A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The physical measurements of a body.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The position or attitude of the body.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
A person's view of himself.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Sexual activities of animals.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
Female parents, human or animal.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

## Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/37255)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

## Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (2/37255)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

## The significance of non-significance. (3/37255)

We discuss the implications of empirical results that are statistically non-significant. Figures illustrate the interrelations among effect size, sample sizes and their dispersion, and the power of the experiment. All calculations (detailed in Appendix) are based on actual noncentral t-distributions, with no simplifying mathematical or statistical assumptions, and the contribution of each tail is determined separately. We emphasize the importance of reporting, wherever possible, the a priori power of a study so that the reader can see what the chances were of rejecting a null hypothesis that was false. As a practical alternative, we propose that non-significant inference be qualified by an estimate of the sample size that would be required in a subsequent experiment in order to attain an acceptable level of power under the assumption that the observed effect size in the sample is the same as the true effect size in the population; appropriate plots are provided for a power of 0.8. We also point out that successive outcomes of independent experiments each of which may not be statistically significant on its own, can be easily combined to give an overall p value that often turns out to be significant. And finally, in the event that the p value is high and the power sufficient, a non-significant result may stand and be published as such.  (+info)

## Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (4/37255)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

## Effect of coronary occlusion on left ventricular function with and without collateral supply during beating heart coronary artery surgery. (5/37255)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of coronary occlusion and collateral supply on left ventricular (LV) function during beating heart coronary artery surgery. DESIGN: Prospective intraoperative study, performed at baseline, during wall stabilisation, coronary artery occlusion, and 2 and 10 minutes after reperfusion. Transoesophageal M mode echocardiograms, simultaneous high fidelity LV pressure, and thermodilution cardiac output were measured. LV anterior wall thickening, thinning velocities, thickening fraction, regional work, and power production were derived. Asynchrony during the isovolumic periods was quantified as cycle efficiency. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with stable angina, mean (SD) age 62 (7) years, undergoing left anterior descending artery grafting using the "Octopus" device. RESULTS: Collaterals were absent in nine patients and present in five. Epicardial stabilisation did not affect LV function. Results are expressed as mean (SD). Coronary occlusion (15.6 (2) minutes) depressed anterior wall thickening (1.4 (0.6) v 2.6 (0.6) cm/s) and thinning velocities (1.4 (0.5) v 3.0 (0.6) cm/s), regional work (2.2 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.6) mJ/cm2), and power (21 (4) v 33 (5) mW/cm2) in patients without collaterals (p < 0.05 for all), but only wall thinning (3.5 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) cm/s, p < 0.05) in patients with collaterals. All returned to baseline within 10 minutes of reperfusion. Cycle efficiency and regional work were impaired at baseline and fell during occlusion, regardless of collaterals. Within 10 minutes of reperfusion both had increased above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary occlusion for up to 15 minutes during beating heart coronary artery surgery depressed standard measurements of systolic and diastolic anterior wall function in patients without collaterals, but only those of diastolic function in patients with collaterals. Regional synchrony decreased in both groups. All disturbances regressed within 10 minutes of reperfusion.  (+info)

## Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (6/37255)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

## Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (7/37255)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

## Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. (8/37255)

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

1. Twin-to-twin transmission: This refers to the transmission of infectious agents or other conditions from one twin to the other in utero, during delivery, or after birth. Examples include rubella, herpes simplex virus, and group B streptococcus.
2. Monozygotic (identical) twins: These twins develop from a single fertilized egg and share an identical genetic makeup. They are at higher risk of developing certain diseases, such as immune system disorders and some types of cancer, because of their shared genetics.
3. Dizygotic (fraternal) twins: These twins develop from two separate eggs and have a similar but not identical genetic makeup. They are at higher risk of developing diseases that affect multiple family members, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
4. Twin-specific diseases: These are conditions that affect only twins or are more common in twins than in the general population. Examples include Klinefelter syndrome, which affects males with an extra X chromosome, and Turner syndrome, which affects females with a missing X chromosome.
5. Twin-related complications: These are conditions that occur during pregnancy or delivery and are more common in twins than in singletons. Examples include preterm labor, growth restriction, and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.
6. Genetic disorders: Twins can inherit genetic mutations from their parents, which can increase their risk of developing certain diseases. Examples include sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and Huntington's disease.
7. Environmental exposures: Twins may be exposed to similar environmental factors during fetal development, which can increase their risk of developing certain health problems. Examples include maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to lead or other toxins, and maternal infections during pregnancy.
8. Social and cultural factors: Twins may face unique social and cultural challenges, such as discrimination, stigma, and social isolation, which can affect their mental health and well-being.

It's important to note that while twins may be at increased risk for certain health problems, many twins are born healthy and lead normal, healthy lives. Regular prenatal care, proper nutrition, and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risks of complications during pregnancy and after delivery. Additionally, advances in medical technology and research have improved the detection and treatment of many twin-related health issues.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Types of Cognition Disorders: There are several types of cognitive disorders that affect different aspects of cognitive functioning. Some common types include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Caused by a blow or jolt to the head that disrupts brain function, resulting in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes.
3. Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cognitive impairment and other symptoms.
5. Parkinson's Disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and cognition.
6. Huntington's Disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms.
7. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD): A group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and language.
8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A condition that develops after a traumatic event, characterized by symptoms such as anxiety, avoidance, and hypervigilance.
9. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not severe enough to interfere with daily life.

Causes and Risk Factors: The causes of cognition disorders can vary depending on the specific disorder, but some common risk factors include:

1. Genetics: Many cognitive disorders have a genetic component, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
2. Age: As people age, their risk of developing cognitive disorders increases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and poor diet can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
4. Traumatic brain injury: A severe blow to the head or a traumatic brain injury can increase the risk of developing cognitive disorders, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, can cause cognitive disorders if they damage the brain tissue.
6. Stroke or other cardiovascular conditions: A stroke or other cardiovascular conditions can cause cognitive disorders by damaging the blood vessels in the brain.
7. Chronic substance abuse: Long-term use of drugs or alcohol can damage the brain and increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
8. Sleep disorders: Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, can increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
9. Depression and anxiety: Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
10. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive disorders.

It's important to note that not everyone with these risk factors will develop a cognitive disorder, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop a cognitive disorder. If you have concerns about your cognitive health, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

In the medical field, fatigue is often evaluated using a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to determine its underlying cause. Treatment for fatigue depends on the underlying cause, but may include rest, exercise, stress management techniques, and medication.

Some common causes of fatigue in the medical field include:

1. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or sleep apnea
2. Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
3. Infections, such as the flu or a urinary tract infection
4. Medication side effects
5. Poor nutrition or hydration
6. Substance abuse
7. Chronic stress
8. Depression or anxiety
9. Hormonal imbalances
10. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or lupus.

Fatigue can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as:

1. Anemia
2. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
3. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
4. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
5. Chronic fatigue syndrome
6. Fibromyalgia
7. Vasculitis
8. Cancer
9. Heart failure
10. Liver or kidney disease.

It is important to seek medical attention if fatigue is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, pain, or difficulty breathing. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of fatigue, improving overall quality of life.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:

* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain

There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:

* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.

Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.

It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.

The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."

There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.

The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.

There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:

1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.

It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:

1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.

The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Some common types of anxiety disorders include:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Excessive and persistent worry about everyday things, even when there is no apparent reason to be concerned.
2. Panic Disorder: Recurring panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of intense fear or anxiety that can occur at any time, even when there is no obvious trigger.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Excessive and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others.
4. Specific Phobias: Persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed.
5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Recurring, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that are distressing and disruptive to daily life.
6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Persistent symptoms of anxiety, fear, and avoidance after experiencing a traumatic event.

Anxiety disorders can be treated with a combination of psychotherapy, medication, or both, depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of symptoms. With appropriate treatment, many people with anxiety disorders are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

The risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee increases with age, obesity, and previous knee injuries or surgery. Symptoms of knee OA can include:

* Pain and stiffness in the knee, especially after activity or extended periods of standing or sitting
* Swelling and redness in the knee
* Difficulty moving the knee through its full range of motion
* Crunching or grinding sensations when the knee is bent or straightened
* Instability or a feeling that the knee may give way

Treatment for knee OA typically includes a combination of medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications. Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids can help manage symptoms, while physical therapy can improve joint mobility and strength. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition, can also help slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the damaged joint.

Overbite: This occurs when the upper teeth overlap the lower teeth too much.

Underbite: This happens when the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth too much.

Crossbite: This is when the upper teeth do not align with the lower teeth, causing them to point towards the inside of the mouth.

Open bite: This occurs when the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, resulting in a gap or an open bite.

Overjet: This is when the upper teeth protrude too far forward, overlapping the lower teeth.

Crowding: This refers to when there is not enough space in the mouth for all the teeth to fit properly, leading to overlapping or misalignment.

Spacing: This occurs when there is too much space between the teeth, which can lead to gum problems and other issues.

Each type of malocclusion can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty chewing, jaw pain, headaches, and difficulty opening and closing the mouth fully. Treatment options for malocclusion depend on the severity of the problem and may include orthodontic braces, aligners, or surgery to correct the bite and improve oral function and aesthetics.

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.

These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.

Dystocia is a term used to describe abnormal or difficult labor, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as fetal size, position, or gestational age. It is characterized by slow progress of labor, prolonged labor, or failure of the cervix to dilate adequately. Dystocia can lead to complications such as fetal distress, infection, or excessive maternal bleeding.

There are several types of dystocia, including:

1. Prolonged latent phase dystocia: This is a type of dystocia where the early stages of labor are prolonged, often due to the fetus being in an unfavorable position or having a slower than average rate of growth.
2. Arrest of descent dystocia: In this type of dystocia, the fetus's head is dilated but fails to progress further down the birth canal, often due to fetal distress or abnormal fetal positioning.
3. Cervical dystocia: This type of dystocia occurs when the cervix does not dilate adequately during labor, making it difficult for the baby to pass through the birth canal.
4. Fetal dystocia: This is a type of dystocia where the fetus is unable to move down the birth canal due to its size or position, often causing fetal distress.
5. Maternal dystocia: This type of dystocia occurs when the mother experiences difficulty during labor, such as a narrow pelvis or excessive fatigue.

Dystocia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Fetal size or position: The fetus may be too large or in an abnormal position, making it difficult to pass through the birth canal.
2. Maternal factors: The mother may have a narrow pelvis, excessive fatigue, or other medical conditions that can cause difficulty during labor.
3. Infection: Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections can cause dystocia.
4. Previous uterine surgery: Scar tissue from previous surgeries can make it difficult for the fetus to pass through the birth canal.
5. Placental problems: Abnormalities with the placenta, such as placenta previa or placental abruption, can cause dystocia.

Dystocia can be treated in several ways, depending on the underlying cause. These may include:

1. Prostaglandin: This medication is used to stimulate contractions and soften the cervix, making it easier for the fetus to pass through the birth canal.
2. Oxytocin: This hormone can be used to stimulate uterine contractions and help the baby move down the birth canal.
3. Forceps or vacuum extraction: These instruments may be used to assist with delivery, especially if the baby is experiencing fetal distress.
4. Cesarean section: In some cases, a C-section may be necessary if dystocia cannot be resolved through other means.
5. Fetal monitoring: Close monitoring of the fetus's heart rate and other vital signs can help identify any issues that may arise during labor.

It is important to note that dystocia can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and baby, such as fetal distress, infection, and postpartum hemorrhage. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately if signs of dystocia are present or if labor is not progressing as expected.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are several types of mood disorders, including:

1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
2. Bipolar Disorder: This is a condition that involves periods of mania or hypomania (elevated mood) alternating with episodes of depression.
3. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent low mood, lasting for two years or more. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
4. Postpartum Depression (PPD): This is a condition that occurs in some women after childbirth, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
5. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): This is a condition that occurs during the winter months, when there is less sunlight. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, lethargy, and a lack of energy.
6. Anxious Distress: This is a condition characterized by excessive worry, fear, and anxiety that interferes with daily life.
7. Adjustment Disorder: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences a significant change or stressor in their life, such as the loss of a loved one or a job change. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
8. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): This is a condition that occurs in some women during the premenstrual phase of their menstrual cycle, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of energy.

Mood disorders can be treated with a combination of medication and therapy. Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), are commonly used to treat mood disorders. These medications can help relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.

Therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT), can also be effective in treating mood disorders. CBT helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their depression, while IPT focuses on improving communication skills and relationships with others.

In addition to medication and therapy, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can also be helpful in managing mood disorders. Support from family and friends, as well as self-care activities such as meditation and relaxation techniques, can also be beneficial.

It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression or anxiety persist or worsen over time. With appropriate treatment, individuals with mood disorders can experience significant improvement in their symptoms and overall quality of life.

The symptoms of PTSD can vary widely and may include:

1. Flashbacks or intrusive memories of the traumatic event
2. Nightmares or disturbed sleep
3. Avoidance of people, places, or activities that remind them of the event
4. Hypervigilance or an exaggerated startle response
5. Difficulty concentrating or memory problems
6. Irritability, anger, or other mood changes
7. Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension

The exact cause of PTSD is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the brain's response to stress and the release of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that help regulate emotions and memory.

PTSD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using a combination of psychological evaluation and medical history. Treatment for PTSD typically involves therapy, medication, or a combination of both. Therapy may include exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or other forms of talk therapy. Medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antidepressants may be used to help manage symptoms.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing PTSD, and this includes seeking support from friends, family, or mental health professionals soon after the traumatic event. Self-care practices such as exercise, meditation, or relaxation techniques can also be helpful in reducing stress and promoting emotional well-being.

The exact cause of MDD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some risk factors for developing MDD include:

* Family history of depression or other mental health conditions
* History of trauma or stressful life events
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
* Personality traits such as low self-esteem or perfectionism

Symptoms of MDD can vary from person to person, but typically include:

* Persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness
* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed
* Changes in appetite or sleep patterns
* Fatigue or loss of energy
* Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
* Thoughts of death or suicide

MDD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, based on the symptoms and their duration. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, and may include:

* Antidepressant medications to relieve symptoms of depression
* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Interpersonal therapy (IPT) to improve communication skills and relationships with others
* Other forms of therapy, such as mindfulness-based therapies or relaxation techniques

It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression are severe or persistent, as MDD can have a significant impact on daily life and can increase the risk of suicide. With appropriate treatment, however, many people with MDD are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

The causes of LBP can be broadly classified into two categories:

1. Mechanical causes: These include strains, sprains, and injuries to the soft tissues (such as muscles, ligaments, and tendons) or bones in the lower back.
2. Non-mechanical causes: These include medical conditions such as herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis.

The symptoms of LBP can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* Pain that may be localized to one side or both sides of the lower back
* Muscle spasms or stiffness
* Limited range of motion in the lower back
* Difficulty bending, lifting, or twisting
* Sciatica (pain that radiates down the legs)
* Weakness or numbness in the legs

The diagnosis of LBP is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI.

Treatment for LBP depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility in the lower back
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on the joints and muscles
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery may be considered for severe or chronic cases that do not respond to other treatments.

Prevention strategies for LBP include:

* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the lower back
* Engaging in regular exercise to improve muscle strength and flexibility
* Using proper lifting techniques to avoid straining the lower back
* Taking regular breaks to stretch and move around if you have a job that involves sitting or standing for long periods
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.

People with Antisocial Personality Disorder may exhibit a range of symptoms, including:

* A lack of empathy or remorse for harming others
* Impulsivity and a tendency to act on whim without considering the consequences
* Aggressive or violent behavior
* A disregard for the law and a willingness to engage in criminal activity
* Difficulty forming and maintaining relationships
* Inability to feel guilt or remorse
* Inability to take responsibility for one's actions
* A tendency to manipulate others for personal gain

It is important to note that Antisocial Personality Disorder is not the same as Asperger's Syndrome or Autism Spectrum Disorder, which are separate neurodevelopmental disorders. However, people with Antisocial Personality Disorder may also have co-occurring conditions such as substance use disorders or other mental health conditions.

Treatment for Antisocial Personality Disorder typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy may be effective in helping individuals with this condition to understand and change their behavior. Medications such as antidepressants and antipsychotics may also be used to help manage symptoms.

It is important to note that Antisocial Personality Disorder is a complex and challenging condition to treat, and it is not uncommon for individuals with this disorder to have difficulty adhering to treatment plans or engaging in therapy. However, with the right treatment and support, it is possible for individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder to learn new coping skills and make positive changes in their lives.

1. Predominantly Inattentive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of inattention, such as difficulty paying attention to details or making careless mistakes. Individuals with this type may have trouble sustaining their focus during tasks and may appear daydreamy or easily distracted.
2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, such as fidgeting, restlessness, and an inability to sit still. Individuals with this type may also exhibit impulsivity, such as interrupting others or speaking out of turn.
3. Combined Type: This type is characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.

The symptoms of ADHD can vary from person to person and may change over time. Some common symptoms include:

* Difficulty sustaining attention during tasks
* Easily distracted or interrupted
* Forgetfulness
* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet
* Interrupting others or speaking out of turn
* Impulsivity, such as acting without thinking

The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but research suggests that it may be related to differences in brain structure and function, as well as genetic factors. There is no cure for ADHD, but medication and behavioral therapy can help manage symptoms and improve functioning.

ADHD can have significant impacts on daily life, including academic and social difficulties. However, with proper treatment and support, many individuals with ADHD are able to lead successful and fulfilling lives.

Myopia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Genetics: Myopia can run in families, and people with a family history of myopia are more likely to develop the condition.
2. Near work: Spending too much time doing close-up activities such as reading or using digital devices can increase the risk of developing myopia.
3. Poor posture: Slouching or leaning forward can cause the eye to focus incorrectly, leading to myopia.
4. Nutritional deficiencies: A diet lacking in essential nutrients such as vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to the development of myopia.
5. Eye stress: Prolonged eye strain due to excessive near work or other activities can lead to myopia.

Symptoms of myopia include:

1. Difficulty seeing distant objects clearly
2. Headaches or eye strain from trying to focus on distant objects
3. Squinting or rubbing the eyes to try to see distant objects more clearly
4. Difficulty seeing in low light conditions
5. Blurry vision at a distance, with close objects appearing clear.

Myopia can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, refraction test, and retinoscopy. Treatment options for myopia include:

1. Glasses or contact lenses: These corrective lenses refract light properly onto the retina, allowing clear vision of both close and distant objects.
2. Laser eye surgery: Procedures such as LASIK can reshape the cornea to improve its curvature and reduce myopia.
3. Orthokeratology (ORTHO-K): A non-surgical procedure that uses a specialized contact lens to reshape the cornea while you sleep.
4. Myopia control: This involves using certain treatments or techniques to slow down the progression of myopia in children and young adults.
5. Multifocal lenses: These lenses have multiple focal points, allowing for clear vision of both near and distant objects without the need for glasses or contact lenses.

In conclusion, myopia is a common vision condition that can be caused by a variety of factors and symptoms can include difficulty seeing distant objects clearly, headaches, and eye strain. Treatment options include glasses or contact lenses, laser eye surgery, ORTHO-K, myopia control, and multifocal lenses. It is important to consult an eye doctor for a comprehensive evaluation and to determine the best course of treatment for your specific case of myopia.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

The following are some common types of motor skill disorders:

1. Dyspraxia: This is a developmental condition that affects the ability to plan and perform movements. Individuals with dyspraxia may have difficulty with coordination, balance, and spatial awareness.
2. Apraxia: This is a neurological disorder that affects an individual's ability to perform voluntary movements despite having the physical strength and coordination to do so.
3. Ataxia: This is a condition that affects an individual's balance, coordination, and ability to perform purposeful movements. It can be caused by injury or disease to the cerebellum or other parts of the brain.
4. Parkinson's disease: This is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, including fine motor skills such as writing and gross motor skills such as walking and balance.
5. Cerebral palsy: This is a developmental condition that can affect an individual's ability to move and control their body. It can impact both fine and gross motor skills.
6. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue. This can result in difficulty with movement, including fine and gross motor skills.
7. Traumatic brain injury: This occurs when the brain is injured as a result of a blow or jolt to the head. It can lead to difficulties with movement, memory, and other cognitive functions.
8. Spinal cord injury: This occurs when the spinal cord is damaged, either from trauma or disease. It can result in loss of movement and sensation below the level of the injury.
9. Multiple sclerosis: This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. It can cause difficulties with movement, balance, and coordination.
10. Spina bifida: This is a congenital condition in which the spine does not properly close during fetal development. It can result in a range of physical and cognitive disabilities, including difficulty with movement and coordination.

It's important to note that these conditions can have varying levels of severity and impact on an individual's ability to move and control their body. Additionally, there are many other conditions and diseases that can affect the nervous system and result in difficulties with movement.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea is too steep, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it. Hyperopia is the opposite, where the eyeball is too short or the cornea is too flat, causing light to focus behind the retina. Astigmatism is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea, which causes light to focus at multiple points instead of one. Presbyopia is a loss of near vision that occurs as people age, making it harder to see close objects clearly.

In addition to these common refractive errors, there are other, less common conditions that can affect the eyes and cause blurred vision, such as amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (crossed eyes), and retinal detachment. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.

Refractive errors can have a significant impact on daily life, affecting everything from work and school performance to social interactions and overall quality of life. Fortunately, with the help of corrective lenses or surgery, many people are able to achieve clear vision and lead fulfilling lives.

There are several types of deafness, including:

1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by problems with the middle ear, including the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. It can be treated with hearing aids or surgery.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. It is typically permanent and cannot be treated with medication or surgery.
3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of deafness is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
4. Auditory processing disorder (APD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing sounds, even though the ears are functioning normally.
5. Tinnitus: This is a condition characterized by ringing or other sounds in the ears when there is no external source of sound. It can be a symptom of deafness or a separate condition.

There are several ways to diagnose deafness, including:

1. Hearing tests: These can be done in a doctor's office or at a hearing aid center. They involve listening to sounds through headphones and responding to them.
2. Imaging tests: These can include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to look for any physical abnormalities in the ear or brain.
3. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing: This is a test that measures the electrical activity of the brain in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.
4. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) testing: This is a test that measures the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.

There are several ways to treat deafness, including:

1. Hearing aids: These are devices that amplify sound and can be worn in or behind the ear. They can help improve hearing for people with mild to severe hearing loss.
2. Cochlear implants: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve. They can help restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss.
3. Speech therapy: This can help people with hearing loss improve their communication skills, such as speaking and listening.
4. Assistive technology: This can include devices such as captioned phones, alerting systems, and assistive listening devices that can help people with hearing loss communicate more effectively.
5. Medications: There are several medications available that can help treat deafness, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections or steroids to reduce inflammation.
6. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat deafness, such as when there is a blockage in the ear or when a tumor is present.
7. Stem cell therapy: This is a relatively new area of research that involves using stem cells to repair damaged hair cells in the inner ear. It has shown promising results in some studies.
8. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to repair or replace damaged or missing genes that can cause deafness. It is still an experimental area of research, but it has shown promise in some studies.
9. Implantable devices: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can help restore hearing by bypassing damaged hair cells. Examples include cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants.
10. Binaural hearing: This involves using a combination of hearing aids and technology to improve hearing in both ears, which can help improve speech recognition and reduce the risk of falls.

It's important to note that the best treatment for deafness will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and personal preferences. It's important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.

1. Dissociative Amnesia (DA): This condition involves the inability to recall important information about oneself or events in one's life, especially during times of high stress or trauma.
2. Depersonalization Disorder (DDP): This disorder is characterized by a feeling of detachment from one's body and emotions, as if observing oneself from outside.
3. Derealization Disorder (DRD): This disorder involves a sense of unreality or detachment from the world around one.
4. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): This is a severe disorder that was previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder. It involves the presence of two or more distinct identities or personalities that control an individual's behavior at different times.
5. Dissociative Trance Disorder (DTD): This rare disorder involves a state of dissociation that is triggered by trauma or stress, and is characterized by a feeling of being in a trance-like state.
6. Dissociative Fugue (DF): This is a sudden, unexpected travel away from home or work, often accompanied by a complete loss of memory for the past and a partial or complete loss of one's identity.
7. Dissociative Psychosis (DP): This is a psychotic disorder that involves a severe disruption in the integration of thought processes, such as hallucinations or delusions, and is often accompanied by dissociative symptoms.

These disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors, such as trauma, stress, and abuse. Treatment for dissociative disorders typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

The symptoms of dyslexia can vary from person to person, but may include:

* Difficulty with phonological awareness (the ability to identify and manipulate the sounds within words)
* Trouble with decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)
* Difficulty with comprehension of text
* Difficulty with writing skills, including grammar, punctuation, and spelling
* Trouble with organization and time management

Dyslexia can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist or learning specialist, through a series of tests and assessments. These may include:

* Tests of phonological awareness
* Tests of comprehension and vocabulary
* Behavioral observations

There is no cure for dyslexia, but there are a variety of strategies and interventions that can help individuals with dyslexia to improve their reading and writing skills. These may include:

* Multisensory instruction (using sight, sound, and touch to learn)
* Orton-Gillingham approach (a specific type of multisensory instruction)
* Assistive technology (such as text-to-speech software)
* Accommodations (such as extra time to complete assignments)
* Tutoring and mentoring

It is important to note that dyslexia is not a result of poor intelligence or inadequate instruction, but rather a neurological difference that affects the way an individual processes information. With appropriate support and accommodations, individuals with dyslexia can be successful in school and beyond.

This condition typically occurs in the joints of children and adolescents, although it can also affect adults. It is caused by a variety of factors, including injury, overuse, or genetics.

Osteochondritis can cause symptoms such as pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and locking or catching sensations within the affected joint. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, and medication, as well as surgery in severe cases.

1. Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
2. Sleep apnea: pauses in breathing during sleep
3. Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep
4. Restless leg syndrome: uncomfortable sensations in the legs during sleep
5. Periodic limb movement disorder: involuntary movements of the legs or arms during sleep
6. Sleepwalking: walking or performing other activities during sleep
7. Sleep terrors: intense fear or anxiety during sleep
8. Sleep paralysis: temporary inability to move or speak during sleep
9. REM sleep behavior disorder: acting out dreams during sleep
10. Circadian rhythm disorders: disruptions to the body's internal clock, leading to irregular sleep patterns.

Sleep disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, such as stress, anxiety, certain medications, sleep deprivation, and underlying medical conditions like chronic pain or sleep apnea. Treatment for sleep disorders may include lifestyle changes (such as establishing a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a relaxing sleep environment), medications, and behavioral therapies (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia). In some cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have a sleep disorder, as untreated sleep disorders can lead to serious health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. A healthcare professional can help diagnose the specific sleep disorder and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Some common examples of phobic disorders include:

1. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders)
2. Acrophobia (fear of heights)
3. Agoraphobia (fear of being in public places or situations where escape might be difficult)
4. Claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces)
5. Cynophobia (fear of dogs)
6. Glossophobia (fear of speaking in public)
7. Mysophobia (fear of germs or dirt)
8. Necrophobia (fear of death or dead things)
9. Ophidiophobia (fear of snakes)
10. Social phobia (fear of social situations or being judged by others)

Phobic disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in an individual's daily life, and can lead to avoidance behaviors that limit their ability to function in various contexts. Treatment for phobic disorders often involves exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.

Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.

Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.

Example sentences:

1. The patient was diagnosed with a Class I malocclusion, which was causing discomfort and difficulty chewing.
2. The dentist recommended braces to correct the Class I malocclusion and improve the alignment of the teeth.
3. TheClass I malocclusion was treated with a combination of orthodontic therapy and minor oral surgery to achieve optimal results.

Articulation disorders can be classified into different types based on the severity and nature of the speech difficulties. Some common types of articulation disorders include:

1. Articulation errors: These occur when individuals produce speech sounds differently than the expected norm, such as pronouncing "k" and "s" sounds as "t" or "z."
2. Speech sound distortions: This type of disorder involves the exaggeration or alteration of speech sounds, such as speaking with a lisp or a nasal tone.
3. Speech articulation anomalies: These are abnormalities in the production of speech sounds that do not fit into any specific category, such as difficulty pronouncing certain words or sounds.
4. Apraxia of speech: This is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute voluntary movements of the articulators (lips, tongue, jaw), resulting in distorted or slurred speech.
5. Dysarthria: This is a speech disorder characterized by weakness, slowness, or incoordination of the muscles used for speaking, often caused by a neurological condition such as a stroke or cerebral palsy.

Articulation disorders can be diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) through a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's speech and language skills. The SLP may use standardized assessments, clinical observations, and interviews with the individual and their family to determine the nature and severity of the articulation disorder.

Treatment for articulation disorders typically involves speech therapy with an SLP, who will work with the individual to improve their speech skills through a series of exercises and activities tailored to their specific needs. Treatment may focus on improving the accuracy and clarity of speech sounds, increasing speech rate and fluency, and enhancing communication skills.

In addition to speech therapy, other interventions that may be helpful for individuals with articulation disorders include:

1. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems: For individuals with severe articulation disorders or those who have difficulty using speech to communicate, AAC systems such as picture communication symbols or electronic devices can provide an alternative means of communication.
2. Supportive technology: Assistive devices such as speech-generating devices, text-to-speech software, and other technology can help individuals with articulation disorders to communicate more effectively.
3. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT): This type of therapy focuses on improving the communication skills of young children with articulation disorders by training parents to use play-based activities and strategies to enhance their child's speech and language development.
4. Social skills training: For individuals with articulation disorders who also have difficulty with social interactions, social skills training can help them develop better communication and social skills.
5. Cognitive communication therapy: This type of therapy focuses on improving the cognitive processes that underlie communication, such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills.
6. Articulation therapy: This type of therapy focuses specifically on improving articulation skills, and may involve exercises and activities to strengthen the muscles used for speech production.
7. Stuttering modification therapy: For individuals who stutter, this type of therapy can help them learn to speak more fluently and with less effort.
8. Voice therapy: This type of therapy can help individuals with voice disorders to improve their vocal quality and communication skills.
9. Counseling and psychotherapy: For individuals with articulation disorders who are experiencing emotional or psychological distress, counseling and psychotherapy can be helpful in addressing these issues and improving overall well-being.

It's important to note that the most effective treatment approach will depend on the specific needs and goals of the individual with an articulation disorder, as well as their age, severity of symptoms, and other factors. A speech-language pathologist can work with the individual and their family to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their unique needs and helps them achieve their communication goals.

Tobacco use disorder refers to a condition where an individual engages in the excessive and compulsive consumption of tobacco products, despite the negative consequences it may have on their health and well-being. Tobacco use disorder is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and it is characterized by a pattern of continued tobacco use despite harmful effects, as well as an increased tolerance to tobacco and withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) defines tobacco use disorder as a chronic condition that can manifest in different forms, including nicotine dependence and tobacco abuse. The criteria for diagnosing tobacco use disorder include:

1. Tolerance: A need to use more tobacco to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, or depression when trying to stop using tobacco.
3. Loss of control: Consuming more tobacco than intended or for longer periods than intended.
4. Negative consequences: Continuing to use tobacco despite social, physical, or psychological problems caused by its use.
5. Increased time and effort spent on using tobacco.
6. Craving or a strong desire to use tobacco.
7. Failure to control or reduce tobacco use.

Tobacco use disorder can have severe consequences, including lung cancer, heart disease, respiratory problems, and other health issues. It can also lead to social and economic problems, such as lost productivity and strained relationships with family and friends. Treatment for tobacco use disorder includes behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups, and it is important for individuals struggling with this condition to seek professional help to quit using tobacco and improve their overall health and well-being.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.

Symptoms:

1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.

Diagnosis:

1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.

Treatment:

1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

The term "somatoform" refers to the fact that these disorders involve somatic (physical) symptoms, rather than psychotic or mood-related symptoms. Somatoform disorders can include conditions such as:

* Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that are not easily explained by a medical condition, and which cause significant distress or impairment in daily life.
* Hypochondriasis: excessive preoccupation with the fear of having or acquiring a serious illness, despite medical reassurance that no such illness exists.
* Conversion disorder: characterized by physical symptoms that are thought to be related to an unconscious psychological conflict or stress.
* Factitious disorder: characterized by intentionally producing or feigning physical symptoms in order to gain attention, sympathy, or other benefits.

Somatoform disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often involve complex interplay between psychological and physical factors. Treatment may involve a combination of psychotherapy and medication, and may require a multidisciplinary approach involving mental health professionals and medical specialists.

1. Stable fracture: The bone is broken but still in place.
2. Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of place.
3. Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into several pieces.
4. Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone.

Symptoms:

1. Pain in the arm or forearm.
2. Swelling and bruising.
3. Limited mobility or deformity of the arm.
4. Difficulty moving the arm or wrist.

Diagnosis:

1. Physical examination and medical history.
2. Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment:

1. Minor fractures may be treated with immobilization in a cast or brace.
2. Displaced or comminuted fractures may require surgical intervention to realign and stabilize the bone.
3. Physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and mobility in the arm.

Complications:

1. Infection.
2. Nerve damage.
3. Delayed healing.
4. Malunion or nonunion of the fracture, which can cause long-term complications.

Prevention:

1. Wear protective gear during sports and physical activities.
2. Use proper lifting techniques to avoid strain on the arm.
3. Maintain good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

Causes:

1. Brain injury during fetal development or birth
2. Hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) to the brain, often due to complications during labor and delivery
3. Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
4. Stroke or bleeding in the brain
6. Genetic disorders
7. Premature birth
8. Low birth weight
9. Multiples (twins, triplets)
10. Maternal infections during pregnancy.

Symptoms:

1. Weakness or paralysis of muscles on one side of the body
2. Lack of coordination and balance
3. Difficulty with movement, posture, and gait
4. Spasticity (stiffness) or hypotonia (looseness) of muscles
5. Intellectual disability or learning disabilities
6. Seizures
7. Vision, hearing, or speech problems
8. Swallowing difficulties
9. Increased risk of infections and bone fractures
10. Delays in reaching developmental milestones.

Diagnosis:

1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans
3. Electromyography (EMG) to test muscle activity
4. Developmental assessments to evaluate cognitive and motor skills
5. Genetic testing to identify underlying causes.

Treatment:

1. Physical therapy to improve movement, balance, and strength
2. Occupational therapy to develop daily living skills and fine motor activities
3. Speech therapy for communication and swallowing difficulties
4. Medications to control seizures, spasticity, or pain
5. Surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities or release contracted muscles
6. Assistive devices, such as braces, walkers, or wheelchairs, to aid mobility and independence.

It's important to note that each individual with Cerebral Palsy may have a unique combination of symptoms and require a personalized treatment plan. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with Cerebral Palsy can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals despite the challenges they face.

There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:

1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.

The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance

In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This condition is characterized by excessive worry and anxiety that lasts for at least six months. Individuals with GAD may experience physical symptoms such as restlessness, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.
2. Panic Disorder: This condition is characterized by recurring panic attacks, which are sudden episodes of intense fear or anxiety that can occur at any time. Physical symptoms of panic attacks may include a racing heartbeat, shortness of breath, and profuse sweating.
3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): This condition is characterized by recurring, intrusive thoughts or compulsions to perform specific rituals or behaviors. Individuals with OCD may experience significant distress and impairment due to their symptoms.
4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): This condition can develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, combat, or a natural disaster. Symptoms of PTSD may include flashbacks, nightmares, and avoidance behaviors.
5. Social Anxiety Disorder: This condition is characterized by excessive fear of social situations, which can lead to avoidance behaviors and significant impairment in daily life. Individuals with social anxiety disorder may experience physical symptoms such as blushing, trembling, and a racing heartbeat.

Neurotic disorders are often treated with a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of psychotherapy used to help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their symptoms. Medications such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms of neurotic disorders.

It's important to note that while these conditions can be treated, they can be challenging to overcome and may require ongoing therapy and support. However, with appropriate treatment and self-care, individuals with neurotic disorders can learn to manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life.

Some common types of memory disorders include:

1. Amnesia: A condition where an individual experiences memory loss, either partial or total, due to brain damage or other causes.
2. Dementia: A broad term that describes a decline in cognitive function, including memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication and daily activities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.
3. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not as severe as dementia.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. Memory problems are often a component of ADHD.
5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A condition that occurs when the brain is injured due to a blow or jolt to the head, which can result in memory loss and other cognitive problems.
6. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death and potential memory loss.
7. Meningitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
8. Encephalitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the brain directly, leading to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): A condition characterized by persistent fatigue, memory loss, and other cognitive symptoms.
10. Sleep Disorders: Sleep disturbances can affect memory and cognitive function, including conditions such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome.

The diagnosis of memory disorders typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and neuropsychological evaluations. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause of the memory loss, but may include medication, behavioral interventions, and lifestyle changes.

There are several types of atrophy that can occur in different parts of the body. For example:

1. Muscular atrophy: This occurs when muscles weaken and shrink due to disuse or injury.
2. Neuronal atrophy: This occurs when nerve cells degenerate, leading to a loss of cognitive function and memory.
3. Cardiac atrophy: This occurs when the heart muscle weakens and becomes less efficient, leading to decreased cardiac output.
4. Atrophic gastritis: This is a type of stomach inflammation that can lead to the wasting away of the stomach lining.
5. Atrophy of the testes: This occurs when the testes shrink due to a lack of use or disorder, leading to decreased fertility.

Atrophy can be diagnosed through various medical tests and imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may involve physical therapy, medication, or surgery. In some cases, atrophy can be prevented or reversed with proper treatment and care.

In summary, atrophy is a degenerative process that can occur in various parts of the body due to injury, disease, or disuse. It can lead to a loss of function and decreased quality of life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, it may be possible to prevent or reverse some forms of atrophy.

There are several theories about what might cause fibromyalgia, including:

1. Overactive nerve endings: Some research suggests that people with fibromyalgia may have overactive nerve endings that amplify pain signals.
2. Hormonal imbalance: Hormones such as cortisol and serotonin play a role in regulating pain and mood, and some studies suggest that hormonal imbalances might contribute to fibromyalgia.
3. Infections: Some research suggests that fibromyalgia may be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection, although more research is needed to confirm this theory.
4. Genetics: Fibromyalgia tends to run in families, which suggests that there may be a genetic component to the condition.
5. Environmental factors: Trauma, stress, and other environmental factors may also play a role in the development of fibromyalgia.

There is no single test for diagnosing fibromyalgia, and doctors must use a combination of physical examination, medical history, and other tests to rule out other conditions that might cause similar symptoms. Treatment for fibromyalgia typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes such as exercise and stress management.

Some common symptoms of fibromyalgia include:

* Widespread muscle pain and stiffness
* Fatigue and decreased energy
* Tender points on the body (areas that are painful to the touch)
* Brain fog and cognitive difficulties (such as memory loss and difficulty concentrating)
* Sleep disturbances (including insomnia and restless sleep)
* Digestive problems (such as irritable bowel syndrome)
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Depression and anxiety

There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Some common medications used to treat fibromyalgia include:

* Pain relievers (such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
* Anti-seizure medications (which can help reduce pain and improve sleep)
* Antidepressants (which can help with mood issues and improve sleep)
* Muscle relaxants (which can help reduce muscle spasms and stiffness)

In addition to medication, physical therapy and lifestyle changes can also be helpful in managing fibromyalgia symptoms. These might include:

* Exercise programs that are tailored to the individual's needs and abilities
* Stress management techniques (such as meditation or yoga)
* Healthy sleep habits (such as establishing a consistent bedtime routine and avoiding caffeine and electronics before bedtime)
* A balanced diet and adequate hydration
* Massage therapy or other forms of relaxation techniques.

It's important to note that each person with fibromyalgia may respond differently to different treatments, so it may take some trial and error to find the right combination of medications and lifestyle changes that work best for an individual case. It's also important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor progress and adjust treatment plans as needed.

Also known as: Class II malocclusion, overbite.

Symptoms:

* Overlapping of the upper teeth over the lower teeth
* Limited opening of the mouth
* Difficulty chewing or biting food
* Tooth wear on the upper teeth
* Gum disease
* Jaw pain

Causes:

* Genetics (inheritance)
* Poor oral hygiene
* Thumb sucking or pacifier use beyond age 3
* Premature loss of baby teeth
* Tongue thrust
* Large overbite in primary dentition
* Crossbites
* Overjet
* Incorrect swallowing pattern

Treatment:

* Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners) to move teeth into proper position
* Jaw surgery (if necessary)
* Dental restorations (fillings, crowns) to repair damaged teeth
* Oral hygiene instructions to prevent gum disease
* Dietary changes to avoid chewing on hard objects

Note: This is a general definition and the specifics may vary depending on the source. It's important to consult with a medical professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Personality disorders are categorized into ten different types, each with its unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some of the most common personality disorders include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and avoidant personality disorder.

Treatment for personality disorders typically involves psychotherapy and may involve medication in some cases. Psychotherapy can help individuals with personality disorders learn how to manage their symptoms, improve their relationships, and develop healthier coping mechanisms.

Some of the most common signs and symptoms of personality disorders include:

* Patterns of negative thinking or maladaptive behaviors that last for more than a year
* Difficulty with emotional regulation, leading to intense emotions or mood swings
* Struggles with social relationships, including difficulty forming and maintaining healthy relationships
* Difficulty with impulse control, leading to reckless or irresponsible behaviors
* Avoidance of social situations or feelings of inadequacy
* Grandiosity, a need for admiration, or a lack of empathy for others.

It is important to note that personality disorders are not the same as other mental health conditions like depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder. However, these conditions can sometimes co-occur with personality disorders, and it is essential to receive a proper diagnosis from a licensed mental health professional for an accurate treatment plan.

In summary, personality disorders are chronic and pervasive patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can cause distress and impairment in various aspects of life. They can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but with the help of a trained mental health professional, individuals with personality disorders can learn how to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Conduct disorder is a mental health condition that is characterized by a pattern of behavior in children and adolescents that violates the rights of others, as well as age-appropriate societal norms and rules. This condition can involve behaviors such as aggression to people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, theft, and serious violations of rules.

Conduct disorder is also characterized by a lack of empathy, guilt, or remorse for one's actions, as well as a tendency towards impulsivity.

Symptoms of conduct disorder can include:

* Aggression to people or animals
* Destruction of property
* Deceitfulness
* Theft
* Serious violations of rules
* Disrespect for authority figures
* Lack of empathy, guilt, or remorse for one's actions
* Impulsivity
* Difficulty with self-control
* Antisocial behavior

Conduct disorder is diagnosed based on a combination of the child's symptoms and behavior, as well as an evaluation of their social and family history. Treatment for conduct disorder typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication.

Psychotherapy may involve:

* Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to help the child identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Family therapy to address any family dynamics that may be contributing to the child's behavior
* Social skills training to help the child learn appropriate social interactions and communication skills.

Medications that may be used to treat conduct disorder include:

* Stimulants, such as Ritalin (methylphenidate), to help with impulse control and attention
* Antipsychotics, such as Risperdal (risperidone), to help with aggression and irritability
* Antidepressants, such as Prozac (fluoxetine), to help with mood regulation.

It's important to note that conduct disorder is a mental health condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. Children with conduct disorder are at an increased risk of developing other mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, as well as engaging in risky behaviors, such as substance abuse and delinquency. With appropriate treatment and support, however, it is possible for children with conduct disorder to learn healthy coping mechanisms, improve their social skills, and lead successful lives as adults.

There are several different types of glaucoma, including:

* Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common form of glaucoma, and is caused by slowed drainage of fluid from the eye.
* Closed-angle glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by a blockage in the drainage channels of the eye, leading to a sudden increase in pressure.
* Normal-tension glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by damage to the optic nerve even though the pressure in the eye is within the normal range.
* Congenital glaucoma: This is a rare type of glaucoma that is present at birth, and is caused by a developmental defect in the eye's drainage system.

Symptoms of glaucoma can include:

* Blurred vision
* Loss of peripheral vision
* Eye pain or pressure
* Redness of the eye
* Seeing halos around lights

Glaucoma is typically diagnosed with a combination of visual acuity tests, dilated eye exams, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for glaucoma usually involves medication to reduce pressure in the eye, but may also include surgery to improve drainage or laser therapy to prevent further damage to the optic nerve.

Early detection and treatment of glaucoma is important to prevent vision loss, so it is important to have regular eye exams, especially if you are at risk for the condition. Risk factors for glaucoma include:

* Age (over 60)
* Family history of glaucoma
* Diabetes
* High blood pressure
* African or Hispanic ancestry

Overall, glaucoma is a serious eye condition that can cause vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing vision loss and maintaining good eye health.

In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.

In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the pelvis. In a normal hip joint, the ball (the head of the femur) fits snugly into the socket (the acetabulum). However, in dogs with hip dysplasia, the ball and socket may not fit together properly, causing the joint to become loose or unstable. This can lead to inflammation, pain, and degenerative changes in the joint over time.

There are two main types of hip dysplasia in dogs: developmental hip dysplasia and degenerative hip dysplasia. Developmental hip dysplasia occurs when the hip joint does not form properly during fetal development, while degenerative hip dysplasia is caused by wear and tear on the joint over time.

The symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Lameness or difficulty walking
* Pain or discomfort
* Stiffness or limited mobility
* Difficulty rising or climbing stairs
* Decreased activity level or reluctance to exercise
* Grinding or clicking sounds when the dog moves its hip joint

Hip dysplasia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, radiographs (x-rays), and arthroscopy. Treatment options for the condition may include:

* Medication to manage pain and inflammation
* Weight management to reduce the strain on the joint
* Surgery to repair or replace the damaged joint
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength

Preventative measures such as feeding a balanced diet, providing plenty of exercise and weight management can help to reduce the risk of developing hip dysplasia in dogs. However, if the condition does occur, early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the symptoms and improve the dog's quality of life.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

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Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), is a non-parametric multivariate statistical permutation test. ... doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.pp.x. Anderson, Marti J. (2005). "Permutational Analysis of Variance" (PDF). Wheeler, Bob; ... Anderson, Marti J. (2001). "A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance". Austral Ecology. 26 (1): 32-46 ... Analysis of variance, Statistical hypothesis testing, Ecology). ... use of F test to compare within-group to between-group variance ...
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... (MAVA), is a statistical technique used to estimate the proportion of variance in a ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Analysis of variance, All stub articles, Genetics ... Cattell, Raymond B. (1960). "The multiple abstract variance analysis equations and solutions: For nature-nurture research on ... Loehlin, John C. (1965). "Some methodological problems in Cattell's Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis". Psychological Review ...
... (AMOVA), is a statistical model for the molecular algorithm in a single species, typically ... Excoffier, L; Smouse, Pe; Quattro, Jm (Jun 1992). "Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA ... Analysis of variance, All stub articles, Statistics stubs). ... This software allows for calculation of analyses such as AMOVA ... Since developing AMOVA, Excoffier has written a program for running such analyses. This program, which runs on Windows, is ...
Analysis of variance F test (Includes a one-way ANOVA example) Mixed model Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) Repeated ... a non-parametric alternative to this test should be used such as Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. If the variances ... In statistics, one-way analysis of variance (abbreviated one-way ANOVA) is a technique that can be used to compare whether two ... An extension of one-way ANOVA is two-way analysis of variance that examines the influence of two different categorical ...
... variance due to being in different repeated measure conditions), SSerror (other variance), and SSBT*WT (variance of interaction ... When running an analysis of variance to analyse a data set, the data set should meet the following criteria: Normality: scores ... In statistics, a mixed-design analysis of variance model, also known as a split-plot ANOVA, is used to test for differences ... Marianne Müller (ETH Zurich); Applied Analysis of Variance and Experimental Design, Lecture slides for week 4 (compiled 2011-10 ...
Analysis of variance F test (Includes a one-way ANOVA example) Mixed model Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) One-way ... In statistics, the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an extension of the one-way ANOVA that examines the influence of two ... Five sums of squares are calculated: Finally, the sums of squared deviations required for the analysis of variance can be ... doi:10.1016/0012-365X(93)90410-U. Gelman, Andrew (February 2005). "Analysis of variance? why it is more important than ever". ...
The parametric equivalent of the Kruskal-Wallis test is the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A significant Kruskal-Wallis ... unlike the analogous one-way analysis of variance. If the researcher can make the assumptions of an identically shaped and ... "Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks". Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent. pp. 226- ... "Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis". Journal of the American Statistical Association. 47 (260): 583-621. doi: ...
"Explained Variance" Explain?: Reply". Political Analysis. 2 (1): 173-184. doi:10.1093/pan/2.1.173. (Articles with short ... In statistics, the fraction of variance unexplained (FVU) in the context of a regression task is the fraction of variance of ... where R2 is the coefficient of determination and VARerr and VARtot are the variance of the residuals and the sample variance of ... 181 We define the fraction of variance unexplained (FVU) as: FVU = VAR err VAR tot = SS err / N SS tot / N = SS err SS tot ( = ...
Hair, J. F.; Anderson, R.; Tatham, R. L.; Black, W. C. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice ... In statistics, the variance inflation factor (VIF) is the ratio (quotient) of the variance of estimating some parameter in a ... Example If the variance inflation factor of a predictor variable were 5.27 (√5.27 = 2.3), this means that the standard error ... vif function in the car R package ols_vif_tol function in the olsrr R package PROC REG in SAS System variance_inflation_factor ...
... is an important tool in the sciences, where statistical analysis of data is common. The variance is the square of the ... dispersion Variance-stabilizing transformation Correlation Distance variance Explained variance Pooled variance Pseudo-variance ... the variance of a sum of uncorrelated random variables is equal to the sum of their variances. A disadvantage of the variance ... and the variance calculated from this is called the sample variance. The variance calculated from a sample is considered an ...
... is typically used in statistical meta-analysis or sensor fusion to combine the results from ... In statistics, inverse-variance weighting is a method of aggregating two or more random variables to minimize the variance of ... Given a sequence of independent observations yi with variances σi2, the inverse-variance weighted average is given by y ^ = ∑ i ... The inverse-variance weighted average has the least variance among all weighted averages, which can be calculated as V a r ( y ...
The variance function and its applications come up in many areas of statistical analysis. A very important use of this function ... In statistics, the variance function is a smooth function which depicts the variance of a random quantity as a function of its ... We derive the variance function for a few common distributions. The Normal distribution is a special case where the variance ... Variance functions quantify the relationship between the variance and the mean of the observed data and hence play a ...
Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis (Technical report). National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST SP 1065. ... The modified Allan variance (MVAR), also known as mod σy2(τ), is a variable bandwidth modified variant of Allan variance, a ... The modified Allan variance is defined for using time error samples as mod ⁡ σ y 2 ( n τ 0 ) = 1 2 τ 2 ⟨ [ 1 n ∑ i = 0 n − 1 x ... The modified Allan variance estimator for time error time series is mod ⁡ σ y 2 ( n τ 0 ) = 1 2 n 4 τ 0 2 ( N − 3 n + 1 ) ∑ j ...
"The first in-depth technical analysis of VP8". 2010-05-19. Archived from the original on 2015-04-11. "Xvid Builds FAQ". 2012-09 ... Implementation of variance-based adaptive quantization in x264 The intuitive justification (handwaving) v t e (All stub ... Visual quality gain in x264: Variance Adaptive Quantization (VAQ) is a video encoding algorithm that was first introduced in ...
His article analyses the case of M frequency samples (called N in the article) and variance estimators. It provides the now ... modified Hadamard variance, the total variance, modified total variance and the Theo variance. These distinguish themselves in ... Allan provided a method to convert between any M-sample variance to any N-sample variance via the common 2-sample variance, ... The B1 bias function relates the M-sample variance with the 2-sample variance (Allan variance), keeping the time between ...
J.O. Urmson (1967). Philosophical analysis: its development between the two world wars. Oxford University Press. p. 186. Quoted ... the doctrine of quantifier variance'". Hirsch's quantifier variance has been connected to Carnap's idea of a linguistic ... The term quantifier variance refers to claims that there is no uniquely best ontological language with which to describe the ... Quantifier variance is then one argument concerning exactly what expressions can be construed as quantifiers, and just which ...
"Algorithms for computing the sample variance: Analysis and recommendations" (PDF). The American Statistician. 37 (3): 242-247. ... This is given by the following code: def two_pass_variance(data): n = len(data) mean = sum(data) / n variance = sum([ (x-mean ... "Accurately computing sample variance online". West, D. H. D. (1979). "Updating Mean and Variance Estimates: An Improved Method ... 2 variance = (Ex2 - Ex**2 / n) / (n - 1) # use n instead of (n-1) if want to compute the exact variance of the given data # use ...
... labour variances Variable production overhead variances Fixed production overhead variances Sales variances Variance analysis, ... Variance analysis can be carried out for both costs and revenues. Variance analysis is usually associated with explaining the ... Mix and yield variances can also be calculated. Variance analysis helps management to understand the present costs and then to ... When actual results are worse than expected results given variance is described as adverse variance, or unfavourable variance. ...
analysis, Full Bio Evan Tarver has 6+ years of experience in financial; Author, 5+ Years as an; editor; Tarver, copywriter ... Price variance (Vmp) is a term used in cost accounting which denotes the difference between the expected cost of an item ( ... The variance is said to be favorable when the Standard materials Price is higher than the Actual Materials Price, since less ... A price variance means that actual costs may exceed the budgeted cost, which is generally not desirable. This is important when ...
It can also be used to perform analysis without any missing data. IVEware defaults to assuming a simple random sample, but uses ... Imputation and Variance Estimation Software (IVEware) is a collection of routines written under various platforms and packaged ... Raghunathan, T. E., Solenberger, P., Berglund, P., van Hoewyk, J. (2017). IVEware: Imputation and Variance Estimation Software ... to perform multiple imputations, variance estimation (or standard error) and, in general, draw inferences from incomplete data ...
Lande, R (1979). "Quantitative genetic-analysis of multivariate evolution, applied to brain-body size allometry". Evolution. 33 ... Phenotypic variance, usually combines the genotype variance with the environmental variance. Genetic variance has three major ... components: the additive genetic variance, dominance variance, and epistatic variance. Additive genetic variance involves the ... including additive variance (VA), dominance variance (VD), and epistatic variance (VI). VG = VA + VD + VI 1. Traditionally, ...
Jones, Alan (15 July 2016). "Official Charts Analysis: Biffy Clyro in at No. 1 with Ellipsis". Music Week. Retrieved 29 ... "50 Best Albums of 2016". Variance. 7 December 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2018. ...
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Shephard, Neil (May 2002). "Econometric analysis of realised volatility and its use in estimating ... Realized variance or realised variance (RV, see spelling differences) is the sum of squared returns. For instance the RV can be ... Unlike the variance the realized variance is a random quantity. The realized volatility is the square root of the realized ... The realized variance based on n {\displaystyle n} intraday returns is given by R V ( n ) = ∑ i = 1 n r i , n 2 , {\ ...
Portsmouth, Jamie (2004). "Analysis of the Kamionkowski-Loeb method of reducing cosmic variance with CMB polarization". ... unless the observer is careful to include the variance. This variance is called the cosmic variance and is separate from other ... The term cosmic variance is the statistical uncertainty inherent in observations of the universe at extreme distances. It has ... Variance is normally plotted separately from other sources of uncertainty. Because it is necessarily a large fraction of the ...
Jones, Alan (2 October 2015). "Official Charts Analysis: Disclosure's Caracal takes No.1 album slot with 26,789 sales". Music ... "The 50 Best Albums of 2015". Variance. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015. ...
Variance swap Volatility swap Volatility (finance) Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Shephard, Neil (May 2002). "Econometric analysis ... In finance, an option on realized variance (or variance option) is a type of variance derivatives which is the derivative ... variance strike) sometime in the future (expiry date), except that risk exposure is solely subjected to the price's variance ... variance options give the owner a right but without obligation to buy or sell the realized variance in exchange with some ...
The targets of uncertainty propagation analysis can be: To evaluate low-order moments of the outputs, i.e. mean and variance. ... "Modularization in Bayesian analysis, with emphasis on analysis of computer models". Bayesian Analysis. Institute of ... In regression analysis and least squares problems, the standard error of parameter estimates is readily available, which can be ... The probabilistic approach is considered as the most rigorous approach to uncertainty analysis in engineering design due to its ...
Research has demonstrated marked regional variance with regard to the proportion of veteran claimants who receive VA disability ... 1381, 1401-1414 (2021) (history and analysis of the presumption of competence for VA medical examiners). Yelena Duterte, Duty ... Critical analysis and strategies for remediation". Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. doi:10.1037/law0000359. ISSN 1939-1528. ...
"WPC Surface Analysis Archive: WPC surface analysis valid for 01/23/2015 at 21 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. College Park, ... The North American winter season of 2014-15 expressed a significant level of variance. First, a cyclone in the Bering Sea ...
... see Analysis of variance For modelling involving the multivariate generalisation of sums of squares, see Multivariate analysis ... In mathematics, statistics and elsewhere, sums of squares occur in a number of contexts: For partitioning of variance, see ... of variance For the sum of squares of consecutive integers, see Square pyramidal number For representing an integer as a sum of ...
This analysis determines when and where surveys will be conducted. Issuance of surveys: WD-10 survey forms are sent to ... variances may run around 9%, but in some cases the WHD data may be too low. For these reasons, the DOL Office of Inspector ... An Analysis of Davis-Bacon Prevailing Wage Requirements:Evidence from Highway Resurfacing Projects in Colorado (PDF), Healy ...
In this case, in continuous time Itô's equation is the main tool of analysis. In the case where the maximization is an integral ... The only information needed regarding the unknown parameters in the A and B matrices is the expected value and variance of each ... Analysis and Control of Dynamic Economic Systems. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-15616-7. Turnovsky, Stephen (1976). "Optimal ...
This point is at the bottom of the thermocline and the top of the deep isothermal layer and thus has some seasonal variance. ... Analysis of Heard Island Feasibility Test data received by the Ascension Island Missile Impact Locating System hydrophones at ...
They observed that an identical statistical analysis of randomly-generated synthetic data gave the same results as the actual ... The transformations filtered out other sources of radial-velocity variance, including effects of starspots, photospheric ... The team concluded that their analysis "underscores the difficulty of detecting weak planetary signals in RV data". Dumusque ... demonstrating flaws in the original analysis. Using the same data as Dumusque, the Oxford team found the signal was caused not ...
His research is focused in the areas of auto-regulation, self-regulation, knowledge-based economy and variance minimization of ... He also contributed to the design, analysis, and implementation of distributed strategic learning. He has established ... a class of multi-agent distributionally robust generative adversarial networks under various divergence notions and variance- ...
Using twin experiments, Behrman, Taubman and Mark Rosenzweig find that 27% of the variance in income and 42% of the variance in ... In the past, he has served as director of the Center for Analysis of Developing Economies (1982-95), director of the Population ... In this area, together with Robert A. Pollak and Paul Taubman, Behrman developed a model for the analysis of parental ... 2001). Child Health and School Enrollment: A Longitudinal Analysis. Journal of Human Resources, 36(1), pp. 185-205. Behrman, J. ...
Methods and Data Analysis for Cross-Cultural Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997 Cherry, Kendra. "What is Cross Cultural ... Cross-cultural psychologists are turning more to the study of how differences (variance) occur, rather than searching for ... Through expanding research methodologies to recognize cultural variance in behavior, language, and meaning it seeks to extend ... a failure of analysis". Human Relations. 55 (1): 89-118. doi:10.1177/0018726702551004. S2CID 145781752. Kim, U., Triandis, H. C ...
An analysis in Vox hypothesised that the minority government did not want to risk its hold on power by banning large gatherings ... the variance between nations is prominent. The high infection and mortality rates of the pandemic in countries in the Western ... "Mortality Analyses". Johns Hopkins University. 27 December 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020. Hasell, Joe; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban ... McCaffrey, Darren (22 April 2020). "Analysis: Can we trust Belgium's COVID-19 death statistics?". Euronews. Archived from the ...
Even Markowitz, himself, stated that "semi-variance is the more plausible measure of risk" than his mean-variance theory. Later ... Then, through a theoretical analysis of capital market values, Hogan and Warren demonstrated that 'the fundamental structure of ... industries were asked about their definition of risk resulting in semi-variance being a better indicator than ordinary variance ... Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis. 9 (1): 1-11. doi:10.2307/2329964. Chong, James; Phillips, Michael (2012). " ...
The numerical analysis has also revealed that the ~λ−4 contribution from macroscopic fluctuations of shear modulus is ... represents the variance of the fluctuation in the dielectric constant ϵ {\displaystyle \epsilon } . The strong wavelength ... Szamel, G.; Flenner, E. (2022). "Microscopic analysis of sound attenuation in low-temperature amorphous solids reveals ...
The existence of heteroscedasticity is a major concern in regression analysis and the analysis of variance, as it invalidates ... In matrix B, the variance is time-varying, increasing steadily across time; in matrix C, the variance depends on the value of x ... so the variance is proportional to the value of x. More generally, if the variance-covariance matrix of disturbance ϵ i {\ ... possibly above or below the true of population variance. Thus, regression analysis using heteroscedastic data will still ...
Clark is the coauthor of: Applied Statistics: Analysis of Variance and Regression (with Olive Jean Dunn, 1974; 3rd ed. with ... with Clark, 2009) Practical Multivariate Analysis (with Abdelmomem Afifi and Susanne May, 5th ed., 2012) Clark became a Fellow ... Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis (with Abdelmomem Afifi, 1984; 4th ed. with Susanne May, 2004) Processing Data: The Survey ... Reviews of Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis: Fang, Kai-tai, zbMATH, Zbl 0888.62050{{citation}}: CS1 maint: untitled ...
A 2018 analysis by political scientists Yascha Mounk and Jordan Kyle links populism to democratic backsliding, showing that ... Global variation in democracy is primarily explained by variance between popular adherence to authoritarian values vs. ...
An analysis of molecular variance based on Y-chromosomal STRs showed that Slavs can be divided into two groups: one ... According to correspondence analysis, admixture analysis and Rst genetic distance, Serbian regional population samples cluster ... The variance of R1a1 in the Balkans might have been enhanced by infiltrations of Indo-European speaking peoples between 2000 ... Admixture analysis of autosomal SNPs in a global context on the resolution level of 7 assumed ancestral populations per ...
A 2015 meta-analysis found that the effect was predominant in the United States while less evident in societies with robust ... Across both races, the total variance was generally found to be greater in the groups of higher socioeconomic status. It is ... Based on their analysis of the Louisville Twin Study, they reported weak evidence for the hypothesis that was not statistically ... The same 2015 meta-analysis found evidence of the Scarr-Rowe effect only in the United States, but no evidence of such an ...
New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.) Frank Duffy NeuroSearch-24 Neurometric Analysis System Neuroguide Analysis System BRC ... the software also allows clinicians to measure the subject's variance from normal. This technique promises to allow clinicians ... These analyses may also prove useful in determining therapy and monitoring its efficacy." In 1977, Roy John and Robert Thatcher ... This computer analysis makes it possible to detect and quantify abnormal brain organization, to give a quantitative definition ...
Beyond the variance in eligibility and coverage between states, there is a large variance in the reimbursements Medicaid offers ... Sommers, Benjamin D. (July 2017). "State Medicaid Expansions and Mortality, Revisited: A Cost-Benefit Analysis" (PDF). American ...
A future modification is considered with adaptive bit reallocation based on variance analysis of each subband, for example 9, 2 ... Reduced variance is generally expected to be found in higher bands compared to lower bands, thus ADPCM is employed to allocate ...
A metalinguistic analysis might reveal its contingency, but it has no interest whatsoever in such an analysis, and presents ... Dogmatism excludes any view or evidence that is at variance with it, making dialogue impossible, while at the (theoretically) ... In his analysis Bakhtin distinguishes between single-voiced and double-voiced discourse. Single-voiced discourse always retains ...
This is a comparison of statistical analysis software that allows doing inference with Gaussian processes often using ... in particular this implies that the variances must be uniform. These columns are about finding values of variables which enter ... Roustant, Olivier; Ginsbourger, David; Deville, Yves (2012). "DiceKriging, DiceOptim: Two R Packages for the Analysis of ... Data Analysis. 153: 107081. arXiv:1906.07828. doi:10.1016/j.csda.2020.107081. ISSN 0167-9473. S2CID 195068888. Retrieved 1 ...
With an altitude variance of over 7,000 ft (2,100 m), the park has a number of different ecological zones including alpine ... Some of the tools are made of obsidian which chemical analysis indicates came from sources near present-day Teton Pass, south ...
It accounts for approximately 35% of the variance in the 1980 gap in the life expectancies between black and white men. Her ... an economic analysis". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 15 (10): 1203-1210. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00149-8. ISSN 1473-3099. ...
There are also two cross-test scores that each range from 10 to 40 points: Analysis in History/Social Studies and Analysis in ... the amount of variance in student outcomes explained by test scores has increased since 2007, while variance explained by high ... In its analysis of the incident, the Princeton Review supported the idea of curving grades, but pointed out that the test was ... An early meta-analysis (from 1983) found similar results and noted "the size of the coaching effect estimated from the matched ...
Fujita T, Kozuka-Hata H, Ao-Kondo H, Kunieda T, Oyama M, Kubo T (January 2013). "Proteomic analysis of the royal jelly and ... "Although there is considerable variance in the queen determination rate within and among different laboratories ... it has ... computational analysis of putative promoters and genomic structure of mrjp1, the gene coding for the most abundant protein of ...
... can be considered as the identity matrix and then CSP corresponds to Principal component analysis. Linear discriminant analysis ... Thus CSP finds a projection that makes the variance of the components of the average ERP as large as possible so the signal ... The CSP algorithm determines the component w T {\displaystyle \mathbf {w} ^{\text{T}}} such that the ratio of variance (or ... CSP can be adapted for the analysis of the event-related potentials. Blind signal separation Zoltan J. Koles, Michael S. ...
Granger made the definition of probabilistic causality proposed by Norbert Wiener operational as a comparison of variances. ... research in the same way exploratory data analysis often precedes statistical hypothesis testing in data analysis Data analysis ... Exploratory causal analysis (ECA), also known as data causality or causal discovery is the use of statistical algorithms to ... Causal analysis is the field of experimental design and statistics pertaining to establishing cause and effect. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V ...
Variance-based sensitivity analysis. To determine the contributions to overall variance in Fig. 4, we use the 310 retained ... Variance based sensitivity analysis of model output. Design and estimator for the total sensitivity index. . Comput. Phys. ... First-order variance-based sensitivity analysis of the peak, 2050 and 2100 temperature changes for infrastructure commitments ... We extend the analysis of ref. 12, which considered emissions impacts of fossil fuel energy generation. At 42% of global CO2 ...
Analysis of Variance for Skin Cancer Data Section Weve covered quite a bit of ground. Lets review the analysis of variance ... Why is the ratio MSR/MSE labeled F* in the analysis of variance table? Thats because the ratio is known to follow an F ... The formula for each entry is summarized for you in the following analysis of variance table:. Source of Variation. DF. SS. MS ... Analysis of Variance. Source. DF. Adj SS. Adj MS. F-Value. P-Value. ...
... and expenses Expected cash flows Expected debt reduction A budget is compared to actual results to calculate the variances ... Budgeting, Forecasting and Variance Analysis. Budgeting is an outline of expectations for what a company wants to achieve for a ... Variance analysis is the study of deviations of actual behaviors versus forecasted or planned behaviors in budgeting or ... Our team of professional experts helps business to prepare budget, forecast the performance and analyze variance in detail ...
Our analysis is the rank equivalent of conventional Markowitz Mean Variance analysis. The first stage to generate rank ... analysis. One important case of this approach is based on the stocks m-tile (or quantile): if m = n, where n is the number of ... probability statistics using, historic data, Monte Carlo analysis or direct user input. The second stage is optimisation based ... This paper presents a new approach to portfolio optimisation that we call generalised mean-variance (GMV) ...
Variances must be calculated to identify the exact cause of the cost overrun. Variances are used to anal ... What is a Variance Analysis for Direct Materials? ... variance analysis price variance quantity variance labor rate ... What is a Variance Analysis for Direct Materials?Direct Materials Price Variance CalculationDirect Materials Quantity Variance ... Variance Analysis for Variable Manufacturing Overhead. Variable manufacturing overhead variance analysis involves two separate ...
Variance analysis is a technique used in managerial accounting. It allows companies to calculate the difference between ... Variance Analysis: Definition, Formula, Example Project managers use variance analysis to identify and correct problems with ... Consequently, they can investigate how those variances occurred. Variance analysis can apply to various areas if a company has ... Sales Volume Variance: Definition, Formula, Analysis, Examples Posted on March 17, 2022 By John In ACCOUNTING ...
This activity analyses the difference between actual performance vs its budgets. ... Variance analysis formula is the key to prepare variance analysis reports. ... Fixed Overhead VarianceFlexible Budget VarianceLabor VarianceMaterial VarianceSales VarianceVariable Overhead VarianceVariances ... Variance Analysis Formula with Example. The variance analysis formula is the key to preparing variance analysis reports. For ...
Define and describe standard costs and cost variance analysis. *Discuss the benefits of sales variance analysis and how to ... The course will define and analyze standard costs and cost variance analysis, giving an overview of cost variance analysis ... We will explain sales variance analysis, discussing when it can be used, and how to calculate sales variances. We will provide ... We will discuss direct labor variance analysis, demonstrating what it is, and how direct labor variance analyst is used. We ...
... Elamir, Elsayed A. H. ... Analysis of Variance versus Analysis of Means: A Comparative Study. Admin Login ... One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model is very famous and versatile statistical technique for studying the relation between ... Meanwhile, the analysis of means (ANOM) is a graphical method for presenting multiple group comparisons with an overall mean. ...
Bug 80601 - EDITING: Analysis of Variance dialog doesnt accept typed/pasted cell info Summary: EDITING: Analysis of Variance ... Bugzilla - Bug 80601 EDITING: Analysis of Variance dialog doesnt accept typed/pasted cell info Last modified: 2017-10-22 01:33: ...
Dan Wang, Dan Wang, Guanglei Zhang, Guanglei Zhang, "The float round-off error analysis for linear minimum variance adaptive ... The float round-off error analysis for linear minimum variance adaptive beamforming. ... In this paper, we propose the linear minimum variance adaptive beamforming approach to calculate the adaptive weighs at the ...
Li G, Wei Y, Chi Y, Gu Y, Chen Y. Sample complexity of asynchronous Q-learning: Sharper analysis and variance reduction. ... Li, G, Wei, Y, Chi, Y, Gu, Y & Chen, Y 2020, Sample complexity of asynchronous Q-learning: Sharper analysis and variance ... Sample complexity of asynchronous Q-learning: Sharper analysis and variance reduction. Gen Li, Yuting Wei, Yuejie Chi, Yuantao ... Sample complexity of asynchronous Q-learning: Sharper analysis and variance reduction. / Li, Gen; Wei, Yuting; Chi, Yuejie et ...
Sage Publications, 2001. Description: 180 pISBN: 0803970757Other title: Analysis of varianceSubject(s): Analysis of variance ... QA 279 2001TU Introduction to analysis of variance : QA 279 2002RO Observational studies / QA 279 77AN V1 The Analysis of ... Introduction to analysis of variance : design, analysis, and interpretation / J. Rick Turner, Julian F. Thayer. By: Turner, J. ... QA 279 2001KE Data construction and data analysis for survey research / QA 279 2001RU Introducing ANOVA and ANCOVA : ...
In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeatedmeasures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this ... In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeatedmeasures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this ... In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeatedmeasures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this ... In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeatedmeasures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this ...
See the section below, "Degrees of Freedom for Subgroup Analysis in NHANES," for additional considerations in subgroup analysis ... Design Effect = Variance estimate (cluster sample) / Variance estimate (simple random sample) If the DEFF is 1, the variance ... Brief description of variance estimation procedures used with NHANES data Variance of estimates (sampling errors) should be ... These MVUs produce variance estimates that closely approximate the variances that would have been estimated using the true ...
Variance components method.. Process capability analysis. *Comparative histograms.. *CDF plots, probability plots, Q-Q plots, P ... Extended set of models and new graphics for recurrent event analysis.. Analysis of means. *Simultaneously compare k treatment ...
How To Conduct a Budget Analysis Apr 26, 2023 * What Is Budget Variance - And How To Calculate It Apr 01, 2023 ...
When the factors do not obey the Gaussian distribution, it is unreasonable to only implement the variance analysis. The ... E. B. Yi, Z. L. Mu, L. M. Dou, J. G. Ju, L. Xie, and D. L. Xu, "Study on comparison and analysis of pressure releasing effect ... Simulation Analysis of Blast-Induced Fracture for Pressure Relief. The numerical software LS-DYNA3D is applied to establish the ... Theoretical Analysis of Blasting Parameters for Weakening Coal. The main basis for measuring the blasting effect is the range ...
... the analysis of variance is discussed in the event of experiments where the same participant is measured at all levels of the ... Chapter 14 - How to apply the analysis of variance for repeated-measures designs?. Access options. ...
Analysis of Variance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant effect of the genotype for all traits. For N ... Data Analysis. A bifactorial (genotype and N treatment) analysis of variance was performed for every trait studied for the ... Soil Analysis. A soil physicochemical and composition analysis was performed in both field plots before the transplant and ... As expected, the coefficient of phenotypic variance was higher than the coefficient of genetic variance for all traits studied ...
Cost Variance. Expense Name. Budget. Actual. Variance. Variance Analysis. Salaries, wages and fringe benefits. 262,251. 259,507 ... Causes of variances. All of the above expenses have positive variances resulting from less actual cost incurred compared to the ... "Hospitals Budget Management Analysis." BusinessEssay, 15 Nov. 2022, business-essay.com/budget-management-analysis-essay/. ... The positive variance in salaries, wages and fringe benefits could be as result of less time used or a lower rate paid per unit ...
Strengths of meta-analysis in relation to other meta-analyses. This meta-analysis is a comprehensive evaluation of the evidence ... I−V=inverse variance method; D+L=DerSimonian and Laird method. *Download figure ... We did sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and assessments of publication bias and exposure-response relation only for the ... We incorporated data such that each participant was included in an analysis only once to avoid unit of analysis error. We ...
Analysis of Variance * Aortic Valve Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging* * Aortic Valve Insufficiency / pathology* ...
Analysis Tool: 2x2x2 Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples. This page will perform an analysis of variance for the ... Analysis Tool: Two-Way Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples. This page will compute the Two-Way Factorial ANOVA for ... Analysis Tool: One-Way Analysis of Variance for Independent or Correlated Samples. ... This page will perform a two-way factorial analysis of variance for designs in which there are 2-4 levels of each of two ...
Computing for Practical Statistics; Linear Models and the Analysis of Variance; Introduction to Applied Probability; ... In the first two years of these programmes students receive a thorough grounding in analysis, algebra and mathematical methods ...
Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Results: In all, 118 participants fully adhered to the intervention ... Differences between adherers and nonadherers were investigated using 1-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests (χ ... We chose to do this analysis only for a small subsample of the data because the focus of this exploratory analysis was on ... Our in-depth analyses of the use patterns presented in Multimedia Appendix 4, yielded notable patterns that are useful for the ...
• One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model is very famous and versatile statistical technique for studying the relation between response variable and one or more explanatory or predictor variables. (edu.bh)
• Statistical analyses including regression, ANOVA, residual and outlier analysis. (sas.com)
• Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. (bvsalud.org)
• The materials price variance is the difference between actual costs for materials purchased and budgeted costs based on the standards. (helpjuice.com)
• The materials price variance answers the question, did we spend more or less on direct materials than expected? (helpjuice.com)
• Note that both approaches-the direct materials price variance calculation and the alternative calculation-yield the same result. (helpjuice.com)
• Item prices may change over a period, causing sales price variance. (harbourfronts.com)
• labor efficiency variance. (helpjuice.com)
• The labor efficiency variance is the difference between the actual number of direct labor hours worked and budgeted direct labor hours that should have been worked based on the standards. (helpjuice.com)
• A budget is compared to actual results to calculate the variances between the two figures. (forthrightconsultancy.com)
• You must also have the actual materials cost and materials quantity data to calculate the variances described previously. (helpjuice.com)
• How to calculate the Sales Volume Variance? (harbourfronts.com)
• Companies can use the sales volume variance to calculate their performance for several products. (harbourfronts.com)
• For each type of variance, there is a plug-and-play variance formula to calculate. (efinancemanagement.com)
• We will explain sales variance analysis, discussing when it can be used, and how to calculate sales variances. (edutreasure.in)
• The course will cover direct materials variance analysis, showing what it is, how to use it, and how to calculate direct materials variance analysis. (edutreasure.in)
• We will describe why it is used and how to calculate overhead variance analysis. (edutreasure.in)
• In this paper, we propose the linear minimum variance adaptive beamforming approach to calculate the adaptive weighs at the subarray level for digital adaptive beamforming. (wichita.edu)
• You will learn how the complex survey design of NHANES and clustering of the data affect variance estimation, which methods are appropriate to use when calculating variance for NHANES data, how to properly calculate the variance for subgroups of interest, and how to specify the sampling design parameters in common statistical software packages. (cdc.gov)
• Standard statistical software packages that assume simple random sampling calculate variance estimates that are generally too low and biased because they do not account for differential weighting and the correlation among sample persons within a cluster. (cdc.gov)
• Statistical software that accounts for the sampling design effect must be used to calculate an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the variance and should be used for all statistical tests and the construction of confidence limits. (cdc.gov)
• If the variance is favorable, we spent less than expected. (helpjuice.com)
• Management use the information obtained to take corrective measures when the variances are adverse and reinforcing measures when the variances are favorable. (business-essay.com)
• The causes of favorable variances as in the case of Sarasota County Public Hospital District could be because of improving efficiency in operations or lower charges due to negotiated rates with suppliers or service providers. (business-essay.com)
• Among the sales variance, the sales volume variance is crucial for companies. (harbourfronts.com)
• What is the Sales Volume Variance? (harbourfronts.com)
• Sales volume variance refers to the difference between expected sales and actual performance. (harbourfronts.com)
• Sales volume variance gauges a company's sales performance. (harbourfronts.com)
• Sales volume variance is critical in measuring how efficient a company has been in selling its products. (harbourfronts.com)
• Companies can use the following formula for sales volume variance. (harbourfronts.com)
• Companies must keep this price at a standard to reach the volume variance. (harbourfronts.com)
• Consequently, companies will reach a favourable or adverse sales volume variance. (harbourfronts.com)
• Therefore, the sales volume variance for the company will be as follows. (harbourfronts.com)
• Therefore, it has suffered an adverse sales volume variance of \$5,000. (harbourfronts.com)
• What are the reasons for Sales Volume Variance? (harbourfronts.com)
• One of the primary reasons for a sales volume variance is the market demand for the underlying product. (harbourfronts.com)
• Therefore, it will cause a favourable sales volume variance. (harbourfronts.com)
• On the other hand, if the demand decreases, it will result in an adverse sales volume variance. (harbourfronts.com)
• Sales volume variance may also reflect on a company's efficiency in production. (harbourfronts.com)
• Sales volume variance calculates why sales vary based on the number of products sold. (harbourfronts.com)
• There are two types of sales volume variance, including mix and quantity variances. (harbourfronts.com)
• A variance that arises due to the difference between the actual variable overhead and the standard variable overhead based on budgets is termed a variable overhead variance. (efinancemanagement.com)
• The course will discuss overhead variance analysis. (edutreasure.in)
• We will also include a comprehensive problem on overhead variance and a comprehensive problem on variance analysis. (edutreasure.in)
• Unlike budgeting, financial forecasting does not analyze the variance between financial forecasts and actual performance. (forthrightconsultancy.com)
• Variances are used to analyze the difference between actual direct material costs and standard direct material costs. (helpjuice.com)
• What variances are used to analyze these types of direct labor cost overruns? (helpjuice.com)
• The course will define and analyze standard costs and cost variance analysis, giving an overview of cost variance analysis concepts that we will go into more detail on in later sections. (edutreasure.in)
• In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeatedmeasures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. (nau.edu)
• The following variables are used to produce codes for variance estimation. (cdc.gov)
• One needs first to define a 'plan file' with information about the weight and variance estimation, e.g. (cdc.gov)
• This design provides for more statistically efficient variance estimation than Method 1, since it makes fewer simplifications of the NHIS sample design structure but is only applicable to SUDAAN. (cdc.gov)
• This module introduces the basic concepts of variance (sampling error) estimation for NHANES data. (cdc.gov)
• For a complex sample survey such as NHANES, variance estimates computed using standard statistical software packages that assume simple random sampling are generally too low (i.e., significance levels are overstated) and biased because they do not account for the differential weighting and the correlation among sample persons within a cluster. (cdc.gov)
• This page will perform a two-way factorial analysis of variance for designs in which there are 2-4 levels of each of two variables, A and B, with each subject measured under each of the AxB combinations. (causeweb.org)
• This page will perform a two-way factorial analysis of variance for designs in which there are 2-4 randomized blocks of matched subjects, with 2-4 repeated measures for each subject. (causeweb.org)
• In general, using statistical weights that reflect the probability of selection and propensity of response for sampled individuals will affect parameter estimates, while incorporating the attributes of the complex sample design (i.e. differential weighting, clustering and stratification) will affect variance estimates (estimated standard errors and thereby test statistics and confidence intervals). (cdc.gov)
• Variance of estimates (sampling errors) should be calculated for all survey estimates to aid in determining statistical reliability. (cdc.gov)
• If it fails to maintain its production capacity, it will incur an adverse variance. (harbourfronts.com)
• We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of using the hierarchical linear model with repeated measures and repeated-measures analysis of variance for longitudinal data. (nau.edu)
• The positive variance in supplies could be because of negotiations for lower prices by the purchasing function, improved efficiency therefore fewer supplies used, or procurement of high quality materials resulting into reduced wastage. (business-essay.com)
• The impact of the complex sample design upon variance estimates is measured by the design effect (DEFF). (cdc.gov)
• This will allow the manager to investigate the causes of the variances. (helpjuice.com)
• Consequently, they can investigate how those variances occurred. (harbourfronts.com)
• The strongest results from our study were from a multivariate analysis that can be considered a test of the overall community," said Meyer. (medscape.com)
• Multivariate analysis of variance. (bvsalud.org)
• Let's review the analysis of variance table for the example concerning skin cancer mortality and latitude ( Skin Cancer data ). (psu.edu)
• The first stage to generate rank probability statistics using, historic data, Monte Carlo analysis or direct user input. (cam.ac.uk)
• It may be used for subsetted data analyses, and it is suitable for analyses of pooled data in the 1985-94 period. (cdc.gov)
• Method 2 applies only to the 1987-94 period and is not recommended for subsetted data analyses. (cdc.gov)
• However, they are fundamental in any data- analysis approach. (bvsalud.org)
• Variance analysis refers to the investigation of the reasons for deviations in the financial performance from the standards set by an organization in its budget. (efinancemanagement.com)
• Variance analysis is the study of deviations of actual behaviors versus forecasted or planned behaviors in budgeting or management accounting. (forthrightconsultancy.com)
• Lininger, M , Spybrook, J & Cheatham, CC 2015, ' Hierarchical linear model: Thinking outside the traditional repeated-measures analysis-of-variance box ', Journal of athletic training , vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 438-441. (nau.edu)
• How to apply the analysis of variance for repeated-measures designs? (worldsupporter.org)
• Chapter 14 - How to apply the analysis of variance for repeated-measures designs? (worldsupporter.org)
• Why is the ratio MSR / MSE labeled F* in the analysis of variance table? (psu.edu)
• It is defined as the ratio of the variance of a statistic which accounts for the complex sample design to the variance of the same statistic based on a hypothetical simple random sample of the same size. (cdc.gov)
• Analysis of cohort studies showed a significantly higher risk of low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.09 to 1.53) and preterm birth (1.21, 1.13 to 1.30) with anaemia in the first or second trimester. (bmj.com)
• Introduction to analysis of variance : design, analysis, and interpretation / J. Rick Turner, Julian F. Thayer. (who.int)
• Positive variance means that the actual expense is less than the budgeted. (business-essay.com)
• Disposal of items of property plant and equipment or overestimation of amortization expense could have resulted in the positive variance (Seal, Garrison, & Noreen, 2008). (business-essay.com)
• We have now completed our investigation of all of the entries of a standard analysis of variance table. (psu.edu)
• Meanwhile, the analysis of means (ANOM) is a graphical method for presenting multiple group comparisons with an overall mean. (edu.bh)
• Variances must be calculated to identify the exact cause of the cost overrun. (helpjuice.com)
• The difference between the standard cost of direct materials and the actual cost of direct materials that an organization uses for production is known as material cost variance. (efinancemanagement.com)
• Refer to Variable Overhead Cost Variance for more. (efinancemanagement.com)
• A budget management analysis is therefore an evaluation of how well the cost of resources in carrying out the activity or within the period was within the budget set. (business-essay.com)
• All of the above expenses have positive variances resulting from less actual cost incurred compared to the budget. (business-essay.com)
• The medical assessment costs also were lower than budgeted this might be because of overestimation of the cost and therefore a positive variance. (business-essay.com)
• materials quantity variance. (helpjuice.com)
• The materials quantity variance is the difference between the actual quantity of materials used in production and budgeted materials that should have been used in production based on the standards. (helpjuice.com)
• The materials quantity variance answers the question, did we use more or fewer direct materials in production than expected? (helpjuice.com)
• Note that both approaches-the direct materials quantity variance calculation and the alternative calculation-yield the same result. (helpjuice.com)
• Companies can examine this variance further through volume mix and volume quantity variances. (harbourfronts.com)
• Further, the scaling on the discount complexity can be improved by means of variance reduction. (princeton.edu)
• The labor rate variance is the difference between actual costs for direct labor and budgeted costs based on the standards. (helpjuice.com)
• The direct labor rate variance answers the question, did we spend more or less on direct labor than expected? (helpjuice.com)
• We will discuss direct labor variance analysis, demonstrating what it is, and how direct labor variance analyst is used. (edutreasure.in)
• Variance analysis can apply to various areas if a company has a budget. (harbourfronts.com)
• Variance components method. (sas.com)
• Recodes are new variables that combine the code categories of one or more original variables in ways that should simplify analysis. (cdc.gov)
• This paper presents a new approach to portfolio optimisation that we call generalised mean-variance (GMV) analysis. (cam.ac.uk)
• The strongest associations in the variance tests for beta-diversity, which were significant for all cognition measures in multivariable-adjusted principal coordinates analysis (all Ps = .001 except for the Stroop, which was .007). (medscape.com)