Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Subsequent studies confirmed these adverse effects. These harmful effects may also be seen in non-smokers, as one meta-analysis ... The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase. Proteins related to ... As one of the enzymes needed to make ascorbic acid has been lost by mutation during primate evolution, humans must obtain it ... Ho YS, Magnenat JL, Bronson RT, Cao J, Gargano M, Sugawara M, Funk CD (June 1997). "Mice deficient in cellular glutathione ...
"Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with beta-carotene, ... Jönsson TJ, Lowther WT (2007). The peroxiredoxin repair proteins. Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Subcellular Biochemistry. 44. pp. ... The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[149] Proteins related ... As one of the enzymes needed to make ascorbic acid has been lost by mutation during primate evolution, humans must obtain it ...
"Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with beta-carotene, ... The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[128] Proteins related ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (Submitted manuscript). 61 (2): 192-208. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3206-5. hdl:10261/111097. ... Lane, Nick, Oxygen: The Molecule That Made the World (Oxford University Press, 2003), ISBN 0-19-860783-0 ...
Therapeutic use of recombinant MG53 as a tissue repair reagent. RFP-MG53 (a MG53 fusion protein that contains a red fluorescent ... Cys242 allows MG53 to acts as a sensor of cellular redox state and reseal cellular membranes. Thimerosal oxidizes sulfhydryl ... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed specific labeling for MG53 in the sarcolemma membrane and intracellular vesicles (FIG. 3D ... Wells, "Additivity of mutational effects in proteins," Biochemistry 1990. 29(37): 85098517. cited by applicant .. Wu et al. J ...
All cellular processes depend on the functionality of proteins. Although the functionality of a given protein is the direct ... which does not allow a clear differentiation to be made between cancer and noncancer2 or for patient follow-up as analysis of ... In fact, most of the active sites in proteins are located near the interior region where solvent effects have been minimized 9, ... Mitochondrial redox state is measured using redox-sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein (roGFP) that is targeted to the ...
Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic ... The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP ... effect 7, 10,11. The rate and extent of accumulation of nanoparticles in a tumor is measured over time using image analysis ... In this new protocol, we replaced both MPBH and Cys-Gly with one much more stable reagent glutamic acid hydrazide (Glu- ...
Cellular, molecular and developmental biology.(various articles) by Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences; Science ... Western blot analysis was used to evaluate p53, HSP70, cfos and Bcl-2 cellular protein expression. The findings provided in ... and biochemical analyses of the effects of the snxA 1 mutation on the DNA damage checkpoint. Double mutant analyses indicate ... protein. Determinative assays include: TUNEL assay for detection of DNA fragmentation, Mitosensor assay for fluorescent ...
"Measurement of plasma sulfhydryl and carbonyl groups as a possible indicator of protein oxidation," in Analysis of Free ... and transport of proteins. To be protected against oxidative injury, cells evolved complex cellular defense mechanisms and the ... improving their cytoprotective effect by forming a protein lining over the gastrointestinal mucosa [33]. The mangrove tannins ... The concentration of total phenols RM was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent following the colorimetric method adapted by ...
The method describes here basically determines the total non-protein sulfhydryls (NPSH) in the experimental samples as proteins ... the levels of cellular metabolites; (iii) the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (PC), intracellular reactive ... Chemicals and Other Reagents. Bradford reagent, DPPH, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and protein estimation kit were purchased from ... Figure 4 shows the effect of CCl4 on the intracellular ROS production and its reversal by the treatment with AEPD. Here, we ...
I. Effects of sulfhydryl and amino reactive reagents on anion and cation permeability of the human red blood cell. J. Gen. ... 2009), in a JGP Tutorial Research Article, used 19 separate constructs of mouse GAT1 fused with fluorescent proteins to ... Anion exchange protein 2. AE1 is not a system for regulating intracellular pH in erythrocytes; monovalent anion exchange ... 3 B). Quantitative analysis of the effects of Cl− gradients on the inhibitory potency of niflumic acid indicated that with ...
2D). These data suggest that LPS induces the production of functional CSE protein. Thus, the observed decrease in cellular H2S ... Western blotting analysis of STIM1-YFP and Orai-CFP proteins in transfected HEK 293 cells. ... basal intracellular concentration of H2S was then quantified in single cells loaded with the H2S-specific fluorescent probe SF7 ... LPS had no effect on the H2S concentration (Fig. 2, A and B). Thus, GYY4137 effectively maintained the cellular concentration ...
Methods: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to perform in vitro analysis of actin dynamics (binding ... DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it ... To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we undertook a domain analysis of DRR1 and probed the effects on actin ... We also provide evidence for a nucleation effect of DRR1. Blocking of pointed end elongation by addition of profilin indicates ...
... cutting-edge immunological reagents for biomedical research, offered at an outstanding value. ... In contrast, if the QC is done with intracellular staining, it means that the protein is expressed in this cellular compartment ... Brilliant Violet™ is a family of highly fluorescent polymers, excitable by the 405 nm violet laser, created by Sirigen based on ... What is a carrier protein?. Carrier proteins, such as BSA, improve the stability of the reconstituted protein, and helps ...
For example, NEM and other sulfhydryl reagents block the stimulatory effects of ATP on ion transport activity that are now ... Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged cysteine-rich domains from protein kinase C as fluorescent indicators for diacylglycerol ... Single-channel analysis of KCNQ K+ channels reveals the mechanism of augmentation by a cysteine-modifying reagent. J. Neurosci. ... Again, U73122 mimics an effect of NEM, this time on pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. Treatment with U73122 also reduces ...
Quantitative analysis of sulfhydryl groups. Free sulfhydryl groups are measured using 5,5′-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) ( ... To examine the effect of CosR on ROS reduction upon peroxide stress, we assessed the intracellular ROS levels in C. glutamicum ... The resulting proteins were separated in non-reducing SDS-PAGE and stained with Coomassie blue. M represents protein molecular ... The protein bands are visualized with the ECL plus kit (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A.). The RNA polβ antisera were made ...
SDS-PAGE gel and Western analysis (A) Western blot analysis of survivin protein in HT-29 cells. β-actin was served as an ... in body fluids by intracellular and extracellular enzymes such as endonucleases and exonucleases before the desired effect is ... A fluorescent molecule (DY647) was added at the 5′ end of the short strand, which not only facilitates image analysis, but also ... Aptamer-siRNA Chimera Created after Annealing. To confirm the successful annealing of both the long and short strands to create ...
When conjugated with near-infrared fluorescent dye and monoclonal antibody, the dyeBSA·SPION-monoclonal antibody bioconjugates ... shortening effects, and biodegradability.3-6 Furthermore, SPIONs exhibit large surface areas, making them favorable for ... The BSA protein surface engineered SPIONs can repress protein corona upon contact in the biological system. It is reported that ... Figure 4 Analysis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.. Notes: X-ray diffraction pattern (A) and magnetic hysteresis ...
To understand the effects of elevated glucose on the cellular response to apoptosis, analysis of apoptosis involved culturing ... The level of intracellular ROS was determined on the basis of the oxidative conversion of cell-permeable DCFH-DA to fluorescent ... target proteins that were specifically recognized by the antibodies were visualized using enhanced chemiluminescence reagents ( ... The total protein concentrations in the supernatants were determined using the Bradford method. Aliquots of protein (30 μg) ...
The substrate will yield a fluorescent product when it reacts with glutathione, protein sulfhydryls, glutathione S-transferase ... following cellular stress limiting mitochondrial dysfunction (Batchu et al., 2012a). The present study investigates the effect ... Protein was then assayed using a Bradford reagent.. ATP content was assessed in non-infarct regions using a colorimetrically ... Infarct Size Analysis. Hearts were sliced from apex to the point of ligation in 0.5-mm slices. Slices were then incubated in 1 ...
To control for variable protein expression, we normalized the fluorescent signal generated from the cell-impermeable reagent ... To search for other proteins that may undergo RAT, we performed a bioinformatics analysis to identify proteins that contain a ... The extreme heterogeneity of this reaction makes it impossible to perform a control experiment to determine the effect of ... The reporter protein expressed in cells cultured in the absence of ceramide should be biotinylated by a cell surface sulfhydryl ...
Differential effects of sulforaphane on γ-GCS subunits. Northern blot analyses of (A) sulforaphane-induced γ-GCS light chain ... Although it is possible that NAC acts directly on sulforaphane, we suspect that NAC reduces intracellular proteins mediating ... Effect of sulfhydryl modifying agents. Eur. J. Biochem., 226: 31-39, 1994. ... Reagents.. l-sulforaphane was purchased from LKT Laboratories (St. Paul, MN). All of the remaining chemicals were purchased ...
We performed high-throughput analysis of cells and their protein products using a range of fluorescent assays, including ... this work highlights an approach to creating dual-specific proteins where additional functionality is introduced into a protein ... and the number and spacing of sulfhydryl-reactive groups carried on novel and commercially available cross-linking reagents. ... Here, we present a method that identifies protein mutants with improved overall cellular efficacy, an objective not feasible ...
This invention is directed towards methods of destabilizing proteins in living cells, and their use for the development of ... 17) destabilization domain; fusions of other cellular proteins with multimerized destabilization constructs would be expected ... and naturally fluorescent protein based reporter genes provide for intracellular fluorescent measurements, which are preferred ... The present invention is in the field of protein analysis and more particularly methods of destabilizing proteins and using the ...
Unlike other fluorescent and chemiluminescent singlet oxygen detection reagents, the Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green reagent ( ... Intracellular oxidation of H2DCF tends to be accompanied by leakage of the product, 2,7-dichlorofluorescein,. which may make ... Chapter 8-Nucleic Acid Detection and Analysis. *Chapter 9-Protein Detection and Analysis ... making it useful in multiplex fluorescence assays to measure a variety of cellular phenomena. ...
... or sulfhydryl blocking reagents have similar effects.. The identification of a selective small molecule inhibitor of PHGDH ... Protein expression was performed under IPTG (1 mM) induction at 25 °C for 24 h. The supernatant containing the IDH1 protein was ... Thus, serine serves numerous critically important roles in cellular metabolism.. At the cellular level, serine can be imported ... All analyses were operated in full scan mode while recording mass-to-charge ratio (Δm/z) spectra in the range of 100-650 m/z. ...
K. Anzai, K. Ogawa, A. Kuniyasu, T. Ozawa, H. Yamamoto and H. Nakayama: Effects of hydroxyl radical and sulfhydryl reagents on ... Many cellular processes are modulated by the redox state of proteins. Changes in structure caused by oxidizing neighboring ... especially at the level of protein thiol oxidation by virtue of the high protein content in the IMM, leading to respiratory ... In cardiac mitochondria loaded with TMRM (a DYm sensitive fluorescent probe), a local loss DYm was detected upon application of ...
As protein interactions were very faint in resting cells, we made use of NEM, a sulfhydryl-alkylating agent known to inactivate ... Four VAMP proteins, i.e., VAMP2, cellubrevin, TI-VAMP, and VAMP8, were present on intracellular membrane structures, with VAMP8 ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: SNARE, SNAP receptor; SNAP, soluble NSF attachment protein; GFP, green fluorescent protein ... Cytotoxic effects of a chimeric protein consisting of tetanus toxin light chain and anthrax toxin lethal factor in non-neuronal ...
Molecular and cellular regulation of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins in cancer. J Cell Physiol 2005;202:654-62. ... 2J-L). Correlation analyses of these data revealed that GLUT6 protein expression significantly correlated with Warburg-type ... Understanding the warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation. Science 2009;324:1029-33. ... 5F). Co-incubation of BrPA with CoA at a 1:1 micromolar ratio inhibited fluorescent signal by 44% (P , 0.001) and a 10:1 ...
Fluorescent Bak B H 3 domain peptide (3nM) was incubated with purified hu man Bcl XL protein (6nM) or Bcl2 protein (6nM) in the ... Identification of a BH 3 domain and analysis of its binding to mutant BCL 2 and BCL XL proteins. J Biol Chem 272 30866 30872. ... 5 ) 100nM Sucrose, 2.5mM MgCl 2 and 50mM KCl ) for crosslinking between sul fhydryl groups of Bak proteins. Reaction mixture ... Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assays (SRB) To evaluate the cytotoxicity of BXIs SRB assay measuring cellular protein content ...
The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as ... The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as ... This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1) and 14579 (BC2) in aerated and microaerobic (static) ... This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1) and 14579 (BC2) in aerated and microaerobic (static) ...
Additional evidence that amino acids 72-95 line the pore is provided by the effect of charged MTS sulfhydryl reagents on ... Regulatory volume decrease and intracellular Ca2+ in murine neuroblastoma cells studied with fluorescent probes. J Gen Physiol ... CSP, Cl−-sensitive protein; PSP, pH-sensitive protein. Although there is no compelling evidence for Cl− channels in the apical ... Drusen proteome analysis: an approach to the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 14682- ...
Intracellular oxidation of H2DCF tends to be accompanied by leakage of the product, 2,7-dichlorofluorescein,. which may make ... Peroxidase-catalyzed reaction of the Amplex Red reagent (A12222, A22177) with H2O2 produces fluorescent resorufin (R363). ... Oxidation of O13291 generates a fluorescent protein conjugate (Abs ~508 nm, Em ~528 nm). ... Quantitative analysis can be further hindered due to: 1) the high intracellular concentration of glutathione, which can form ...
Impaired gene and protein expression of exocytotic soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor complex proteins in ... Recombinant proteins and plasmid constructs. cSENP1 was from Enzo Life Technologies. Recombinant GRX1 and glutathione-S- ... Fluorescent biosensor measurement of glutathione redox state. A fusion protein (Grx1-roGFP) of cytosolic GRX1 and redox- ... Chemical reagents. Unless stated otherwise, all chemical reagents were from Sigma-Aldrich. Fatty acid-free BSA was from Roche. ...
  • In order to protect tissues against the damage provoked by ROS, all cells contain antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and radical scavengers, such as sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) [ 3 ]. (
  • Sulforaphane also induces expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase light subunit but not the heavy subunit, and this induction is associated with moderate increases in intracellular glutathione levels. (
  • This induction is accompanied by, but not because of, increased intracellular glutathione synthesis. (
  • Lipsa D, Cacho C, Leva P, Barrero-Moreno J, Aguar P (2015) Development of a HPLC-UV Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Intracellular Glutathione Species in Human Cells. (
  • Intracellular glutathione plays a key role in cell protection since it reacts with potentially dangerous endogenous and exogenous compounds detoxifying them [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Together with thioredoxin, glutathione is the most important intracellular antioxidant, reducing free radicals or peroxides and maintaining proteins, enzymes and vitamins in their reduced active state [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Using a codon-optimized and evidently glutathione-specific glutaredoxin-coupled redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) variant, we determined E GSH (ER) in HeLa cells as −208±4 mV (at pH 7.0). (
  • The status of the glutathione redox couple (GSH-GSSG) is an accepted indicator of intracellular redox conditions ( Schafer and Buettner, 2001 ). (
  • H 2 O 2 -induced injury was measured by toxic effects (cell death and apoptotic pathway) and intracellular redox status: glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and reducing power (FRAP). (
  • A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. (
  • Effect of CsA on, 1) cellular integrity, 2) glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, 3) cellular levels of glutathione (GSH), 4) intracellular ROS, 5) ALT and AST activities, 6) urea production and 7) α2β1 integrin expression were assayed. (
  • We present proof that upon result of free of charge lipoic acidity with oxidized glutathione in alternative disulfide exchange takes place rapidly making oxidized lipoic acidity and decreased glutathione. (
  • Even so 1 lipoic acid-glutathione adducts are produced on KGDH as the second sulfhydryl on lipoic acidity struggles to take TSPAN2 part in disulfide exchange in the enzyme's indigenous conformation. (
  • After reperfusion, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and activated neutrophils, leading to tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), which in combination with gastric secretion results in damage and cellular death [ 2 ]. (
  • CCl 4 exposure increased the activities of various serum maker enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. (
  • How do I look for reagents that are cross-reactive with a different species (e.g. (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a consequence of ATP production in the mitochondria are important for cellular signaling, yet contribute to oxidative stress and cellular damage. (
  • Electrons however, may leak from reduced sites in the respiratory chain and react with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) which play an important role in cell signaling, but are better known for creating oxidative stress (8). (
  • Recent data indicate that the nitric oxide (NO) synthase (baNOS) plays an important pathogenic role at the early stage of disease by protecting bacteria from the host reactive species and S-nytrosylating the mitochondrial proteins in macrophages. (
  • Nevertheless, with the proper controls the intensity of the green-fluorescent signal can be correlated with singlet oxygen concentration, without significant interference from other reactive oxygen species. (
  • To better understand the impact of this regulation on cellular activity, cell model systems were devised in which SERCA is mutated at cysteine-674 to serine, thus lacking the reactive thiol. (
  • Intracellular application of the sulfhydryl reactive reagent MTSET using CLH-3b channels engineered with single-cysteine residues in CBS2 indicate that V228L, Y529A, and Y232A disrupt putative regulatory intracellular conformational changes. (
  • Second, we selectively and differentially labeled the exposed, formerly palmitoylated cysteines from knockdown and control cells with biotinylated, thiol-reactive heavy (H) and light (L) ICAT reagents, respectively. (
  • N-terminal mHTT results in HD through accumulation in cells and aberrant interactions with numerous proteins 9 , 10 and possibly direct production of reactive oxygen species 11 . (
  • Oxidative stress was analyzed by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels along with assessment of antioxidant status. (
  • The viral core and nonstructural protein 3 proteins were shown to be responsible for the inhibition of DNA repair, mediated by NO and reactive oxygen species. (
  • However, reactive oxygen species also have useful cellular functions, such as redox signaling. (
  • Cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced hepatotoxicity could be due to a reduction in α2β1 integrin expression that may either be from the direct effect of CsA itself or from reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. (
  • Genes linked to macular degeneration encode proteins of diverse function: these include enzymes that remodel extracellular matrix, an ATP-binding cassette transporter, and immune complement factor H ( 17 , 30 , 31 , 53 ). (
  • Enzymes and other proteins within ~10 Å of the binding site of the malachite green-labeled antibody can then be selectively destroyed upon irradiation with long-wavelength light. (
  • At variance with existing models, this is not oxidizing enough to maintain the known redox state of protein disulfide isomerase family enzymes. (
  • The free thiol group of cysteine is involved in the formation of disulphide bonds, crucial for the stability of certain proteins, and is also an important catalytic and redox center in various enzymes, cofactors, and regulatory proteins. (
  • HCV core protein binds to the NBS1 protein and inhibits the formation of the Mre11/NBS1/Rad50 complex, thereby affecting ATM activation and inhibiting DNA binding of repair enzymes. (
  • Consequently, organisms contain a complex network of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes that work together to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins and lipids. (
  • Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. (
  • In this study we aimed to identify the cellular mechanisms underlying CsA-induced hepatic injury by investigating the activation patterns of the antioxidant enzymes, using HepG2 as an in vitro model. (
  • The elevated ROS levels can deplete the cellular thiol pool and then lead to oxidative stress, potentially damaging DNA, lipids, and proteins [ 6 ]. (
  • We used four parallel assays to characterize the agonist-induced PLC response of cells (tsA or CHO cells) expressing M 1 muscarinic receptors: translocation of two fluorescent probes for membrane lipids, release of calcium from intracellular stores, and chemical measurement of acidic lipids. (
  • Lipofuscin is a heterogeneous mixture of both proteins and lipids that are partially oxidized ( 67 ). (
  • Gaining a comprehensive understanding of their functions necessitates monitoring their interactions with various cell membrane components, such as other proteins and lipids, and cytoskeletal machinery and cellular organelles below the membranes. (
  • Within the syntaxin family, syntaxin 4 interacted with SNAP23 and all vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) examined, except tetanus neurotoxin insensitive VAMP (TI-VAMP). (
  • We describe a proteomics method for determining the subcellular localization of membrane proteins. (
  • Using this approach, we have simultaneously demonstrated the localization of membrane proteins in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis . (
  • We have developed a proteomics technique for the localization of integral membrane proteins to compartments of the endomembrane system in Arabidopsis thaliana that is based upon analytical centrifugation and hence is not dependent on the production of pure organelles. (
  • We validate this technique by confirming the localization of a set of predicted ER and Golgi membrane proteins. (
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutes the starting point of the secretory pathway where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized. (
  • Receptors may be integral membrane proteins that are linked to signaling pathways within the cell, such as second messenger systems. (
  • To date, there are no published reports on SDV membrane proteins from diatoms or any other silica forming organisms. (
  • In fact, hardly any information is available about the membrane proteins of eukaryotic biomineralization vesicles due to the lack of methods for isolating these subcellular compartments. (
  • In this review we bring together current data on mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake, ROS generation, and redox modulation of Ca 2+ transport proteins. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the localization of organelle proteins by isotope tagging (LOPIT) 1 can be used to discriminate Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plasma membrane (PM), and mitochondrial/plastid proteins. (
  • Bax inhibitor 1-1 is an anti apoptotic protein capable of suppressing Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. (
  • In addition, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed by JC1 fluorescent dye. (
  • Moreover, F3 fraction enhanced oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential in lung cancer cells along with significant depletion in cellular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. (
  • The adjustments in the amount of these proteins, which get excited about mitochondrial control of apoptosis, correlate with adjustments in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). (
  • Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. (
  • Mitochondrial proteins that bound to anti-lipoic acid antibody were eluted with SDS loading buffer in the presence or absence of 100 mM iodoacetamide followed by Western blot analyses. (
  • The procedure produces mitochondria with minimal cytoplasmic contaminations that are functionally active based on measurements of mitochondrial respiration as well as mitochondrial protein import. (
  • thus one of the antiulcer mechanisms present on the pharmacological effects of R. mangle is the antioxidant property. (
  • In line with these findings, we also observed that CCl 4 intoxication increased the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation accompanied by decreased intracellular antioxidant defense, activity of cytochrome P450 and CYP2E1 expression. (
  • The purpose of this study is to explore the cytoprotective effects of the antioxidant Bucida buceras extract in co-treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) delivery as a single addition or with continuous generation using glucose oxidase (GOx) in ARPE-19 cell cultures. (
  • Accumulation of DSBs in HCV-infected cells suggests that a HCV-induced oxidative environment may overwhelm cellular antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms, leading to chromosomal abnormalities. (
  • The only dietary antioxidants are vitamins A, C, and E. The term antioxidant is also used for industrial chemicals added during manufacturing to prevent oxidation in synthetic rubber, plastics, and fuels, or as preservatives in food and cosmetics. (
  • These two publications are consistent with some previous meta-analyses that also suggested that vitamin E supplementation increased mortality, and that antioxidant supplements increased the risk of colon cancer. (
  • Overall, the large number of clinical trials carried out on antioxidant supplements suggest that either these products have no effect on health, or that they cause a small increase in mortality in elderly or vulnerable populations. (
  • In addition, due to the presence of (usually) free thiol group in the molecule of the protein albumin in the blood makes a significant contribution to antioxidant protection of the organism as a "sacrificial" antioxidant [Century Halliwell, Gutteridge J.M. The antioxidants of human increasing interest among fluids. (
  • Stimulation of G q -coupled receptors in intact cells usually results in intracellular Ca 2+ release mediated by gating of IP 3 receptors, which may be followed by additional Ca 2+ influx from the extracellular space. (
  • Based on these findings, we conclude that oxidation of sulfhydryl groups on intracellular targets results in intracellular zinc release, p38 phosphorylation, enhancement of potassium currents, caspase cleavage, energetic dysfunction, and translationally independent apoptotic cell death. (
  • Copper (I) binding by metallochaperone transport proteins prevents copper oxidation and release of the toxic ions that may participate in harmful redox reactions. (
  • There is evidence for aberrant thiol oxidation within mHTT and other proteins in HD models. (
  • Therefore, thiol oxidation within mHTT may contribute to cellular accumulation and toxicity. (
  • Thiol oxidation can result in protein structure alteration leading to compromise of protein function. (
  • Protein biochemical function analysis shows that two Cys residues presenting at 49 and 62 sites in CosR are redox-active. (
  • Sulfhydryl changes research using CLH-3b stations manufactured with single-cysteine residues in CBS2 reveal these mutations also disrupt putative intracellular conformational adjustments connected with phosphorylation-dependent rules. (
  • Protein palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of the 16-carbon fatty acid palmitate to specific cysteine residues by a labile thioester linkage. (
  • Cysteine adjustment, such as for instance sulfhydryl reactions of cysteine purchase Bosutinib residues with redox reagents, changeover metals or NO related reagents also control RyR1 function. (
  • Dimerization of the transmembrane domain of amyloid precursor protein is determined by residues around the gamma-secretase cleavage sites. (
  • For example, measuring changes in intracellular or extracellular pH is central to the study of many coupled transporters. (
  • Even though the extracellular solution was neutral, the intracellular pH acidified when CO 2 /HCO 3 − was added and alkalinized when NH 3 /NH 4 + was added. (
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of proteins containing seven transmembrane helices, with the N- and C-terminus of the protein located at the extracellular space and cytosol, respectively. (
  • The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) lowers cell Ca 2+ by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ uptake and inhibiting extracellular Ca 2+ influx. (
  • Extracellular Zn2+ inhibits CLH-3b and alters the effects of intracellular MTSET on channel activity. (
  • In addition to the de novo synthesis of cysteine from inorganic sulfur in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the transport of cysteine from the extracellular medium also contributes to the cellular cysteine homeostasis. (
  • Extracellular proteins play an important role in the formation, differentiation and maintenance of multicellular organisms. (
  • The protocol includes sample preparation in an NMR tube, 1D and 2D data collection and processing, peak assignment and integration, molecular mechanics calculations, and structure analysis. (
  • Cellular, molecular and developmental biology. (
  • In the past two decades, structures of transport proteins have made it possible to propose specific models for transporter function at the molecular level. (
  • To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we undertook a domain analysis of DRR1 and probed the effects on actin binding, polymerization, and bundling, as well as on actin-dependent cellular processes. (
  • at the same time developing protein and peptide-based tools that will allow us to manipulate cellular processes on a molecular level. (
  • Consequently, a good understanding of the broader contexts - from the molecular, to the cellular and tissue levels - in which such molecular complexes operate will provide essential insights into direct new drug developments. (
  • 12 Yale School of Medicine, Departments of Internal Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Physiology, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. (
  • Eukaryotic CLCs possess huge cytoplasmic carboxy-termini including two cystathionine-CLC-1/2/Ka/Kb anion route homolog CLH-3b to characterize molecular systems of CLC rules and conformational coupling between intracellular order Nalfurafine hydrochloride and membrane domains. (
  • Substantive advances have been made in elucidating the cellular and molecular signaling pathways contributing to neuronal apoptosis. (
  • To investigate the molecular basis of these effects, we tested the effects of one class of NO donors, S -nitrosothiols (RSNOs), on expressed cardiovascular L-type Ca 2+ channels (α 1C ±β 1a ±α 2 or α 1C ±β 2a ±α 2 ) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. (
  • Given these observations in native cardiac myocytes, we became interested in elucidating the effects of NO on defined molecular components of the Ca 2+ channel itself. (
  • QSOX1 (quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1) is an enzyme that can introduce disulfides into a wide range of proteins using molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor. (
  • Then allocated albumen fraction of blood serum by precipitation of much of the rest of whey proteins using a 30% solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with molecular weight of 3000 Da in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.4) by centrifugation for 10-15 minutes at 600 g. (
  • NMR is a widely accepted technique for the determination of solution structures of proteins and peptides. (
  • In the final step, we used mass spectrometry to identify both substrate peptides and the cysteine within the peptide/protein that was palmitoylated. (
  • PEPTIDES FOR EFFICIENT GENE TRANSFER This invention was made with government support awarded by the National Institutes of Health (Grant Numbers GM48049 and DE13004). (
  • These venoms also contain several pharmacologically active components that could elicit great interest as a source of proteins and peptides for the design and the development of new drugs with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, analgesic, immunosuppressing and anticancer activities [ 1 , 3 , 5 ]. (
  • Cell growth inhibition is essentially due to proteins and peptides isolated from these venoms, some of them are explored in phase I and phase II clinical trials [ 3 ]. (
  • Various therapeutic peptides and proteins represent a rapidly growing section of marketed drugs and have an uncontested place alongside other well-established therapies. (
  • The A3 domain of VWF has the highest affinity for collagen type I and type III among reported nonbacterial origin proteins/peptides ( 10 ). (
  • These were mimicked or occluded by prior reaction with the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide and included block of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and effects that resembled a weak activation of PLC or an inhibition of lipid kinases. (
  • As long as the inhibition of detrimental functions supersedes the negative side effects, anti-TNF will be used. (
  • 3,4 Because intracellular Ca 2+ is an important second messenger mediating cell migration, the hypothesis of the present studies is that inhibition of smooth muscle cell migration by NO may occur through its stimulation of SERCA activity. (
  • METHODOLOGY: The study tested the TiO2 and Ag+ bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus strains by MIC assays and S. aureus growth curves, lesion in the membranes by surface hydrophobicity tests, conductivity tests and measurements of DNA and RNA contents in S. aureus cultures, and investigated the inhibition of soluble protein and nucleic acid synthesis by measurements of soluble protein content, fluorescent intensity and nucleic acid content of living S. aureus. (
  • Abstract NO donors have complex effects on Ca 2+ currents in native cardiac cells, with reports of direct stimulation and indirect cGMP-mediated inhibition or stimulation. (
  • In this paper, we show that reversible oxidative inactivation of centrosome-bound protein phosphatases such as Cdc14B by H 2 O 2 is likely responsible for this inhibition. (
  • Biochemical analyses claim that this improved cytotoxicity could be attributed to turned on DNA-damage response, histone 3 adjustments, inhibition of varied tyrosine kinases and their downstream substrates, and activation from the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of many cellular processes, including endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels, chemical communication between peripheral nerves and smooth muscle, inhibition of platelet aggregation, immune responses, and neurotransmission. (
  • CPTH2 decreases cell viability, adhesion, and invasiveness in ccRCC cell line 786-O. It shows preferential inhibition for KAT3B-p300 with hypoacetilating effects on histone H3 at specific H3-K18. (
  • Formation of this adduct with normal SERCA increased Ca 2+ -uptake into intracellular stores, but did not occur in SERCA in lysates of HEK cells transiently transfected with a cysteine-674 SERCA mutant. (
  • Here we present a method called palmitoyl-cysteine isolation capture and analysis (or PICA) to identify PAT-substrate relationships in a living vertebrate system and demonstrate its effectiveness by identifying CKAP4/p63 as a substrate of DHHC2, a putative tumor suppressor. (
  • Palmitoyl-cysteine isolation capture and analysis (PICA) 2 solves this problem. (
  • To probe the mechanism of the modulation of I Ba , the effects of NO donors were compared and contrasted with the effects of various cysteine-oxidizing reagents. (
  • The present invention relates to nucleic acid condensates comprising a nucleic acid bound to a polycationic peptide, and in particular a CWK (cysteine, tryptophan, lysine) polycationic peptide, and to methods of making and using such condensates. (
  • We describe a novel, high-affinity, ( K m = 55 μ m ), cysteine-specific transporter encoded by the ORF YLL055w that was initially identified by a combined strategy of data mining, bioinformatics, and genetic analysis. (
  • CYSTEINE, with its free sulphydryl group, is an important amino acid residue for the structural and functional properties of proteins. (
  • The intracellular cysteine levels are thus tightly regulated. (
  • Several studies have been carried out to biochemically characterize cysteine transport and to identify the transporter proteins responsible for uptake of cysteine in S. cerevisiae . (
  • Interestingly, this effect was strongly potentiated by the redox regulatory protein Ref-1, a dual-function protein harboring DNA repair endonuclease and cysteine reducing activities. (
  • What is the acceptable tolerance range for storage of antibodies and other reagents recommended at 4°C? (
  • Antibody and other cell surface ligands have been widely used for cell separation via either magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) where ligands are immobilized to magnetic nanoparticles or flow cytometry in fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) where antibodies are labeled with fluorescent dyes. (
  • In particular, single-molecule tracking (SMT) using bright fluorophores conjugated to antibodies and wide-field microscopy methods such as total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy have become valuable tools to discern how endogenous proteins control cell biology. (
  • Neutral, high-affinity antibodies can selectively bind to target proteins. (
  • However, the bivalency of antibodies can cause simultaneous binding to two proteins, and this bridging effect can alter protein functions and behaviors. (
  • To evaluate the inflammatory response, IL-6 and TNF-α expression levels were quantified by multiplex cytokine analysis, and NF-κB activation and IkB-α degradation were assessed by Western blot analysis. (
  • Transporters, pumps, and channels are proteins that catalyze the movement of solutes across membranes. (
  • This is particularly problematic in the case of the endomembrane system, owing to the similar densities of its component organelles and the continuous cycling of membranes and proteins between these compartments. (
  • The cellular localisation of many innate signalling events following viral infection has yet to be elucidated, however there has been a few cases in which membranes of certain cellular organelles have acted as platforms to these events. (
  • Diffusion is a low capacity, bidirectional movement of water that occurs in all cell membranes, whereas the membranes of a subset of cells with aquaporin proteins have very high capacity for permeation by water. (
  • This permeability is selective, since water (H O) crosses through the membranes with almost no resistance, while acid, the hydronium ion (H O ) does not permeate the proteins. (
  • The peptide used in this study has tryptophan (Trp), an aromatic amino acid, as the end of the peptide chain so we were able do studies of fluorescent peptide/lipid interactions. (
  • A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. (
  • The current view is that the lipid bilayer has a finite permeability for water, but, in addition, a set of proteins exists that we now refer to as "aquaporins. (
  • The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase (SERCA) plays an important role in maintaining intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis through its ability to pump cytosolic Ca 2+ into the SR/ER. (
  • Protein homeostasis in the ER is strongly connected to the formation of native disulfide bonds during client protein folding, which also requires reduction of non-native bonds ( Braakman and Bulleid, 2011 ). (
  • Impairment of the discussion might end up in control of neuronal intracellular Ca2 homeostasis leading to cell death. (
  • Another get a handle on system that regulates proper RyR function and intracellular Ca2 homeostasis may be the aftereffect of PS. (
  • Findings provide evidence for a role of dysregulated protein-thiol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HD. (
  • In plants and fungi, the lysosome-like vacuole is adapted to additional functions, including storage of metabolic building blocks, calcium homeostasis, and osmotic control ( 72 ), and vacuolar acidification is critical for these functions as well. (
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) functions as a transcription factor that is activated by decreased cellular oxygen concentrations to induce expression of a network of genes involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, and glucose homeostasis. (
  • The first, the transmembrane protein kinase and endoribonuclease IRE1 (composed of ubiquitous α and gut-specific β), contributes to transcriptional control by initiating unconventional (frame switch) splicing of an mRNA encoding the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) type transcription factor XBP1, which activates transcription of a number of genes involved in the homeostasis of the ER ( 15 , 21 , 34 ). (
  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia. (
  • Besides its well recognized role in bone cell homeostasis, calcitriol has been attributed a role in cellular differentiation and proliferation in normal and cancerous cells. (
  • A hallmark of development and disease is the cellular phenotypic diversification required for three-dimensional tissue structures. (
  • Previous work on histological analysis of allograft tissue sections showed increases in graft-infiltrating CD8 T cells along with elevated expression of GzmA, GzmB and perforin during acute rejection (11, 12). (
  • 4. The method of claim 3 wherein the cellular translation system is selected from the group consisting of tissue culture cells, isolated primary cells, isolated immortalized cells, isolated human cells and combinations thereof. (
  • Abstract -Nitric oxide (NO) donors were recently shown to produce biphasic contractile effects in cardiac tissue, with augmentation at low NO levels and depression at high NO levels. (
  • Restored thiols were determined using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) in the reaction of Ellman [Ellman G.L. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. (
  • In a tumor tissue analysis, we identified new prognosticator marks in grade G1 ccRCC tumors. (
  • The effect of triose reductone on the potassium and sodium permeability of red blood cells Neoplastic cells densely proliferated in these areas, and replaced of the normal tissue components. (
  • Bcl-XL is a major anti-apoptotic protein in the Bcl2 family whose overexpression is more widely observed in human lung cancer cells than that of Bcl2, suggesting that Bcl-XL is more biologically relevant and therefore a better therapeutic target for lung cancer. (
  • Although the factors that contribute to enhanced potassium channel opening and the mechanism by which the loss of intracellular potassium triggers apoptotic signal cascades have not been determined, it has been proposed that the osmotic and energetic dysfunction brought on by the loss of the cation could result in p38 activation and cell death ( Yu and Choi, 2000 ). (
  • BI 1 associated Ca2 channellike effects and the protective func-tion have already been studied in relation with Bcl 2 and Bcl xL, because the connection of BI 1 with the anti apoptotic Bcl 2 family proteins was uncovered. (
  • Downregulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) protein was characterized as the link between stress, actin dynamics, neuronal function, and cognition. (
  • Initially discovered in neuronal cells, the SNARE complex is composed of a vesicle-bound v-SNARE protein, namely VAMP or synaptobrevin, and two target organelle t-SNARE proteins, called SNAP25/23/29 and syntaxin ( 9 ). (
  • The temporal ordering and interdependence of these events was investigated in primary neuronal cultures exposed to the sulfhydryl oxidizing agent 2,2′-dithiodipyridine (DTDP), a compound that induces the intracellular release of zinc. (
  • Both proteins decreased mHTT-induced striatal neuronal atrophy. (
  • Occupation of M 1 receptors activates PLC and consumes cellular PIP 2 in less than a minute and also partially depletes mono- and unphosphorylated phosphoinositides. (
  • Indeed, lactoferrin exerts its biological effects by binding to specific lactoferrin receptors on target cells. (
  • Hormones and growth factors influence cellular metabolism by binding to receptors. (
  • Ramil CP, Dong M, An P, Lewandowski TM, Yu Z, Miller LJ , Lin Q. Spirohexene-Tetrazine Ligation Enables Bioorthogonal Labeling of Class B G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Live Cells. (
  • Coexpressed Class B G Protein-Coupled Secretin and GLP-1 Receptors Self- and Cross-Associate: Impact on Pancreatic Islets. (
  • Wootten D, Miller LJ , Koole C, Christopoulos A, Sexton PM. Allostery and Biased Agonism at Class B G Protein-Coupled Receptors. (
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Its Class B G Protein-Coupled Receptors: A Long March to Therapeutic Successes. (
  • Structure and Function of Cross-class Complexes of G Protein-coupled Secretin and Angiotensin 1a Receptors. (
  • Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism as the source of much of the cell's ATP, as well as being a hub for cellular Ca 2+ signaling. (
  • Importantly, these data indicate that CAIX may contribute to both the development and maintenance of the new pH set-point of cancer cells in response to the proton load from intracellular metabolism. (
  • Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation. (
  • Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. (
  • Although the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes a large number of the putative MarR-type transcriptional regulators, their physiological and biochemical functions have so far been limited to only two proteins, regulator of oxidative stress response RosR and quinone oxidoreductase regulator QosR. (
  • However, it remains largely unknown how apparently disparate events implicated in apoptosis, such as oxidative stress, ionic dysregulation, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and caspases, signal among one another to initiate and propagate cell death. (
  • The retino-protective effect of co-treatment with Bucida buceras extract on H 2 O 2 -induced human RPE cell injury was investigated by cell death (MTT assay) and oxidative stress biomarkers (H 2 O 2, GSH, CAT, GPx and FRAP). (
  • Bucida buceras L. extract is believed to be associated with the ability to prevent cellular oxidative stress. (
  • Accordingly, we determined the ability of NACA to mitigate the cytotoxicity of DOX in H9c2 cells and correlated these effects with the production of indicators of oxidative stress. (
  • Although NACA effectively reduced oxidative stress in DOX-treated H9c2 cells, it had minimal effects on DOX-induced cell death. (
  • When added as a pulse, H 2 O 2 is rapidly depleted and the cytotoxicity analyses show that cells can tolerate short exposure to high peroxide doses delivered as a pulse but are susceptible to lower chronic doses. (
  • Quantum dots became very famous because of the possibility to be synthetized with tuneable fluorescent intensity [ 7 ], but the high cytotoxicity and difficulties in surface modification reduce the possibility to be applied for biological applications. (
  • The signaling pathways of the UPR, which include the phosphorylation of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) as well as the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, mediate the transduction of information on the load of unfolded proteins (so-called 'ER stress') from the ER lumen to cytosol and nucleus. (
  • Snitrosylation of RyR1 paid down the affinity of FKBP12 and contributed as well as PKA phosphorylation to era of leaky channels and to the remodeling of the RyR complex, creating severe muscle weakness and reduced muscle func-tion in muscular dystrophy. (
  • The bottom-line is as a result of modifications that disturb the macromolecular complex of the RyR1 Ca2 launch channel and its associated proteins that leaky channels producing skeletal muscle dysfunction occur, although the role of phosphorylation of RyR1 by PKA remains controversial in this respect. (
  • Structural and functional studies of other CLC proteins suggest that V228 may interact with Y529, a conserved R-helix tyrosine residue that forms part of the CLC ion conduction pathway. (
  • We use this technology to identify distinct myocardial subpopulations expressing the structural proteins myosin heavy chain α and myosin light chain 2a in real-time during early differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Bioinformatics uses computer algorithms to recognize and predict structural patterns in DNA and proteins, defining families of related genes and proteins. (
  • Due to these considerable advantages over other synthetic approaches, CLRP techniques have been successfully exploited to construct novel polymer-protein/peptide bioconjugates with a high level of structural control and varied interesting, somehow unexpected, features. (
  • We have further reported that HCV induces inducible NO synthase ( iNOS ) mRNA expression and enhances NO production through the action of the viral structural protein core and nonstructural protein (NS)3, and that NO is responsible for DSBs in most cellular genes ( 6 ). (
  • This analysis revealed that ~100 transmembrane proteins, most of which are GPCRs, met our searching criteria ( Table 1-source data 1 ). (
  • The three types of UPR regulator identified to date are localized in the mammalian ER as transmembrane proteins which sense ER stress and transmit signals across the ER membrane. (
  • Methods: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to perform in vitro analysis of actin dynamics (binding, bundling, polymerization, and nucleation). (
  • For recombinant proteins, the minimum guaranteed shelf-life is 6 months from the date of receipt by the end-user. (
  • trans -1-(2'-Methoxyvinyl)pyrene ( M7913 ) can be used to detect picomole quantities of singlet oxygen in chemical and biological systems ( Figure 18.2.2 ), making this compound one of the most sensitive singlet oxygen probes currently available. (
  • Our approach utilizes fluorescently labeled mRNA-specific anti-sense RNA probes and dsRNA-binding protein to identify the expression of specific genes in real-time at single-cell resolution via FRET. (
  • Fluorescent nanoparticles are emerging as promising probes to high bio-compatibility and wellknown chemistry. (
  • Structure and functions of proteins are interrelated terms, therefore, the research Institute of physical-chemical medicine health Ministry developed and proposed methods of fluorescent probes to study various changes in the structure of certain components of the blood. (
  • Using these probes, as well as other physical methods it is shown that under certain pathological processes changes the conformation of the protein globule albumin [Gryzunov Yu.A., Dobretsov G.E. Natural conformation of human serum albumin and its changes in pathology. (
  • Spectroscopic analyses of glutathiolated γC-crystallin revealed conformational changes and partial unfolding, which may provide a signal for the ubiquitin-dependent degradation. (
  • The Cu (I) complex of the peptide model of a Cu (I) binding metallochaperone protein, which includes the sequence MTCSGCSRPG (underlined is conserved), was determined in solution under inert conditions by NMR spectroscopy. (
  • Experiments done on release of florescence dye entrapped in LUV show that a high concentration of the peptide was necessary in order for 50% dye to be released, implying that the peptide does not destroy LUVs by making a pore. (
  • 11. The method of claim 1, further comprising a chemical alkaline hydrolysis of the collected biological sample effective to hydrolyze a peptide bond in said eubacterial peptidoglycan before the incubation of the collected biological sample with the murein binding protein. (
  • A method for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and noncardiovascular inflammatory diseases that are mediated by VCAM-1 is provided that includes the removal, decrease in the concentration of, or prevention of the formation of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, or interferes with a complex formed between a polyunsaturated fatty acid or an oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acid and a protein or peptide that mediates the expression of VCAM-1. (
  • The attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to protein or peptide therapeutics, termed PEGylation, is an example of a highly successful strategy that gives rise to several benefits including increased bioavailability and plasma half-lives, decreased immunogenicity, reduced proteolysis and enhanced solubility and stability. (
  • The recombinant pFN protein fragment was isolated from inclusion bodies, and subjected to folding and autocatalytic degradation in the presence of Ca2+, and yielded an active enzyme capable of digesting gelatin, helical type II and type IV collagen, alpha- and beta-casein, insulin b-chain, and a synthetic Mca-peptide. (
  • In addition, the intracellular concentration of H 2 S in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was reduced during an acute inflammatory response evoked by the microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • The intracellular concentration of H 2 O 2 increases as the cell cycle progresses. (
  • Lens fiber cells contain a very high concentration of proteins in the cytoplasm. (
  • Whereas a high concentration of the NO donor S -nitroso- N -acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 100 μmol/L) significantly attenuated contraction amplitude by 24.4±4.5% (without changing the Ca 2+ transient or total cAMP), a low concentration of SNAP (1 μmol/L) significantly increased contraction amplitude (38±10%), Ca 2+ transient (26±10%), and cAMP levels (from 6.2 to 8.5 pmol/mg of protein). (
  • Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation between cGMP concentrations and contractile state, because low concentrations of acetylcholine induced a negative inotropic effect even in the absence of any change in cGMP concentration. (
  • Conjugation of biological molecules with fluorescent dyes has stimulated a growing interest to the huge number of exploitable biological applications. (
  • First, synthesis of fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles ensures the dyes' solubility in water. (
  • These synthesized quantum dots have significant advantages over traditional fluorescent dyes, including better stability, stronger fluorescence intensity, and different colors, which are adjusted by controlling the size of the dots [ 20 ]. (
  • MIEN1 is considered an oncogenic protein, because MIEN1 overexpression functionally enhances migration and invasion of tumor cells via modulating the activity of AKT. (
  • In another very early article, Jacobs (1922) exposed cells from flowers, starfish eggs, and frog skin to NaCl solutions containing CO 2 /HCO 3 − , NH 3 /NH 4 + , or neither, and measured changes in intracellular or transcellular (for frog skin) pH using optical indicators. (
  • Cellular actin-dependent processes were analyzed in transfected HeLa cells with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and confocal microscopy. (
  • When conjugated with near-infrared fluorescent dye and monoclonal antibody, the dye BSA·SPION-monoclonal antibody bioconjugates showed excellent targeting capability with minimal nonspecific binding in the bimodal imaging of pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Hyperglycemia has toxic effects on almost all cells in the body, including those of the eye. (
  • Early loss of GSTP1 may predispose prostatic cells to the damaging effects of endogenous or exogenous carcinogens and may contribute to carcinogenesis. (
  • A possible explanation of this dual cellular origin is provided by the fact that photoreceptor outer segments are renewed by the daily phagocytosis of the tips of photoreceptors by RPE cells ( 5 , 54 ). (
  • A few decades ago, two similar molecules with related receptor molecules, converging signal transduction cascades, and matching biological effects were identified and named tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT). "TNF" alluded to the beneficial effect of destroying cancer cells, 1 whereas "LT" emphasized toxicity. (
  • The NO donor S-nitrosopenicillamine inhibited migration of cells with WT SERCA, but had no effect on the migration of either HEK cells or VSMCs with C674S SERCA. (
  • Cellular microarray assays have been used for profiling specific surface antigens expressed on living cancer cells such as leukemia, prostate cancer, antigen specific T cells and stem cells. (
  • In the aforementioned methods, a separate detection method is needed to analyze intracellular biomarkers of the captured cells. (
  • Thus, there is a need of new detection methods which can identify cells alive so the captured target cells can be used for further analysis or treatment. (
  • Indication, Collection, and Laboratory Processing of Cytologic Samples -- The Cellular and Acellular Components of the Urinary Sediment -- The Cytologic Makeup of the Urinary Sediment According to the Collection Technique -- Cytologic Manifestations of Benign Disorders Affecting Cells of the Lower Urinary Tract -- Tumors and Related Conditions of the Bladder and Lower Urinary Tract -- Urine-Based Assays Complementing Cytologic Examination in the Detection of Urothelial Neoplasm. (
  • Cellular LD content did not alter the entry of fluorescently labelled viral mimics into cells, but significantly decreased the ability of both Huh-7 and HeLa cells to produce type I and III IFN, as well as downstream ISG expression, indicative of an impeded innate immune response. (
  • In the first part we generated two distinct pools of palmitoylated proteins in HeLa cells: one from untreated, control HeLa cells and the other from HeLa cells in which the activity of one PAT, DHHC2, was reduced. (
  • Total protein from knockdown and control cells was prepared by first blocking all free (including non-palmitoylated) thiols with methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS). (
  • Third, we combined equal quantities of the ICAT-labeled protein from ZDHHC2 knockdown and control cells and digested the mixture with trypsin. (
  • Our in-vitro experiments identified thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 3 as proteins that decrease soluble mHTT levels in cultured cells. (
  • We expressed various subunit combinations of cardiac and skeletal muscle L-type Ca 2+ channels (α 1C ±β 1a ±α 2 or α 1C ±β 2a ±α 2 ) in HEK293 cells and studied the effects of RSNO NO donors on the channels. (
  • Cells were then transfected by calcium phosphate precipitation 18 (Calcium Phosphate Transfection System, GIBCO-BRL) with 2 to 3 μg/dish plasmid DNA encoding Ca 2+ channel subunits (see below), 0.5 μg/dish simian virus 40 T antigen, and 0.2 μg/dish mitochondrially targeted green fluorescent protein. (
  • The admixture of green fluorescent protein cDNA enabled us to identify transfected cells visually by fluorescent excitation. (
  • This cellular heterogeneity along with an the inherent difficulty of examining real-time gene expression of single living cells poses a major limitation in the understanding of the complex biological processes that underlie development and disease. (
  • Despite this progress, whole genome expression analysis does not allow for concurrent physiological assessment of single living cells and consequently, the functional significance of single-cell transcriptomic heterogeneity remains unclear. (
  • Several studies have showed that animal venoms are a source of bioactive compounds that may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, which makes them useful agents for therapeutic applications. (
  • Recently, it was established that venom toxins from scorpions induced cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptogenic effects on cancer cells. (
  • Despite the favorable advancement in development of chemotherapeutic drugs, the lack of selectivity to tumor cells and toxic side effects limit their effectiveness [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Recently, several investigations demonstrated that venoms and toxins of some species of scorpions, especially those of the Buthidae family, induce cytotoxic antiproliferative effects and apoptosis on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo [ 8 - 12 ]. (
  • Proteins associated with the centrosome play key roles in mitotic progression in mammalian cells. (
  • Mammalian cells express six Prx isoforms (PrxI to PrxVI), which are implicated in a variety of cellular processes. (
  • During acute cellular rejection (ACR), graft damage is mediated by recipient cytotoxic CD8 T cells that are activated by alloantigens displayed by antigen presenting cells (APC) and target donor cells for killing (3, 4). (
  • These data indicate that all three proteins, CBP, SRC-1, and Ref-1, are important components of the hypoxia signaling pathway and have a common function in regulation of HIF-1α function in hypoxic cells. (
  • The HIF-1α protein is rapidly degraded in normoxic cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway but is stabilized under hypoxic conditions ( 20 , 21 , 25 , 27 , 44 ) and shows hypoxia-induced import into the nucleus ( 26 ), thus allowing heterodimerization with the nuclear factor Arnt ( 12 ). (
  • Stable expression of core protein induced frequent chromosome translocations in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. (
  • Col II impregnation and TGF-β1 delivery significantly enhanced cellular aggregation and deposition of cartilaginous ECM by the encapsulated cells, compared with pure MeGC hydrogels. (
  • Disulfide-bonded ATF6 is reduced upon treatment of cells with not only the reducing reagent dithiothreitol but also the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin, and the extent of reduction correlates with that of activation. (
  • In conclusion, BRCAA1 antibody- and Her2 antibody-conjugated PQDs have great potential in applications such as single cell labeling and in vivo tracking, and targeted imaging and therapeutic effects' evaluation of in vivo early gastric cancer cells in the near future. (
  • Quantum dots also have been used to study the interaction between protein molecules or to detect the dynamic course of signal transduction in live cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) [ 18 , 19 ]. (
  • Materials and Methods: The protein patterns of MPM cells secretome were examined and compared to a non-malignant mesothelial cell line using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. (
  • Using the RBL-2H3 rat mast cell line, we investigated whether granule secretion involves components of the soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) machinery. (
  • N-terminal fragments of mHTT accumulate in brain neurons and glia as soluble monomeric and oligomeric species as well as insoluble protein aggregates and drive the disease process. (
  • We identify internal cleavage sites and demonstrate that the protein is processed within the Golgi apparatus to yield soluble enzyme. (
  • 1 These effects of NO have been ascribed to the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC), leading to the production of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). (
  • QSOX1 (quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1) efficiently catalyses the insertion of disulfide bonds into a wide range of proteins. (
  • Results: Two up-regulated proteins involved in cancer biology, prosaposin and quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1, were considered candidate biomarkers. (
  • Imbalances between the burden of protein synthesis in the ER and the capacity of its folding machinery activate an adaptive cellular program called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is conserved from yeast to man ( Hetz, 2012 ). (
  • We examined whether the QCM biosensor could detect proteases by detecting the change in mass of protein that accompanies proteolytic cleavage. (
  • In macrophages, LT causes intracellular proteolytic cleavage of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) family. (
  • Organelle acidification is implicated in protein sorting in the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways, proteolytic activation of zymogen precursors, and transmembrane transport of viral contents and toxins, but may also impact many other aspects of cell physiology ( 86 , 103 , 139 ). (
  • The effects of NAC on high glucose-induced apoptosis were investigated in pHCECs using Annexin-V and PI staining, and cleaved caspase-3 and BAX expression levels using immunoblotting. (
  • Important catalysts of these thiol-disulfide exchange reactions are the members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family. (
  • The reaction catalysed by QSOX1 is equivalent to that catalysed by a combination of Ero1 (endoplasmic reticulum oxidase 1) and PDI (protein disulfide-isomerase) in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). (
  • DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it diminishes actin filament elongation, cell spreading, and actin treadmilling. (
  • This effect is consistent with the property of serum albumin to serves as a trap of a volatile NO accelerating its reactions. (
  • Protein determinations were made using the bicinchoninic acid method (Pierce) using bovine serum albumin as a standard. (
  • Serum levels of both proteins were significantly higher in MPM patients than control subjects. (
  • Serum albumin (SA) is the most abundant protein in blood ( 1 ). (
  • Cyclohexamide or actinomycin D does not attenuate DTDP-induced cell death, suggesting that posttranslational modification of existing targets, rather than transcriptional activation, is responsible for the deleterious effects of p38. (
  • The live-cell identification of distinct cell populations has most commonly been accomplished with gene expression assays that rely on the detection of fluorescent reporter proteins under the transcriptional control of the gene of interest. (
  • We and others have recently demonstrated that the mechanism of signal transduction by HIF-1α is a multistep process since nuclear translocation of the protein per se is not sufficient for transcriptional activation by HIF-1α ( 26 ). (
  • The M 1 receptor-mediated activation of PLC and suppression of KCNQ current were stopped by lowering intracellular calcium well below resting levels and were slowed by not allowing intracellular calcium to rise in response to PLC activation. (
  • Knockdown experiments showed that H 2 S inhibited the channel protein Orai3 to reduce calcium entry into macrophages. (
  • C) Detection of AtPARP3 protein in seeds with anti-AtPARP3 antibody. (
  • The invention is directed to methods for the non-radioactive labeling, detection, quantitation and isolation of nascent proteins translated in a cellular or cell-free translation system. (
  • Markers may comprise cleavable moieties, detectable labels, reporter properties wherein markers incorporated into protein can be distinguished from unincorporated markers, or coupling agents which facilitate the detection and isolation of nascent protein from other components of the translation system. (
  • The invention also comprises proteins prepared using misaminoacylated tRNAs which can be utilized in pharmaceutical compositions for the treatment of diseases and disorders in humans and other mammals, and kits which may be used for the detection of diseases and disorders. (
  • We present a one-pot synthesis of core-shell silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as a novel fluorescent probe for biological applications. (
  • Among the BH domains of Bcl 2 and BclxL, BH4 continues to be popular about its protective func-tion and Ca2 regulatory effects. (
  • The function of QSOX1 is likely to involve disulfide formation in proteins entering the secretory pathway or outside the cell. (
  • tRNA molecules are misaminoacylated with non-radioactive markers which may be non-native amino acids, amino acid analogs or derivatives, or substances recognized by the protein synthesizing machinery. (
  • With respect to the derivatization reagents the emphasis is on the labelling of amino, aldehyde, keto, carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfhydryl groups. (
  • Fatty acid-binding protein adipocyte ( fabp4 ) and proteasome subunit beta type-8 ( psmb8 ) were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in the MLCs of fish fed the diet with a lower level of fish oil, suggesting that they are important diet-responsive, immune-related biomarkers for future studies. (
  • The aim of the study was to identify novel biomarkers by proteomic analysis of two MPM cell lines secretome. (
  • Moreover, Ca 2+ uptake by mitochondria is involved in shaping cellular Ca 2+ dynamics by regulating the concentrations of Ca 2+ within microdomains between mitochondria and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane Ca 2+ transporters. (
  • Previous biochemical analysis has led to the identification of unique proteins (silaffins, cingulins, silacidins) and long-chain polyamines (LCPA) as organic components of diatom biosilica. (
  • Unfolded proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) under ER stress activate a series of homeostatic responses collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). (
  • The present invention relates generally to arrays of proteins and methods for the parallel, in vitro screening of a plurality of protein-analyte interactions. (
  • This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (
  • It has been suggested that the cytoskeleton may guide morphogenesis of the porous silica nanopatterns through interactions with proteins that span the SDV membrane. (
  • In another aspect, disclosed herein are Tethered immunolipoplex Nanoparticle (iTLN) or cationic Lipoplex Nanoparticle (cTLN) chips or arrays where intracellular ligands such as MB and cell surface ligands such as antibody are encapsulated and post-inserted respectively in liposomal nanoparticles tethered on a flat surface or nano/micro-scale particle. (
  • Tubulin was discovered using an anti-tubulin antibody showing the protein launching quantities. (
  • PDF 2355 kb) 12870_2019_1958_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (2.3M) GUID:?EF9D2326-27A2-46BF-A753-878F272DDF8E Extra file 7: Figure S6 Comparison from the PAR alerts discovered by anti-pan-ADPR reagent and anti-PAR antibody, respectively. (
  • The relative roles of QSOX1A and QSOX1B have been difficult to determine because of the identical protein sequence of QSOX1B and part of the ectodomain of QSOX1A, which compromises antibody localization studies. (
  • Although redox regulation of SERCA by S -glutathiolation may cause acute cyclic GMP-independent arterial relaxation, it is unknown if redox-dependent regulation of SERCA is involved in more chronic effects of NO such as those on cell migration. (
  • Our understanding of the regulation and functions of cell-surface proteins has progressed rapidly with the advent of advanced optical imaging techniques. (
  • Ward RJ, Pediani JD, Harikumar KG, Miller LJ , Milligan G. Spatial intensity distribution analysis quantifies the extent and regulation of homodimerization of the secretin receptor. (
  • Expressed human cardiac and rat skeletal muscle Na + channels were studied to check the specificity of the NO donor effect. (
  • salt - part: To communicate a referred, Computational 30-SEP-2001 mortality having the sensitive cardiac disease mucosa( telecommunication) with independent Congestive effect in bowels with treatment setting orgasm who propose not patients for tension time. (
  • We examined the subcellular mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of NO on cardiac contraction and investigated whether NO modulates contraction exclusively via guanylyl cyclase (GC) activation or whether some contribution occurs via cGMP/PKG-independent mechanisms, in indo 1-loaded adult cardiac myocytes. (
  • 11 Until recently, it was generally accepted that NO induced negative inotropic effects in cardiac preparations, mediated principally through cGMP-related mechanisms, specifically via the reduction of Ca 2+ influx through L-type Ca 2+ channels, either through activation of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase 14 15 16 or PKG and/or phosphatases. (
  • However therapeutic benefits of this drug are limited by several side effects including renal, hepatic, cardiac, alimentary, and neural toxicity ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • This protein is responsible for the transfer of many toxic metabolites and xenobiotics, including drugs. (
  • Since its discovery, controlled/living radical polymerization (CLRP) has proven to be a mature technology for building tailor-made (block) copolymers, functional polymers and polymers with a wide range of biological recognition. (
  • PF-2341066 biological activity S14 is the 14th spot of proteins which were previously annotated on the two-dimensional gel for their differential expression in the liver of hypothyroid rats treated with or without thyroid hormone [10]. (
  • In order to avoid the feasible effects of swelling and/or irregular thyroid status, individuals who had been diagnosed as Hepatitis PF-2341066 biological activity B, Hepatitis C, arthritis rheumatoid, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism had been excluded. (
  • Many palmitoylated proteins have been identified, but PAT-substrate relationships are mostly unknown. (
  • On the arrays, a plurality of different proteins, such as different members of a single protein family, are immobilized on one or more organic thinfilms on the substrate surface. (
  • Hence, for every disulfide introduced into a protein substrate, one oxygen and hydrogen peroxide molecule is consumed and produced respectively. (
  • Thus, engineered CBD-SA could be a versatile and clinically relevant drug conjugate carrier protein for treatment of solid tumors. (
  • Protein distributions can be determined through a series of pair-wise comparisons of gradient fractions, using cleavable ICAT to enable relative quantitation of protein levels by MS. The localization of novel proteins is determined using multivariate data analysis techniques to match their distributions to those of proteins that are known to reside in specific organelles. (
  • Determining the subcellular localization of novel proteins is an important step toward elucidating their role in the cell, because proteins are spatially organized according to their function ( 1 ). (
  • [0004] More generally, all novel proteins are of interest. (
  • Analytical centrifugation is an established method for assigning individual proteins to subcellular compartments that have eluded purification and refers to the analysis of protein distributions in density gradients, as opposed to preparative centrifugation, which is the analysis of single organelle-enriched fractions ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • The ability of PICA to identify PAT substrates is based on the principle that it quantifies the differential frequency of palmitoylation of individual proteins in control conditions versus conditions in which the function of a single PAT is reduced by siRNA-mediated gene knockdown ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • These two distinct pools of palmitoylated proteins were then captured, and the differences in the degree of palmitoylation of individual proteins among the two pools were identified. (
  • Indeed, even though considerable efforts have been made to improve the microscopy analysis on both reagents and instruments, the time needed by the operator to focus the samples and take pictures results in the bleaching of the fluorescent molecules and a consequent loss in signal intensity. (
  • The enrichment of subcellular compartments followed by the identification of their protein contents by proteomics is a powerful method for rapid protein localization. (
  • The protein arrays are particularly useful in drug development, proteomics, and clinical diagnostics. (
  • We found that obesity in mice reduced the bioavailability of the gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Steady-state, intracellular concentrations of H 2 S were lower in ATMs isolated from mice with diet-induced obesity than in ATMs from lean mice. (
  • Reduced intracellular concentrations of H 2 S led to increased Ca 2+ influx through the store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) pathway, which was prevented by the exogenous H 2 S donor GYY4137. (
  • Moreover, at limiting concentrations, SRC-1 produced this effect in synergy with CBP. (
  • It is a chimaera of two protein families as it contains both a disulfide-exchange (thioredoxin-like) and an oxidase (Erv-like) domain [ 1 ]. (
  • The technique involves partial separation of organelles by density gradient centrifugation followed by the analysis of protein distributions in the gradient by ICAT and MS. Multivariate data analysis techniques are then used to group proteins according to their distributions and hence localizations. (