniques [14] . ... The dates of sampling and locations of sampling sites are given in Table 1. ... To determine short-lived isotopes of Cl, Br, and I samples of 0.3 g were packed in polyethylene bags and irradiated for 3 - 5 ...
SPE is used to exchange sample matrices, concentrate analytes, and remove interferences and contaminants to improve data and ... selective sample preparation and purification prior to chromatographic analysis (e.g. HPLC, GC, TLC). ... QuEChERS Sample Preparation Method. QuEChERS is a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sample cleanup method used ... Gas chromatography is a common analytic technique used to separate and analyze volatile compounds in the gas phase. GC is ...
What You Need to Know about Data Mining and Data-Analytic Thinking, autor: Foster Provost, Tom Fawcett, wydawnictwo: OReilly ... Data Preparation. *Modeling. *Evaluation and Deployment. *B. Another Sample Proposal *Scenario and Proposal *Flaws in the GGC ... Youll also discover how to think data-analytically, and fully appreciate how data science methods can support business ... What You Need to Know about Data Mining and Data-Analytic Thinking (ebook) (audiobook) (audiobook) ...
The method applied in this study is a descriptive-analytical method which bases on both documentary and field-based collection ... The study sample consisted of all critical land use categories, urban installations, facilities management, military - security ... The focus of this research is physical safety, on this base this study is a functional and descriptive - analytic study. ... Mohammadi, M., 2014, Permeability measurement of Karaj city against risks, Journal of Plan-space Planning and Preparation, Vol ...
The AAS preparation process is easy and quick. The samples could be brought into the solution by using the three common methods ... of the metals makes use of the graphite furnace and the chemical modifier is used for stabilizing volatilize or analytic. This ... You can also add the auto samples that automate the standards and samples. The additional accessory helps for eliminating the ... You can use AAS for measuring and detecting sensitive methods.. *The cost that you are going to invest in this will be lower ...
Petrosal Sinus Sampling. *Chemistry Techniques, Analytical. *Activation Analysis. *Analytic Sample Preparation Methods ...
... and your test scores or quantitative/analytic resume. We are looking for evidence of quantitative and analytic preparation and ... advanced data, methods, and data science techniques through classes at the Evans School, the Center for Studies in Demography ... your research experience and writing sample, your personal statement, ... Are you interested in using sophisticated research methods and an interdisciplinary perspective to study societys most ...
This analysis employed similar analytic methods to other target trial emulations with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (4,5). Those who ... Sampling with replacement by matched pair with 500 replications was used to generate 95% CIs. Data were collected from nursing ... Initial data preparation was conducted using SAS software (version 9.4; SAS Institute) and STATA (version 16; Statacorp). All ... A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis 1987;40: ...
4. Methods of Preparation. 5. Methods of Presentation. 6. Divisions and Proportions. 7. Wedding Messages. 8. Funeral Messages. ... Though one of many classic manuals on expository preaching, it has always been the most detailed, analytic, practical, and ... Sample Sermon Evaluation Form. 13. Example of an Expository Sermon in Formal Structure. Index ... Part 2: Preparation of Expository Sermons. 5. The Process of Explanation. 6. Outlining and Structure. 7. The Pattern of ...
In view of these limitations, mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with highly advanced sample preparation and separation techniques ... Creative BioMart is capable of providing flexible solutions to settle various kinds of problems in analytic project of histone ... will depend on the problem you are trying to solve and it is ultimately recommended to adopt a combination of these methods for ... BioMart guides you to choose the most suitable tools and reagents for your experiments all the way from sample preparation to ...
  • By directly applying a high voltage on a small piece of raw sample with its surface loaded with solvents, spray ionization could be induced at the tip of the sample to generate corresponding mass spectra within minutes, as if they are fingerprints which helps identification. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The presence of major active components in the DI-MS spectra authenticates genuine samples from counterfeit ones. (sciencedaily.com)
  • spectra or other analytic signals), and y vector, or Y matrix, which contains the dependent variable(s). (databasefootball.com)
  • Specifically, the goal of this PAR is to enable the rigorous validation of analytical methods for biomarker measurements, which should include evaluation of the detection method, its performance characteristics, and the optimal conditions that will generate reproducibility and accuracy consistent with FDA guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • Among them, vibrational techniques, such mid-infrared (MIRS) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopies, are particularly appropriate due to the possibility to obtain direct, simple, non-destructive and fast measurements, without the need of sample pretreatment. (databasefootball.com)
  • Lectures will stress the theory of chemical measurements and sample handling. (mnsu.edu)
  • Quality assurance data were compared to assess differences in serum vitamin C assay precision with the use of the two assay methods. (cdc.gov)
  • Please see Analytic Notes about the release of data for adolescents aged 14-17 years. (cdc.gov)
  • The toolset will synergistically integrate advanced computational methods and visual analytics with data-enabled scientific discovery and innovative experimental techniques to revolutionize our approach to materials science and engineering. (techconnect.org)
  • Instead of transforming and cleansing the data prior to analysis (which can lose desirable data details), the user iteratively develops queries that manipulate data at the analytic tool level, not the physical storage level, as you would when, say, modeling a data warehouse. (tdwi.org)
  • I'm familiar with this analytic method, so I know that it requires a hefty platform for big data analytics. (tdwi.org)
  • It's an enterprise software architecture that enables analytic queries to run against detailed source data-and run fast in real time-without need for transforming the data into data models optimized for a specific type of analysis. (tdwi.org)
  • That means that the SAP user needn't define analytic queries months in advance, then wait for IT to model data for them. (tdwi.org)
  • A logical data model of a data mart is constructed in server memory, based on an analytic query that's being executed. (tdwi.org)
  • For example, analytic methods that are on the rise need to correlate data points drawn from many sources, both in the enterprise and outside it. (tdwi.org)
  • What You Need to Know about Data Mining and Data-Analytic Thinking Foster Provost, Tom Fawcett. (helion.pl)
  • Written by renowned data science experts Foster Provost and Tom Fawcett, Data Science for Business introduces the fundamental principles of data science, and walks you through the "data-analytic thinking" necessary for extracting useful knowledge and business value from the data you collect. (helion.pl)
  • You'll also discover how to think data-analytically, and fully appreciate how data science methods can support business decision-making. (helion.pl)
  • In this sense, a method for the simultaneous quantification of BZP and TFMPP would be extremely useful to clarify these interactions and to fulfill the lack of data. (scholars.direct)
  • For general information regarding the Journal's aims and scope, review process, data policy, and formal details regarding manuscript preparation, submission, and production, please read the Journal's submission guidelines. (sagepub.com)
  • The key element of the fully automatic system is the Disso.NET software developed by ERWEKA, which handles all system functions, including the precise movement of the robot arm, control of the analytic devices, data processing and full documentation. (erweka.com)
  • It is the human operator who defines the test methods, checks results for plausibility and interprets the data obtained. (erweka.com)
  • There is currently very limited data on pre-analytic handling conditions of blood samples to measure peripheral Aβ species. (researchsquare.com)
  • This study provides complementary data to the recently published study by Rózga et al [ 12 ], outlining potential sampling, handling and storage condition for a broad general practice to pre-screen patients for further AD diagnostics. (researchsquare.com)
  • Surveys were administered using a standardized recruitment strategy and data collection methods. (jmir.org)
  • This handbook is designed to remedy that and to present students and researchers with a systematic method for interpreting qualitative data', whether derived from interviews, field notes, or documentary materials. (google.dz)
  • Sample data are weighted to produce annual estimates. (cdc.gov)
  • Various supervised and unsupervised data mining methods for analyzing the produced high- dimensional data are discussed. (lu.se)
  • When the analytic rubric was used, inter-evaluator agreement was substantial for radiographic assessment, access preparation, shaping procedure , obturation, and overall scores. (bvsalud.org)
  • Assessment guided by an analytic rubric allowed evaluators to reach higher levels of agreement than those obtained when using a numeric rating scale. (bvsalud.org)
  • Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a technique designed for rapid, selective sample preparation and purification prior to the chromatographic analysis (e.g. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The sample preparation involved a protein precipitation (only for plasma), an enzymatic hydrolysis, a liquid-liquid extraction (only for cell culture medium), a solid phase extraction, and a perfluoroacylation derivatization. (scholars.direct)
  • A rapid, simple and sensitive multi-residue method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 69 pesticides in fruit and vegetables using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted following the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method known as QuEChERS. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • At Creative BioMart , the selection of a protocol will depend on the problem you are trying to solve and it is ultimately recommended to adopt a combination of these methods for the identification, quantification, and mechanistic characterization of a PTM histone. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The skilled team in Creative BioMart guides you to choose the most suitable tools and reagents for your experiments all the way from sample preparation to PTMs identification and quantification, and customizes an integrative one-stop service to achieve your goals in a high-quality, reliable and cost-effective manner. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The method showed high sensitivity, accuracy and precision for the simultaneous detection and quantification of BZP and TFMPP in the three studied matrices and has direct application for the control of drug abuse in humans, post-mortem analysis, and research purposes. (scholars.direct)
  • Since no analytical methods were previously validated for the concomitant analysis and/or quantification of both drugs, and by virtue of the high frequency of the co-administration of both drugs and the expected toxicological impact, it was deemed of greatest significance to develop and validate a GC-MS methodology that enabled the simultaneous quantification of BZP and TFMPP and that was appropriate for clinical, forensic and research purposes. (scholars.direct)
  • Therefore, the lower cost of Robusta coffee beans opens the possibility for commercial frauds, especially those related to 100% Arabica blends, making detection and quantification of such mixtures in commercial samples a necessary analytical tool for consumer protection. (databasefootball.com)
  • Mejia and colleagues demonstrate the changes in measurement and analytic techniques that can lead to different conclusions. (cdc.gov)
  • The current methodology has comparable detection limits (4-11 pg m(-3)) to previously developed techniques for the measurement of total inorganic mercury in air while allowing for the identification of HgX2 in collected samples. (nih.gov)
  • This is popular as the greatest method used for producing accurate results for light measurement. (notcoul.com)
  • Despite its deficiencies, the use of the HiCN method improved haemoglobin measurement in laboratories using automated techniques. (who.int)
  • On the contrary, it appears that the accuracy of haemoglobin measurement in these countries has detiorated, because the HiCN method is associated with too many constraints. (who.int)
  • Simple analytical instruments for haemoglobin measurement using the HiCN method, appropriate at the primary level, are not available. (who.int)
  • The method of determination in all of the methods is GC in conjunction with either flame ionization detection (FID) or mass spectrometric (MS) detection. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, this column is also something of an apology to all my students who have suffered my sarcasm when they have ever tried to defend the use of volumetric methods over gravimetric to get the best calibration results! (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • An isocratic reverse-phase HPLC method with electrochemical detection of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was used for NHANES 2003-2004 (McCoy et al, 2005) and a similar method was used for NHANES III during 1988-1994 (Gunter et al, 1996). (cdc.gov)
  • After amplification the samples are typed by hybridization to the typing strips followed by colorimetric detection. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, analytical methods are included that modify previously used methods to obtain lower detection limits, and/or to improve accuracy and precision. (cdc.gov)
  • The method of determination in almost all of the methods is gas chromatography (GC) with either electron capture detection (ECD) or flame ionization detection (FID). (cdc.gov)
  • One of the reported methods used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with ultraviolet absorbance detection. (cdc.gov)
  • This PAR assumes that 1) a candidate biomarker has already been identified, 2) detection method technology has already been developed, and 3) the research and/or clinical need and potential context of use has been identified. (nih.gov)
  • Rather, the intention is to identify well-established methods that are used as the standard methods of analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The proposed method was applied to the analysis of more than 2000 vegetable samples from the extensive greenhouse cultivation in the province of Almeria, Spain, during one year. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Moreover, with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a commonly used dataset analytic tool, wild and cultivated types can be classified, while geographical origins could be differentiated. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This renders the sample more suitable for subsequent analytical chromatography, often simplifying and improving the final qualitative and quantitative analysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1 This paper looked into problems and discrepancies arising using standard gravimetric methods and weight fractions in calibrations for spectroscopic quantitative analysis. (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • Peer review of the study protocol, including introduction, methods and analysis plan, occurs before the research is conducted (Chambers, 2019). (sagepub.com)
  • Disso.NET then manages all steps of the dissolution process from media preparation through to analysis. (erweka.com)
  • Introduction to the principles of chemical analysis, with emphasis on classical methods of analysis. (mnsu.edu)
  • The reader is provided with the tools for doing qualitative analysis, such as codes, memos, memo sequences, theoretical sampling and comparative analysis, and diagrams, all of which are abundantly illustrated by actual examples drawn from the author's own varied qualitative research and research consultations, as well as from his research seminars. (google.dz)
  • In addition, there is a chapter on the teaching of qualitative analysis and the giving of useful advice during research consultations, and there is a discussion of the preparation of material for publication. (google.dz)
  • The combination can reveal internal structure in exquisite detail, and provides an indispensable tool for the preparation of samples for the other analytical techniques such as atom probe and transmission electron microscopy. (nist.gov)
  • Because of the nature of helium ion-sample interactions , this tool also provides the ability to pattern samples without the limitations of imposed by electron beam techniques thus opening the path to devices of sub-10 nm sizes with sub-15 nm spacing. (nist.gov)
  • The film is thereby both a means of showing market life and an analytic tool for making sense of it. (socresonline.org.uk)
  • The PIF's LEAP, when installed, will reconstruct analytic volumes atom by atom, revealing the location and chemical composition of structures invisible to other methods. (nist.gov)
  • Quantitation is by peak height and is based on a standard curve generated by using three different concentrations of an external standard (0.005, 0.030, and 0.100 mg/dL).A detailed description of the laboratory method used can be found on the NHANES website. (cdc.gov)
  • For 2003-2004, but not for NHANES III, calibrators were treated as samples in the assay, i.e., subjected to the same sample preparation steps. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, an internal standard was used in all sample preparations to correct results for recovery for NHANES 2003-2004 but not for NHANES III. (cdc.gov)
  • There were no changes to the lab method, lab equipment, and lab site for this component in the NHANES 2015-2016 cycle. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES uses several methods to monitor the quality of the analyses performed by the contract laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • Refer to the Laboratory Method Files section for a detailed description of the laboratory methods used. (cdc.gov)
  • The parallel sampling approach enables very short cycle times for recording of detailed drug release profiles to be selected by the user. (erweka.com)
  • A user-friendly editor enables the required dissolution test methods to be defined and started. (erweka.com)
  • In SPE, the stationary phase (a sorbent or resin) binds either the analyte or impurity through strong but reversible interactions to reliably and rapidly extract the analyte of interest from a complex sample. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Complex math (like analytic geometry and calculus) and computer courses will lay a strong foundation for your college studies. (princetonreview.com)
  • Although this particular case involves soil sampling, it is possible to address the same ethical principles if water sampling, or even rock sampling is considered instead. (carleton.edu)
  • An introduction to the general principles and methods used in the study of microorganisms. (mnsu.edu)
  • Analytical methods for the determination of 2-butoxyethanol, 2-butoxyethanol acetate, and metabolites in biological matrices are shown in Table 6-l. (cdc.gov)
  • Analytical methods specific for the determination of 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate in environmental matrices are shown in Table 6-2. (cdc.gov)
  • UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005-accredited method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples by LC-MS/MS. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The determination of the metals makes use of the graphite furnace and the chemical modifier is used for stabilizing volatilize or analytic. (notcoul.com)
  • ABSTRACT Accurate, economical methods for haemoglobin determination by laboratories in countries with limited resources are not available. (who.int)
  • Samples that are negative for HPV and the β-globin control indicate lack of a suitable sample and are considered inadequate for interpretation. (cdc.gov)
  • The results indicate that the AHD575 method is suitable for measuring haemoglobin in laboratories at all levels. (who.int)
  • For routine use, this method is suitable for automated equipment only. (who.int)
  • He articulates the essential theological convictions for Christ-centered exposition, and he also walks the reader through the practical process of sermon preparation. (bakerpublishinggroup.com)
  • Switch sample matrices to be more compatible with the target chromatographic method. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The method was optimized and fully validated, demonstrating linearity over a concentration range of 0-10 μg/mL for BZP and TFMPP in the three studied matrices. (scholars.direct)
  • The back-translation method ensured the standardization of questions. (jmir.org)
  • In 1967, the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) recommended the haemoglobin cyanide (HiCN) method as the reference method for use [1]. (who.int)
  • Samples originated from different geographical locations also have variations in components due to varying cultivation conditions. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In particular it has a sensitivity to atomic species and location that is unmatched in other analytic instruments. (nist.gov)
  • Routine analyses for the glycol ethers in water, including 2-butoxyethanol and its acetate are often not completed because frequently used general-purpose GC/MS methods designed to measure priority pollutants do not readily detect these compounds (Eckel et al. (cdc.gov)
  • In view of these limitations, mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with highly advanced sample preparation and separation techniques, is emerging as an unbiased and robust experimental platform to analyze multiple histone PTMs in a high-throughput manner. (creativebiomart.net)
  • However, it is a labor-intensive and time-consuming method as it takes several hours to undergo the sample preparation and separation process for one sample. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Whole blood EDTA-monovettes were stored at RT or at 4 °C for the indicated time before processing and freezing at -80 °C. Immediately processed plasma samples were stored in polypropylene low-bind Eppendorf tubes under equal storage conditions before long-termed storage at -80 °C. All samples were centrifugation at 2,000 x g for 10 minutes for plasma separation. (researchsquare.com)
  • The samples could be brought into the solution by using the three common methods like acid attack, dissolution insolvent, and Alkali fusion that is followed by acid attack. (notcoul.com)
  • Three complete semi-automatic dissolution testers including media preparation and vessel cleaning - this is the amount of floor space you can save with a RoboDis II+ 10-batch system, which has a footprint of no more than 2x1 m. (erweka.com)
  • You can automate the procedure when you want to measure the samples that are collected. (notcoul.com)
  • In 1985 WHO established the second haemoglobin cyanide reference material [5] and recommended the HiCN method be given the status of an international reference procedure. (who.int)
  • The widespread use of pesticides and the scientific interest in potential adverse health effects of pesticides exposure have increased the demand for fast and robust analytical methods for measuring biomarkers of pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • With this method in SRM mode, more than 150 pesticides can be analysed and quantified, but their confirmation is not possible in all cases according to the European regulations on pesticide residues. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this case the results were surprisingly consistent given the number of permutations and analytic approaches. (cdc.gov)
  • RESULTS: Aβ 40 , Aβ 42 and Aβ 42/40 levels significantly decreased during storage at room temperature in whole blood or plasma, starting at 6 hours after sampling. (researchsquare.com)
  • This report provides the results of an international collaborative study evaluating the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD575) method as a reference method for laboratory services with limited resources. (who.int)
  • The book has been written not only for sociologists but for all researchers in the social sciences and in such fields as education, public health, nursing, and administration who employ qualitative methods in their work. (google.dz)
  • The new method is quick and simple, which takes around 10 minutes to analyse one raw sample, achieving various ends including authentication of genuine and counterfeit species, classification of wild types and cultivated types, as well as differentiation of geographical origins. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Conventionally, fingerprint chromatography is adopted to authenticate and differentiate the species as it can provide comprehensive chemical composition of a sample. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The FIB/SEM combines two functions that together enable highly precise, three-dimensional manipulation and preparation of samples. (nist.gov)
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on the Stockholm Public Health Survey, including a population-based sample of 34,707 men and women aged 18-84 years. (who.int)
  • Equipped with foremost technologies and PhD-level scientists with years of experience, Creative BioMart is capable of providing flexible solutions to settle various kinds of problems in analytic project of histone PTMs available for the scientific community. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Preparing the samples and then sending them safely to be tested in medical laboratories is a long and tiring process. (delveinsight.com)
  • No study will have sufficient sample size to "prove" there is no association. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the agreement among four evaluators and compare the overall scores awarded when assessing portfolios of endodontic preclinical treatments performed by dental students by using an analytic rubric and a numeric rating scale. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study examined the psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD-7 questionnaire in a community sample ( n = 206) of Brazilian adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • The decision to publish is made before the study is run and is based on the importance of the research question and rigour of the methods. (sagepub.com)
  • The AAS preparation process is easy and quick. (notcoul.com)
  • This way, fully automated testing, including setup, media preparation and automated cleaning process is possible. (erweka.com)
  • We received 59 papers on a range of critical public health topics that used novel analytic methods. (cdc.gov)
  • 1998. Physician practice, patient, and physicians (excluding those in the probability sample design involving visit characteristics are described. (cdc.gov)
  • Students then work closely with faculty advisors to select electives that provide depth in policy fields, methods, and theories of their choosing. (uw.edu)
  • The analytic sample included 229,249 students who were initially classified as English learner students. (ed.gov)
  • The sample consisted of twenty students from each course, ten from the first year and ten from the final year. (bl.uk)
  • Students should be familiar with the scientific method. (carleton.edu)
  • Recently, the PolyU research team adopts the direct ionization mass spectrometry (DI-MS) method to detect the major active components of Lingzhi (ganoderic acids) and Tianma (gastrodin, parishin B/parishin C/and parishin). (sciencedaily.com)
  • The (AHD575) method was evaluated against the HiCN method, with blood samples drawn from healthy and sick subjects. (who.int)
  • The maratea workshop is hybrid combining serious analytic work and calls it theirs. (laralafayette.org)
  • It also includes biotinylated β-globin primers as an internal control for sample amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • In this complete guide to expository preaching, Bryan Chapell teaches the basics of preparation, organization, and delivery--the trademarks of great preaching. (bakerpublishinggroup.com)
  • Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition against reference virus A/California/7/2009 on serum samples collected opportunistically from outpatients. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings call into question methods of careers guidance based on these theories and it is argued that attention should be directed at career-selection preparation. (bl.uk)
  • The sample was 41% female, with a mean age of 21.10 ( SD = 4.49),75.6% from colleges/universities. (bvsalud.org)
  • The main emphasis is on supervised machine learning methods for classification and prediction of tumor gene expression profiles. (lu.se)
  • The Food Safety and Technology Research Centre under the Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) has developed a new method for rapid authentication of Chinese herbal medicines, including Ganoderma (known as Lingzhi in Chinese), and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (known as Tianma in Chinese). (sciencedaily.com)
  • A focused beam of ions selectively mills devices and materials at nanometer scales, while the sample is also imaged by an SEM. (nist.gov)