The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
The act of killing oneself.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
The status of health in urban populations.
Breaks in bones.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Fried foods have been linked with an increased relative risk of chronic disease. Prehypertension & hypertension has been ... "Fried-food consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of observational studies". ... increased risk of major cardiovascular events and a 22% increased risk of coronary heart disease. Risk of stroke, heart failure ... results indicated fried-food increases the relative risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in a linear dose-response ...
"The Rising Relative Risk of Mortality for Singles: Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression". American Journal of Epidemiology. 174 (4 ... His research methods include computational analysis of big data, cross-national regression analysis and meta-analyses, as well ... He relies on comparative historical research and media content analysis to look at ethnic conflicts and tensions in countries ... "The Strength of Family Ties: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of Self-Reported Social Support and Mortality." Social ...
Survival analysis Failure rate and Hazard rate Proportional hazards models Relative risk Spruance, Spotswood; Julia E. Reid, ... It should be clear that the hazard ratio is a relative measure of effect and tells us nothing about absolute risk.[page needed ... Hazard ratios differ from relative risks (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) in that RRs and ORs are cumulative over an entire study, ... In survival analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) is the ratio of the hazard rates corresponding to the conditions described by two ...
"understanding absolute and relative-risk in medical risk analysis and putting this in context". Archived ... relative risk) greater than one for any health outcome." A relative risk [RR] of 1.0, means you are average - [there is no ... and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016", in ... and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016". The ...
... relative risk OR = odds ratio RC = absolute risk in the unexposed group, given as a fraction (for example: fill in 10% risk as ... 2.04166 for drug-vs-placebo adverse risk. However, if analysis was inverted and adverse events were instead analyzed as event- ... the parameter of greatest interest is often the relative risk rather than the odds ratio. The relative risk is best estimated ... When the rare disease assumption does not hold, the odds ratio can overestimate the relative risk. If the absolute risk in the ...
... decrease in relative risk). Two other meta-analyses reported a similar decrease in relative risk. Two of these three were ... A 2017 meta-analysis found that the relative risk of autism spectrum disorders was reduced by 23% when the maternal diet was ... A meta-analysis of folate supplementation during pregnancy reported a 28% lower relative risk of newborn congenital heart ... reduced the relative risk of cardiovascular disease by a modest 4%. Two older meta-analyses, which would not have incorporated ...
"The relative risk of motor vehicle collision on cannabis celebration day in Great Britain" (PDF). Accident Analysis & ... Despite two studies reporting a supposed increase in the risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes on April 20, further investigation ... and analysis found the evidence did not support such claims. Signs bearing the number 420 have been frequently stolen. In ...
According to the BGS Risk List 2015, antimony is ranked second highest (after rare earth elements) on the relative supply risk ... Much analysis has been conducted in the U.S. toward defining which metals should be called strategic or critical to the ... consistently been ranked high in European and US risk lists concerning criticality of the element indicating the relative risk ... As seen in Figure xxx antimony maintains high supply risk relative to its economic importance. 92% of the antimony is imported ...
2003, "Relative risk of prostate cancer for men with affected relatives: systematic review and meta‐analysis." In International ... 2013 "Preliminary toxicity analysis of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy versus intensity modulated radiation therapy ...
It calculated that there was on average a relative risk of 1.3 (1.2 - 1.4) increased risk of breast cancer. The meta-analysis ... Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis (original source) by ... Brind J, Chinchilli VM, Severs WB, Summy-Long J (1996). "Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer: a ... "WHO - Induced abortion does not increase breast cancer risk". Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved ...
A meta-analysis of the literature found that handwashing interventions reduced the relative risk of diarrhea by approximately ... and health risks increase due to contaminated water sources. UN-Water carries out the "Global Analysis and Assessment of ... A pooled analysis of the limited number of studies on sanitation interventions suggest that improving sanitation has a ... Climate change poses increased risk to WASH systems, particular in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to safely managed basic ...
A 2000 meta-analysis found a relative risk of 1.48 for lung cancer among men exposed to secondhand smoke, and a relative risk ... It found a relative risk of lung cancer of 1.29 for women exposed to secondhand smoke from their spouses. A 2014 meta-analysis ... reanalyzed the data from this meta-analysis to account for publication bias and estimated that the relative risk of lung cancer ... while the attributable risk percent was 23%. A 1997 meta-analysis found that secondhand smoke exposure increased the risk of ...
The risk was best seen in cases with underlying silicosis, with relative risks for lung cancer of 2-4. Numerous subsequent ... A computed tomography or CT scan can also provide a mode detailed analysis of the lungs, and can reveal cavitation due to ... The reason for the increased risk-3 fold increased incidence-is not well understood. It is thought that silica damages ... Even workers with prolonged silica exposure, but without silicosis, are at a similarly increased risk for TB. Pulmonary ...
The SPEARpesticides index is computed as relative abundance of vulnerable 'SPecies At Risk' (SPEAR) to be affected by ... A detailed analysis is enabled by the free SPEAR Calculator. The SPEAR Calculator provides most recent information on species ... SPEARpesticides (Species At Risk) is a trait based biological indicator system for streams which quantitatively links pesticide ... A trait database of stream invertebrates for the ecological risk assessment of single and combined effects of salinity and ...
Studies have found vastly different relative risks (RR). Two separate studies using case-crossover analysis each calculated RR ... October 25, 2004). "Effects of Cellular Telephones on Driving Behaviour and Crash Risk: Results of Meta-Analysis" (PDF). Ama.ab ... Laberge-Nadeau, Claire (September 2003). "Wireless telephones and the risk of road crashes". Accident Analysis & Prevention. 35 ... Meta-analysis by The Canadian Automobile Association and The University of Illinois found that response time while using both ...
"A multiple logistic regression analysis of the risk and relative odds of temporomandibular disorders as a function of common ...
In fact, the strength of the effect is highest in elective surgical care; the highest relative risk being 3.18 in Glance et al ... "Weekend hospitalization and additional risk of death: an analysis of inpatient data". J R Soc Med. 105 (2): 74-84. doi:10.1258/ ... And importantly, its negative, with a relative risk of 1.0 - i.e. no weekend effect was seen. If the weekend effect was a ... Of these, 20/22 (91%) show the weekend effect, and 2 no effect (both neonatal mortality). The median relative risk (RR) of ...
A meta-analysis found that propranolol had an "overall relative risk of response to treatment (here called the 'responder ratio ... Another meta-analysis found benefit from SSRIs among patients with migraine or tension headache; however, the effect of SSRIs ... A meta-analysis by the Cochrane Collaboration of ten randomized controlled trials or crossover studies, which together included ... It is thought to carry the same risks and benefits as methysergide but has not been widely studied in migraine. Memantine, ...
... they demonstrated on average a relative risk reduction of 41% for postoperative complications. Cost-effectiveness analyses of ... Camenga DR, Tindle HA (July 2018). "Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use in High-Risk Populations". The ... the risk of coronary heart disease is cut in half Within 5 years, the risk of stroke falls to the same as a non-smoker, and the ... the risk of dying from lung cancer is cut in half, and the risks of larynx and pancreas cancers decrease Within 15 years, the ...
ACPI invests according to the relative return-risk profiles of various asset classes. The top-down macro analysis determines ...
1. Schechtman, E. (2002). Odds ratio, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, and the number needed to treat-which of these ... Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33(1), 111-116. Schechtman was born in Israel to her parents, Malka and Reuven Ziegler who ... Schechtman, E. (2002). Odds ratio, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, and the number needed to treat-which of these should ... Accident Analysis & Prevention, 37(5), 843-851. Schechtman, E., Shinar, D., & Compton, R. C. (1999). The relationship between ...
for a meta-analysis of breast cancer risks in eight populations, including the atomic-bomb survivors. The median ERR varies by ... Figure 1 shows the dose response for the excess relative risk (ERR) for all solid cancers from Preston et al. Tables 2 and 3 ... excess absolute risk (EAR), and percentage attributable risks. Cancer incidence risks from low-LET radiation are about 60% ... These types of analysis lend confidence to risk assessments as well as showing the limitations of such data sets. Of special ...
... the relative benefits and risks in this population is not known. Given the remarkable rate of diabetes remission with bariatric ... they have a higher risk profile. A meta-analysis from University of California, Los Angeles, reports the following weight loss ... a systematic review and meta-analysis: do the benefits outweigh the risks?". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 218 ... The same meta-analysis noted that additional data is needed to determine whether it is also effective for long-term weight loss ...
After adjusting for known risk factors, venlafaxine was associated with an increased risk of suicide relative to fluoxetine and ... to carry a black box warning with a generic warning about a possible suicide risk. A 2014 meta analysis of 21 clinical trials ... The higher risk and increased severity of discontinuation syndrome symptoms relative to other antidepressants may be related to ... An analysis of clinical trials by the FDA statisticians showed the incidence of suicidal behaviour among the adults on ...
For example, two of the six studies included in the analysis of N-6 polyunsaturated fat were wrong. The relative risks for ... The meta-analysis of dietary fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease by Chowdhury et al. contains multiple errors and ... Also, in this analysis, substitution of polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat was associated with lower risk of CHD. Chowdhury ... A 2010 meta-analysis concluded that no evidence exists that dietary saturated fat is associated with increased risk of ...
... and typically represents summary estimates such as odds ratios or relative risks. This can be directly synthesized across ... A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. Meta-analysis can be ... The term is a bit grand, but it is precise and apt ... Meta-analysis refers to the analysis of analyses". Although this led to ... Bonett DG, Price RM (2014). "Meta-analysis methods for risk differences". Br J Math Stat Psychol. 67 (3): 371-87. doi:10.1111/ ...
They have been shown in a meta-analysis to produce a relative risk reduction of up to 50%, but the studies evaluated to come to ... H2-RAs have been shown to have marked benefit in poor quality trials (30% relative risk reduction), but only a marginal benefit ... A meta analysis looking at the sensitivity and specificity of alarm features found a range of 0-83% and 40-98%, respectively. ... Gastroenteritis increases the risk of developing chronic dyspepsia. Post infectious dyspepsia is the term given when dyspepsia ...
... and first degree relatives of bipolar probands have a relative risk of developing bipolar around 7-10. While the heritability ... A meta analysis using region of interest (as opposed to statistical parametric mapping) analysis reported abnormalities across ... This overlap is congruent with the observation that relatives of probands with schizophrenia are at higher risk for bipolar ... One meta analysis reported a significant association of the short allele of the serotonin transporter, although the study was ...
"Using relative utility curves to evaluate risk prediction". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A, (Statistics in ... A decision curve analysis graph is drawn by plotting threshold probability on the x-axis and net benefit on y-axis, ... In decision curve analysis, the strategy of considering all observations as negative is defined as having a value of zero. This ... Given the relative benefits and harms of cancer early detection and avoidable biopsy, we would consider it unreasonable to opt ...
"Average Relative Humidity". Department of Meteorology at the University of Utah. Archived from the original on December 9, 2006 ... "State of the Air 2005, National and Regional Analysis". American Lung Association. March 25, 2005. Archived from the original ... which reduces the risk of an earthquake.[14] The one significant earthquake that has been reported in the area was the result ...
High-risk groups in the United States include: those over 45 years old; those with a first degree relative with diabetes; some ... "The magnitude of association between overweight and obesity and the risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort ... increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the ... while medication does not reduce risk after withdrawal.[80] While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of ...
Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water - (Adobe Acrobat *. ... "Natural gas and CO2 price variation: Impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines". International Journal of ... One of the risks of LNG is a rapid phase transition explosion (RPT), which occurs when cold LNG comes into contact with water.[ ... "LNG: Benefits and Risks of Liquified Natural Gas". Archived from the original on 2013-08-08. Retrieved 2013-02-25.. ...
Entropic value at risk. References[edit]. *^ Chernoff, Herman (2014). "A career in statistics" (PDF). In Lin, Xihong; Genest, ... Multiplicative form (relative error)[edit]. Multiplicative Chernoff Bound. Suppose X1, ..., Xn are independent random variables ... Mitzenmacher, Michael; Upfal, Eli (2005). Probability and Computing: Randomized Algorithms and Probabilistic Analysis. ... Mark the relative size of the sub-population in the sample (,B∩S,/,S,) by rS. ...
Khmer troops deserted the French Army in large numbers and the French government relented, rather than risk a costly, ... Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ... informal adoptions by wealthier relatives were then common in Cambodia.[8] In Phnom Penh, he spent 18 months as a novice monk ... Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ...
The meta-analysis showed greater muscle mass gain in the intervention groups compared with the control groups (standard mean ... Fast loss of muscle tissue (relative to normal turnover), can be approximated by the amount of urea in the urine. The ... It is currently recommended that patients at risk of or suffering from sarcopenia consume a diet high in protein, engage in ... Muscular atrophy decreases qualities of life as the sufferer becomes unable to perform certain tasks or worsen the risks of ...
To test Dunning and Kruger's hypotheses, "that people, at all performance levels, are equally poor at estimating their relative ... How perceptions of difficulty drive miscalibration in relative comparisons". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. ... How Perceptions of Difficulty Drive Miscalibration in Relative Comparisons (2006) investigated three studies that manipulated ... the "perceived difficulty of the tasks, and, hence, [the] participants' beliefs about their relative standing". The ...
Genetic analysis has shown that certain mallards appear to be closer to their Indo-Pacific relatives while others are related ... Niels C., Rattenborg (1999). "Half-awake to the risk of predation". Nature. 397 (6718): 397-398. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..397R. ... Mallards frequently interbreed with their closest relatives in the genus Anas, such as the American black duck, and also with ... The Laysan duck is an insular relative of the mallard, with a very small and fluctuating population.[120][1] Mallards sometimes ...
"Phylogeographic Analysis of the mid-Holocene Mammoth from Qagnax Cave, St. Paul Island, Alaska" (PDF).. ... Presumably, early humans used wooden spears as early as 5 million years ago to hunt small animals, much as their relatives, ... which allowed them a more nutritious diet and a decreased risk of famine.[21][23][67] Many of the famines experienced by ... The relative proportions of plant and animal foods in the diets of Paleolithic people often varied between regions, with more ...
Unlike Tic214, Tic100, or Tic56, Tic20 has homologous relatives in cyanobacteria and nearly all chloroplast lineages, ... When replication forks form, the strand not being copied is single stranded, and thus at risk for A → G deamination. Therefore ... "Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastid phylogeny and thousands of ...
"TNF-308 G/A polymorphism and risk of acne vulgaris: a meta-analysis". PLOS One (Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis). 9 (2): ... Studies performed in affected twins and first-degree relatives further demonstrate the strongly inherited nature of acne.[2][15 ... a systematic review and meta-analysis". The British Journal of Dermatology (Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis). 173 (5): 1132- ... "Journal of Zhejiang University Science B (Meta-analysis). 13 (3): 192-202. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1100285. PMC 3296070. PMID ...
Risks to donor[edit]. The risks of a complication depend on patient characteristics, health care providers and the apheresis ... "Data analysis slides by Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research". Archived from the original on ... However, for other cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia, the reduced mortality of the autogenous relative to allogeneic HSCT ... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ...
With external monitoring, this necessitates the use of palpation to determine relative strength. With an IUPC, this is ... A few of them have incorporated computer analysis of cardiotocographic signals or combined cardiotocographic and ST data ... there is no evidence to suggest that monitoring women with high-risk pregnancies benefits the mother or baby although research ... With external monitoring, this necessitates the use of palpation to determine relative strength. With an IUPC, this is ...
Relative contraindications are conditions where increased risk is acceptable in some situations and where low-force and soft- ... Job Analysis of Chiropractic (PDF). Greeley, CO: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners. pp. 121-38. ISBN 1-884457-05-3. ... Risk-benefit. A 2012 systematic review concluded that no accurate assessment of risk-benefit exists for cervical manipulation.[ ... Analysis of a clinical and cost utilization data from the years 2003 to 2005 by an integrative medicine independent physician ...
Megalocnus were the largest genus at up to 90 kilograms (200 lb), Acratocnus were medium-sized relatives of modern two-toed ... See also: Extinction risk from global warming, Ocean acidification, Marine pollution, and Social and environmental impact of ... "Landmark analysis documents the alarming global decline of nature". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 26 August 2020. Driving these ... Due to the older timeframe and the soil chemistry on the continent, very little subfossil preservation evidence exists relative ...
"Chemical risk analysis: a practical handbook. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-903996-65-2. .. ... "Standard Uncertainty and Relative Standard Uncertainty". CODATA reference. National Institute of Standards and Technology. ... MacPherson, H. G. (1934). "An Investigation of the Magneto-Optic Method of Chemical Analysis". Physical Review. American ... and is often considered a close relative.[168][169][170] For example, most alkali metal salts are soluble in water, a property ...
"Analysis: NYC 2000 to 2010 demographic change". Archived from the original on October 13, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2016.. ... Based on this calculation, as of 2018[update], East New York is considered to be low-income relative to the rest of the city ... A significant number of these properties, many multi-family buildings, have fallen into disrepair and are at risk of landlord ...
The SNP analysis of the haplotype suggests a potential founding affect of 20,000 years within Europe, though conflicts in ... DR3-DQ2.5 can be established to other genes like TNF-305A (TNF2) which may also increase the risk of autoimmune disease in both ... Linkage with disease could more firmly be attributed to B8::DQ2 portion of A1::DQ2 relative to A30-B18::DQ2, indicating some ... Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ...
Risk factors. Neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, ionizing radiation[1][2][3]. ... Gregg, N. (2014). ""Neurobehavioural Changes In Patients Following Brain Tumour: Patients And Relatives Perspective."". ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545-1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16) ... The cause of most brain tumors is unknown.[2] Uncommon risk factors include inherited neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl ...
In Sri Lanka, children often become the prey of sexual exploiters through friends and relatives. The prevalence of boys in ... They face early pregnancy and risk sexually transmitted diseases, particularly HIV. They are often inadequately protected by ... Social Network Analysis, capture/recapture, and Markov based probability estimates in 2008 to generate a prevalence estimate ... Whether the children be in pornography, brothels, or trafficked they are all at risk for sexually transmitted infections, ...
Main article: Dance and health § Risks of dance. An analysis of the dance-related injuries in 113,084 adolescents in US ... relative to body height, a 2-inch (5 cm) heel on an adult would be a one-inch heel on the nine-year-old, and a half-inch heel ... In a 2012 study, researchers examined the risk long time high heel wearers would have in regards to calf Muscle fascicle length ... Additionally, they were able to conclude that the long term usage of high heels can increase the risk of injuries such as ...
However, although they do not pose a risk of hepatotoxicity, spironolactone has a risk of hyperkalemia and enzalutamide has a ... Ishizuka O, Nishizawa O, Hirao Y, Ohshima S (2002). "Evidence-based meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy for benign prostatic ... the lack of weak partial agonist activity of NSAAs appears to improve their potency relative to steroidal antiandrogens.[82][83 ... Antiandrogens generally are not used to treat acne in males due to the high risk of feminization (e.g., gynecomastia) and ...
Maunder M.N. (2003) Paradigm shifts in fisheries stock assessment: from integrated analysis to Bayesian analysis and back again ... occurs in the high-risk versus the low-risk sector.[13] For example, an application of the model in the 1920s was to detect ... MacKenzie, Darryl (2002). "How should detection probability be incorporated into estimates of relative abundance?". Ecology. 83 ... Maunder, M. N. (2004). "Population viability analysis, based on combining integrated, Bayesian, and hierarchical analyses". ...
MIT professor risks career to reenergize discredited idea", The Boston Globe. *. Derry, Gregory Neil (2002), "What Science Is ... Wilson, R.H.; Bray, J.W.; Kosky, P.G.; Vakil, H.B.; Will, F.G. (1992), "Analysis of experiments on the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O ... cold fusion research only continued in relative obscurity, conducted by groups that had increasing difficulty securing public ... 2, pp.85-93 and "Atomic Structure Analysis of Pd Nano-Cluster in Nano-Composite Pd⁄ZrO2 Absorbing Deuterium" - Journal of High ...
... the risk is greater when the parents are close relatives and lower for relationships between more distant relatives, such as ... Griffiths AJ, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM (1999). An introduction to genetic analysis. New York: W. H. ... Since relatives share a higher proportion of their genes than do unrelated people, it is more likely that related parents will ... Children of parent-child or sibling-sibling unions are at an increased risk compared to cousin-cousin unions.[25]:3 Inbreeding ...
Reclining wheelchairs are preferred in some cases for some medical purposes, such as reducing the risk of pressure sores, ... or other attached device in the same relative position throughout the day.[10] Tilting wheelchairs are commonly used by people ... "Kinetic and physiological analysis of the GameWheels system". JRRD. 39 (6): 627-34. ISSN 0748-7711 ... the parts of the body that are the most at risk for tissue breakdown include the ischial tuberosities, coccyx, sacrum and ...
Allometric analysis indicates that mammalian brain size scales at approximately the ⅔ or ¾ exponent of the body mass. ... Today, the closest living relatives of cetaceans are the hippopotamuses; these share a semi-aquatic ancestor that branched off ... Six are considered at risk, as they are ranked Critically Endangered (the North Atlantic right whale), "Endangered" (blue whale ... Comparison of a particular animal's brain size with the expected brain size based on such allometric analysis provides an ...
Thomas Ross (13 October 2014). "The Sinner's Prayer: A Historical and Theological Analysis, Paul Harrison Chitwood. (Ph. D. ... And it runs the risk of disillusioning millions of souls."[22]. Platt says he is concerned that some people "say they believe ... It is said to happen many times every day around the world-in one-to-one conversations between friends, relatives, and even ... The Sinner's Prayer: A Historical and Theological Analysis, by Paul Harrison Chitwood (Ph. D. Dissertation, Southern Baptist ...
The first part of their analysis (which the only relevant part to this section) was not meant to discover the types of free ... One of the most heated debates in biology is that of "nature versus nurture", concerning the relative importance of genetics ... while not risking the introduction of luck (random decision making). The selection process is deterministic, although it may be ... According to their suggestion, man has relative freedom, i.e. freedom in degrees, that can be in- or decreased through ...
Population viability analysis. *Priority effect. *Rapoport's rule. *Relative abundance distribution. *Relative species ... Extinction risk from global warming *Runaway climate change. *Global terrestrial stilling. *Ice age ...
Then select relative risk from the meta-analysis section of the analysis menu. Select the columns marked "Exposed total", " ... Pooled relative risk = 0.913608 (95% CI = 0.8657 to 0.964168). Chi² (test relative risk differs from 1) = 10.809386 (df = 1) P ... Pooled relative risk = 0.892922 (95% CI = 0.800632 to 0.995851). Chi² (test relative risk differs from 1) = 4.139819 (df = 1) P ... Relative Risk (Risk Ratio) Meta-analysis. Menu location: Analysis_Meta-Analysis_Relative Risk. ...
Cigarette smoking and lung cancer--relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case- ... Cigarette smoking and lung cancer - relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case- ... Duration-response trend of the adjusted lung cancer relative risks in studies with population controls vs. studies with ... By using one of the largest lung cancer datasets ever assembled, we explored the impact of smoking on risks of the major cell ...
Higher Relative Risk for Multiple Sclerosis in a Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetic Population: Analysis From DPV Database. ... Higher Relative Risk for Multiple Sclerosis in a Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetic Population: Analysis From DPV Database ... Higher Relative Risk for Multiple Sclerosis in a Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetic Population: Analysis From DPV Database ... Higher Relative Risk for Multiple Sclerosis in a Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetic Population: Analysis From DPV Database ...
... process risk analysis and influence of relative humidity, photocatalysts, and VUV irradiation. Download Prime PubMed App to ... Photocatalytic oxidation of indoor toluene: process risk analysis and influence of relative humidity, photocatalysts, and VUV ... "Photocatalytic Oxidation of Indoor Toluene: Process Risk Analysis and Influence of Relative Humidity, Photocatalysts, and VUV ... Photocatalytic oxidation of indoor toluene: process risk analysis and influence of relative humidity, photocatalysts, and VUV ...
The standard method of comparing the risk in each group with a baseline group is unsatisfactory because the standard errors and ... We discuss the problem of describing multiple group comparisons in survival analysis using the Cox model, and in matched case- ... Floating absolute risk: an alternative to relative risk in survival and case-control analysis avoiding an arbitrary reference ... The method should assist in graphical presentation of relative risks, and in the combination of results from published studies ...
... benefits of differing strategies for management of wastewater in Lower Egypt using quantitative microbial risk analysis. The ... Estimating relative benefits of differing strategies for .... Estimating relative benefits of differing strategies for ... benefits of differing strategies for management of wastewater in Lower Egypt using quantitative microbial risk analysis. Be the ... management of wastewater in Lower Egypt using quantitative microbial risk analysis. 0 ...
Survival analysis for matched set cohort data - Methods for absolute and relative risks?. Ask Question ... I plan to use Cox proportional hazards regression for relative risks and some measure of incidence to estimate absolute risks. ... Im confused about whether and how to use the matching property in the final analyses. $\endgroup$ - Frank49 Nov 23 14 at 13: ... Mathching was done in the design phase of the study, and not during the analyses. to sum up, I have 10,000 cases with COPD and ...
These analyses suggest that the risk of cancer in a carrier of a CHEK2 mutation is dependent on the family history of cancer. ... the risk of breast cancer was much higher among relatives of probands with breast cancer than among relatives of patients with ... and the risk of colon cancer was higher among relatives of probands with colon cancer than among relatives of patients with ... the risk of prostate cancer was higher among relatives of probands with prostate cancer than among relatives of patients with ...
Statistical analyses. Analyses were conducted using SAS version 8.02 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC), with statistical significance ... We then examined the effect of birth weight on the relative risk of mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and birth year. ... Relative Risk of Mortality Associated With Diabetes as a Function of Birth Weight. ... Relative Risk of Mortality Associated With Diabetes as a Function of Birth Weight ...
In this analysis, ΔI30/ΔG30 explained 29.2% (P , 0.001) of the variance in AUCg and the HOMA-IR explained an additional 11.0% ( ... First-degree relatives of individuals with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of developing hyperglycemia (14-16). Studies ... β-Cell Function Is a Major Contributor to Oral Glucose Tolerance in High-Risk Relatives of Four Ethnic Groups in the U.S.. ... β-Cell Function Is a Major Contributor to Oral Glucose Tolerance in High-Risk Relatives of Four Ethnic Groups in the U.S. ...
No statistically significant associations or trends were observed between RTL and breast cancer risk when analyses were ... A Prospective Study of Relative Telomere Length and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk. Immaculata De Vivo, Jennifer Prescott, ... A case-control study of high-risk sister sets (n = 287 cases) found an elevation in breast cancer risk predominantly among ... A Prospective Study of Relative Telomere Length and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk ...
The relative contribution of four influenza virus exposure pathways--(1) virus-contaminated hand contact with facial membranes ... Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Statistical-analysis; Surface-properties; Author Keywords: Influenza; microbial risk assessment; ... We used a mathematical model to estimate the relative contributions of the four pathways to infection risk in the context of a ... The relative contribution of four influenza virus exposure pathways--(1) virus-contaminated hand contact with facial membranes ...
We examined the effects of follow-up time on relative risk estimates for leukemia and multiple myeloma in a cohort of 1,845 ... Choice of follow-up time for an occupational cohort can influence risk estimates. ... Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Rubber-workers; Benzenes; Epidemiology; Leukemogenesis; Worker-health; Workplace-monitoring; ... Effect of follow-up time on risk estimates: a longitudinal examination of the relative risks of leukemia and multiple myeloma ...
Analysis Alerting relatives about heritable risks: the limits of confidentiality Published April 05, 2018 ... Analysis Weighing the risks of valproate in women who could become pregnant ... Analysis Follow-up for patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements: are the new MHRA recommendations justified? ... Analysis How many lives are at stake? Assessing 2030 SDG trajectories for maternal and child health ...
Summary relative risk (RR) for the highest versus lowest category of fish consumption on risk of all-cause mortality was ... in risk of total death. These results imply that fish consumption was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. ... Twelve prospective cohort studies with 672 389 participants and 57 641 deaths were included in this meta-analysis. Compared ... The dose-response analysis indicated a nonlinear relationship between fish consumption and all-cause mortality. Compared with ...
For dichotomous data, relative risk (RR) was used for ORR, DCR, 1-year survival, 2-year survival, and adverse event data. A P ... Sensitivity analysis was performed excluding the Noda trial (JCOG9511), which prematurely concluded after interim analysis ... Relative risk was used to estimate the overall response rate, disease control rate, 1-year survival, 2-year survival, and ... A meta-analysis by Cheng et al. demonstrated that the heterozygous variant of UGT1A1*6 showed no significant risk for severe ...
relative risk. The International Childrens Continence Society defines pediatric enuresis as a symptom and condition of ... Relapse-free rate was extracted for relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Effect estimates were pooled via the ... The dichotomous data of sustained response rates as described by individual study trials were expressed as relative risk (RRs) ... We applied intention to treat analysis with all randomly assigned subjects included for analysis of effect estimate. The ...
B) Subgroup analysis by number of previous treatments received. Standard of care (SOC). Relative risk (RR). Confidence interval ... Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of response rates between groups was estimated. Subgroup analyses for ... Forrest plot diagrams: Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of responses between anti-PD1/PD-L1 mAbs and ... Analysis of response rate with ANTI PD1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies in advanced solid tumors: a meta-analysis of randomized ...
Relative risk analysis. A relative risk analysis compares the likelihood of an event occurring between two groups, individuals ... Two different relative risk analyses were conducted using the present studies data set. The initial relative risk analysis ... Caterpillar plot of the Bayesian relative risk analysis of Acropora cervicornis on the log scale.. (A) relative risk increase ... median Bayesian relative risk = 2.77, Figure 3A). The relative risk analysis also showed evident differences among genets, even ...
Alternative Analysis of the Relative Risk from MDMA Use. Alternative Analysis of the Relative Risk from MDMA Use: "Nutt et al ... Read more about Alternative Analysis of the Relative Risk from MDMA Use ... 2007) attempted to compare the relative dangers of the main types of psychosocial drug, using a series of subjective rating ...
... the summary relative risk comes from a meta-analysis. Summary relative risks from pooled analyses In a pooled analysis, the ... Summary relative risks from meta-analyses Some tables have a summary relative risk reported at the bottom. A meta-analysis ... A relative risk of 2.0 means someone with the risk factor has twice the risk (or 2-fold the risk) of someone without the factor ... Learn more about relative risk. Confidence intervals Most scientific studies report risk measures, such as relative risks, odds ...
systematic review and meta-analysis. Bmj 2003;326(7404):1423.. 2. LaRosa JC, He J, Vupputuri S. Effect of statins on risk of ... not valid to multiply the relative risks of the various treatment. strategies in order to determine the overall effect of the ... 1) LaRosa JC, Jiang He, Vupputuri S. Effect of Statins on Risk of. Coronary Disease. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled ... analyses might in fact help overcoming the "low power" issue. The meta-. analysis from Law et al3, including data from new RCTs ...
Statistical Analysis. All data were presented as mean values ±SD. The chi-squared (χ2) test was used to compare the number ... b) The effects of B. lactis on relative mRNA levels of TGF-β in mouse allergy models. (c) The effects of B. lactis on relative ... In addition, relative mRNA levels of FoxP3 and TGF-β associated with Treg cells were increased, whereas relative mRNA levels of ... Bifidobacterium lactis Ameliorates the Risk of Food Allergy in Chinese Children by Affecting Relative Percentage of Treg and ...
N = number of studies; n = number of estimates included into meta-analysis; RR = relative risk (rate ratio or risk ratio); OR ... ln(RR) = Natural log of relative risks; SE of ln(RR) = standard error of natural log of relative risks ... Forest plot of studies on lung cancer risks of residents living nearby petrochemical industrial complexes. RR = relative risk ... represents the standard error of natural log of relative risks.. Statistical analysis. We applied a random-effects model to ...
The data extraction table was made for the selected 19 trials, and risk of bias was assessed by using the Cochrane ... collaboration tool, followed by data analysis using Rev Man 5.3. ,i,Results,/i,. The antihypertensive efficacy of QDD is 1.45 ... The binomial variables were described by using relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), and the continuous ... Statistical Analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Rev Man 5.3 software. The results of a single study were firstly ...
Analysis/syndrome. No. signals. Mean observed/expected cases in cluster. Mean relative risk. Mean excess cases in cluster. ...
CML, AML, ALL; Relative Risk Analysis BU/CY: Etoposide/TBI. RR of Mortality. DFS. RR of Relapse. (Relative Risk analysis. BU/CY ... Relapse (Relative Risk analysis BU/CY:CY/TBI). (p=0.04). Time to Engraftment. (ANC greater than or equal to 500). ... 13/58 at risk). Chronic GVHD. =31%. (14/45 at risk). No Report. No Report. No Report. ... Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the ...
Unadjusted Relative Risk. Risk of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality increased by 3% and 4%, respectively, for each mm Hg of ... Multivariate Analysis for Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk. Multiple logistic regression was used to detect the independent ... which is equivalent to a relative risk) and the relative 95% confidence limit. A stepwise procedure (forward conditional) was ... Statistical Analysis. Data were analyzed with commercially available statistical packages. Standard analyses were carried out ...
doi: 10.1038/s41395-018-0075-y. Epub 2018 Jun 5. Comparative Study; Meta-Analysis; Systematic Review ... A random effects meta-analysis pooled relative risks (RR).. RESULTS: We analyzed 9.28 million subjects from 63 studies. A ... We examined the risk of CRC associated with family history of CRC in first-degree relative (FDR) according to the age of index ... The increase in relative risk of CRC attributed to family history was found to be higher in younger individuals. Family history ...
CML, AML, ALL; Relative Risk Analysis BU/CY: Etoposide/TBI. RR of Mortality. DFS. RR of Relapse (Relative Risk analysis BU/CY: ... Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the ... Risk Summary It is not known whether Busulfan Injection is present in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk ... Risk Summary Busulfan Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on animal data. Busulfan was ...
  • CONCLUSIONS The present cohort study demonstrates a higher risk of co-occurrence of MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population. (
  • CONCLUSIONS -The excess mortality observed for diabetes appears disproportionately concentrated among abnormal-birth-weight individuals, thus identifying a subset of at-risk diabetic individuals and reinforcing the importance of NBW deliveries. (
  • CONCLUSIONS The dysplasia risk is significantly greater in SSBO than in CIM patients, indicating two potentially different clinical processes. (
  • Conclusions BBVs play a major role in the cancer risk profile of opioid-dependent individuals registered for OST. (
  • Conclusions: If smokers are to consider snus for harm-reduction, efforts may be needed to better inform smokers about their lower relative risks, including for particular health outcomes of interest. (
  • Conclusions The meta-analysis suggests an association between RV-induced wheezing in the first 3 years of life and the subsequent development of wheezing/asthma. (
  • Conclusions Our findings suggest that deficiencies in social relationships are associated with an increased risk of developing CHD and stroke. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: More PA was associated with a larger reduction in future ACM and CVD risk in patients with diabetes. (
  • CONCLUSIONS- A1C explains virtually all of the difference in risk of complications between the intensive and conventional groups, and a given A1C level has similar effects within the two treatment groups. (
  • Bayesian random effects meta-analysis of trials with binary outcomes: methods for the absolute risk difference and relative risk scales. (
  • Methods for absolute and relative risks? (
  • Survival analysis for matched set cohort data - Methods for absolute and relative risks? (
  • Methods: Using a sample of 256 current smokers, we utilized Latent Profile Analysis to examine response profiles to items that assessed perceived risk of specific health outcomes (lung cancer, heart disease, oral cancer) from snus relative to cigarettes, along with the typical single item measure of overall harm from snus compared to cigarettes. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Electronic literature searches were conducted for cohort studies that examined relative risk (RR) of ACM or CVD in relation to PA in patients with diabetes. (
  • Restricted cubic splines and generalized least-squares regression methods were used to model a potential curvilinear relationship and to carry out a dose-response meta-analysis. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- We performed statistical evaluations of these models and additional analyses to assess whether the original analyses were flawed. (
  • Methods Occupational exposures that should be included in cancer burden studies were evaluated using multiple criteria: classified as carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs volumes 1-114, being a primary occupational exposure, historical and current presence of the exposure in France and the availability of exposure and risk relation data. (
  • METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients of 60 years or older without a history of cardiac disease and with and without PMI after intermediate- to high-risk noncardiac surgery. (
  • Part A then continuous with a discussion of heterogeneity, the application of fixed-effects and random-effects methods for combining study estimates, publication bias, sensitivity analysis, and graphical techniques. (
  • Part B covers Bayesian methods (which fit naturally with the concept of meta-analysis), the meta-analysis of individual patient data, missing data, the meta-analysis of nonstandard data types, multiple and correlated outcome measures, observational studies, survival data, and miscellaneous topics. (
  • Methods: Information on risk factors for CIS was collected via interview, and archival cervical smears were tested for HPV-16 DNA presence in cases ( n = 375) and controls ( n = 363). (
  • Applied Survey Data Analysis, Second Edition is an intermediate-level, example-driven treatment of current methods for complex survey data. (
  • Cigarette smoking and lung cancer--relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case-control studies. (
  • Effect of follow-up time on risk estimates: a longitudinal examination of the relative risks of leukemia and multiple myeloma in a rubber hydrochloride cohort. (
  • Choice of follow-up time for an occupational cohort can influence risk estimates. (
  • We examined the effects of follow-up time on relative risk estimates for leukemia and multiple myeloma in a cohort of 1,845 rubber hydrochloride workers. (
  • Because summary risk estimates change with follow-up time, exposure limits set using these estimates may not adequately protect workers. (
  • Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled risk estimates. (
  • Reported point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were extracted or calculated to estimate the pooled risk. (
  • Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis v2 software and risk estimates were calculated as relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). (
  • Although the study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences, as the primary aim was to provide estimates of effect size that could be used to better inform a power analysis for a larger trial, findings provide optimism that SMS Turkey may be able to affect quitting rates in environments with high smoking prevalence, such as Ankara, Turkey. (
  • This updated meta-analysis supports an association between occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer and provides evidence that exposure misclassification may weaken estimates assessing exposure to the broader class of chlorinated solvents. (
  • Summary effect estimates were calculated by a random-effect model, and tests for multivariable-unadjusted pooled risk ratios (RR) and heterogeneity, as well as the sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess publication bias. (
  • Using publicly available data from the WHO Mortality Database, we created annual estimates of risk of premature (30-69 years) NCD mortality (1994-2011). (
  • We used extrapolated premature mortality risk at 2025 and compared risk to 2010, with projected United Nations age- and sex-specific population estimates, to evaluate trends. (
  • Studies were included in the meta-analyses if they presented estimates of the odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) and the corresponding confidence interval (CI) from a case-control or cohort study on the association between fiber intake and incidence of prostate cancer. (
  • function will be used to calculate relative risk estimates. (
  • Relative risk estimates were obtained from published systematic reviews and from the IARC Monographs. (
  • Meta-analysis of published excess relative risk estimates. (
  • Using simulations, it is illustrated that the meta-analytic summary obtained using the proposed approach yields less biased summary estimates, with better confidence interval coverage, than the summary obtained using the more classical approach to meta-analysis. (
  • But how accurate are these disease risk estimates? (
  • In a previous post I focused on how odds ratios (the ratio of the odds of disease if allele A is carried as opposed to allele B ) can vary across different populations, environments and age groups and, as a consequence, affect disease risk estimates. (
  • One of the primary challenges is deciding which disease loci to include in the risk prediction and in this post I will investigate the effect this decision can have on risk estimates. (
  • Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the possible causes of heterogeneity in risk estimates based on sex and age. (
  • A total of 10 eligible studies with 16 estimates of effect size were included in this meta-analysis. (
  • Thirty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 18 provided adjusted effect estimates that were used to calculate pooled relative risks. (
  • The Third Edition of this bestselling text reflects how the changes in the computing environment have transformed the way statistical analyses are performed today. (
  • The text features the most commonly used statistical techniques for the analysis of research data. (
  • Statistical Analysis An objective of the analysis of prospective cohort study data is to compare disease occurrence in the group to the exposure factors. (
  • Calculate the statistical power to detect clusters using kernel-based spatial relative risk functions that are estimated using the 'sparr' package. (
  • OBJECTIVE- The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial ( Diabetes 44:968-983, 1995) presented statistical models suggesting that subjects with similar A1C levels had a higher risk of retinopathy progression in the conventional treatment group than in the intensive treatment group. (
  • They used the relative risk statistical analysis by simply dividing 1.01 into 3.28. (
  • They performed the statistical analysis and reported the results as a relative risk. (
  • Meta-analysis as a statistical and scientific tool has grown immensely in popularity over the last decade as a way to systematically present new research results in the proper context, given all previous related work. (
  • Ann Human Genet 19:251-253 Ott J (1989) statistical properties of the haplotype relative risk. (
  • Consideration of appropriate follow-up time and use of more complex temporal models are critical to the risk assessment process. (
  • 14 Meta-analysis and risk of bias assessment were performed according to the Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. (
  • All cohort (N=15) and case-control (N=13) studies included in analyses were stratified by assessment of occupational exposure to TCE specifically and to any chlorinated solvent. (
  • Stratified analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. (
  • The assessment of risk of bias within individual studies and across studies indicated risk that was unlikely to alter these results markedly. (
  • Observational study of 259 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary hospital stroke unit from 24 January 2006 to 10 January 2007, with retrospective assessment of prestroke risk factors and therapies to determine stroke preventability, based on relative risk reductions from published meta-analyses of preventive therapies. (
  • Pipeline risk models are a foundational part of the assessment of operational pipeline risk. (
  • In recent years, Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), has emerged as an increasingly popular analysis tool especially during the last decade. (
  • Approximately 3200 asymptomatic subjects (age 50-75) have completed risk factor assessment, medical and dietary histories, and have undergone complete colonoscopy examination. (
  • OBJECTIVE -Birth weight is a risk factor for both diabetes and mortality. (
  • Diabetes is a risk factor for mortality. (
  • Several studies have reported an association between diabetes and abnormal birth weight ( 1 - 11 ), and abnormal birth weight has been implicated as a risk factor for mortality in studies of the general population ( 12 - 15 ). (
  • Summary relative risk (RR) for the highest versus lowest category of fish consumption on risk of all-cause mortality was calculated by using a random effects model. (
  • The dose-response analysis indicated a nonlinear relationship between fish consumption and all-cause mortality. (
  • These results imply that fish consumption was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. (
  • 14 Recently, the Vitamins and Lifestyle Study (VITAL Study) reported that higher intake of fish was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. (
  • The study was eligible for inclusion if it had the following: (1) had a cohort design based on general healthy population and published in English, (2) used fish consumption as the exposure of interest, (3) identified total death or all-cause mortality as the outcome of interest and (4) reported the relative risk (RR) or hazard risk (HR) (highest versus lowest) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). (
  • The present study shows that susceptibility to temperature stress creates an increased risk in disease-associated mortality, and only rare genets may maintain or gain infectious disease resistance under high temperature. (
  • Some RCTs suggest that they are effective in reducing coronary event rates and overall mortality also in high-risk patients with average cholesterol levels, regardless of sex. (
  • Our meta-analysis gathering current evidence suggests only a slightly higher risk of lung cancer mortality among residents living nearby PICs, albeit such association didn't receive statistically significance. (
  • We examined the 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with macrolide antibiotics relative to nonmacrolide antibiotics. (
  • To evaluate country-level time trends (1994-2011) in premature (30-69 years) mortality from non-communicable, chronic diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, and to create forward projections to 2025 to evaluate the WHO's goal of reducing the risk of premature mortality from NCDs by 25% by 2025. (
  • We used ordinary least squares and log-linear Poisson regression models stratified by sex to evaluate the annual change in risk of premature mortality. (
  • Among all included countries, the average (SD) risk of premature mortality from NCDs based on log-linear models in 1994 was 6.8 (4.2) and 3.9 (2.1) per 1,000 persons in men and women, respectively (Table 1). (
  • If recent trends continue, the median risk of premature mortality from NCDs will decrease by 25.1% (IQR 16.4, 37.0) by 2025. (
  • Adults who have few social contacts (ie, who are socially isolated) or feel unhappy about their social relationships (ie, who are lonely) are at increased risk of premature mortality. (
  • 1 The influence of social relationships on mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors, including physical activity and obesity. (
  • Association between physical activity and risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The association between habitual physical activity (PA) and lowered risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been suggested in patients with diabetes. (
  • We extracted effect measures (relative risk, odds ratio, standardized mortality ratio, standardized incidence ratio, or standardized rate ratio) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. (
  • Observed survival and survival corrected by the expected mortality in the population (relative survival) were also studied. (
  • Fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality in diabetic women. (
  • Since a major segment of the veteran population is over the age of 50, there will be a substantial impact in reduction of both mortality and morbidity due to colon cancer and attendant cost savings to the VA for treatment if such risk factors can be identified. (
  • Several studies have demonstrated that smoke-free legislation is associated with a reduced risk of mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (
  • Relative Risks for Non-fatal Venous Thromboembolism, Ischemic Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Users of ORTHO EVRA(Norelgestromin and Ethinyl Estradiol Contraceptive Patch) Compared to Levonorgestrel-containing Oral Contraceptives. (
  • This study uses the PharMetrics and MarketScan US health care insurance claims database to estimate relative risks for non-fatal venous thromboembolism (including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis), ischemic stroke, and acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), in current users of ORTHO EVRA (norelgestromin and ethinyl estradiol contraceptive patch) compared to current users of oral levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives with 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol, with special attention to duration of use. (
  • Planned analysis will estimate the relative risk of idiopathic (unknown cause) ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction, and another analysis will estimate the relative risk of idiopathic VTE. (
  • The analyses will be repeated including non-idiopathic cases of VTE, ischemic stroke, and acute myocardial infarction. (
  • A Mediterranean diet (that emphasizes olive oil, fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish and alcohol and reduces meat/meat products) can be an effective measure for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction. (
  • A multivariate analysis will be performed to determine the relationship of historical and environmental factors as well as cell proliferation activity with the presence of adenomatous polyps. (
  • When we conducted the subgroup analysis by gender, the significant association was found in men's populations (summary RR =1.23, 95% CI =1.01-1.57), but not in the women's populations. (
  • In a subgroup analysis of uranium miners and residents exposed to occupational uranium, the summary risk was 2.23 (95% CI=1.86-2.68) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.05-1.44). (
  • 15 ), reported an increased risk of breast cancer among patients with chronic periodontitis [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.36] although no such observation was found amongst subjects who underwent gingivectomy or periodontal flap operation (HR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.86-1.58). (
  • revealing a pooled risk ratio of 1.70 (1.21 to 2.37) for diabetes and 1.11 (0.91 to 1.35) of hypertension. (
  • Restricting SMI to schizophreniform illnesses yielded a pooled risk ratio for diabetes of 1.87 (1.68 to 2.09). (
  • The mutable risk factors for CHD are smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high ratio of total cholesterol to High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. (
  • The risk/benefit ratio of such compounds should thus be carefully and individually evaluated at the start of long term treatment. (
  • The second part of Biostatistics for Credit covers clinical trial designs including randomized controlled trials, ROC curves, CI and tests for relative risk and odds ratio, and an introduction to survival analysis. (
  • For 17 prospective studies with at least three categories of occupational cumulative radon dose, the dose-risk model estimated a risk ratio of 1.26 (95% CI=1.21-1.30) for 100 working level months and 1.51 (95% CI=1.38-1.65) for 200 working level months, respectively. (
  • Twelve prospective cohort studies with 672 389 participants and 57 641 deaths were included in this meta-analysis. (
  • We updated meta-analyses of published case-control and cohort studies exploring occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer risk, incorporating new analytical results from three recently published cohort studies and a case-control study. (
  • Results The meta-analysis included 15 original articles which met the criteria, while 10 articles reported the results of 4 longitudinal cohort studies with different follow-up periods. (
  • The researchers restricted their analyses to case-control or cohort studies (both types of observational study) where data for colon cancer alone was available. (
  • Relative contributions of four exposure pathways to influenza infection risk. (
  • The relative contribution of four influenza virus exposure pathways--(1) virus-contaminated hand contact with facial membranes, (2) inhalation of respirable cough particles, (3) inhalation of inspirable cough particles, and (4) spray of cough droplets onto facial membranes--must be quantified to determine the potential efficacy of nonpharmaceutical interventions of transmission. (
  • Reasons for higher risks of early residential exposure to PICs might be attributable to the lack of or less stringent air pollution regulations. (
  • Exposure is synonym of risk factor. (
  • In the absence of appropriate reference materials, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated comparative genotoxicity studies to determine the relative mutagenic and carcinogenic activity and, ultimately, the potential human health risk due to exposure to various complex emission products. (
  • We used conditional logistic regression to measure the association between macrolide exposure and outcomes, and repeated the analysis in 4 subgroups defined by the presence or absence of chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and concurrent use of a drug known to prolong the QT interval. (
  • Although radon exposure (RE) has been confirmed to increase the risk of lung cancer (LC), questions remain about the shape of the dose-response relationship between RE and the risk of LC. (
  • We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose-response association between residential and occupational exposure to radon and the risk of LC. (
  • This increased risk is particularly apparent when the cumulative exposure to radon is well beyond that resulting from exposure to the recommended limit concentration for a prolonged period of time. (
  • The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) ( 1 ) previously presented epidemiologic analyses of the effect of glycemic exposure, as measured by the updated mean A1C and time in the trial, on the risk of retinopathy progression. (
  • This paper reviews occupational carcinogens, and presents the most relevant risk relations to cancer in high-income countries using France as an example, to provide a framework for national estimation of cancer burden attributable to occupational exposure. (
  • 7.4 Modelling the hazard exposure risk. (
  • it was also registered in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42015017895) and complies with the recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. (
  • This study set out to assess the relative health impacts of different wastewater management strategies on health in the Nile delta region using an approach similar to that used in the Ghana. (
  • This will equip task teams to assess the risks and opportunities which arise due to the proposed shift from on-site to networked sanitation in four governorates where the Bank has wastewater operations. (
  • We performed a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on atopic sensitization and asthma/wheeze prevention in children. (
  • We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the relationship between them. (
  • To assess the relationship between 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) and the risk of male breast cancer (MBC). (
  • We added linear and spline regression analyses to assess the quantitative relationship between increases in PA and ACM and CVD risk. (
  • However, many studies had been published to further assess the association between coffee and tea consumption and the risk of brain cancer since that meta-analysis. (
  • To quantitatively assess the accumulated evidence for a role of dietary fiber consumption on prostate cancer risk, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies. (
  • However, the prior DCCT analysis in ref. 1 did not directly assess whether subjects at the same A1C level have a higher risk of retinopathy progression with conventional versus intensive therapy. (
  • Here, a novel method is described for meta-analysis of published results from linear relative risk models that uses a parametric transformation of published results to improve on the normal approximation used to assess confidence intervals. (
  • T here has been little attempt in the medical literature to assess the relative performance of different health care systems. (
  • Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk and to identify possible factors leading to the heterogeneity among studies. (
  • A statistically significant protective effect of coffee consumption and brain cancer risk was found (RR = 0.785, 95% CI = 0.580-0.984, I 2 = 65.6%, P for heterogeneity = 0.001), especially in Asian populations (RR = 0.217, 95% CI = 0.042-0.896). (
  • However, the association between the risk of brain cancer and tea consumption was non-significant in the whole result (RR = 0.897, 95% CI = 0.739-1.088, I 2 = 29.9%, P for heterogeneity = 0.189), but significant in American populations (RR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.646-0.986). (
  • Estrone and estradiol hormone levels were significantly inversely associated with relative telomere length ( P = 0.02). (
  • After B. lactis treatment, the relative mRNA level of FoxP3 was significantly enhanced in the B. lactis therapy group when compared to positive controls. (
  • Meta-analysis indicated that periodontal disease significantly increased the risk of breast cancer by 1.22-fold (RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06-1.40). (
  • Even in the first (univariable) analysis, the only factors significantly associated with increases in HIV infections were economic: the GDP growth rate, poverty and three separate measures of income inequality (S80/S20, Gini-coefficient and the Public Wealth Index). (
  • Another study indicated that smoking significantly influenced the risk of first acute myocardial infarctions in a dose-dependent manner [ 11 ]. (
  • The method should assist in graphical presentation of relative risks, and in the combination of results from published studies. (
  • Our results provide little support for an important role of telomere length, as measured in peripheral blood leukocytes, as a biomarker of breast cancer risk. (
  • Few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with breast cancer risk and have found inconsistent results. (
  • Sometimes, a table will report the results of only one analysis. (
  • The association results between periodontal diseases and breast cancer were found to be robust, as evident in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. (
  • Results Overall cancer risk was modestly increased compared to the general population (SIR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23). (
  • In the further subgroup analyses for study design and geographic locations, we did not find any association between dietary carbohydrate intake and CRC risk in the subgroup results respectively. (
  • NYSE: AZN) today announced results from a post-hoc analysis of a sub-group of the PLATO study. (
  • For this reason, this paper increased the sample size and improved the test efficiency through an updated meta-analysis to obtain more authentic and reliable analysis results, which is helpful to clarify whether coffee or tea consumption has some inverse effects on brain cancer development, and finally provides evidence of prevention for brain cancer. (
  • a sensitivity analysis that excluded women randomised to PrEP found similar results. (
  • RESULTS: The analysis included 66 patients. (
  • They combined the results in a type of meta analysis called a random effects model. (
  • The first thing I did when I received my genotyping results from 23andMe was log on to their website and take a look at my estimated disease risks. (
  • The results of meta-analysis after excluding the studies with a high risk of bias were reported in this study. (
  • We will present the results as relative risk (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and as mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) for continuous outcomes with 95 % CI. (
  • We discuss the problem of describing multiple group comparisons in survival analysis using the Cox model, and in matched case-control studies. (
  • A case-control study of high-risk sister sets ( n = 287 cases) found an elevation in breast cancer risk predominantly among premenopausal women with short telomeres ( 9 ), whereas another study ( n = 265 cases) found a significant increased breast cancer risk and decreased survival among a mix of premenopausal and postmenopausal women with longer telomeres ( 10 ). (
  • Relative risk was used to estimate the overall response rate, disease control rate, 1-year survival, 2-year survival, and adverse event data. (
  • To analyze time of disease-free survival and relative survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer in the province of Gipuzkoa within the context of competing risks by assessing differences between the direct use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement method on the one hand, and relative survival on the other. (
  • In this approach, survival analyses must take into account the probability of failure in the general population of reference. (
  • 9. Spatially-correlated survival analysis. (
  • 9.1 Survival analysis in WinBUGS. (
  • Risk was stratified according to the covariates known to influence survival in patients with colorectal cancer. (
  • The middle sections of the book provide in-depth coverage of the types of analyses that can be performed with survey data, including means and proportions, correlations, tables, linear regression, logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression, Poisson regression, and survival analysis (including Cox regression). (
  • Recent randomised controlled trials comparing carotid artery stenting (CAS) with endarterectomy (CEA) for the treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis were not powered to investigate differences in risks in specific patient subgroups. (
  • We hypothesised that there were differences in the risk of abnormal glucose, blood pressure or lipid abnormalities between people with and without SMI. (
  • Subgroup analyses did not identify any differences by gender. (
  • While other components of hyperglycemia, such as glucose variation, may contribute to the risk of complications, such factors can only explain a small part of the differences in risk between intensive and conventional therapy over time. (
  • Comparing one group with another, expresses differences in the risk of something happening. (
  • We aimed to examine this association by conducting a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. (
  • Meta-analysis may be used to investigate the combination or interaction of a group of independent studies, for example a series of fourfold tables from similar studies conducted at different centres. (
  • This StatsDirect function examines the relative risk for each stratum (a single fourfold table) and for the group of studies as a whole. (
  • Studies of these subjects have reported greater insulin resistance ( 6 , 8 , 14 , 17 - 20 ) or decreased β-cell function ( 7 , 8 , 19 ) among first-degree relatives in comparison with controls. (
  • However, the few epidemiologic studies that have assessed the relationship between telomere length and breast cancer risk have been inconsistent. (
  • Furthermore, we manually reviewed the reference lists of identified papers, previous reviews and relevant meta-analyses to identify any studies that were not found from the preliminary literature searches. (
  • Therefore, our meta-analysis was performed based on these prior studies to compare the efficacies and toxicities of IP and EP in patients with ES-SCLC, and these parameters were further analyzed in patient subpopulations. (
  • The small number of studies included in meta-analysis represents a major limitation. (
  • Either there is only one study that meets the selection criteria or there is one report that combines data from many studies into a single large analysis. (
  • Studies on the same topic can differ in important ways, such as length of follow-up and measures of a risk factor. (
  • A previous meta-analysis (1999) on 5 studies showed that statins are beneficial in both sexes (1) , but a cost- effectiveness analysis (including 2 out of 5 studies considered in the former meta-analysis) raised doubts on their use in females in primary prevention (2). (
  • The standard process of selecting studies followed the Cochrane meta-analysis guideline of identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion. (
  • Several epidemiological studies have explored associations between the PICs and lung cancer risks of nearby people. (
  • The present meta-analysis demonstrated that SLC30A8 rs13266634 was a potential risk factor for T2DM, and more studies should be performed to confirm the association between rs13266634 polymorphism and IGR. (
  • We selected cross-sectional, case control, cohort or intervention studies comparing one or more risk factor in both SMI and a reference group. (
  • Data on other risk factors were limited by poor quality or inconsistent research findings, but a small number of studies show greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in SMI. (
  • We searched for studies comparing the risk of diabetes or hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia or a combination of these factors (as components of the metabolic syndrome or as an overall CHD risk score). (
  • In case of multiple studies for one nutrient a meta-analysis was performed. (
  • Four studies involving 595.776 participants, mean age range from 60 to 73.2 years old, were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary unadjusted RR of the risk of MBC for the treatment of 5ARIs of 1.16 (95% CI 0.85-1.58, P=0.36) and the multivariable-adjusted RR is 1.03, (95% CI 0.75-1.41, p=0.86). (
  • Large-scale and well-designed studies that adequately address concerns for potential confounding factors are required to validate the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. (
  • The number of studies and participants included in the present meta-analysis was relatively small. (
  • To provide an updated document assessing the global, NSAID-specific, and time dependent risk of gastrointestinal (GI) complications through meta-analyses of high quality studies. (
  • Reports of 11 CHD studies and 8 stroke studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis. (
  • Previous studies had demonstrated some associations between coffee and tea consumption and brain cancer risk resulted in an inconsistent relationship. (
  • The findings of epidemiologic studies on the association between fiber intake and prostate cancer risk remain conflicting. (
  • We included epidemiological studies that reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk. (
  • The combined risk estimate of all studies was 0.89 (95 % CI, 0.77, 1.01). (
  • Two authors performed a computerized blinded search of MEDLINE (1966 to March 2015) and Embase (1974 to March 2015) databases for relevant epidemiologic studies of dietary fiber consumption in relation to the risk of prostate cancer published in English. (
  • A study presented today at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2018) found that women in two prevention studies were nearly three times more likely to become infected with HIV while they were pregnant, and four times as likely in the six months after giving birth, compared with the risk of HIV infection at other times. (
  • Previous studies of whether pregnancy increases risk have been inconclusive: a 2014 meta-analysis found a 30% raised risk of HIV infection during pregnancy, but two studies in that analysis found almost double the risk while the others found no raised risk. (
  • The stories are based on a detailed analysis of 52 studies from the past 25 years. (
  • This was a systematic review with meta analysis of studies that investigated the link between physical activity and reduction in risk of colon cancer. (
  • In their meta analysis they found a statistically significant 24% reduced risk of colon cancer when comparing the most active individuals with the least active individuals across all studies (relative risk [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.72 to 0.81). (
  • Disease mapping involves the analysis of geo-referenced disease incidence data and has many applications, for example within resource allocation, cluster alarm analysis, and ecological studies. (
  • An increased risk of cervical cancer associated with tobacco smoking has been established on the basis of a number of epidemiologic studies since the 1980s ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • In the meta-analyses, some variables could not be controlled for because of the observational design of the included studies. (
  • The second edition is thoroughly revised, partly rewritten and includes now chapters on segregation analysis, twin studies and estimation of heritability. (
  • The linear regression model indicated a high goodness of fit for the risk of ACM (adjusted R(2) = 0.44, P = 0.001) and CVD (adjusted R(2) = 0.51, P = 0.001), with the result that a 1 MET-h/day incrementally higher PA was associated with 9.5% (5.0-13.8%) and 7.9% (4.3-11.4%) reductions in ACM and CVD risk, respectively. (
  • When conducting a meta-analysis of clinical trials with binary outcomes, a normal approximation for the summary treatment effect measure in each trial is inappropriate in the common situation where some of the trials in the meta-analysis are small, or the observed risks are close to 0 or 1. (
  • This new analysis evaluated outcomes in 9,946 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) managed with or without in-hospital revascularization in relation to measurements at randomization of high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-TnT), a biomarker test that may be a more sensitive indicator of ongoing heart muscle damage than previously available troponin tests. (
  • Almost half (44.9%) of smokers perceived snus to be as or more risky than cigarettes for all three specific health outcomes (group 1), while over one third (38.3%) had an elevated perceived risk for oral cancer only (group 2). (
  • Additional analyses show that virtually all (96%) of the beneficial effect of intensive versus conventional therapy on progression of retinopathy is explained by the reductions in the mean A1C levels, similarly for other outcomes. (
  • An extension of multivariable analysis that is used to model two or more outcomes at the same time. (
  • A fully Bayesian method has already been developed for random effects meta-analysis on the log-odds scale using the BUGS implementation of Gibbs sampling. (
  • The advantages and flexibility of a fully Bayesian approach to meta-analysis of binary outcome data, considered on an absolute risk or relative risk scale, are now available. (
  • We mapped the relative risks using empirical Bayesian smoothing. (
  • The final three chapters are devoted to advanced topics, such as analysis of longitudinal data, multiple imputation, Bayesian analysis, and structural equation models. (
  • It shows the importance of MCMC in real applications, such as archaeology, astronomy, biostatistics, genetics, epidemiology, and image analysis, and provides an excellent base for MCMC to be applied to other fields as well. (
  • Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify confounders for co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS. (
  • a Because of nonnormality, this variable was logged for regression analysis. (
  • By using one of the largest lung cancer datasets ever assembled, we explored the impact of smoking on risks of the major cell types of lung cancer. (
  • 8.3 WinBUGS analyses of ecological datasets. (
  • 8.4 MLwiN analyses of ecological datasets. (
  • Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. (
  • The authors begin with some history of applied survey data analysis, then discuss some widely used survey datasets, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). (
  • Risk of cardiovascular death was only predicted by age and LV mass index. (
  • 9 This association may play a role in the increase in cardiovascular risk associated with the presence of concentric LV hypertrophy. (
  • 10 Although PP might independently predict cardiovascular risk, 11 12 13 14 there is no information on the ability of SV/PP to predict risk or on whether this prediction is independent of LV hypertrophy. (
  • Accordingly, this study was designed to investigate whether SV/PP is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk in arterial hypertension. (
  • Severe mental illnesses (SMI) may be independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. (
  • We employed three search main themes: SMI, cardiovascular disease, and each cardiovascular risk factor. (
  • We extracted data on: study design, cardiovascular risk factor(s) and their measurement, diagnosis of SMI, study setting, sampling method, nature of comparison group and data on key risk factors. (
  • Background - Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may increase cardiovascular risk relative to tamoxifen in post-menopausal women with breast cancer. (
  • Background The influence of social relationships on morbidity is widely accepted, but the size of the risk to cardiovascular health is unclear. (
  • For each table the observed relative risk is displayed with a confidence interval. (
  • A confidence interval for the pooled relative risk is calculated using the Greenland-Robins variance formula( Greenland and Robins, 1985 ). (
  • Here we can say with 95% confidence, assuming a random effects model, that for those given aspirin the true population risk of dying in the specified interval after a heart attack is at most 0.99 of the risk for those not given aspirin. (
  • Assuming a fixed effects model a stronger inference could be made about a relative risk of .96 (the upper confidence limit) but the high inter-study variation makes the fixed effects model less appropriate. (
  • The standard method of comparing the risk in each group with a baseline group is unsatisfactory because the standard errors and confidence limits relate to correlated parameters, all dependent on precision within the baseline group. (
  • Relapse-free rate was extracted for relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). (
  • Poisson or negative binomial regression models helped estimate associations (relative risk (RR), 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)) adjusted for socioeconomic status and two criteria pollutants: nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 micrometers. (
  • Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the association between dietary carbohydrate intake and CRC risk. (
  • Relative Risk Ratios (RRRs) and CIs for thinness, overweight and obesity were estimated in multinomial models by SECs (baseline healthy weight). (
  • The book begins in part A with some basic meta-analysis terminology and biostatistical terms, such as odds, odds ratios, and relative risks. (
  • The major result that smoking exerted a steeper risk gradient on SqCC and SCLC than on AdCa is in line with previous population data and biological understanding of lung cancer development. (
  • Cross Validated is a question and answer site for people interested in statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, and data visualization. (
  • Using this data, we are able to estimate the cumulative incidence of all cancers in the first-degree relatives of the carriers, and to compare the risks by specific CHEK2 mutation, and by the disease status of the index case (breast or prostate or colon cancer). (
  • In their meta-analysis, Law et al (3) included data from three large RCTs (4-6)(of either primary or secondary prevention) showing lower efficacy in females who may not even get a statistically significant benefit (table). (
  • The meta- analysis from Law et al3, including data from new RCTs, could help in this regard. (
  • The data extraction table was made for the selected 19 trials, and risk of bias was assessed by using the Cochrane collaboration tool, followed by data analysis using Rev Man 5.3. (
  • We therefore performed a pooled analysis of individual patient data from the Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis trial (EVA-3S), the Stent-Protected Angioplasty versus Carotid Endarterectomy trial (SPACE), and the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS). (
  • Available data indicated a number of risk factor associated with this cancer, such as endogenous hormone levels, immune factors and genetic susceptibility and lifestyle habits ( 11 - 14 ). (
  • Published data regarding the association between solute carrier family 30, member 8 ( SLC30A8 ) rs13266634 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) risks in Chinese population are in-consistent. (
  • We assessed quality using a component approach and pooled data for analysis using random effects models. (
  • The insurance computing system uses the obtained data and a computerized model to compute a risk score that is used in evaluating the insurability of the facility or the operating entity. (
  • Stata 14.0 software was used for data analysis. (
  • In recent years and due to communications received from both PHMSA and regulatory bodies, a trend has developed in the oil and gas industry in that the simple index models that people once relied on for years are no longer providing enough information and data on how we should be using risk today. (
  • There is a real need amongst public health workers for simpler and more efficient tools for the analysis of geo-referenced disease incidence data. (
  • Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. (
  • The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (
  • CDA1 - Categorical Data Analysis Independent(Explanatory. (
  • Analysis and interpretation of the data: R.L. Morgan, B. Baack, A. Yartel, Y. Falck-Ytter. (
  • Two investigators independently extracted data into uniform relative risk measures. (
  • abstract = "Introduction: Certain types of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products, particularly snus, carry fewer health risks than cigarette smoking and might be able to serve as harm-reduction products for smokers. (
  • Logistic regression models, system clustering method, and principal component analysis were used to identify potential risk factors, different clusters of the patients, and principal components of PE symptoms. (
  • I plan to use Cox proportional hazards regression for relative risks and some measure of incidence to estimate absolute risks. (
  • In the four years since the 1978 Symposium on the Application of Short-Term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures the use of short-term bioassays to evaluate potential health hazards of complex environmental mixtures has substantially increased. (
  • 7. Focused clustering: the analysis of putative health hazards. (
  • We used quantitative real-time PCR to measure relative telomere length in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and examined its association with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in 1,122 invasive breast cancer cases and 1,147 matched controls free of diagnosed cancer nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study. (
  • Relative mRNA levels of Treg- and Th17-associated cytokines were measured by using quantitative PCR. (
  • 6. The system of claim 3 , wherein the values for the group of variables comprise a quantitative representation of the risk posed by an end-of-life condition of the nanomaterial. (
  • Completely quantitative, in its simplest form, PRA is a group of techniques that incorporate variability and uncertainty into risk assessments. (
  • Progressively shorter telomeres, as measured in peripheral blood leukocytes, have been associated with increased risk of head and neck, lung, renal cell, and bladder cancers ( 4 - 6 ), suggesting telomere length may be a useful biomarker of cancer risk. (
  • In recent years, there is increased interests in exploring the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer risk, particularly for cancers in the head and neck, upper gastrointestinal system, lung, and pancreas ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • Excess risk was observed for 11 cancers, particularly lung (4.02, 95% CI 3.32 to 4.82), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.51, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.88) and liver (8.04, 95% CI 6.18 to 10.3). (
  • lung cancer risk was also increased in those with HCV. (
  • About 17% of smokers perceived snus to have lower risks for lung cancer only (group 3). (
  • We assessed the co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS by estimating the relative risk (RR) for MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population and looked for possible influencing factors. (
  • Immigration status and thyroid antibodies in male patients were independent risk indicators for the incidental rate of MS. Diabetic patients born during spring and summer had a higher risk for the development of MS. We suggest that environmental factors modulate the individual's risk for the co-occurrence of both diseases. (
  • Uncertainty remains as to the best estimate of cancer risk for gene carriers, and the factors which influence the penetrance of the CHEK2 gene. (
  • If there are risk factors, which cluster within families, and which predispose to a cancer at a particular site, then we expect the risk of cancer in close relatives to depend on whether the proband was affected with the same type of cancer or with a different type. (
  • Other established breast cancer risk factors such as family history of breast cancer and history of benign breast disease were not associated with relative telomere length in separate linear regression models each adjusted for age and disease status ( P ≥ 0.07). (
  • 1 Therefore, it is urgent to develop efficient strategies that can prevent noncommunicable diseases by reducing their major risk factors and recommending healthy lifestyles, including a well-balanced diet. (
  • When confounding factors are known they can be measured and controlled for (see 'multivariable analysis'), but some confounding factors are likely to be unknown or unmeasured. (
  • We estimated the strength of any association between SMI and these CHD risk factors. (
  • Owing to the rarity of the disease, obtaining a clear picture of risk factors is tremendously challenging, and its etiology remains elusive. (
  • Genetic risk factors, including relations with familial history and BRCA gene mutations ( 11 ), are well established. (
  • 1 Risk factors for asthma are diverse, which include air pollution, passive smoking, genetic factors and others. (
  • Significant additional risk factors included age, dose, and underlying disease. (
  • 2 Yet, compared with our understanding of these risk factors, we know much less about the implications of loneliness and social isolation for disease aetiology. (
  • Although dietary factors have long been suspected to be implicated in the development of prostate cancer, no major modifiable risk factor has been established. (
  • Furthermore, subjects within the intensive and conventional treatment groups with similar A1C levels over time have similar risks of retinopathy progression, especially after adjusting for factors in which they differ. (
  • A significant proportion of stroke remains preventable, especially in younger patients, by optimal modification of risk factors, particularly smoking, blood pressure and anticoagulation. (
  • Stroke occurs most commonly in patients with known risk factors. (
  • Clinical symptoms and related risk factors in pulmonary embolism patients and cluster analysis based on these symptoms. (
  • This protection remained even after the other risk factors measured in the study, such as diet, obesity and smoking, were taken into account. (
  • The identification of low cost, easily collectible risk factors which can be used to target patients for the more sensitive screening tests is the primary purpose of this study. (
  • The roles of other potential risk factors in cervical carcinogenesis therefore need to be considered. (
  • Objective We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between loneliness or social isolation and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. (
  • This document presents relative risk and attributable risk analysis of a GRTS survey design. (
  • Attributable risk measures the percent reduction in the extent of poor condition of a response variable that presumably would result from eliminating a stressor variable. (
  • AIMS To evaluate prospectively the dysplasia risk in patients with intestinal metaplasia of the distal oesophagus or within the gastric cardia. (
  • The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between SLC30A8 rs13266634 and T2DM/IGR in a Chinese population. (
  • Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between RV wheezing illness in the first 3 years of life and the subsequent development of wheezing/asthma. (
  • Phase II of the study is a long-term follow-up study designed to evaluate the relative risk of two repeat colonoscopies. (
  • These findings also prompt public health officials to integrate disease mapping and cluster analyses in developing location specific interventions for reducing diarrhea. (
  • A chi-square test statistic is given with associated probability of the pooled relative risk being equal to one. (
  • Decision curve analysis evaluates a predictor for an event as a probability threshold is varied, typically by showing a graphical plot of net benefit against threshold probability. (
  • The predictor could be a binary classifier, or a percentage risk from a prediction model, in which case a positive classification is defined by whether predicted probability is at least as great as the threshold probability. (
  • A decision curve analysis graph is drawn by plotting threshold probability on the x-axis and net benefit on y-axis, illustrating the trade-offs between benefit (true positives) and harm (false positives) as the threshold probability (preference) is varied across a range of reasonable threshold probabilities. (
  • Pooled risk allele C frequency for rs13266634 was 60.6% (95%CI: 59.2-62.0%) in the T2DM group and 54.8% (95%CI: 53.2-56.4%) in the control group which had estimated OR of 1.23 (95%CI: 1.17-1.28). (
  • Individuals who carried major homozygous CC and heterozygous CT genotype were at 1.51 and 1.23 times higher risk of T2DM, respectively, than those carrying minor homozygous TT. (
  • AIMS Estimate the excess risk of developing dementia among cases, as compared to controls. (
  • This study has revealed that the excess incidences of diarrhea is spatially clustered with peri-urban districts showing the greatest risk of space-time clustering. (
  • Lower Relative Contribution of Positive Family History to Colorectal Cancer Risk with Increasing Age: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 9.28. (
  • Existing algorithms predicting the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) assign a fixed score for family history of CRC. (
  • The association between dietary carbohydrate intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remains controversial. (
  • The article states, "An intramuscular inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine reduced the risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza by up to 69% in previously unvaccinated children aged 6-35 months in a large randomized trial, reported at the annual meeting of the European Society for Paediatric (sic) Infectious Diseases. (
  • In addition to the genetic risk associated with a family history of the disease, it is apparent that genetic predisposition related to ethnicity is a major determinant of diabetes risk. (
  • The most appropriate genetic analysis model was the co-dominant model based on comparison of OR1, OR2 and OR3. (
  • To test this, we incorporated ecosystem and location of isolation into a comparative genetic analysis. (
  • The Haplotype-relative-risk (HRR) method is a family-based method for determining gene allele association to a disease in the presence of actual genetic linkage. (
  • Genetic Epidemiol 6:127-130 Knapp, Seuchter, Baur (1987) "The haplotype-relative-risk" (HRR) method for analysis of association in nuclear families. (
  • Poor social relationships were associated with a 29% increase in risk of incident CHD (pooled relative risk: 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.59) and a 32% increase in risk of stroke (pooled relative risk: 1.32, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.68). (
  • HIV was associated with an elevated risk of liver, anus and kidney cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. (
  • Family history of CRC could be assigned a higher score for younger subjects in CRC risk prediction algorithms. (
  • 3. The system of claim 1 , wherein the processor is configured to derive values for a group of variables corresponding to risk-related characteristics of the nanomaterial, and wherein the processor is configured to calculate the risk score at least in part based on the values derived for the group of variables. (
  • 9. The system of claim 3 , wherein the processor is configured to calculate the risk score using the computerized model by taking a weighted sum of the values of the group of variables. (
  • A Danish cohort study revealed a three times higher risk for the development of MS in patients with type 1 diabetes ( 7 ). (
  • Further, an Italian study conducted in Sardinia showed a five times higher risk for the development of type 1 diabetes in MS patients ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • An American study on female adults in whom diabetes developed before the age of 21 years yielded an up to 20 times higher risk for the development of MS ( 10 ). (
  • Mathching was done in the design phase of the study, and not during the analyses. (
  • Periodontal health status has also been identified as a risk factor for breast cancer, a study of Chung et al. (
  • This study also suggests that smokers may vary in their level of need for information to correct their relative risk misperceptions. (
  • Recently, this analysis was cited by Brownlee and Hirsch ( 2 ), based in part on a small study by Monnier et al. (
  • This study, which is much larger, confirms what has long been suspected: that pregnancy and breastfeeding are times of particular HIV infection risk for women. (
  • Investigations have also reported high risks among patients with Klinefelter syndrome (condition characterized by 46-XXY karyotype and relative excesses of estrogens in relation to androgens) ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • This meta-analysis summarizes the risk reduction in relation to PA, focusing on clarifying dose-response associations. (
  • Patients with mutations were questioned regarding details about all cancers in their first-degree relatives. (
  • 15 16 However, the dysplasia risk of patients with cardia intestinal metaplasia is unclear. (
  • Direct follow-up or contact with relatives or physicians of patients who died was possible in 294 (91%) of 322 patients initially evaluated by echocardiography at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center between 1976 and 1986 and found eligible for this longitudinal trial. (
  • Whether the increased CRC risk attributed to family history of CRC was higher in younger patients remains inconclusive. (
  • A retrospective analysis of 84 patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection was conducted. (
  • A total of 17 articles involving 14402 CRC patients and 846004 participants were eligible with the inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. (
  • This analysis of PLATO shows BRILINTA reduced the rate of thrombotic CV events in those NSTE-ACS patients with elevated hs-TNT, both when managed with revascularization as well as when managed medically. (
  • 135 patients had at least one suboptimally managed risk factor. (
  • Ideal screening would identify patients with the highest risk of cancer and target more sensitive screening tests at this population. (
  • This pooled analysis suggests a significant and sustained reduction in TVF and MACE among patients treated with EES compared with PES at 3-year follow-up. (
  • Only patients who had had a resection or a biopsy were included in the analysis. (
  • If abnormal birth weight is a risk factor, it could help identify high-risk diabetic individuals. (
  • An estimated 1.3 million women worldwide were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2007, making it the most common cancer in women, and age is the most important risk factor ( 7 ). (
  • They may define "high" and "low" levels of a risk factor differently. (
  • Periodontal disease may be a potential risk factor for the development of breast cancer among women, and thus effective periodontal therapy may present as a valuable preventive measure against breast cancer. (
  • Ductal margin status was found to be a strong independent prognostic factor by both univariate ( P = 0.0002) and multivariate ( P = 0.0039) analyses. (
  • This meta-analysis suggested that higher dietary carbohydrate intake may be an increased factor for CRC risk in men populations. (
  • the only treatable risk factor of glaucoma) or glaucoma, mediated by oxidative stress. (
  • contributions of each risk factor to stroke preventability. (
  • The primary focus of Phase I is a risk factor analysis. (