**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Models, Genetic**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Genetic Variation**: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

**Breeding**: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.

**Quantitative Trait, Heritable**: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Quantitative Trait Loci**: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.

**Phenotype**: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

**Environment**: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Twins, Dizygotic**: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Twins, Monozygotic**: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.

**Likelihood Functions**: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Selection, Genetic**: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.

**Genetics, Population**: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.

**Factor Analysis, Statistical**: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.

**Inheritance Patterns**: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.

**Inbreeding**: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Questionnaires**: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

**Principal Component Analysis**: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

**Bayes Theorem**: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

**Monte Carlo Method**: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Crosses, Genetic**: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Genetic Markers**: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.

**Twins**: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).

**Body Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Epistasis, Genetic**: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.

**Genetic Linkage**: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.

**Alleles**: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

**Sample Size**: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)

**Chromosome Mapping**: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

**Psychometrics**: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Cross-Sectional Studies**: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

**Diseases in Twins**: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Weaning**: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

**Cattle**: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

**Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide**: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

**Biometry**: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.

**Reference Values**: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

**Sex Characteristics**: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.

**Multifactorial Inheritance**: A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.

**Gene Frequency**: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.

**Gene-Environment Interaction**: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Aging**: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

**Image Processing, Computer-Assisted**: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Observer Variation**: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).

**Genome-Wide Association Study**: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.

**Twin Studies as Topic**: Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Mathematics**: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Least-Squares Analysis**: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Bias (Epidemiology)**: Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

**Mathematical Computing**: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.

**Neuropsychological Tests**: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.

**Magnetic Resonance Imaging**: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

**Microsatellite Repeats**: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).

**Biomechanical Phenomena**: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**Biological Evolution**: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

**Severity of Illness Index**: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

**Genetic Heterogeneity**: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

**Stochastic Processes**: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.

**Reproduction**: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)

**Multivariate Analysis**: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

**Genetic Predisposition to Disease**: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

**Animals, Domestic**: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.

**Genetic Pleiotropy**: A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)

**Gene Expression Profiling**: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

**Models, Psychological**: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Pedigree**: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

**Population Density**: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.

**Litter Size**: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.

**Materials Testing**: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.

**Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis**: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

**Quality of Life**: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.

**Cluster Analysis**: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

**Body Mass Index**: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

**Normal Distribution**: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.

**Binomial Distribution**: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.

**Doppler Effect**: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Polymorphism, Genetic**: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

**Dental Stress Analysis**: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.

**Signal-To-Noise Ratio**: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.

**Social Environment**: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.

**Cognition**: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.

**Orthodontic Brackets**: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.

**Body Composition**: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.

**Psychomotor Performance**: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.

**Brain**: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

**Heredity**: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.

**Statistics, Nonparametric**: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

**Lod Score**: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."

**Animal Husbandry**: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.

**Models, Neurological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Adaptation, Psychological**: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)

**Movement**: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.

**Orthodontic Wires**: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.

**Genetic Drift**: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.

**Birth Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Research Design**: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.

**Stress, Psychological**: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

**Body Size**: The physical measurements of a body.

**Haplotypes**: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.

**Genetics, Behavioral**: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.

**Case-Control Studies**: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

**Posture**: The position or attitude of the body.

**Population**: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**Depression**: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

**Weight Gain**: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.

**Family**: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.

**Artifacts**: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.

**United States**

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**Individuality**: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.

**Seasons**: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**European Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.

**Anthropometry**: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.

**Self Efficacy**: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

**Fertility**: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.

**Ulna**: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.

**Poisson Distribution**: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.

**Task Performance and Analysis**: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.

**Activities of Daily Living**: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.

**Sampling Studies**: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.

**Personality Inventory**: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.

**Geography**: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)

**Personality**: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.

**Body Constitution**: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.

**Disability Evaluation**: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.

**Reaction Time**: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.

**Siblings**: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)

**Anxiety**: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.

**Markov Chains**: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.

**Dental Alloys**: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.

**Self Concept**: A person's view of himself.

**Demography**: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

**Health Status**: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.

**Swine**: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

**Statistical Distributions**: The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.

**Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.

**Heterozygote**: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.

**Body Height**: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.

**Psychiatric Status Rating Scales**: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.

**Cognition Disorders**: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.

**Muscle, Skeletal**: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.

**Fingers**: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.

**Species Specificity**: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

**Blood Pressure**: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.

**Range of Motion, Articular**: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.

**Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.

**Random Allocation**: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.

**Resin Cements**: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)

**Pain Measurement**: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.

**Genes, Dominant**: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

**Follow-Up Studies**: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

**Motor Activity**: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Obesity**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

**Hand Strength**: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.

**Biological Markers**: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

**Exercise**: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.

**Sexual Behavior, Animal**: Sexual activities of animals.

**Intention**: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.

**Biostatistics**: The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.

**Nuclear Family**: A family composed of spouses and their children.

**Quality Control**: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

**Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.

**Genetic Association Studies**: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.

**Mothers**: Female parents, human or animal.

**Orthodontic Appliance Design**: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.

**Environmental Monitoring**: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**Fatigue**: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.

**Weights and Measures**: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.

**Ecosystem**: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Phylogeny**: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

**Population Dynamics**: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.

**Calibration**: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.

**Imaging, Three-Dimensional**: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

**Psychological Tests**: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.

**Motor Skills**: Performance of complex motor acts.

**Genome, Human**: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.

## Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/37255)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations. (+info)## Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (2/37255)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity. (+info)## The significance of non-significance. (3/37255)

We discuss the implications of empirical results that are statistically non-significant. Figures illustrate the interrelations among effect size, sample sizes and their dispersion, and the power of the experiment. All calculations (detailed in Appendix) are based on actual noncentral t-distributions, with no simplifying mathematical or statistical assumptions, and the contribution of each tail is determined separately. We emphasize the importance of reporting, wherever possible, the a priori power of a study so that the reader can see what the chances were of rejecting a null hypothesis that was false. As a practical alternative, we propose that non-significant inference be qualified by an estimate of the sample size that would be required in a subsequent experiment in order to attain an acceptable level of power under the assumption that the observed effect size in the sample is the same as the true effect size in the population; appropriate plots are provided for a power of 0.8. We also point out that successive outcomes of independent experiments each of which may not be statistically significant on its own, can be easily combined to give an overall p value that often turns out to be significant. And finally, in the event that the p value is high and the power sufficient, a non-significant result may stand and be published as such. (+info)## Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (4/37255)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries. (+info)## Effect of coronary occlusion on left ventricular function with and without collateral supply during beating heart coronary artery surgery. (5/37255)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of coronary occlusion and collateral supply on left ventricular (LV) function during beating heart coronary artery surgery. DESIGN: Prospective intraoperative study, performed at baseline, during wall stabilisation, coronary artery occlusion, and 2 and 10 minutes after reperfusion. Transoesophageal M mode echocardiograms, simultaneous high fidelity LV pressure, and thermodilution cardiac output were measured. LV anterior wall thickening, thinning velocities, thickening fraction, regional work, and power production were derived. Asynchrony during the isovolumic periods was quantified as cycle efficiency. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS: 14 patients with stable angina, mean (SD) age 62 (7) years, undergoing left anterior descending artery grafting using the "Octopus" device. RESULTS: Collaterals were absent in nine patients and present in five. Epicardial stabilisation did not affect LV function. Results are expressed as mean (SD). Coronary occlusion (15.6 (2) minutes) depressed anterior wall thickening (1.4 (0.6) v 2.6 (0.6) cm/s) and thinning velocities (1.4 (0.5) v 3.0 (0.6) cm/s), regional work (2.2 (0.8) v 4.6 (0.6) mJ/cm2), and power (21 (4) v 33 (5) mW/cm2) in patients without collaterals (p < 0.05 for all), but only wall thinning (3.5 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) cm/s, p < 0.05) in patients with collaterals. All returned to baseline within 10 minutes of reperfusion. Cycle efficiency and regional work were impaired at baseline and fell during occlusion, regardless of collaterals. Within 10 minutes of reperfusion both had increased above baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary occlusion for up to 15 minutes during beating heart coronary artery surgery depressed standard measurements of systolic and diastolic anterior wall function in patients without collaterals, but only those of diastolic function in patients with collaterals. Regional synchrony decreased in both groups. All disturbances regressed within 10 minutes of reperfusion. (+info)## Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (6/37255)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine. (+info)## Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (7/37255)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis. (+info)## Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. (8/37255)

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. (+info)**Analysis** of **variance**

One-way

**analysis**of**variance**Permutational**analysis**of**variance**Repeated measures ANOVA Two-way**analysis**of**variance****Variance**...**analysis**of molecular**variance**)**Analysis**of covariance (ANCOVA) ANORVA (**analysis**of rhythmic**variance**) ANOVA on ranks ANOVA- ... simultaneous component**analysis**Explained variation Mixed-design**analysis**of**variance**Multivariate**analysis**of**variance**(MANOVA ... His first application of the**analysis**of**variance**was published in 1921.**Analysis**of**variance**became widely known after being ...## Permutational **analysis** of **variance**

Permutational multivariate

**analysis**of**variance**(PERMANOVA), is a non-parametric multivariate statistical test. PERMANOVA is ... Anderson, Marti J. (2001). "A new method for non-parametric multivariate**analysis**of**variance**". Austral Ecology. 26 (1): 32-46 ... doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.pp.x. Anderson, Marti J. (2005). "Permutational**Analysis**of**Variance**" (PDF). Alejandro ... measure the sum-of-squares within and between group and make use of F test to compare within-group to between-group**variance**. ...## Multivariate **analysis** of **variance**

Where sums of squares appear in univariate

**analysis**of**variance**, in multivariate**analysis**of**variance**certain positive-definite ... Multivariate**Analysis**of**Variance**(MANOVA) by Aaron French, Marcelo Macedo, John Poulsen, Tyler Waterson and Angela Yu, San ... In statistics, multivariate**analysis**of**variance**(MANOVA) is a procedure for comparing multivariate sample means. As a ... "Multivariate**Analysis**of**Variance**(MANOVA): I. Theory" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-22. Garson, G. David. "Multivariate GLM, MANOVA ...## One-way **analysis** of **variance**

**Analysis**of

**variance**F test (Includes a one-way ANOVA example) Mixed model Multivariate

**analysis**of

**variance**(MANOVA) Repeated ... a non-parametric alternative to this test should be used such as Kruskal-Wallis one-way

**analysis**of

**variance**. If the

**variances**... In statistics, one-way

**analysis**of

**variance**(abbreviated one-way ANOVA) is a technique that can be used to compare means of two ... An extension of one-way ANOVA is two-way

**analysis**of

**variance**that examines the influence of two different categorical ...

## Mixed-design **analysis** of **variance**

...

**variance**due to being in different repeated measure conditions), SSerror (other**variance**), and SSBT*WT (**variance**of interaction ... When running an**analysis**of**variance**to analyse a data set, the data set should meet the following criteria: Normality: scores ... In statistics, a mixed-design**analysis**of**variance**model (also known as a split-plot ANOVA) is used to test for differences ... Homogeneity of**variance**: each population should have the same error**variance**. Sphericity of the covariance matrix: ensures the ...## Two-way **analysis** of **variance**

**Analysis**of

**variance**F test (Includes a one-way ANOVA example) Mixed model Multivariate

**analysis**of

**variance**(MANOVA) One-way ... In statistics, the two-way

**analysis**of

**variance**(ANOVA) is an extension of the one-way ANOVA that examines the influence of two ... Gelman, Andrew (February 2005). "

**Analysis**of

**variance**? why it is more important than ever". The Annals of Statistics. 33 (1): 1 ... Gelman, Andrew; Hill, Jennifer (18 December 2006). Data

**Analysis**Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge ...

## Kruskal-Wallis one-way **analysis** of **variance**

The parametric equivalent of the Kruskal-Wallis test is the one-way

**analysis**of**variance**(ANOVA). A significant Kruskal-Wallis ... Daniel, Wayne W. (1990). "Kruskal-Wallis one-way**analysis**of**variance**by ranks". Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). ... unlike the analogous one-way**analysis**of**variance**. If the researcher can make the less stringent assumptions of an identically ... "Use of ranks in one-criterion**variance****analysis**". Journal of the American Statistical Association. 47 (260): 583-621. doi: ...**Analysis** of molecular **variance**

... (AMOVA), is a statistical model for the molecular variation in a single species, typically ... Excoffier, L; Smouse, Pe; Quattro, Jm (Jun 1992). "

**Analysis**of molecular**variance**inferred from metric distances among DNA ... This software allows for calculation of**analyses**such as AMOVA, as well as comparisons with other types of closely related ... Since developing AMOVA, Excoffier has written a program for running such**analyses**. This program, which runs on Windows is ...**Analysis** of rhythmic **variance**

... --ANORVA. A new simple method for detecting rhythms in biological time series.

**Analysis**of ... In statistics,**analysis**of rhythmic**variance**(ANORVA) is a method for detecting rhythms in biological time series, published by ... ANORVA is based on the premise that the**variance**in groups of data from rhythmic variables is low when a time distance of one ...**Variance**-based sensitivity **analysis**

... of the output

**variance**is caused by the**variance**in the first input, 20% by the**variance**in the second, and 10% due to ...**Variance**-based sensitivity**analysis**(often referred to as the Sobol method or Sobol indices, after Ilya M. Sobol) is a form of ... global sensitivity**analysis**. Working within a probabilistic framework, it decomposes the**variance**of the output of the model or ...**Variance**-based measures of sensitivity are attractive because they measure sensitivity across the whole input space (i.e. it is ...## Two-moment decision model

Mean-

**variance****analysis**redirects here. For mean-**variance**portfolio theory, see Modern portfolio theory or Mutual fund ... these employ mean-**variance****analysis**, and focus on the mean and**variance**of a portfolio's final value. Suppose that all relevant ... "A note on Feldstein's criticism of mean-**variance****analysis**". Review of Economic Studies. 45 (1): 197-199. JSTOR 2297094. Sinn, H ... The two moments are almost always the mean-that is, the expected value, which is the first moment about zero-and the**variance**, ...## Management by exception

Stimpson, P; Smith, A (2011). Budgetary control -

**variance****analysis**(Business and Management for the IB Diploma ed.). Cambridge ... Analysers consider two types of**variances**: adverse**variance**and favourable**variance**. Adverse**variance**"exists when the ... Anon (2011). "Management by Exception and**Variance****Analysis**". Accounting explanation. Archived from the original on 2011. ... Rather than considering all**variances**, managers establish criteria to determine which**variances**are significant to focus on. ...## Momentum accounting and triple-entry bookkeeping

Ijiri, Y. (1993), "

**Variance****analysis**and triple-entry bookkeeping." In: Yuji Ijiri (ed.), Creative and innovative approaches to ... 82-90 (in Dutch). Sousa Ferreira, A.C. de, M.O. Morais, M.C. Silva and R.R. do Santaos (2009), "Integrated**analysis**in three ... Melse, E. (2009-10-28), TEMA**analysis**of Lehman Brothers - Video in Dutch. Masterclass.. ...## Location-scale family

Mayshar, J. (1978). "A Note on Feldstein's Criticism of Mean-

**Variance****Analysis**". Review of Economic Studies. 45 (1): 197-199. ... has zero mean and unit**variance**, then Y {\displaystyle Y} can be written as Y = d μ Y + σ Y X {\displaystyle Y{\stackrel {d ... and decision-making can be framed in terms of the means and the**variances**of the distributions. Often, location-scale families ...## Yuji Ijiri

Ijiri, Y. (1993), "

**Variance****analysis**and triple-entry bookkeeping." In: Yuji Ijiri (ed.), Creative and innovative approaches to ...## Scheffé's method

It is particularly useful in

**analysis**of**variance**(a special case of regression**analysis**), and in constructing simultaneous ... Scheffé, H. (1999) [1959]. The**Analysis**of**Variance**. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-34505-9. Scheffé's method This article ... Applied Regression**Analysis**(2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc. p. 93. ISBN 9780471170822. Bohrer, Robert (1967). "On ... Draper and Smith, in their 'Applied Regression**Analysis**' (see references), indicate that 'r' should be in the equation in place ...## Statistics education

**Analysis**of

**Variance**(Anova); Statistical Process Control; Acceptance Sampling. The Centre for Innovation in Mathematics ... Such courses require a good course in real

**analysis**, covering the proofs of the theory of calculus and topics like the uniform ... This involves thinking about the nature and quality of the data and, where the data came from, choosing appropriate

**analyses**... At the same time, statistics is concerned with evidence-based reasoning, particularly with the

**analysis**of data. Therefore, ...

## Generalized randomized block design

"12 Multivariate

**analysis**of**variance**". Multivariate**analysis**. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-471250-9. Milliken, George A.; Johnson ... With replicates, interaction can be tested with the multivariate**analysis**of**variance**and coefficients in the linear model can ...**Analysis**of messy data. 2. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Wilk, M. B. (June 1955). "The Randomization**Analysis**of a ... test for the block-treatment interaction in the**analysis**of**variance**(anova) of the RCBD. The distinction between RCBDs and ...## Resampling (statistics)

The

**analysis**of**variance**test". Biometrika. 29 (3-4): 322-335. doi:10.1093/biomet/29.3-4.322. Modern references: Collingridge, ... However, the bootstrap**variance**estimator is not as good as the jackknife or the balanced repeated replication (BRR)**variance**... In the case of a unimodal variate the ratio of the jackknife**variance**to the sample**variance**tends to be distributed as one ... Instead of using the jackknife to estimate the**variance**, it may instead be applied to the log of the**variance**. This ...## E. J. G. Pitman

The

**analysis**of**variance**test. Biometrika 29, (1938), 322-335. The estimation of the location and scale parameters of a ...## James H. Bray

1985). Multivariate

**Analysis**of**Variance**. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9780803923102. "James H Bray, Ph.D". Baylor College of ...## Direct material price **variance**

In

**variance****analysis**(accounting) direct material price**variance**is the difference between the standard cost and the actual ... Example and direct material usage**variance**#Example for computations of both components.**Variance****analysis**(accounting). ... Direct material usage**variance**,tx2=Direct material price**variance**,tx3=Direct material total**variance**,am1=720 ,am2=424 ,am3= ... It is one of the two components (the other is direct material usage**variance**) of direct material total**variance**. Let us assume ...## Multivariate **analysis** of covariance

Multivariate

**analysis**of**variance**(MANOVA). [3] Davis, K., 2003. Multiple**analysis**of**variance**(MANOVA) or multiple**analysis**of ... "Multivariate**Analysis**of**Variance**(MANOVA): I. Theory" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-22. Garson, G. David. "Multivariate GLM, MANOVA ... Multivariate**analysis**of covariance (MANCOVA) is an extension of**analysis**of covariance (ANCOVA) methods to cover cases where ... Homogeneity of**variances**: Each dependent variable must demonstrate similar levels of**variance**across each independent variable ...## John Tukey

Fundamentals of exploratory

**analysis**of**variance**. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52735-1. OCLC 23180322. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... He was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1982 "For his contributions to the spectral**analysis**of random processes and the fast ... Reviews of Graphical**Analysis**of Multiresponse Data: Talbot, M. (June 2000), Biometrics, 56 (2): 649-650, JSTOR 2677019 CS1 ... Though he believed in the utility of separating the two types of**analysis**, he pointed out that sometimes, especially in natural ...## Mutual fund separation theorem

Under mean-

**variance****analysis**, it can be shown that every minimum-**variance**portfolio given a particular expected return (that is ... separation theorems can be obtained without the use of mean-**variance****analysis**. For example, David Cass and Joseph Stiglitz ... This equation proves the two-fund separation theorem for mean-**variance****analysis**. For a geometric interpretation, see the ... The portfolio return**variance**in the objective function can be written as σ 2 = X T V X , {\displaystyle \sigma ^{2}=X^{T}VX,} ...## Margin of error

... is positive whenever a population is incompletely sampled and the outcome measure has positive

**variance**(that ... 17-19 Sample Sizes, Margin of Error, Quantitative**Analysis**Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine. Lohr, Sharon L. (1999). ... Sampling: Design and**Analysis**. Pacific Grove, California: Duxbury Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-534-35361-4. The margin of error of an ... The true standard error of the statistic is the square root of the true sampling**variance**of the statistic. These two may not ...**VARIANCE** **ANALYSIS** DEFINITION

**VARIANCE**

**ANALYSIS**is the

**analysis**of performance by means of

**variances**. Used to promote management action at the earliest ...

**Variance**

**analysis**is the process of examining in detail each

**variance**between actual and budgeted/expected/standard costs to ...

**Variance** **Analysis** in These Slow-Growth Times

Financial Planning &

https://www.cfo.com/financial-planning-analysis/2015/05/view-variance-analysis-slow-growth-times/**Analysis**. May 22, 2015 How to View**Variance****Analysis**in These Slow-Growth Times. Counterintuitively, ... In this video he returns to the topic of**variance****analysis**, explaining the fine points of different types of**variances**- in ... and in Conine-authored pieces on**variance****analysis**, whether to cut volume or price, shareholder return, and, most recently, ...## Problems in **Variance** **Analysis** -
Exercise
- Harvard Business School

"Problems in

https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=4986**Variance****Analysis**." Harvard Business School Exercise 196-120, February 1996. ...**Analysis** of **variance** - Wikipedia

His first application of the

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analysis_of_variance**analysis**of**variance**was published in 1921.[10]**Analysis**of**variance**became widely known after ... Textbook**analysis**using a normal distribution[edit]. The**analysis**of**variance**can be presented in terms of a linear model, ...**variance**within treatments. {\displaystyle F={\frac {\text{**variance**between treatments}}{\text{**variance**within treatments}}}}. ... Associated**analysis**[edit]. Some**analysis**is required in support of the design of the experiment while other**analysis**is ...**Variance** **Analysis** - Lido Company

... you need to compute these

https://brainmass.com/statistics/analysis-of-variance/variance-analysis-lido-company-333459**variances**based on the 400 units which were. ... brainmass.com/statistics/**analysis**-of-**variance**/**variance**-**analysis**-lido-company-333459 Attachments. *E2 Acct.doc ...**Variance****Analysis**- Lido Company. Add. Remove. This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the ... From the foregoing information, compute the following**variances**. Show whether the**variance**is favorable (F) or unfavorable (U): ...**Analysis** of **variance** - Wikipedia

His first application of the

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANOVA**analysis**of**variance**was published in 1921.[10]**Analysis**of**variance**became widely known after ... Textbook**analysis**using a normal distribution[edit]. The**analysis**of**variance**can be presented in terms of a linear model, ...**variance**within treatments. {\displaystyle F={\frac {\text{**variance**between treatments}}{\text{**variance**within treatments}}}}. ... Associated**analysis**[edit]. Some**analysis**is required in support of the design of the experiment while other**analysis**is ...**Variance** **Analysis** Capabilities | Trintech

**Variance**

**analysis**should be performed regularly to uncover areas of potential fraud, misstatement, or high spending. ...

**Variance**

**analysis**should be performed regularly to uncover areas of potential fraud, misstatement, or high spending. ...

**Variance**, **Analysis** Of | SpringerLink

**Analysis**of

**variance**(ANOVA) is a statistical procedure for summarizing a classical linear model - a decomposition of sum of ...

**Variance**,

**Analysis**Of, Table 1. Classical two-way

**analysis**of

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**Analysis**of

**variance**: Why it is more important than ever (with discussion). Annals of Statistics 33: 1-53.CrossRefGoogle ...

**Analysis**of

**variance**(ANOVA) represents a set of models that can be fit to data, and also a set of methods for summarizing an ...

## Least Squares Predictions and Mean-**Variance** **Analysis** by Enrique Sentana :: SSRN

Least Squares Predictions and Mean-

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=57848**Variance****Analysis**Journal of Financial Econometrics, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 56-78, 2005 ... Sentana, Enrique, Least Squares Predictions and Mean-**Variance****Analysis**. CEMFI Working Paper 9711. Available at SSRN: https:// ...**variance** **analysis**

Tag Archives:

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We all do reports with

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Understand how upper management uses

https://www.coursera.org/lecture/managerial-accounting-business-decisions/fundamentals-and-concepts-xz7LO**variance****analysis**• Calculate, interpret, and investigate**variances**• Understand ... Standard Costing and**Variance****Analysis**. After establishing goals, setting targets, and the budget, upper management uses ... In this module, you will learn how upper management uses**variance****analysis**to motivate and monitor managers and employees, how ... to perform**variance****analysis**on any aspect of the organization, and ultimately understand the power of this important tool for ...**Analysis** of **Variance** (ANOVA) Definition

... is a statistical

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Yaras management also uses a

http://yara.com/investor_relations/annual_report_archive/2010/financial_md_a/definitions_and_variance_analysis/**variance****analysis**methodology, developed within the company ("**Variance****Analysis**"), which involves ... Management considers the estimates produced by the**Variance****Analysis**, and the identification of trends based on such**analysis**, ... Definitions and**variance****analysis**2010. The fertilizer season in Western Europe referred to in this discussion starts July 1 ... in the condensed consolidated interim statement of income and are referenced in the**variance****analysis**(see below) as "Special ...## Bravo Baking Standard Costing **Variance** **Analysis** Spreadsheet

The data (attached) shows standard cost per unit of $5.11 Part a. Compute the material price and quantity

https://brainmass.com/business/product-costing/bravo-baking-standard-costing-variance-analysis-spreadsheet-495713**variance**. Labor ... Bravo Baking Standard Costing**Variance****Analysis**Spreadsheet. Add. Remove. This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the ... Part a. Compute the material price and quantity**variance**.. Labor efficiency and labor rate**variances**. ... brainmass.com/business/product-costing/bravo-baking-standard-costing-**variance**-**analysis**-spreadsheet-495713 Attachments. *bravo ...**Analysis** of **Variance**

... is the standard statistical technique for modeling a quantitative response variable ... Fit a model using the appropriate function.

http://www.stat.wisc.edu/~larget/math496/anova.html**Analysis**of**variance**models are fit with the S-PLUS function aov. . This example ... The textbook gives examples in Chapter 10 on fitting many statistical models including**analysis**of**variance**. The same basic ... Now that the data is all properly stored in a data frame, we are ready to begin the**analysis**. Any**analysis**should begin with a ...## OSA | Multireader multicase **variance** **analysis** for binary data

We extend MRMC

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their mean and

https://www.coursera.org/lecture/financial-engineering-2/overview-of-mean-variance-qwIYs**variance**. Were going to define something called. mean-**variance**optimal portfolios or mean-**variance**efficient ... Mean-**Variance****Analysis**and CAPM. Problem formulation and solution; the efficient frontier; including the risk-free asset; the ... What is the**variance**associated with the return of this portfolio?. The formula is Sigma i j x i j, x i x j summed from i ... Overview of Mean**Variance**. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ...## A Generalization of the Mean-**Variance** **Analysis** by Valeriy Zakamulin, Steen Koekebakker :: SSRN

Zakamulin, Valeriy and Koekebakker, Steen, A Generalization of the Mean-

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... and that the population

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When using

http://www.factbites.com/topics/Analysis-of-variance**analysis**of**variance**, it is a common practice to present the results of the**analysis**in an**analysis**of**variance**... In the**analysis**of**Variance**, the Total**variance**is subdivided into two independent**variances**: the**variance**due to the treatment ... Doing More with Data**Analysis**: Performing an**Analysis**of**Variance**. In this section, you perform an**analysis**of**variance**on the ... You can perform a simple one-way**analysis**of**variance**, a complex repeated-measures**analysis**of**variance**, a factorial**analysis**...## Multivariate **analysis** of **variance** - Wikiversity

Retrieved from "https://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=Multivariate_

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Budget

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... Prerequisites. Introduction to ANOVA Learning Objectives. *Be able to identify the factors and ...

http://onlinestatbook.com/chapter13/anova_designsC.html**Analysis** of **variance** - Wikipedia

His first application of the

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANOVA**analysis**of**variance**was published in 1921.[10]**Analysis**of**variance**became widely known after ... Textbook**analysis**using a normal distributionEdit. The**analysis**of**variance**can be presented in terms of a linear model, which ...**variance**within treatments. {\displaystyle F={\frac {\text{**variance**between treatments}}{\text{**variance**within treatments}}}}. ... Associated analysisEdit. Some**analysis**is required in support of the design of the experiment while other**analysis**is performed ...Mean variancePopulation variancesMultivariateInference20th centuryFisher'sRonald FisherSums of squaBudgetsMethodologyInvolvesStatistical modelsDisadvantagesExamplesCompareRefersExperimentalConsistsInvestigateExerciseTypesTopicShowsBudgetSourcesIndependent variablesResultsManagersVolumeActualTreatmentCostDesignsDataFind

- theoretical ideas behind mean variance portfolio selection. (coursera.org)
- mean-variance optimal portfolios or mean-variance efficient portfolios. (coursera.org)
- going to be walking through in this bigger topic of mean variance optimization. (coursera.org)
- This "mean-partial moments" utility generalizes not only the mean-variance utility of Tobin and Markowitz, but also the mean-semivariance utility of Markowitz. (ssrn.com)

- One can assume that the population is normally distributed, even though this is not verifiable, and population variances are the same, which means that the populations are homogeneous. (wisegeek.com)

- Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), is a non-parametric multivariate statistical test. (wikipedia.org)
- There is a multivariate version of analysis of variance that can address that problem, as illustrated in the Example: Multivariate Analysis of Variance . (factbites.com)

- But this is an indirect consequence, an inference from a test of variances. (physicsforums.com)

- While the analysis of variance reached fruition in the 20th century, antecedents extend centuries into the past according to Stigler. (wikipedia.org)
- The t- and z-test methods developed in the 20th century were used for statistical analysis until 1918, when Ronald Fisher created the analysis of variance method. (investopedia.com)

- Analysis of variance became widely known after being included in Fisher's 1925 book Statistical Methods for Research Workers . (wikipedia.org)

- Ronald Fisher introduced the term variance and proposed its formal analysis in a 1918 article The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance . (wikipedia.org)

- The analysis is broken down into "sums of squares" that measure the variability due to the levels and due to the errors. (factbites.com)

- When companies compare budgets with actual figures, there are often differences called variance. (chron.com)
- Through corrective action based on budget variance analysis, budgets become more accurate and planning improves. (chron.com)

- In order to track underlying business developments from period to period, Yara's management also uses a variance analysis methodology, developed within the company ("Variance Analysis"), which involves the extraction of financial information from the accounting system, as well as statistical and other data from internal management information systems. (yara.com)

- The basic analysis of variance involves one nominal or ordinal scale variable that can be used to place each observation into two or more groups, and a single response variable . (factbites.com)

- The textbook gives examples in Chapter 10 on fitting many statistical models including analysis of variance. (wisc.edu)

- I believe that as a starting point for asking questions as the answers may relate to the future, the advantages of variance analysis can outweigh the disadvantages, but only if the conscious choice is to pragmatically focus on the future and apply the data learned. (proformative.com)

- In addition, a concise introduction to the principles of analysis of variance and covariance is provided, alongside worked examples illustrating issues and decisions faced by analysts. (cambridge.org)

- After establishing goals, setting targets, and the budget, upper management uses variance analysis to compare, assess, and investigate differences between actual and expected performance. (coursera.org)
- Through multiple simulation configurations, we compare our unbiased variance estimates to naïve estimates across a range of study designs, average percent correct, and numbers of readers and cases. (osapublishing.org)

- When formulated as a statistical model, analysis of variance refers to an additive decomposition of data into a grand mean, main effects, possible interactions and an error term. (springer.com)
- One-way or two-way refers to the number of independent variables in your analysis of variance test. (investopedia.com)

- The fixed-effects model of analysis of variance applies to situations in which the experimenter has subjected his experimental material to several treatments, each of which affects only the mean of the underlying normal distribution of the "response variable" . (factbites.com)
- Computes a confidence interval on a variance component estimated as proportional to the difference in two mean squares in a balanced complete experimental design. (roguewave.com)

- Each of the variance estimates consists of two parts - the sum of squares (SSB and SSW) and degrees of freedom (df). (wisegeek.com)

- Analysis of variance allows us to investigate if all the graders have the same mean. (factbites.com)

- Too often variance analysis becomes a backward looking exercise in "wish I had a crystal ball back then" as we ponder various negative variables and their outcomes. (proformative.com)

- Analysis of variance for testing for the equality of k mean values is a special case of a set of techniques known as linear modeling, which also includes regression analysis , a future topic. (factbites.com)

- If the budget variance analysis shows that more hours were worked than budgeted, corrective action may be able to streamline the work process. (chron.com)

- What Is Budget Variance Analysis? (chron.com)
- Variance analysis helps improve budget accuracy. (chron.com)
- Budget variance analysis addresses these differences and helps companies adjust budgeting procedures to avoid similar discrepancies in the future. (chron.com)
- Variance is the number obtained by subtracting the lower of the actual and budget numbers for a particular item from the higher one. (chron.com)
- Variance analysis looks at revenue, cost of material and labor and how the actual values differ from the budget. (chron.com)
- Variance analysis identifies the sources of major actual value to budget differences. (chron.com)
- Small Business - Chron.com , http://smallbusiness.chron.com/budget-variance-analysis-60250.html. (chron.com)

- Reasoning is identical to t-tests, only analysis of variance includes independent variables of two or more samples. (wisegeek.com)

- When using analysis of variance , it is a common practice to present the results of the analysis in an analysis of variance table. (factbites.com)
- Variance results from cost or price changes and from volume changes. (chron.com)

- In this module, you will learn how upper management uses variance analysis to motivate and monitor managers and employees, how to perform variance analysis on any aspect of the organization, and ultimately understand the power of this important tool for planning and control. (coursera.org)

- CFO has featured Conine and his work in two articles on such programs, at Dell and Stanley, Black & Decker , and in Conine-authored pieces on variance analysis , whether to cut volume or price , shareholder return , and, most recently, foreign exchange . (cfo.com)

- When looking at the difference between estimated cost and actual cost or reconciling the differences in net operating income under variable costing and absorption costing, I'm a big fan of studying the positive variance as it may relate to the future. (proformative.com)

- The total sum of squares - that is, \( {\sum}_{i=1}^5{\sum}_{j=1}^8{\left({y}_{ij}-\overline{y}..\right)}^2 \) - is 0.078 + 3.944 + 1.417, which can be decomposed into these three terms corresponding to variance described by treatment, variance described by airport, and residuals. (springer.com)

- This is an authoritatively written book aimed at people who already have a good grasp of analysis of (co)variance using fixed factor an(c)ova, who are not afraid of algebraic notation and who wish to understand the background to the comprehensive range of study designs described which incorporate covariates and random factors. (cambridge.org)

- Now that the data is all properly stored in a data frame, we are ready to begin the analysis. (wisc.edu)
- Any analysis should begin with a graphical exploration of the data. (wisc.edu)
- Brandon D. Gallas, Gene A. Pennello, and Kyle J. Myers, "Multireader multicase variance analysis for binary data," J. Opt. (osapublishing.org)

- What do you find as the disadvantage of this type of financial analysis? (proformative.com)