A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The physical measurements of a body.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The position or attitude of the body.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
A person's view of himself.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Sexual activities of animals.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
Female parents, human or animal.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/37255)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (2/37255)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

The significance of non-significance. (3/37255)

We discuss the implications of empirical results that are statistically non-significant. Figures illustrate the interrelations among effect size, sample sizes and their dispersion, and the power of the experiment. All calculations (detailed in Appendix) are based on actual noncentral t-distributions, with no simplifying mathematical or statistical assumptions, and the contribution of each tail is determined separately. We emphasize the importance of reporting, wherever possible, the a priori power of a study so that the reader can see what the chances were of rejecting a null hypothesis that was false. As a practical alternative, we propose that non-significant inference be qualified by an estimate of the sample size that would be required in a subsequent experiment in order to attain an acceptable level of power under the assumption that the observed effect size in the sample is the same as the true effect size in the population; appropriate plots are provided for a power of 0.8. We also point out that successive outcomes of independent experiments each of which may not be statistically significant on its own, can be easily combined to give an overall p value that often turns out to be significant. And finally, in the event that the p value is high and the power sufficient, a non-significant result may stand and be published as such.  (+info)

Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (4/37255)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

Effect of coronary occlusion on left ventricular function with and without collateral supply during beating heart coronary artery surgery. (5/37255)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of coronary occlusion and collateral supply on left ventricular (LV) function during beating heart coronary artery surgery. DESIGN: Prospective intraoperative study, performed at baseline, during wall stabilisation, coronary artery occlusion, and 2 and 10 minutes after reperfusion. Transoesophageal M mode echocardiograms, simultaneous high fidelity LV pressure, and thermodilution cardiac output were measured. LV anterior wall thickening, thinning velocities, thickening fraction, regional work, and power production were derived. Asynchrony during the isovolumic periods was quantified as cycle efficiency. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with stable angina, mean (SD) age 62 (7) years, undergoing left anterior descending artery grafting using the "Octopus" device. RESULTS: Collaterals were absent in nine patients and present in five. Epicardial stabilisation did not affect LV function. Results are expressed as mean (SD). Coronary occlusion (15.6 (2) minutes) depressed anterior wall thickening (1.4 (0.6) v 2.6 (0.6) cm/s) and thinning velocities (1.4 (0.5) v 3.0 (0.6) cm/s), regional work (2.2 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.6) mJ/cm2), and power (21 (4) v 33 (5) mW/cm2) in patients without collaterals (p < 0.05 for all), but only wall thinning (3.5 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) cm/s, p < 0.05) in patients with collaterals. All returned to baseline within 10 minutes of reperfusion. Cycle efficiency and regional work were impaired at baseline and fell during occlusion, regardless of collaterals. Within 10 minutes of reperfusion both had increased above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary occlusion for up to 15 minutes during beating heart coronary artery surgery depressed standard measurements of systolic and diastolic anterior wall function in patients without collaterals, but only those of diastolic function in patients with collaterals. Regional synchrony decreased in both groups. All disturbances regressed within 10 minutes of reperfusion.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (6/37255)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (7/37255)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. (8/37255)

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

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Standard Costs and Variance Analysis case study solution, Standard Costs and Variance Analysis case study analysis, Subjects Covered Accounting procedures Budgeting Control systems Cost analysis Cost systems Variance analysis by Donella M. Rapier 9 pages. Publication Dat
What is a variance analysis? The variance analysis is present in managerial accounting and it refers to the investigations of differences between actual and planned behavior. Explanation Variance analysis typically… ...
As with any ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA is used for comparing three or more means .However, repeated measures ANOVA is used when all subjects are measured under a number of different conditions. As the subject is exposed to each condition in turn , the measurement of the dependent variable is repeated .Using a standard ANOVA in this case result in inappropriate even incorrect conclusion ,because it fails to model the correlation between the repeated measures: the data violate the ANOVA assumption of independence. If any repeated factor is present, then repeated measures ANOVA should be used. In addition to determining that differences exist among the means, the repeated measurements ANOVA procedure provides multiple means comparisons that identify which particular means are different. Repeated measure ANOVA tools in Origin consider three possible designs: ...
In a traditional network, server load balancing is used to satisfy the demand for high data volumes. The technique requires large capital investment while offering poor scalability and flexibility, which difficultly supports highly dynamic workload demands from massive mobile users. To solve these problems, this paper analyses the principle of software-defined networking (SDN) and presents a new probabilistic method of load balancing based on variance analysis. The method can be used to dynamically manage traffic flows for supporting massive mobile users in SDN networks. The paper proposes a solution using the OpenFlow virtual switching technology instead of the traditional hardware switching technology. A SDN controller monitors data traffic of each port by means of variance analysis and provides a probability-based selection algorithm to redirect traffic dynamically with the OpenFlow technology. Compared with the existing load balancing methods which were designed to support traditional ...
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After the MISO Board approves an Eligible Project for inclusion in Appendix A of the MTEP, certain circumstances or events may significantly affect the cost, schedule, and or the ability of Selected Developers (SD) and Transmission Owners (TO) to complete and place into service the facilities comprising an Eligible Project for which they are responsible as specified in the MTEP. Under these circumstances or events, as described in the MISO Tariff, Attachment FF, Section IX, MISO may need to perform a Variance Analysis in order to further understand the reasons for such circumstances or events and to evaluate any potential impacts that they may have on the successful completion of the Project or on the Transmission System.. An overview of the MISO Variance Analysis process is illustrated below.. ...
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2. Repeated Measures ANOVA. Perform a repeated measures ANOVA using the High_School_Scores.sav data set. You will use Score_0 through Score_12 as your repeated measure (7 levels), and gender as a fixed factor. a. Is the.
The Cost Variance Analysis note was written to provide students with fundamental concepts and methods for the analysis of cost variances. This note focuses on the decomposition of cost variances into price, quantity and mix variance components, an approach that allows students to identify the root causes of differences between expected and actual costs.. ...
The iCMP Variance Analysis Module allows your Contractor to identify and explain Task variances between planned values and actual costs. Most contracts stipulate that Contractors must provide explanations to variances that exceed a specified threshold. This module automates that process and simplifies reporting!. ...
Brief Notes on Standard Costing and Variance Analysis. Determination of Standard Costs and Features of standard costing. Ways of developing standards. Merits and Demerits of Standard Costing. Types of Standard Costs and Variances.
Here is a useful article and example on variance analysis from CPA Irelands e-zine. It explains most aspects of including flexed budgets and cost/efficiency variances.
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View Notes - Managerial Accounting Homework Revew Chapter 11 Answer Key from BUSINESS ACG 2071 at Florida State College. Chapter 11 Standard Costs and Variance Analysis QUESTIONS E4. Material Price
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Several of Yaras purchase and sales contracts for commodities are, or have embedded terms and conditions which under IFRS are, accounted for as derivatives. The derivative elements of these contracts are presented under Commodity-based derivatives gain/(loss) in the condensed consolidated interim statement of income and are referenced in the variance analysis (see below) as Special items.. Other and eliminations consists mainly of cross-segment eliminations, in addition to Yaras headquarter costs. Profits on sales from Upstream to Downstream and Industrial are not recognized in the Yara condensed consolidated interim statement of income before the products are sold to external customers. These internal profits are eliminated in the Other and eliminations segment.. Changes in Other and eliminations EBITDA therefore usually reflect changes in Upstream-sourced stock (volumes) held by Downstream and Industrial, but can also be affected by changes in Upstream margins on products sold to ...
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Labour & Over Heads Variance Analysis tutorial of Business Analysis for Engineers course by Prof S. Vaidhyasubramaniam of IIT Madras. You can download the course for FREE !
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Financial model excel template that provide for variance analysis of various purposes such as budget to actual comparison, price volume mix analysis and etc.
3ANOVA Model 3.1 Introduction An important model belonging to the class of general linear hypothesis is the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model. In this model, we consider … - Selection from Theory of Ridge Regression Estimation with Applications [Book]
Chapter 9 Loglinear Variance Models Model the Variance and the Mean of the Response About Loglinear Variance Models The Loglinear Variance personality of the Fit Model platform enables you to … - Selection from JMP 11 Fitting Linear Models [Book]
Use this model to carry out ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) of one or more balanced or unbalanced factors. Available in Excel with the XLSTAT software.
A comprehensive example of variance calculation. Visit this page to see how all materials, labor, and overhead variances are calculated.
Video created by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for the course Managerial Accounting: Tools for Facilitating and Guiding Business Decisions. After establishing goals, setting targets, and the budget, upper management uses variance ...
Video created by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for the course Managerial Accounting: Tools for Facilitating and Guiding Business Decisions. After establishing goals, setting targets, and the budget, upper management uses variance ...
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Im having trouble figuring out the standard quantity and standard hours. Im not sure that the rest of my calculations are correct either. Then there are the actual variances themselves and while I have the formulas they dont.
How can activity-based costing, variance analysis and financial analysis help you as an adult educator, developer and training institute manager to make informed business decisions? This complementary 3-hour preview course is part of our corporate finance training suite. It aims to introduce you to the concept of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) to help you price your training competitively. The session also seeks to present the concepts of variance analysis and financial analysis. These concepts are helpful in in evaluating efficiency and effectiveness, and to help you make informed business decisions.
In this paper we examine the problem of managing portfolios consisting of both, stocks and options. Due to the resulting asymmetric portfolio return distribution we do not use mean variance analysis but represent the preferences of the investors in terms of confidence limits on downside risk measures. For the simultaneous optimization of the stock and option positions we derive portfolios with a maximum expected return under a given preference structure expressed by shortfall constraints. To identify the optimal optioned portfolio we derive an approximation of the return distribution. The solution identified by this procedure will dominate comparable portfolios derived by using mean variance analysis. On the basis of Monte Carlo simulations we illustrate our results and demonstrate the stochastic dominance of these solutions. « ...
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THIS IS A GROUP PROJECT. IM ONLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SECTIONS HIGHLIGHTED ON THE MATRIX. SO IM NOT DOING ANY AGREEMENTS. BOTH OF MY SECTIONS ARE
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Project Management Institute (PMI)® Professional Development Units (PDUs): This Webinar is eligible for 1.5 PMI® PDUs in the Technical category of the Talent Triangle. Event Description: In Microsoft Project, a baseline is like a snapshot of your project before you begin entering actual progress. In this MPUG webinar, you will learn the following: Best… ...
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Contabilidade & Finanças Projects for $30 - $250. I have a confirmed budget with all line items, variables and fixed costs outlines for the year. What I need is a tool to report week how the actuals are performing against the budget target, where we ...
kirjanpito & Rahoitus Projects for $30 - $250. I have a confirmed budget with all line items, variables and fixed costs outlines for the year. What I need is a tool to report week how the actuals are performing against the budget target, where we ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Variance analysis of L2 model reduction when undermodeling - the output error case by Fredrik Tjärnström
Companies prepare budgets so they can plan the evolution of their business. Budgeted costs allow them to set prices, project sales and estimate profits. For a wide variety of reasons, costs and revenues can come in higher or lower than calculated. Budget variance analysis addresses these differences and helps ...
Theres often an important story hidden in the numbers that, if discovered at the right time, can tell a story that business managers want and need to see.
Wesel, F. van, Boeije, H., Hoijtink, H. Use of hypotheses for analysis of variance models: challenging the current practice. Quality & Quantity: 2013, 47(1), 137- ...
A PENDAHULUAN Analisis of variance atau ANOVA merupakan salah satu teknik analisis multivariate yang berfungsi untuk membedakan rerata lebih dari dua kelompok data dengan cara membandingkan variansinya. Analisis varian termasuk dalam kategori statistik parametric. Sebagai alat statistika parametric, maka untuk dapat menggunakan rumus ANOVA harus terlebih dahulu perlu dilakukan uji asumsi meliputi normalitas, heterokedastisitas dan…
The Multivariate Analysis Of Variance (MANOVA) is an ANOVA with two or more continuous outcome (or response) variables.. The one-way MANOVA tests simultaneously statistical differences for multiple response variables by one grouping variables.. For example, we may conduct an experiment where we give two treatments (A and B) to two groups of mice, and we are interested in the weight and height of mice. In that case, the weight and height of mice are our outcome (or dependent) variables, and our hypothesis is that both together are affected by the difference in treatment. A multivariate analysis of variance could be used to test this hypothesis.. The procedure of MANOVA can be summarized as follow:. ...
ANOVA -short for Analysis Of Variance- tests if 3+ population means are all equal or not. This easy introduction gently walks you through its basics such as sums of squares, effect size, post hoc tests and more.
Conclusion: if F , F crit, we reject the null hypothesis. This is the case, 15.196 , 3.443. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis. The means of the three populations are not all equal. At least one of the means is different. However, the ANOVA does not tell you where the difference lies. You need a t-Test to test each pair of means ...
Exercise 18.3 (p. 513) has you consider an ANOVA model that does not assume that every group has the same underlying variance. But the model is applied to data that, it turns out, have fairly homogeneous variances, and therefore the basic conclusions do not change from the model with homogeneous variances assumed. The graph at right shows some data in which the assumption of homogeneous variances does matter. There are four groups with apparently quite different variances. For these data, Groups 2 and 3 have small variances, and therefore they might be credibly different if considered alone. But groups 1 and 4 have large variances, so if the model is forced to accommodate all four groups simultaneously with a single variance (i.e., a single precision parameter), then the estimated variances of Groups 2 and 3 will be too large. Consequently, the estimated means of Groups 2 and 3 will be uncertain because a wide range of candidate mean parameter values can accommodate the data when the variance ...
We have utilized the favorable signal-to-noise ratios provided by whole- cell recording, combined with variance analysis, to determine the pre- or postsynaptic actions of a variety of manipulations on unitary EPSPs evoked by low-intensity stimulation of afferents to CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices of hippocampus. Estimates of quantal content (mcv) were determined by calculating the ratio of the squared average unitary EPSP amplitude (determined from 150-275 responses) to the variance of these responses (M2/sigma 2), while quantal amplitudes (qcv) were estimated by calculating the ratio of the response variance to average EPSP size (sigma 2/M). Estimates of mcv were highly correlated with those determined using the method of failures (mf). With paired stimulation (50 msec interpulse interval) there was a significant facilitation of the second unitary EPSP, accompanied by an increase in mcv, but not qcv, suggesting that this facilitation was of presynaptic origin. Superfusion of hippocampal slices ...
Analysis of variance[edit]. The simplest method for QTL mapping is analysis of variance (ANOVA, sometimes called "marker ... The method makes use of a genetic map of the typed markers, and, like analysis of variance, assumes the presence of a single ... Lander and Botstein developed interval mapping, which overcomes the three disadvantages of analysis of variance at marker loci. ... INTERSNP - a software for genome-wide interaction analysis (GWIA) of case-control SNP data and analysis of quantitative traits ...
His first application of the analysis of variance was published in 1921.[10] Analysis of variance became widely known after ... Textbook analysis using a normal distribution[edit]. The analysis of variance can be presented in terms of a linear model, ... variance within treatments. {\displaystyle F={\frac {\text{variance between treatments}}{\text{variance within treatments}}}}. ... Associated analysis[edit]. Some analysis is required in support of the design of the experiment while other analysis is ...
14 Example of 0% genetic variance argument. *15 Comparative genetic analysis from Volkmar Weiss ... Comparative genetic analysis from Volkmar Weiss. "Race and the two most important IQ genes NQO2 and DCDC2" (Dec 21, 2005). ( ... Example of 0% genetic variance argument. Regarding our earlier discussion of culture only vs predominantly environmental, I ... historical analysis of the race is biologically meaningless concept is correct. --Rikurzhen 23:02, 22 January 2006 (UTC). The ...
Jones, Alan (2 October 2015). "Official Charts Analysis: Disclosure's Caracal takes No.1 album slot with 26,789 sales". Music ... "The 50 Best Albums of 2015". Variance. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015. ...
Jones, Alan (15 July 2016). "Official Charts Analysis: Biffy Clyro in at No. 1 with Ellipsis". Music Week. Retrieved 29 ... "50 Best Albums of 2016". Variance. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2018. ...
variance, analysis of. *variance decomposition. *varying coefficient models. *Veblen goods. *Веблен, Торстейн Бунде ...
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) generalizes the two-sample t-test when the data belong to more than two groups. ... where sx2 is the sample variance. Independent two-sample t-test[edit]. Equal sample sizes, equal variance[edit]. Given two ... Unequal variances[edit]. If the approach for unequal variances (discussed above) is followed, the results are ... Equal variances[edit]. If the approach for equal variances (discussed above) is followed, the results are ...
Variance analysisEdit. An important part of standard cost accounting is a variance analysis, which breaks down the variation ...
In analysis of variance (ANOVA)Edit. In statistical testing problems, one usually isn't interested in the component vectors ... The term is most often used in the context of linear models (linear regression, analysis of variance), where certain random ... The three-population example above is an example of one-way Analysis of Variance. The model, or treatment, sum-of-squares is ... including linear regression and analysis of variance. An explicit example based on comparison of three means is presented here ...
Decomposition of variance. *Analysis of variance. *Analysis of covariance. *Multivariate AOV. Model exploration. *Stepwise ... They are homoscedastic, that is all have the same finite variance: Var. ⁡. (. ε. i. ). =. σ. 2. ,. ∞. {\displaystyle \ ... best in the sense that it has minimum variance). To see this, let ℓ. t. β. ~. {\displaystyle \ell ^{t}{\tilde {\beta }}}. ... Minimum-variance unbiased estimator (MVUE). References[edit]. *^ See chapter 7 of Johnson, R.A.; Wichern, D.W. (2002). Applied ...
so that an alternative expression for the variance of f is σ. f. 2. =. ∑. i. n. a. i. 2. σ. i. 2. +. ∑. i. n. ∑. j. (. j. ≠. i ... "Data Analysis Toolkit #5: Uncertainty Analysis and Error Propagation" (PDF). Berkeley Seismology Laboratory. University of ... Variance. Standard Deviation f. =. a. A. {\displaystyle f=aA\,}. σ. f. 2. =. a. 2. σ. A. 2. {\displaystyle \sigma _{f}^{2}=a^{2 ... In both cases, the variance is a simple function of the mean.[9] Therefore, the variance has to be considered in a principal ...
ANOVA - (p) ANalysis Of VAriance. *ANS - (i) Applied and Natural Sciences. *ANSI - (a) American National Standards Institute ... AFS&A or AFSA - (i) U.S. Air Force Studies and Analysis ... AMSAA - (i/a) U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity. * ...
First, the analysis is nonlocal since the variance of an interface I. depends on the variance of all interfaces that I. ... Declaration-site variance annotations[edit]. The most popular languages with declaration-site variance annotations are C# and ... Use-site variance means the desired variance is indicated with an annotation at the specific site in the code where the type ... While use-site variance means that API designers need not consider variance of type parameters to interfaces, they must often ...
Hoaglin, David C; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey (eds) (1991). Fundamentals of exploratory analysis of variance. Wiley. ... Jones, Lyle V (ed) (1985). Volume III: Philosophy and principles of data analysis, 1949-1964. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0- ... Jones, Lyle V (ed) (1986). Volume IV: Philosophy and principles of data analysis, 1965-1986. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0- ... Mosteller, Frederick; John W Tukey (1977). Data analysis and regression : a second course in statistics. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0 ...
It is particularly useful in analysis of variance (a special case of regression analysis), and in constructing simultaneous ... Scheffé, H. (1999) [1959]. The Analysis of Variance. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-34505-9. Scheffé's method This article ... Draper and Smith, in their 'Applied Regression Analysis' (see references), indicate that 'r' should be in the equation in place ... ISBN 0-8058-3718-3. Milliken, George A.; Johnson, Dallas E. (1993). Analysis of Messy Data. CRC Press. pp. 35-36. ISBN 0-412- ...
Analysis of Variance (Anova); Statistical Process Control; Acceptance Sampling. The Centre for Innovation in Mathematics ... Such courses require a good course in real analysis, covering the proofs of the theory of calculus and topics like the uniform ... This involves thinking about the nature and quality of the data and, where the data came from, choosing appropriate analyses ... At the same time, statistics is concerned with evidence-based reasoning, particularly with the analysis of data. Therefore, ...
Decomposition of variance. *Analysis of variance. *Analysis of covariance. *Multivariate AOV. Model exploration. *Stepwise ... parameter, so we can still perform the same analysis, constructing a system of equations from the data points: 6. =. β. 1. (. 1 ... It is also efficient under the assumption that the errors have finite variance and are homoscedastic, meaning that E[εi2,xi] ... are uncorrelated, have a mean of zero and a constant variance, σ. {\displaystyle \sigma }. , the Gauss-Markov theorem states ...
... fixed-effect analysis of variance)、隨機效應變異數分析(random-effect analysis of variance)與混合效應變異數分析(Mixed-effect analaysis of variance), ... 變異數分析或變方分析(Analysis of variance,簡稱ANOVA)為資料分析中常見的統計模型,主要為探討連續型(Continuous)資料型態之因变量(Dependent variable)與類別型資料型態之自变量(Independent ... Some Theorems on Quadratic Forms Applied in the Study of Analysis of Variance Problems, II
"12 Multivariate analysis of variance". Multivariate analysis. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-471250-9. CS1 maint: discouraged ... With replicates, interaction can be tested with the multivariate analysis of variance and coefficients in the linear model can ... test for the block-treatment interaction in the analysis of variance (anova) of the RCBD. The distinction between RCBDs and ... "6.6 Two-way multivariate analysis of variance", p. 307-317) Mardia, Kent & Bibby (1979, p. 352, "Tests for interactions", in ...
The analysis of variance test". Biometrika. 29 (3-4): 322-335. doi:10.1093/biomet/29.3-4.322. Modern references: Collingridge, ... However, the bootstrap variance estimator is not as good as the jackknife or the balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance ... In the case of a unimodal variate the ratio of the jackknife variance to the sample variance tends to be distributed as one ... Instead of using the jackknife to estimate the variance, it may instead be applied to the log of the variance. This ...
Explained variance' explains nothing."[page needed] Analysis of variance Variance reduction Variance-based sensitivity analysis ... Explained variance is routinely used in principal component analysis. The relation to the Fraser-Kent information gain remains ... ISBN 0-8039-1915-8. Achen, C. H. (1990). "'What Does "Explained Variance" Explain?: Reply". Political Analysis. 2 (1): 173-184 ... Often, variation is quantified as variance; then, the more specific term explained variance can be used. The complementary part ...
Estimate the variance of the statistic on the basis of differences between the full-sample and half-sample values. Consider ... Rao, J. N. K. and C. F. J. Wu (1985). Inference from stratified samples: Second-order analysis of three methods for nonlinear ... BRR is the case k = 0.) The variance estimate is then V/(1 − k)2, where V is the estimate given by the BRR formula above. ... n is the number of half-samples.) Then our estimate for the sampling variance of the statistic is the average of (ai − a)2. ...
The analysis of variance test. Biometrika 29, (1938), 322-335. The estimation of the location and scale parameters of a ...
It is also useful in situations where the dependent variable has a wide range without constant variance, as here the larger ... Acton, F. S. (1959). Analysis of Straight-Line Data. New York: Wiley. Guest, P. G. (1961). Numerical Methods of Curve Fitting. ... When unit weights are used, the numbers should be divided by the variance of an observation. For WLS, the ordinary objective ... If the experimental errors, ϵ {\displaystyle \epsilon \,} , are uncorrelated, have a mean of zero and a constant variance, σ {\ ...
1985). Multivariate Analysis of Variance. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9780803923102. "James H Bray, Ph.D." Baylor College of ...
Journal of Functional Analysis 267 (2014), 4667-4731. Bloch functions and asymptotic tail variance. Advances in Mathematics 313 ... Bloch functions, asymptotic variance, and geometric zero packing. American Journal of Mathematics, to appear. "Håkan Hedenmalm ...
Stimpson, P; Smith, A (2011). Budgetary control - variance analysis (Business and Management for the IB Diploma ed.). Cambridge ... Analysers consider two types of variances: adverse variance and favourable variance. Adverse variance "exists when the ... Anon (2011). "Management by Exception and Variance Analysis". Accounting explanation. Retrieved 17 October 2014. Rafique, S (31 ... Rather than considering all variances, managers establish criteria to determine which variances are significant to focus on. ...
Real, P. (September 1959). "A generalized analysis of variance program utilizing binary logic". ACM '59: Preprints of papers ... IBM antitrust litigation (Jan 1969) Archived May 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., especially IBM analyses of Memorex and other ... "A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems: Chapter III Analysis and Trends". Ballistic Research ...
Wilkinsons, G.N.; Rogers, C.E. (1973). "Symbolic description of factorial models for analysis of variance". Applied Statistics ... Becker, R.A.; Chambers, J.M.; Wilks, A.R. (1988). The New S Language: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics ... Becker, R.A.; Chambers, J.M. (1984). S: An Interactive Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics. Pacific Grove, CA, USA: ... An Interactive Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics[3] (1984 Brown Book) and Extending the S System.[4] Also, in 1984 the ...
Stone, Linda (1988), Illness Beliefs and Feeding the Dead in Hindu Nepal: An Ethnographic Analysis, E. Mellen, ISBN ... In the same speech, he also gave a comprehensive perspective of Hinduism, which is at variance with the geocentric view ...
Robert Thatcher filed a 510(k) with the FDA on his Neuroguide Analysis System[7] in 2004. The Thatcher filing was then followed ... the software also allows clinicians to measure the subject's variance from normal. This technique promises to allow clinicians ... This computer analysis makes it possible to detect and quantify abnormal brain organization, to give a quantitative definition ... Neurometric analysis is able to detect consistent patterns of abnormalities in patients with subtle cognitive dysfunctions and ...
Beyond the variance in eligibility and coverage between states, there is a large variance in the reimbursements Medicaid offers ... "State Medicaid Expansions and Mortality, Revisited: A Cost-Benefit Analysis" (PDF). American Journal of Health Economics. 3 (3 ...
Partition of variance. *Analysis of variance (ANOVA, anova). *Analysis of covariance. *Multivariate ANOVA ... This ensures that subsequent user errors cannot inadvertently perform meaningless analyses (for example correlation analysis ... Mosteller, Frederick (1977). Data analysis and regression : a second course in statistics. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. ... Cliff, N. (1996). Ordinal Methods for Behavioral Data Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-1333-0 ...
a b c Kerr, Analysis: European yards face Soryu-shaped hurdle to replacing Collins class ... requiring the submarines to handle significant variances in temperature, salinity, density, and climate. Australian submarines ... "Analysis: European yards face Soryu-shaped hurdle to replacing Collins class". IHS Jane's Navy International. Retrieved 3 ...
Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Notes[edit]. *^ a b Mann, Henry B.; Whitney, Donald R. (1947). "On a Test of ... Rank transformations do not preserve variances, but variances are recomputed from samples after rank transformations. ... The Brown-Forsythe test has been suggested as an appropriate non-parametric equivalent to the F-test for equal variances.[ ... If the two distributions are normal with the same mean but different variances, then Pr[ X,Y]=Pr[Y,X] but the size of the Mann- ...
Scientists that are employing a variance of archaeological and paleoecological data argue that the processes contributing to ... "Landmark analysis documents the alarming global decline of nature". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 26 August 2020. Driving these ...
Banerjee, B. (1976). Variance to mean ratio and the spatial distribution of animals. Birkhäuser Basel. pp. 993-994.. ... In this analysis, it is imperative that data from at least 50 sample plots is considered. The number of individuals present in ... If the variance/mean ratio is equal to 1, the population is found to be randomly distributed. If it is significantly greater ... The Variance/Mean ratio method focuses mainly on determining whether a species fits a randomly spaced distribution, but can ...
Griffiths AJ, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM (1999). An introduction to genetic analysis. New York: W. H. ... Researchers found far greater genetic heterozygosity than expected.[36] In fact, predators are known for low genetic variance, ... Historical analysis indicated that a population expansion from just two matrilineal lines was responsible for most of the ... Freeman S, Herran JC (2007). "Aging and other life history characters". Evolutionary Analysis (4th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc ...
A principal component analysis of the nest site variables showed nest height, concealment, plant height and canopy cover as the ... major parameters in nest site selection, explaining 73% cumulative variance. Of these the crucial deciding factors were plant ... height and canopy cover when the nest sites were compared with the random sites (discriminant function analysis). ...
It provided for variance from atomic weight order.. Lothar Meyer[edit]. Unknown to Mendeleev, a German chemist, Lothar Meyer, ... The importance of Newlands' analysis was eventually recognised by the Chemistry Society with a Gold Medal five years after they ... to express our idea of the last point which analysis is capable of reaching, we must admit, as elements, all substances into ...
... the individuals begin to show additive variance as opposed to epistatic variance. This conversion can actually lead to ... For example, L. leucozonium, shown by population genetic analysis to be an invasive species in North America,[77] has become an ... increased variance in the founding populations which then allows for rapid adaptive evolution.[35] Following invasion events, ...
... fixed-effect analysis of variance)、隨機效應變異數分析(random-effect analysis of variance)與混合效應變異數分析(Mixed-effect analaysis of variance), ... 變異數分析或變方分析(Analysis of variance,簡稱ANOVA)為資料分析中常見的統計模型,主要為探討連續型(Continuous)資料型態之因变量(Dependent variable)與類別型資料型態之自变量(Independent ... Some Theorems on Quadratic Forms Applied in the Study of Analysis of Variance Problems, I
Ruye Wang, Independent Component Analysis, node4: Measures of Non-Gaussianity *^ P. Comon, Independent Component Analysis - a ... is the differential entropy of the Gaussian density with the same mean and variance as p. x. {\displaystyle p_{x}}. and S. (. p ... It is related to network entropy, which is used in independent component analysis.[9][10] ... Aapo Hyvärinen and Erkki Oja, Independent Component Analysis: A Tutorial, node14: Negentropy, Helsinki University of Technology ...
Climate Analysis Section. Archived 2006-06-22 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on June 7, 2007. ... It explains 23% of the average winter (December-March) variance, and it is dominated by the NAO structure in the Atlantic. ... fostered the use of statistical analysis in climatology, which led to its evolution into a physical science. ...
"Dynamics in cryo EM reconstructions visualized with maximum-likelihood derived variance maps". Journal of Structural Biology. ... Single particle analysis can be done on both negatively stained and vitreous ice-embedded cryo-EM samples. Single particle ... Single particle analysis is a group of related computerized image processing techniques used to analyze images from ... This is normally carried out using one of several data analysis and image classification algorithms, such as multi-variate ...
Ladygin, A. (1991). Morpho-ecological adaptations in Stellers sea and White-tailed sea eagles, a comparative analysis. Current ... however because of political variances, despite widespread monitoring, not at all areas are strictly protected.[240][241] ... Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (,3% divergent) mtDNA lineage that is most ... an analysis of breeding distribution, ringing data and DNA microsatellites. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 53(3), 195- ...
Deaton, Angus (1997). Analysis of Household Surveys. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0585237875.. ... Yitzhaki, S. (1991). "Calculating Jackknife Variance Estimators for Parameters of the Gini Method". Journal of Business and ... Users of the R data analysis software can install the "ineq" package which allows for computation of a variety of inequality ... Karagiannis, E. and Kovacevic, M. (2000). "A Method to Calculate the Jackknife Variance Estimator for the Gini Coefficient". ...
Partition of variance. *Analysis of variance (ANOVA, anova). *Analysis of covariance. *Multivariate ANOVA ... In terms of numerical analysis, isotonic regression involves finding a weighted least-squares fit x. ∈. R. n. {\displaystyle x\ ...
Constant elasticity of variance (CEV)(英語:Constant elasticity of variance model) ... Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN ...
... community flag introduced in social media in 2018, with the dark orange stripe representing gender variance.[24][25] ... Esterberg, Kristen (September, 1994). "From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the ...
There is empirical support for this position, as studies have shown that authentic leadership can explain variance in ... The mediating role of trust at the group level of analysis. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15, 227-240. ... including variances of either dimension) in order to understand unusual or unique responses of followers.[40] A short time ...
Their analysis of the used grounds showed a 10% to 15% oil content (by weight). Once the oil was extracted, it underwent ... Their conclusions also showed great variance in carbon emissions of biodiesel based on the feedstock used. Of soy, tallow, ... McCarthy, P. P.; Rasul, M. G.; Moazzem, S. S. (2011). "Analysis and comparison of performance and emissions of an internal ... According to the EPA's Renewable Fuel Standards Program Regulatory Impact Analysis, released in February 2010, biodiesel from ...
"Existential Analysis. 22 (2): 356-67. ISSN 1752-5616. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014.. ... of variance in panic disorder and 28% in generalized anxiety disorder.[55] Although single genes are neither necessary nor ... 2016). "The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis". J Affect ... A meta-analysis showed that a high level of neuroticism is a risk factor for development of anxiety symptoms and disorders.[40] ...
Analysis of sources. Macmillan compares differing accounts of Gage's life to draw his conclusions.[8]:C[1]:esp.116-19,ch13-14 ... 339 is somewhat at variance with Gage's stagecoach work in Chile, which demanded that drivers "be reliable, resourceful, and ... Macmillan carries out a comprehensive analysis[citation needed] of accounts of Gage (scientific and popular), finding that they ...
Regression analysis[edit]. Quantitative genetics focuses on genetic variance due to genetic interactions. Any two locus ... INTERSNP - a software for genome-wide interaction analysis (GWIA) of case-control and case-only SNP data, including analysis of ... Statistical coupling analysis[edit]. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (May 2014) ... Szendro IG, Martijn F S, Franke J, Krug J, de Visser J, Arjan GM (16 January 2013). "Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness ...
Analysis of variance (ANOVA). *Regression analysis. *ROC curve. *Student's t-test. *Z-test ... It is mainly for sensory analysis purposes. It can be used to simulate the natural colour of a product as perceived by the ... Flavour in food is important in how food smells and tastes to the consumer, especially in sensory analysis. Some of these ...
Partition of variance. *Analysis of variance (ANOVA, anova). *Analysis of covariance. *Multivariate ANOVA ... Variance: the second moment of the pmf or pdf about the mean; an important measure of the dispersion of the distribution. ... For generalized functions in mathematical analysis, see Distribution (mathematics). For continuous variation in biology, see ... Standard deviation: the square root of the variance, and hence another measure of dispersion. ...
Analysis of variance (ANOVA). *Regression analysis. *ROC curve. *Student's t-test. *Z-test ...
His first application of the analysis of variance was published in 1921.[10] Analysis of variance became widely known after ... Textbook analysis using a normal distribution[edit]. The analysis of variance can be presented in terms of a linear model, ... variance within treatments. {\displaystyle F={\frac {\text{variance between treatments}}{\text{variance within treatments}}}}. ... Associated analysis[edit]. Some analysis is required in support of the design of the experiment while other analysis is ...
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical procedure for summarizing a classical linear model - a decomposition of sum of ... Variance, Analysis Of, Table 1. Classical two-way analysis of variance for data on five treatments and eight airports with no ... Analysis of variance: Why it is more important than ever (with discussion). Annals of Statistics 33: 1-53.CrossRefGoogle ... Analysis of variance (ANOVA) represents a set of models that can be fit to data, and also a set of methods for summarizing an ...
... is a statistical analysis tool that separates the total variability found within a data set into two components: random and ... What is Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)? Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an analysis tool used in statistics that splits an ... Analysis Of Variances (ANOVA). Analysis of variances (ANOVA) is a statistical examination of the differences between all of the ... when Ronald Fisher created the analysis of variance method. ANOVA is also called the Fisher analysis of variance, and it is the ...
ANOVA: ANalysis Of VAriance between groups A computational tool that runs the one-way ANOVA by the user inputing individual ... You just viewed ANOVA: ANalysis Of VAriance between.... Please take a moment to rate this material. ... between subjects, ANOVA, simulation, analysis tool, computation Disciplines:. * Mathematics and Statistics / Statistics and ...
... @import url(https://themes.googleusercontent.com/fonts/css?kit ... The analysis below is based upon this data. A key focus in 2018 is to examine our teaching and assessment practices to ensure ... Re-introduce PAT Reading and analysis of scaled score to teachers of year 4 - 8 students. Improve validity and consistency of ... Introduce, use and support analysis of Informal Prose Inventory reading assessment for students in year 4 and above. ...
... (AMOVA) is a method of estimating population differentiation directly from molecular data and ... These sums of squares can then be analyzed in a nested analysis of variance framework. A nested ANOVA differs from a simple ... Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA ... These hypotheses can be tested using the null distribution of the variance components; if the variance of the subpopulations ...
Variance components linkage analysis with repeated measurements.. Liang L1, Chen WM, Sham PC, Abecasis GR. ... of total trait variance). Trait variance excluding measurement error is fixed to 1 (σ2mg = 0.2, σ2pg = 0.4, σ2e = 0.4). The ... total variance). Trait variance excluding measurement error is fixed to 100 (σ2mg = 20, σ2pg = 40, σ2e = 40). This setting is ... Setting is scenario 2. Left 4 pairs of bars are for σ2m = 11 (10% of total variance). Right 4 pairs of bars are for σ2m = 150 ( ...
This MATLAB function returns the dataset array stats that includes the results of the F-tests for each fixed-effects term in the linear mixed-effects model lme.
I then took the new data, which was now a complete data set, and used Proc GLM in SAS to run the analysis of variance on the ... Because I was particularly interested in the analysis of variance, in Part 1 I approached the problem of mixed models first by ... Notice that the pattern of results is similar to what we found in the earlier analyses (compared with both the analysis using ... What I will obtain is a solution where the slope of time has a variance greater than 0. The commands for this analysis follow. ...
... portfolio choice using a microeconometric approach derived from mean-variance optimization. We assume that households have ... "Mean-variance econometric analysis of household portfolios," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25( ... "Mean-Variance Econometric Analysis of Household Portfolios," Working Papers 0807, University of Brescia, Department of ... "Are Household Portfolios Efficient? an Analysis Conditional on Housing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, ...
... and that the population variances are equal.. Whats being tested is whether theres a difference between the variance of the ... and the mean of the variances of the groups (approxmated by the denominator: the within-groups variance estimate). And one only ... But this is an indirect consequence, an inference from a test of variances.. The objects that play the same role as the two ... population variances in the other kind of F-test - the kind of F-test used simply to test variances - are being used in the ...
... is the standard statistical technique for modeling a quantitative response variable ... Fit a model using the appropriate function. Analysis of variance models are fit with the S-PLUS function aov. . This example ... The textbook gives examples in Chapter 10 on fitting many statistical models including analysis of variance. The same basic ... Now that the data is all properly stored in a data frame, we are ready to begin the analysis. Any analysis should begin with a ...
"Problems in Variance Analysis." Harvard Business School Exercise 196-120, February 1996. ...
When using analysis of variance, it is a common practice to present the results of the analysis in an analysis of variance ... In the analysis of Variance, the Total variance is subdivided into two independent variances: the variance due to the treatment ... Doing More with Data Analysis : Performing an Analysis of Variance. In this section, you perform an analysis of variance on the ... You can perform a simple one-way analysis of variance, a complex repeated-measures analysis of variance, a factorial analysis ...
Analysis of variance is a special type of regression analysis, and most data sets for which analysis of variance is appropriate ... Analysis of variance assesses whether the variability of the group means-that is, the between group variance-is greater than ... Table 2 shows the analysis of variance table for the data in table 1. Fuller details about the calculations can be found in ... With two groups one way analysis of variance is exactly equivalent to the usual two sample t test, and we have F=t2. ...
Least Squares Predictions and Mean-Variance Analysis Journal of Financial Econometrics, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 56-78, 2005 ... Sentana, Enrique, Least Squares Predictions and Mean-Variance Analysis. CEMFI Working Paper 9711. Available at SSRN: https:// ...
... Part of an on-line class in Basic Statistics for the ... You just viewed Two Factor Analysis of Variance.... Please take a moment to rate this material. ... Disciplines with similar materials as Two Factor Analysis of Variance Interactive Lecture and Tutorials ... Other materials like Two Factor Analysis of Variance Interactive Lecture and Tutorials ...
Analysis of Variance - ANOVA Problem. Analysis of Variance - ANOVA. Variance Analysis. Budgeting, Variance Analysis, and ... of Variance Analysis. Budgeting, Variance Analysis, and Pricing. Describe variance analysis and conclusions from them. Standard ... VARIANCE ANALYSIS. A General Model for Variance Analysis. A variance is the difference between standard prices and quantities ... Health Care Accounting: Problem with traditional variance analysis. Variance analysis be used in responsibility accounting ...
Analysis of variance is an inferential statistics test thats used to see if theres a significant relationship between several ... F-ratio is a test statistic used specifically for analysis of variance, as the F score shows where the area of rejection for ... A type of inferential statistics test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), permits examination of several samples at the same time ... Reasoning is identical to t-tests, only analysis of variance includes independent variables of two or more samples. Differences ...
Computes a confidence interval on a variance component estimated as proportional to the difference in two mean squares in a ...
... lanced Data, Second Edition presents linear structures ... The analysis of split-plot designs A four-factor example Multivariate analysis of variance. Random effects models ... Two independent samples with equal variances Two independent samples with unequal variances Testing equality of the variances ... Analysis of Variance, Design, and Regression: Linear Modeling for Unbalanced Data, Second Edition. ISBN , Quantity: ...
... BrainMass Solutions Available for Instant Download. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and T-Test Statisitc. Im ... The technique of analysis of variance was originated in England by ___________ while conducting agricultural experiments. a. ... Data Analysis or MacDoIt? 2.What are the assumptions regarding an ANOVA test and what Excel aid would you use to perform the ... test, Data Analysis or MacDoIt? 3.What are the assumptions regarding a Chi-squar. ...
VARIANCE ANALYSIS is the analysis of performance by means of variances. Used to promote management action at the earliest ... Variance analysis is the process of examining in detail each variance between actual and budgeted/expected/standard costs to ...
Data Analysis with Python. Learn online and earn valuable credentials from top universities like Yale, Michigan, Stanford, and ... Analysis of Variance ANOVA. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... You will learn how to prepare data for analysis, perform simple statistical analysis, create meaningful data visualizations, ... Data Analysis with Python will be delivered through lecture, lab, and assignments. It includes following parts: Data Analysis ...
For example, for dataset SmLs09 subtract 1e13 from all the observations before the analysis. As noted in the General Background ... In "Assessing the Accuracy of ANOVA Calculations in Statistical Software" (Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 8 (1989), ...
Zakamulin, Valeriy and Koekebakker, Steen, A Generalization of the Mean-Variance Analysis (October 28, 2008). Available at SSRN ... Our analysis shows that a decision maker in this framework exhibits three types of aversions: aversion to loss, aversion to ... This "mean-partial moments" utility generalizes not only the mean-variance utility of Tobin and Markowitz, but also the mean- ... Keywords: risk aversion, loss aversion, risk measure, partial moments of distribution, mean-variance utility, quadratic utility ...
Topics in analysis of variance - I. Multifactor analysis of variance. Two factor analysis of variance. Analysis of two - factor ... Basic analysis of variance. Single - factor analysis of variance. Analysis of factor effects. Implementation of ANOVA model. ... To pics in analysis of variance - II. Multifactor studies. Experimental designs. Completely randomized designs. Analysis of ... Topics in regression analysis - I. General regression and correlation analysis. Matrix appreach to simple regression analysis. ...
Where sums of squares appear in univariate analysis of variance, in multivariate analysis of variance certain positive-definite ... Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) by Aaron French, Marcelo Macedo, John Poulsen, Tyler Waterson and Angela Yu, San ... In statistics, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a procedure for comparing multivariate sample means. As a ... "Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA): I. Theory" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-22. Garson, G. David. "Multivariate GLM, MANOVA ...
Now we talked about the spending variance, the efficiency variance, and the activity variance for variable costs. And the ... Understand how upper management uses variance analysis • Calculate, interpret, and investigate variances • Understand ... Standard Costing and Variance Analysis. After establishing goals, setting targets, and the budget, upper management uses ... In this module, you will learn how upper management uses variance analysis to motivate and monitor managers and employees, how ...
  • Analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) is a collection of statistical models and their associated estimation procedures (such as the "variation" among and between groups) used to analyze the differences among group means in a sample . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ANOVA is based on the law of total variance , where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical procedure for summarizing a classical linear model - a decomposition of sum of squares into a component for each source of variation in the model - along with an associated test (the F -test) of the hypothesis that any given source of variation in the model is zero. (springer.com)
  • More generally, the variance decomposition in ANOVA can be extended to obtain inference for the variances of batches of parameters (sources of variation) in multilevel regressions. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) represents a set of models that can be fit to data, and also a set of methods for summarizing an existing fitted model. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an analysis tool used in statistics that splits an observed aggregate variability found inside a data set into two parts: systematic factors and random factors. (investopedia.com)
  • ANOVA is also called the Fisher analysis of variance, and it is the extension of the t- and z-tests. (investopedia.com)
  • The result of the ANOVA formula, the F statistic (also called the F-ratio), allows for the analysis of multiple groups of data to determine the variability between samples and within samples. (investopedia.com)
  • Analysis of variance, or ANOVA, is a statistical method that separates observed variance data into different components to use for additional tests. (investopedia.com)
  • Analysis of variance is employed if there is no access to statistical software resulting in computing ANOVA by hand. (investopedia.com)
  • ANOVA groups differences by comparing the means of each group and includes spreading out the variance into diverse sources. (investopedia.com)
  • You just viewed ANOVA: ANalysis Of VAriance between... . (merlot.org)
  • If I've (half) understood this right, an F-test for ANOVA is always 1-tailed because what the F-test is directly testing is the alternative hypothesis that the variance of population means is greater than the mean of population variances. (physicsforums.com)
  • When you get to § 6.73, you'll find it says ANOVA and the t test for the difference of two means depend on the same assumptions, namely that the population distributions are normal, and that the population variances are equal . (physicsforums.com)
  • In statistics , analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures which compare means by splitting the overall observed variance into different parts. (factbites.com)
  • The initial techniques of the analysis of variance were pioneered by the statistician and geneticist Ronald Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s , and is sometimes known as Fisher's ANOVA or Fisher's analysis of variance . (factbites.com)
  • The technique of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was developed by Sir Ronald Fisher in 1936 to address both this problem and to address the more general problem of comparing means classified by more than one independent variable . (factbites.com)
  • Because the methodology of analysis is essentially that of regression analysis , it is straightforward to extend the ANOVA model to include further continuous variables . (factbites.com)
  • Analysis of Variance , commonly referred to as ANOVA (uh-nove-uh), is the same as a between groups t-test when used with two groups. (factbites.com)
  • The analysis of variance technique in Example: One-Way ANOVA takes a set of grouped data and determine whether the mean of a variable differs significantly between groups. (factbites.com)
  • 2 The correct approach is to use one way analysis of variance (also called ANOVA), which is based on the same assumptions as the t test. (bmj.com)
  • A type of inferential statistics test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), permits examination of several samples at the same time for purposes of determining whether a significant relationship exists between them. (wisegeek.com)
  • ANOVA is based upon four assumptions: the level of measurement, the sampling method, the distribution of the population, and the homogeneity of the variance. (wisegeek.com)
  • In order to determine whether differences are significant, ANOVA is concerned with differences between and within the samples, which is referred to as the variance. (wisegeek.com)
  • The ANOVA can find out if the variance is larger between samples as compared to that among sample members. (wisegeek.com)
  • The text can be used in a variety of courses, including a yearlong graduate course on regression and ANOVA or a data analysis course for upper-division statistics students and graduate students from other fields. (routledge.com)
  • MANOVA is a generalized form of univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), although, unlike univariate ANOVA, it uses the covariance between outcome variables in testing the statistical significance of the mean differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • This package provides functions for performing a univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to examine the differences between groups of means. (wolfram.com)
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a tool used to partition the observed variance in a particular variable into components attributable to different sources of variation. (kovcomp.co.uk)
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) uses the same conceptual framework as linear regression. (kovcomp.co.uk)
  • ANOVA = ANalysis Of VAriance, i.e. variances comparison, i.e. (isixsigma.com)
  • ANOVA uses variance to test means (it does not test variance). (isixsigma.com)
  • Other nonparametric tests can be performed by taking ranks of the data (using the RANK procedure) and using a regular parametric procedure (such as GLM or ANOVA) to perform the analysis. (sas.com)
  • Multivariate ANalysis of VAriance ( MANOVA ) uses the same conceptual framework as ANOVA . (kovcomp.co.uk)
  • If you take a Six Sigma Green Belt or Black Belt training class , Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a core analysis tool that is taught. (shmula.com)
  • Many statistical packages can perform ANOVA analysis and help you determine which of your independent variables are significant, which makes the calculations much easier these days. (shmula.com)
  • For the purpose of this type of comparison test, which was developed during the 20th century, t-tests were the primary analysis tools available to analysts until 1918, the year when Ronald Fisher created ANOVA. (shmula.com)
  • You will find ANOVA tables displayed in the these 3 popular Six Sigma tools: Regression Analysis, Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) studies, and Design of Experiments (DOE). (shmula.com)
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the analysis of variance of data from distinct harvests of an experiment, focusing especially on the homogeneity of variances and the choice of an adequate ANOVA model. (scielo.br)
  • SAS procedures ANOVA and GLM are used to illustrate traditional analysis of various one-way and two-way classifications including randomized block designs, covariance models, and unbalanced data structures. (springer.com)
  • 2 new chapters (Analysis of Variance Extensions and Mixing Regression and ANOVA: ANCOVA). (indigo.ca)
  • You could explore the consistency of the experimental conditions or the inherent error of the experiment by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), however, agreement analysis might be more appropriate. (statsdirect.com)
  • the homogeneity of variance option (marked as "Equality of variance tests (Levene, Bartlett)" in the ANOVA results window) can be used to test the variance assumption. (statsdirect.com)
  • This tutorial covers the analysis of variance, also known as ANOVA. (sophia.org)
  • So the analysis of variance, again, also known as ANOVA, is a type of hypothesis test used for testing the equality of three or more population means by analyzing sample variances. (sophia.org)
  • So to do ANOVA, you need a test statistic called F. So F is a test statistic used in ANOVA calculated by dividing the variance between samples by the variance within samples. (sophia.org)
  • This lesson will introduce analysis of variance/ANOVA and test statistic F. (sophia.org)
  • For ANOVA, compare the means by analyzing the sample variances from the independently selected sample. (sophia.org)
  • For more general information on ANOVA, read the chapter on analysis of variance in the NMath Stats User's Guide . (centerspace.net)
  • Computes and summarizes a traditional one-way (single factor) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). (centerspace.net)
  • This an instructable on how to do an Analysis of Variance test, commonly called ANOVA, in the statistics software R. (instructables.com)
  • Use this model to carry out ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) of one or more balanced or unbalanced factors. (xlstat.com)
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a core technique for analysing data in the Life Sciences. (cambridge.org)
  • The experimental study was designed using an orthogonal array and experimental data were processed by the analysis-of-variance method (ANOVA). (srce.hr)
  • One technique used by several investigators is the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine synergy. (ovid.com)
  • In statistics, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a procedure for comparing multivariate sample means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA): I. Theory" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeated measures analyses are distinguished from MANOVA because of interest in testing hypotheses about the within-subject effects and the within-subject-by-between-subject interactions. (sas.com)
  • MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) has more than one left-hand side variable. (iuj.ac.jp)
  • The following example employs multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to measure differences in the chemical characteristics of ancient pottery found at four kiln sites in Great Britain. (sas.com)
  • MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance) is used to model a combination of dependent variables. (xlstat.com)
  • There is an overall test for k means, multiple comparison methods for pairs of means and tests for the equality of the variances of the groups. (statsdirect.com)
  • In this video he returns to the topic of variance analysis, explaining the fine points of different types of variances - in price, volume, cost, productivity - in the context of the slow-growth environment that much of the corporate world is experiencing today. (cfo.com)
  • He thought of it as a ratio of two types of variances , the variance between group means and overall variance in the sample. (factbites.com)
  • Contour plot of optimal number of repeated measures when the cost ratio ranges from 0 to 30 and σ 2 m ranges from 11 to 150 (10-60% total variance). (nih.gov)
  • But when the slopes were unequal their variance was greater than 0 and the times would be differentially correlated. (uvm.edu)
  • The TTEST procedure reports two T statistics: one under the equal variance assumptio and the other for unequal variance. (iuj.ac.jp)
  • The most commonly unacceptable deviation from the assumptions is inequality of variance when the groups are of unequal sizes. (statsdirect.com)
  • A Levene's test is available to run a test on the homogeneity of variances. (xlstat.com)
  • What's being tested is whether there's a difference between the variance of the group means (approximated by the numerator: the between-groups variance estimate) and the mean of the variances of the groups (approxmated by the denominator: the within-groups variance estimate). (physicsforums.com)
  • Analysis of Variance measures the difference between the variance among data sets and the differences between data sets to give an overall recommendation of how closely your data relates to itself. (chegg.com)
  • Laplace knew how to estimate a variance from a residual (rather than a total) sum of squares. (wikipedia.org)
  • This procedure is an improvement on simply performing three two sample t tests in the first place because we proceed to comparing pairs of groups only if there is evidence of significant variability among all the groups, and also because we use a more reliable estimate of the variance within groups. (bmj.com)
  • Developed by statistician Ronald Fisher, the formula for F is as follows: F = between group variance estimate (MSB) divided by the within group variance estimate (MSW), such that F = MSB/MSW. (wisegeek.com)
  • These variance components were used to estimate correlations of genes within small geographic regions. (genetics.org)
  • If you want to make linear contrasts between row or column means then you can use the residual mean square of the Latin square as the variance estimate. (statsdirect.com)
  • In particular, it is shown how the variance of a transfer function estimate depends on signal properties and model orders of other modules composing the MIMO system. (diva-portal.org)
  • Index of Handouts for doing Analysis of Variance in Psychology, Plus some Multiple Regression, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Principal Components, and Quantile Regression prepared by Prof Colleen F. Moore (with help from Mike Amato ). (wisc.edu)
  • Do a one-way analysis of variance to test the hypothesis that the rates are the same for all 7 teachers. (factbites.com)
  • Under the null hypothesis that all the population means are the same the between and within group variances will be the same, and so their expected ratio would be 1. (bmj.com)
  • F-ratio is a test statistic used specifically for analysis of variance, as the F score shows where the area of rejection for the null hypothesis begins. (wisegeek.com)
  • Discussion includes how inference from such models such as a priori comparisons, estimating and hypothesis tests on contrasts, multiple pairwise comparisons, orthogonal polynomials, analysis of interaction, and residual analysis is accomplished with those procedures. (springer.com)
  • NMath Stats from CenterSpace Software is a .NET class library that provides functions for statistical computation and biostatistics, including descriptive statistics, probability distributions, combinatorial functions, multiple linear regression, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, and multivariate statistics. (centerspace.net)
  • After establishing goals, setting targets, and the budget, upper management uses variance analysis to compare, assess, and investigate differences between actual and expected performance. (coursera.org)
  • Examples illustrated that analysis of variance of primary variables provides a tool for identifying significant differences in growth rates. (scielo.br)
  • Budget variance analysis addresses these differences and helps companies adjust budgeting procedures to avoid similar discrepancies in the future. (chron.com)
  • When companies compare budgets with actual figures, there are often differences called variance. (chron.com)
  • Variance analysis identifies the sources of major actual value to budget differences. (chron.com)
  • Variance analysis also involves the investigation of these differences, so that the outcome is a statement of the difference from expectations, and an interpretation of why the variance occurred. (projectmanagement.com)
  • When looking at the difference between estimated cost and actual cost or reconciling the differences in net operating income under variable costing and absorption costing, I'm a big fan of studying the positive variance as it may relate to the future. (proformative.com)
  • Application of AMOVA to human mitochondrial DNA haplotype data shows that population subdivisions are better resolved when some measure of molecular differences among haplotypes is introduced into the analysis. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis of variance for testing for the equality of k mean values is a special case of a set of techniques known as linear modeling, which also includes regression analysis , a future topic. (factbites.com)
  • basic regression analysis. (google.com)
  • Inferences in regression analysis. (google.com)
  • Topics in regression analysis - I. General regression and correlation analysis. (google.com)
  • Matrix appreach to simple regression analysis. (google.com)
  • Topics in regression analysis - II. (google.com)
  • Applied regression analysis (3rd ed. (springer.com)
  • Applied statistics: Analysis of variance and regression analysis (2nd ed. (springer.com)
  • Just as mixed modelling is an extension of the linear-modelling methods comprised in regression analysis and analysis of variance, mixed modelling itself can be further extended in several directions, to give even more versatile and realistic models. (oreilly.com)
  • McGraw-Hill, 2002) and Primer of Applied Regression & Analysis of Variance, 2nd ed. (indigo.ca)
  • When there are two groups the residual variance is the same as the pooled variance used in the two sample t test. (bmj.com)
  • One simple method is to use the residual variance as the basis for modified t tests comparing each pair of groups. (bmj.com)
  • where F is the variance ratio for the overall test, MST is the mean square due to treatments/groups (between groups), MSE is the mean square due to error (within groups, residual mean square), Y ij is an observation, T i is a group total, G is the grand total of all observations, n i is the number in group i and n is the total number of observations. (statsdirect.com)
  • We apply bias-variance definitions to analyze quantitative modelling of amino acid pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). (igi-global.com)
  • Multireader multicase (MRMC) variance analysis has become widely utilized to analyze observer studies for which the summary measure is the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. (osapublishing.org)
  • With the insight that traditional mean-variance analysis measures of risk are not sufficient for diversification during, for example, market crashes, the Ziembas demonstrate how investors fail to diversify enough, describe the incentives in both directions, unpack rewards and dangers, and analyze results of a range of potential outcomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Profit variance analysis, often called "gross profit analysis", deals with how to analyze the profit variance that constitutes the departure between actual profit and the previous. (accounting-financial-tax.com)
  • The cell-to-cell mean and variance of heteroplasmy dictate the inheritance and onset of deadly mitochondrial diseases, but how these quantities change with time and through generations is poorly understood 2 . (nature.com)
  • Do Farm Programs Explain Mean and Variance of Technical Efficiency? (umn.edu)
  • But this is an indirect consequence, an inference from a test of variances. (physicsforums.com)
  • There is a multivariate version of analysis of variance that can address that problem, as illustrated in the Example: Multivariate Analysis of Variance . (factbites.com)
  • Where sums of squares appear in univariate analysis of variance, in multivariate analysis of variance certain positive-definite matrices appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Camo http://www.camo.com/multivariate_analysis.html Chiani, M. (2016), "Distribution of the largest root of a matrix for Roy's test in multivariate analysis of variance", Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 143: 467-471, arXiv:1401.3987v3, doi:10.1016/j.jmva.2015.10.007 I.M. Johnstone, B. Nadler "Roy's largest root test under rank-one alternatives" arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.6581 (2013) Frane, Andrew (2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the measurements represent qualitatively different things, such as weight, length, and width, this correlation is best taken into account by use of multivariate methods, such as multivariate analysis of variance. (sas.com)
  • A class for the multivariate analysis of variance. (psu.edu)
  • In this report we show that a statistical method, the multivariate analysis of variance, is a good alternative to exhaustive search in the identification of the structure of non-linear FIR-models. (diva-portal.org)
  • Why Do Multivariate Analysis? (indigo.ca)
  • Analysis of covariance for completely randomized designs. (google.com)
  • ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) includes covariates, interval independent variables, in the right-hand side to control their impacts. (iuj.ac.jp)
  • Mixing Continuous and Categorical Variables: Analysis of Covariance. (indigo.ca)
  • This reference book bridges the gap between statistical theory and practical data analysis by presenting a comprehensive set of tables for all standard models of analysis of variance and covariance with up to three treatment factors. (cambridge.org)
  • In addition, a concise introduction to the principles of analysis of variance and covariance is provided, alongside worked examples illustrating issues and decisions faced by analysts. (cambridge.org)
  • The analysis is broken down into "sums of squares" that measure the variability due to the levels and due to the errors. (factbites.com)
  • The third column gives the sums of squares divided by the degrees of freedom, which are the variances associated with each component (perhaps confusingly called mean squares). (bmj.com)
  • The diagonal elements of this matrix are the error sums of squares from the corresponding univariate analyses. (sas.com)
  • A repeated measures analysis does not make this assumption. (sas.com)
  • The significance of the variance components and phi-statistics is tested using a permutational approach, eliminating the normality assumption that is conventional for analysis of variance but inappropriate for molecular data. (genetics.org)
  • Observations which are measurements are often analysed by the t test, a method which assumes that the data in the different groups come from populations where the observations have a normal distribution and the same variances (or standard deviations). (bmj.com)
  • The variances, and therefore the standard deviations of all those normal distributions, are the same. (sophia.org)
  • Higher heteroplasmy variance increases the probability that a threshold heteroplasmy is crossed by cells, a requisite for disease manifestation 6 . (nature.com)
  • On the other hand, higher variance also increases the probability of cells having low heteroplasmies. (nature.com)
  • Clearly in this situation, high heteroplasmy variance is desirable: the wider the spread of heteroplasmies, the greater the probability that at least one embryo will have a low heteroplasmy and will be suitable for implantation 7 . (nature.com)
  • Probability analysis . (bestsoftware4download.com)
  • In this module, you will learn how upper management uses variance analysis to motivate and monitor managers and employees, how to perform variance analysis on any aspect of the organization, and ultimately understand the power of this important tool for planning and control. (coursera.org)
  • Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) is a method of estimating population differentiation directly from molecular data and testing hypotheses about such differentiation. (sfsu.edu)
  • Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. (genetics.org)
  • This analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) produces estimates of variance components and F-statistic analogs, designated here as phi-statistics, reflecting the correlation of haplotypic diversity at different levels of hierarchical subdivision. (genetics.org)
  • Monte Carlo studies show that site sampling does not fundamentally affect the significance of the molecular variance components. (genetics.org)
  • After the summary information, displayed in Output 30.6.1 , PROC GLM produces the univariate analyses for each of the dependent variables, as shown in Output 30.6.2 . (sas.com)
  • You can suppress these univariate analyses by specifying the NOUNI option in the MODEL statement. (sas.com)
  • The POLYNOMIAL option in the REPEATED statement indicates that the transformation used to implement the repeated measures analysis is an orthogonal polynomial transformation, and the SUMMARY option requests that the univariate analyses for the orthogonal polynomial contrast variables be displayed. (sas.com)
  • 2018). 'Evaluation of Diamond Dressing Effect on Workpiece Surface Roughness by Way of Analysis of Variance', Tehnički vjesnik , 25(Supplement 1), str. (srce.hr)
  • Ronald Fisher introduced the term variance and proposed its formal analysis in a 1918 article The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance . (wikipedia.org)
  • Discriminant function analysis Repeated measures design Canonical correlation analysis Warne, R. T. (2014). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the measurements can be thought of as responses to levels of an experimental factor of interest, such as time, treatment, or dose, the correlation can be taken into account by performing a repeated measures analysis of variance. (sas.com)
  • In order to deal efficiently with the correlation of repeated measures, the GLM procedure uses the multivariate method of specifying the model, even if only a univariate analysis is desired. (sas.com)
  • Logarithms are applied to these concentrations to minimize correlation between the mean and the variance of the data. (sas.com)
  • Variance components linkage analysis with repeated measurements. (nih.gov)
  • however, it is possible to apply the analysis of variance to ordinal-level measurements. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, this analysis assumes subjects' measurements are uncorrelated across time. (sas.com)
  • Cost and schedule variances are the most frequently analyzed measurements. (projectmanagement.com)
  • We would expect the F -ratio to be less than 1 only in unusual models with negative within-group correlations (for example, if the data y have been renormalized in some way, and this had not been accounted for in the data analysis). (springer.com)
  • If no true variance exists between the groups, the ANOVA's F-ratio should equal close to 1. (investopedia.com)
  • Contour plot for optimal number of repeated measures when the cost ratio ranges from 0 to 50 and σ 2 m ranges from 0.11 to 1.5 (10-60% of total trait variance). (nih.gov)
  • It's a ratio of the variance between the group means relative to the amount of variation in the sample (i.e., variation within each of the groups). (factbites.com)
  • The test statistic is thus the ratio of the between and within group variances, denoted F in table 2 . (bmj.com)
  • The variance ratio test statistics given by StatsDirect for this design are valid only when an additive model applies ( Armitage and Berry, 1994 ). (statsdirect.com)
  • Estimates of quantal content (mcv) were determined by calculating the ratio of the squared average unitary EPSP amplitude (determined from 150-275 responses) to the variance of these responses (M2/sigma 2), while quantal amplitudes (qcv) were estimated by calculating the ratio of the response variance to average EPSP size (sigma 2/M). Estimates of mcv were highly correlated with those determined using the method of failures (mf). (jneurosci.org)
  • Each of the variance estimates consists of two parts - the sum of squares (SSB and SSW) and degrees of freedom (df). (wisegeek.com)
  • Through multiple simulation configurations, we compare our unbiased variance estimates to naïve estimates across a range of study designs, average percent correct, and numbers of readers and cases. (osapublishing.org)
  • We describe three alternative extensions of the variance components approach to accommodate repeated measures in a quantitative trait linkage study. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of variance is the standard statistical technique for modeling a quantitative response variable with categorical explanatory variables. (wisc.edu)
  • We provide a novel and detailed quantitative characterisation of the linear increase in heteroplasmy variance throughout mammalian life courses in oocytes and pups. (nature.com)
  • Variance analysis is the quantitative investigation of the difference between actual and planned behavior. (projectmanagement.com)
  • Computational Statistics and Data Analysis , 60:132-145, 2013. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of Variance in Experimental Design (Springer Texts in Statistics). (projectmanagement.com)
  • Past is free software for scientific data analysis , with functions for data manipulation, plotting, univariate and multivariate statistics, ecological analysis , time series and spatial analysis , morphometrics and stratigraphy. (bestsoftware4download.com)
  • Statistics software for data analysis and multivariate statistical analysis . (bestsoftware4download.com)
  • Gene frequency variation at eight polymorphic allozyme loci in Drosophila meianogaster populations in North Carolina and the east coast of the United States were analyzed utilizing the variance component estimation procedures suggested by COCKERHAM (1969, 1973). (genetics.org)
  • The NPAR1WAY procedure performs a nonparametric one-way analysis of variance. (sas.com)
  • A detailed example illustrates the methodology involved in the analysis of an unbalanced two-way factorial using the GLM procedure. (springer.com)
  • The FDA has clarified that blood establishments are not required to obtain a variance for an alternative procedure to 21 CFR 610.40(e) for testing requirements for hepatitis C virus in blood donors simply because the supplemental (additional, more specific) test is not available. (aabb.org)
  • The American Red Cross (ARC) has applied for and received a variance to use an alternative procedure wherein they will use a second, different antibody screen in lieu of the RIBA strip. (aabb.org)
  • FDA has clarified that collection establishments who are clients of ARC testing laboratories (or any other testing lab that has obtained a similar variance) will also need an approved alternative procedure if they intend to make notifications using the results of the second, different antibody screen. (aabb.org)
  • These collection establishments should indicate in their request that they intend to follow the same procedure for which a variance was already granted to their testing lab. (aabb.org)
  • The estimation procedure used in balancing is shown as the equivalent to that employed in the monorthogonal analysis of variance in an additive model. (ed.gov)
  • The AMOVA treatment is easily extended in several different directions and it constitutes a coherent and flexible framework for the statistical analysis of molecular data. (genetics.org)
  • While the analysis of variance reached fruition in the 20th century, antecedents extend centuries into the past according to Stigler. (wikipedia.org)
  • The t- and z-test methods developed in the 20th century were used for statistical analysis until 1918, when Ronald Fisher created the analysis of variance method. (investopedia.com)
  • The company specializes in the development and marketing of inexpensive and easy-to-use statistical software for scientists, as well as in data analysis consulting. (kovcomp.co.uk)
  • One can assume that the population is normally distributed, even though this is not verifiable, and population variances are the same, which means that the populations are homogeneous. (wisegeek.com)
  • This tutorial will cover tests for more than two population means and the process for analysis of variance. (sophia.org)
  • Dr. Thangavelu S., Dr. Jeyakumar G., and Dr. Shunmuga Velayutham C., "Population variance based empirical analysis of the behavior of differential evolution variants", Applied Mathematical Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 3249-3263, 2015. (amrita.edu)
  • When formulated as a statistical model, analysis of variance refers to an additive decomposition of data into a grand mean, main effects, possible interactions and an error term. (springer.com)
  • Now that the data is all properly stored in a data frame, we are ready to begin the analysis. (wisc.edu)
  • Any analysis should begin with a graphical exploration of the data. (wisc.edu)
  • Table 2 shows the analysis of variance table for the data in table 1 . (bmj.com)
  • Analysis of Variance, Design, and Regression: Linear Modeling for Unbalanced Data, Second Edition presents linear structures for modeling data with an emphasis on how to incorporate specific ideas (hypotheses) about the structure of the data into a linear model for the data. (routledge.com)
  • 1.What are the assumptions regarding a small two sample t-test and what Excel aid would you use to perform the test, Data Analysis or MacDoIt? (brainmass.com)
  • You will learn how to prepare data for analysis, perform simple statistical analysis, create meaningful data visualizations, predict future trends from data, and more! (coursera.org)
  • Topics covered: 1) Importing Datasets 2) Cleaning the Data 3) Data frame manipulation 4) Summarizing the Data 5) Building machine learning Regression models 6) Building data pipelines Data Analysis with Python will be delivered through lecture, lab, and assignments. (coursera.org)
  • It includes following parts: Data Analysis libraries: will learn to use Pandas, Numpy and Scipy libraries to work with a sample dataset. (coursera.org)
  • Fisher, N. I. Statistical analysis of circular data . (springer.com)
  • In order to track underlying business developments from period to period, Yara's management also uses a variance analysis methodology, developed within the company ("Variance Analysis"), which involves the extraction of financial information from the accounting system, as well as statistical and other data from internal management information systems. (yara.com)
  • STATA has the .pkshape command to transform a data set in the latin square form into the corresponing data set for analysis. (iuj.ac.jp)
  • After the test has been completed, you can perform further tests on the factors which contribute to the variability, or discover that there are more factors not captured in your data that are missing from your analysis. (shmula.com)
  • If your analysis shows a percentage of only 33%, likely you are missing some important variables from your data set, and should find ways to gather additional data and re-run your analysis. (shmula.com)
  • Plant growth analysis presents difficulties related to statistical comparison of growth rates, and the analysis of variance of primary data could guide the interpretation of results. (scielo.br)
  • In plant growth analysis, data are usually obtained from successive destructive harvests performed within the plant growth cycle, from which the growth rates are calculated. (scielo.br)
  • Categorical data analysis (3rd ed. (springer.com)
  • Brandon D. Gallas, Gene A. Pennello, and Kyle J. Myers, "Multireader multicase variance analysis for binary data," J. Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • We extend MRMC variance analysis to binary data and also to generic study designs in which every reader may not interpret every case. (osapublishing.org)
  • In this work we show that powers of two multiples of the sampling period are the optimal set of averaging period Allan variance (AVAR) calculations for determining power law noise types present in recorded data. (nist.gov)
  • Association analysis using next-generation sequence data from publicly available control groups: the robust variance score statistic. (nih.gov)
  • We propose a novel likelihood-based method, the robust variance score (RVS), that substitutes genotype calls by their expected values given observed sequence data. (nih.gov)
  • We also demonstrate that, using simulated and real NGS data, the RVS method controls Type I error and has comparable power to the 'gold standard' analysis with the true underlying genotypes for both common and rare variants. (nih.gov)
  • Workflow proposed for the NGS association analysis when external NGS control data are used. (nih.gov)
  • I believe that as a starting point for asking questions as the answers may relate to the future, the advantages of variance analysis can outweigh the disadvantages, but only if the conscious choice is to pragmatically focus on the future and apply the data learned. (proformative.com)
  • It's a handy tool for the efficient analysis of data arrays. (bestsoftware4download.com)
  • WINKS (Windows KWIKSTAT) makes statistical data analysis understandable and easy to perform for the researcher, student, or scientist. (bestsoftware4download.com)
  • Solid statistical data analysis . (bestsoftware4download.com)
  • A two-way analysis of variance test tests data categorized by two factors, while the one-way analysis of variance test tests data categorized by one factor. (gradesaver.com)
  • The method is flexible enough to accommodate several alternative input matrices, corresponding to different types of molecular data, as well as different types of evolutionary assumptions, without modifying the basic structure of the analysis. (genetics.org)
  • Computes a confidence interval on a variance component estimated as proportional to the difference in two mean squares in a balanced complete experimental design. (roguewave.com)
  • Computes the efficiencies of fixed-effect terms in an analysis of variance model with multiple strata. (ethz.ch)
  • Computes and summarizes the information of a one-way repeated measures Analysis of Variance (RANOVA). (centerspace.net)
  • One-way or two-way refers to the number of independent variables in your analysis of variance test. (investopedia.com)
  • Reasoning is identical to t-tests, only analysis of variance includes independent variables of two or more samples. (wisegeek.com)
  • The analysis of variance can be used to describe otherwise complex relations among variables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then an analysis of variance is performed on the sum divided by the square root of the number of dependent variables. (sas.com)
  • A project management team will focus on the variables of scope, cost, and schedule in its variance analysis. (projectmanagement.com)
  • Too often variance analysis becomes a backward looking exercise in "wish I had a crystal ball back then" as we ponder various negative variables and their outcomes. (proformative.com)
  • The article introduces bias-variance decomposition in probabilistic logic learning. (igi-global.com)
  • The fixed-effects model of analysis of variance applies to situations in which the experimenter has subjected his experimental material to several treatments, each of which affects only the mean of the underlying normal distribution of the "response variable" . (factbites.com)
  • The analysis of variance imposes restrictions to experimental design thereby eliminating some advantages of the functional growth analysis. (scielo.br)
  • Calculation and interpretation of variances. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Analysis of variance assesses whether the variability of the group means-that is, the between group variance-is greater than would be expected by chance. (bmj.com)
  • VARIANCE ANALYSIS is the analysis of performance by means of variances. (ventureline.com)
  • As shown by the second illustration, the distributions have variances that are considerably smaller than in the first case, and the means are more distinguishable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compare means and variance s. (bestsoftware4download.com)
  • Had all of the slopes been equal (the lines parallel) the off-diagonal correlations would have been equal except for error, and the variance of the slopes would have been 0. (uvm.edu)
  • I don't think there is any difference between the 2 tests (assuming equal variances within groups). (isixsigma.com)
  • Bartlett's test of equal variance does not show a difference). (isixsigma.com)
  • Users have to check the equal variance test (F test) first. (iuj.ac.jp)
  • When subjects are measured multiple times, linkage analysis needs to appropriately model these repeated measures. (nih.gov)
  • A number of methods have been proposed to model repeated measures in linkage analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The results given are a residuals analysis, parameters of the models, the model equation, the standardized coefficients, Type I SS, Type III SS, and predictions are displayed. (kovcomp.co.uk)
  • Fixed-effect terms in an analysis of variance model with multiple strata may be estimable in more than one stratum, in which case there is less than complete information in each. (ethz.ch)
  • The microcomputer scientific software series 3: general linear model--analysis of variance. (usda.gov)
  • This set of programs will perform the analysis of variance for any statistical model describing either balanced or unbalanced designs. (usda.gov)
  • Because I was particularly interested in the analysis of variance, in Part 1 I approached the problem of mixed models first by looking at the use of the repeated statement in SAS Proc Mixed . (uvm.edu)
  • One way to look at the analysis of mixed models is to fiddle with the expected pattern of the correlations, as we did with the repeated command. (uvm.edu)
  • The textbook gives examples in Chapter 10 on fitting many statistical models including analysis of variance. (wisc.edu)
  • Another approach to analysis of repeated measures is via general mixed models. (sas.com)
  • On Bias-Variance Analysis for Probabilistic Logic Models. (igi-global.com)
  • Use of hypotheses for analysis of variance models: challenging the current practice. (nivel.nl)
  • One animal is removed from the analysis due to a missing value for one dependent variable. (sas.com)
  • A successful grouping will split dogs such that (a) each group has a low variance of dog weights (meaning the group is relatively homogeneous) and (b) the mean of each group is distinct (if two groups have the same mean, then it isn't reasonable to conclude that the groups are, in fact, separate in any meaningful way). (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic analysis of variance involves one nominal or ordinal scale variable that can be used to place each observation into two or more groups, and a single response variable . (factbites.com)
  • With two groups one way analysis of variance is exactly equivalent to the usual two sample t test, and we have F=t 2 . (bmj.com)
  • This analysis helps to determine if all categories or groups studied are the same within that variable (such as each country). (shmula.com)
  • Now we talked about the spending variance, the efficiency variance, and the activity variance for variable costs. (coursera.org)
  • The efficiency for a term is the fraction of the maximum possible precision (inverse variance) obtainable by estimating in just that stratum. (ethz.ch)
  • Labor efficiency variance. (projectmanagement.com)
  • Variable overhead efficiency variance. (projectmanagement.com)
  • Conceptually, the mean-variance analysis links diversification with the notion of efficiency because optimal diversification is achieved along the EF (Markowitz 1987). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This chapter describes the use of SPSS for one-way analysis of variance and two-way analysis of variance . (factbites.com)
  • This chapter reviews the various contexts in which we have seen that mixed modelling is preferable to a simple regression or analysis of variance approach, then outlines the ways in which the concepts of mixed modelling can be developed further. (oreilly.com)
  • [10] Analysis of variance became widely known after being included in Fisher's 1925 book Statistical Methods for Research Workers . (wikipedia.org)