The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC, EC, EC, and EC
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyze an intramolecular transfer of a phosphate group. It has been shown in some cases that the enzyme has a functional phosphate group, which can act as the donor. These were previously listed under PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.7.-). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.4.2.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Phosphoric acid esters of dolichol.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Oligosaccharides containing various types of glycosidic linkages that yield branching or antennae. The number of antennae (such as bi-, tri-, tetra-, or penta-antennary) in the oligosaccharides on the PROTEOGLYCANS; GLYCOPROTEINS; or LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES contribute to their biological activities, such as receptor binding and metabolism.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A lipophilic glycosyl carrier of the monosaccharide mannose in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharide phospholipids and glycoproteins.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Rare autosomal recessive lissencephaly type 2 associated with congenital MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY and eye anomalies (e.g., RETINAL DETACHMENT; CATARACT; MICROPHTHALMOS). It is often associated with additional brain malformations such as HYDROCEPHALY and cerebellar hypoplasia and is the most severe form of the group of related syndromes (alpha-dystroglycanopathies) with common congenital abnormalities in the brain, eye and muscle development.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
These compounds function as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. Include the pyrophosphates.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
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Lubas WA, Smith M, Starr CM, Hanover JA (1995). "Analysis of nuclear pore protein p62 glycosylation". Biochemistry. 34 (5): ... P62 glycosylation is increased in diabetes and may influence its association with other diseases. p62 is also more frequent in ... Guan T, Müller S, Klier G, Panté N, Blevitt JM, Haner M, Paschal B, Aebi U, Gerace L (1995). "Structural analysis of the p62 ... Guan T, Müller S, Klier G, Panté N, Blevitt JM, Haner M, Paschal B, Aebi U, Gerace L (1996). "Structural analysis of the p62 ...
Confirmation of the diagnosis can be performed based on sequence analysis of ALG1. The analysis of ALG1 is complicated by the ... ALG1-CDG is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder of glycosylation caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in ALG1. The ... ALG1-CDG can be suspected based on clinical findings, and abnormal serum transferrin glycosylation test results. ... This disorder was originally designated CDG-IK, under earlier nomenclature for congenital disorders of glycosylation. ...
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Microarray analysis of GEO profiles were conducted and TMEM134 is shown to be ubiquitously expressed in the majority of human ... There is no glycosylation, sulfination, or sumoylation sites. TMEM134 has one interaction with another protein, ELAVL1. This ...
N-glycosylation Lysine glycosylation The TMEM106A gene has two paralogs: TMEM106B and TMEM106C. These paralogs belong to the ... Garnier J, Osguthorpe DJ, Robson B (March 1978). "Analysis of the accuracy and implications of simple methods for predicting ... Gupta R, Jung E, Brunak S (2004). "Prediction of N-glycosylation sites in human proteins". Cite journal requires ,journal= ( ... Feric M, Zhao B, Hoffert JD, Pisitkun T, Knepper MA (April 2011). "Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis of membrane proteins ...
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SAPS analysis predicted that this protein would be unstable. Due to its high hydrophilicity, this protein definitely does not ... Several of these sites were predicted as both phosphorylation sites and O-glycosylation sites. CCDC130 was not predicted to be ... "SUMOplot Analysis Program". Abgent- a WuXi AppTec Company. Retrieved 14 May 2013. Johansen MB, Kiemer L, Brunak S (2006). " ... "CCDC130 Analysis". Biology Workbench. San Diego Supercomputing Center- University of California San Diego. Retrieved 7 May 2013 ...
Co-expression analyses have found that TMEM217 was up-regulated in response to mechanical stretch in dermal fibroblast cells ... Gupta, R.; Jung, E.; Brunak, S. "Prediction of N-glycosylation sites in human proteins". NetNGlyc 1.0 Server. Center for ... No known function has been attributed to TMEM217, however a co-expression analysis in dermal fibroblasts has predicted the ... There are several predicted phosphorylation and glycosylation sites on transmembrane protein 217 in highly conserved parts of ...
Tian M, Cui YZ, Song GH, Zong MJ, Zhou XY, Chen Y, Han JX (2008). "Proteomic analysis identifies MMP-9, DJ-1 and A1BG as ... Gupta, R. "Prediction of N-glycosylation sites in human proteins". Retrieved May 10, 2013. Higgins DG, Bleasby AJ, Fuchs R ( ... la Cour T, Kiemer L, Mølgaard A, Gupta R, Skriver K, Brunak S (June 2004). "Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear ... Brendel V, Bucher P, Nourbakhsh IR, Blaisdell BE, Karlin S (March 1992). "Methods and algorithms for statistical analysis of ...
"Analysis of multiple mutations in the hALG6 gene in a patient with congenital disorder of glycosylation Ic". Molecular Genetics ... "DHPLC analysis as a platform for molecular diagnosis of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG)". European Journal of Human ... Eklund EA, Sun L, Yang SP, Pasion RM, Thorland EC, Freeze HH (Jan 2006). "Congenital disorder of glycosylation Ic due to a de ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Overview Human ALG6 genome location and ALG6 gene ...
Analysis of TMEM247 predicts that it localizes in the cell at the endoplasmic reticulum. In this case, inner predicted domains ... Predicted modifications include O-beta-GlcNAc attachment, Glycation, and O-glycosylation. Protein kinases may modify ... It also has slightly elevated levels of glutamic acid in the same analysis. The charge distribution of amino acids comprising ...
A sumoylation analysis identified two motifs with low probability scores of 0.5 and 0.13. Since the probability scores are low ... There do not appear to be any significant O-Glycosylation sites. There are two CKII phosphorylation sites at Threonine 302 and ... Key candidate genes associated with BRAFV600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma on microarray analysis. Journal of Cellular ... FAM155B has two proposed N-Glycosylation sites at Asparagine 120 and 193. ...
TNMD contains two N-glycosylation sites at position 94 and 180. Protein analyses in eye and periodontal ligament revealed full ... "Transcriptomic analysis of mouse limb tendon cells during development". Development. 141 (19): 3683-96. doi:10.1242/dev.108654 ...
Haslam SM, North SJ, Dell A (October 2006). "Mass spectrometric analysis of N- and O-glycosylation of tissues and cells". ... Glycan Analysis Subcommittee, Mouse Subcommittee, and Nomenclature Subcommittee. The CFG resources and services described above ...
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Haslam SM, North SJ, Dell A (October 2006). "Mass spectrometric analysis of N- and O-glycosylation of tissues and cells". Curr ... In 2017 Dell and her colleagues determined in their experiment that O-linked glycosylation is not necessary for the natural ... Dell A, Reason AJ (February 1993). "Carbohydrate analysis". Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 4 (1): 52-6. doi:10.1016/0958-1669(93)90032 ... and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Maintain High Levels of Infectivity in the Complete Absence of Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation". ...
ISBN 978-0-8493-6078-7. Stadlmann J, Pabst M, Kolarich D, Kunert R, Altmann F (2008). "Analysis of immunoglobulin glycosylation ... The Fc regions of IgGs bear a highly conserved N-glycosylation site. Glycosylation of the Fc fragment is essential for Fc ...
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Analysis of the role of N-glycosylation in receptor expression and function". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (34): ... Badner JA, Yoon SW, Turner G, Bonner TI, Detera-Wadleigh SD (July 1995). "Multipoint genetic linkage analysis of the m2 human ...
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Ku NO, Omary MB (1995). "Identification and mutational analysis of the glycosylation sites of human keratin 18". J. Biol. Chem ... 1988). "Sequence analysis of murine cytokeratin endo A (no. 8) cDNA. Evidence for mRNA species initiated upstream of the normal ...
2009). "Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data identifies two loci influencing age at menarche". Nat. Genet. 41 (6): 648 ... It is localized to the cis-Golgi compartment, where it may be involved in the glycosylation of α-dystroglycan in skeletal ... 2009). "Mutational analysis of fukutin gene in dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Circ. J. 73 (1): 158-61 ... Percival JM, Froehner SC (2007). "Golgi complex organization in skeletal muscle: a role for Golgi-mediated glycosylation in ...
"Protein identification and analysis tools in the ExPASy server". 2-D Proteome Analysis Protocols. Methods Mol. Biol. 112. pp. ... Attachment of a sugar at the site of N-linked glycosylation would also increase the molecular weight. UPF0762 shows high ... Analysis of the mutated protein sequence for a signal peptide shows cleavability at the regular amino acid 20 is lost. DUF781's ... Statistical analysis has shown C6orf58 to be associated with pancreatic cancer survival time. In addition, a missense mutation ...
"Analysis of binding sites on complement factor I using artificial N-linked glycosylation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Shin DH, Webb BM, Nakao M, Smith SL (July 2009). "Characterization of shark complement factor I gene(s): genomic analysis of a ... Nilsson SC, Nita I, Månsson L, Groeneveld TW, Trouw LA, Villoutreix BO, Blom AM (February 2010). "Analysis of binding sites on ... Goldberger G, Bruns GA, Rits M, Edge MD, Kwiatkowski DJ (July 1987). "Human complement factor I: analysis of cDNA-derived ...
... Protein Presence in a Human Transcriptome Analysis. PRP36 Protein Presence in Normal Tissue Analysis. PRP36 Protein ... Blom N, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Gupta R, Gammeltoft S, Brunak S (Jun 2004). "Prediction of post-translational glycosylation and ... "SUMOplot™ Analysis Program". ABGENT. WuXi AppTec. Retrieved 1 May 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gupta R, Brunak ... Additional evidence supports some of these findings, as analysis of normal tissues revealed that over 50% of the cells in the ...
"Statistical Analysis of Protein Sequences, Compositional Analysis, c14orf119". Statistical Analysis of Protein Sequence (SAPS ... GalNAc-type-O-glycosylation is the attachment of a sugar molecule to the oxygen atom of serine or threonine residues in a ... "Statistical Analysis of Protein Sequences, Compositional Analysis - c14orf119". Statistical Analysis of Protein Sequences, ... "O-linked glycosylation", Wikipedia, April 14, 2020, retrieved April 30, 2020 Steentoft, Catharina; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Joshi ...
"RBPmap - Motif Analysis and Prediction of mRNA Binding Sites". RBPmap. "SRSF3 Serine/arginine rich splicing factor 3 - Homo ... Blom N, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Gupta R, Gammeltoft S, Brunak S (June 2004). "Prediction of post-translational glycosylation and ... February 2014). "Analysis of the human tissue-specific expression by genome-wide integration of transcriptomics and antibody- ... July 2019). "The EMBL-EBI search and sequence analysis tools APIs in 2019". Nucleic Acids Research. 47 (W1): W636-W641. doi: ...
Analysis done by the Human Protein Atlas indicates that the TEX55 protein can be found not only in the testis, but also the ... The TEX55 protein has a high number of potential phosphorylation/O-glycosylation sites. All secondary structure prediction ... Through function-region analysis, researchers found that this protein may act as an anchoring protein of cAMP-dependent type-II ... Analysis the cellular localization probability of Tex55 and its orthologs indicate that it is most likely located in the ...
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The three N-linked glycosylations sites are mainly equipped with so-called diantennary N-glycans. However, one particular site ... Kolarich D, Weber A, Turecek PL, Schwarz HP, Altmann F (June 2006). "Comprehensive glyco-proteomic analysis of human alpha1- ... A recent study analyzed and compared the three FDA-approved products regarding their primary structure and glycosylation. All ... Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA (2006). "Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: Lessons from descriptive studies and analyses of ...
... implications for glycosylation and CD4 binding". Genetic Analysis, Techniques and Applications. 7 (6): 160-71. doi:10.1016/0735 ... Feizi T, Larkin M (September 1990). "AIDS and glycosylation". Glycobiology. 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (March 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... effects of monensin on glycosylation and transport". Journal of Virology. 63 (6): 2452-6. PMC 250699. PMID 2542563.. ...
A cost-benefit analysis was carried out in which the costs of maintaining redundancy were balanced against the costs of genome ... Fialho, DM; Clarke, KC; Moore, MK; Schuster, GB; Krishnamurthy, R; Hud, NV (21 February 2018). "Glycosylation of a model proto- ... damage.[78] This analysis led to the conclusion that, under a wide range of circumstances, the selected strategy would be for ...
Lewandrowski U, Moebius J, Walter U, Sickmann A (2006). "Elucidation of N-glycosylation sites on human platelet proteins: a ... 2000). "Structure, chromosomal localization, and promoter analysis of the human elastin microfibril interfase located proteIN ( ... "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
Murine PrP has glycosylation sites as Asn180 and Asn196. A disulfide bond exists between Cys179 of the second helix and Cys214 ... an update by meta-analysis". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 326 (1-2): 89-95. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2013.01.020. PMID ... "Pseudoknots in prion protein mRNAs confirmed by comparative sequence analysis and pattern searching". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (3 ...
Pons M, Feliz M, Antònia Molins M, Giralt E; Feliz; Antònia Molins; Giralt (May 1991). "Conformational analysis of bacitracin A ... glycosylation and disulfide formation. In general, peptides are linear, although lariat structures have been observed.[7] More ... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Nutrition. 24 (10): 933-40. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2008.04.004. PMID 18562172.. ... "Effect of peptides derived from food proteins on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Food & ...
Aberrant glycosylation of IgA appears to lead to polymerisation of the IgA molecules in tissues, especially the glomerular ... these results have not been reproduced by other study groups and in two subsequent meta-analyses.[12][13] However, fish oil ... Smith AC, Molyneux K, Feehally J, Barratt J (2006). "O-glycosylation of serum IgA1 antibodies against mucosal and systemic ... a confounding factor in this analysis is the existing policy of screening and use of kidney biopsy as an investigative tool. ...
Raikhinstein M, Zohar M, Hanukoglu I (February 1994). "cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of the bovine adrenocorticotropic ... which undergoes a series of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation before it is ...
Complete polypeptide chain composition investigated by maximum entropy analysis of mass spectra". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (15): 8875 ... increased glycosylation of hemoglobin increases its affinity for oxygen, therefore preventing its release at the tissue and ... Laboratory hemoglobin test methods require a blood sample (arterial, venous, or capillary) and analysis on hematology analyzer ... obtained by X-ray analysis". Nature. 185 (4711): 416-22. Bibcode:1960Natur.185..416P. doi:10.1038/185416a0. PMID 18990801.. ...
2011). "Structural analysis of autotransporter components and the origin of porins". Int J Mol Biochem. 29 (13): 92-112.. CS1 ... In the Golgi apparatus, the glycosylation of the proteins is modified and further posttranslational modifications, including ... Structural analysis of these and other proteins in this system bear a striking resemblance to the tail spike of the T4 phage, ...
Dong DL, Xu ZS, Chevrier MR, Cotter RJ, Cleveland DW, Hart GW (August 1993). "Glycosylation of mammalian neurofilaments. ... "Neurofilament light chain as a biological marker for multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis study". Neuropsychiatric Disease and ... "Neurofilaments as Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLOS One. 11 (10): ...
Mody N, Hermans E, Nahorski SR, Challiss RA (1999). „Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation of the human type 1alpha metabotropic ... Genetic analysis of the GRM1 gene in human melanoma susceptibility". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 15 (11): 1176-82. PMID 17609672. doi: ...
Mattu T, Pleass R, Willis A, Kilian M, Wormald M, Lellouch A, Rudd P, Woof J, Dwek R (1998). "The glycosylation and structure ... in Western blot analyses to identify proteins separated by electrophoresis,[73] and in immunohistochemistry or ... which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions.[4] The production of antibodies is the main ... of human serum IgA1, Fab, and Fc regions and the role of N-glycosylation on Fc alpha receptor interactions". J Biol Chem. 273 ( ...
Liu QJ, Gong YQ, Chen BX, et al.: [Linkage analysis and mutation detection of GRIA3 in Smith--Fineman--Myers syndrome] in: Yi ... Granzyme B proteolysis of a neuronal glutamate receptor generates an autoantigen and is modulated by glycosylation. in: J. ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al.: Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse ... Amir R, Dahle EJ, Toriolo D, Zoghbi HY: Candidate gene analysis in Rett syndrome and the identification of 21 SNPs in Xq. in: ...
Christie WW, Han X (2010). 》Lipid Analysis: Isolation, Separation, Identification and Lipidomic Analysis》. Bridgwater, England ... Parodi AJ, Leloir LF (April 1979). "The role of lipid intermediates in the glycosylation of proteins in the eucaryotic cell". 》 ... Heinz E. (1996). "Plant glycolipids: structure, isolation and analysis", pp. 211-332 in Advances in Lipid Methodology, Vol. 3. ... 2007). 》Lipodomics and Bioactive Lipids: Mass Spectrometry Based Lipid Analysis》. Methods in Enzymology 423. Boston: Academic ...
Urine analysis in patients with diabetic kidney disease is often bland. In cases of severely increased microalbuminuria, ... These glycosylation products accumulate on the proteins of vessel wall collagen, forming an irreversible complex of cross- ... an updated meta-analysis". Retrieved 2015-07-02.. ... A systematic review and meta-analysis". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 143: 288-300. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.07. ...
Glycosylation[edit]. In biology, glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to an organic ... "Oligosaccharide analysis by mass spectrometry: a review of recent developments". Analytical Chemistry. 86 (1): 196-212. doi ... N-linked glycosylation involves oligosaccharide attachment to asparagine via a beta linkage to the amine nitrogen of the side ... In N-glycosylation for eukaryotes, the oligosaccharide substrate is assembled right at the membrane of the endoplasmatic ...
A number of engineered genetic sequences must be incorporated into the host cell to perform two-hybrid analysis or one of its ... acylation and glycosylation are similar. The intracellular localization of the proteins is also more correct compared to using ... The binding domain in this case however is not necessarily of fixed sequence as in two-hybrid protein-protein analysis but may ... Mon H, Sugahara R, Hong SM, Lee JM, Kamachi Y, Kawaguchi Y, Kusakabe T (September 2009). "Analysis of protein interactions with ...
... glycosylation has a profound effect on neutrophil activity and thus may also be classified as a congenital glycosylation ... "UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis" (PDF). Journal of Computational Chemistry. 25 (13 ... recent studies have elucidated this area of similarity between both deficiencies and have shown that aberrant glycosylation ... "G6PC3 mutations are associated with a major defect of glycosylation: a novel mechanism for neutrophil dysfunction" ...
1995). "Site-specific glycosylation of bovine butyrophilin". J. Biochem. 117 (1): 147-57. PMID 7775382.. ... 1999). "Cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of a novel butyrophilin-like receptor". J. Hum. Genet. 44 (4 ... 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID ... Taylor MR, Peterson JA, Ceriani RL, Couto JR (1996). "Cloning and sequence analysis of human butyrophilin reveals a potential ...
Glycosylation occurs by adding either glucose or galactose monomers onto the hydroxyl groups that were placed onto lysines, but ... Zylberberg, L.; Laurin, M. (2011). "Analysis of fossil bone organic matrix by transmission electron microscopy". Comptes Rendus ... Glycosylation of specific hydroxylysine residues occurs.. *Triple alpha helical structure is formed inside the endoplasmic ... This step is important for later glycosylation and the formation of the triple helix structure of collagen. Because the ...
Salemi M, Vandamme AM (2002). "Hepatitis C virus evolutionary patterns studied through analysis of full-genome sequences". J ... E1 has 4-5 N-linked glycans and E2 has 11 N-glycosylation sites. ... A systematic review and meta-analysis". J Med Virol. 90 (5): ... Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Flaviviridae. .mw-parser-output .navbar{display:inline;font-size:88%;font ... A Bayesian analysis suggests that the major genotypes diverged about 300-400 years ago from the common ancestor virus.[51] The ...
The degree of glycosylation of the protein may be different and therefore the molecular weight of lactoferrin varies between 76 ... Refinement and analysis of ligand-induced conformational change". Acta Crystallogr. D. 54 (Pt 6 Pt 2): 1319-35. doi:10.1107/ ... Each lobe consists of two subdomains, N1, N2 and C1, C2, and contains one iron binding site and one glycosylation site. ... The stability of lactoferrin has been associated with the high glycosylation degree. Lactoferrin belongs to the basic proteins ...
Hu, Wanchung (2007). Microarray analysis of PBMC gene expression profiles after Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection (Ph.D ... "Differential glycosylation of TH1, TH2 and TH-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death". Nat ...
... and glycosylation of pro-cathepsin D in human mammary cancer cells". Cancer Research. 49 (14): 3904-9. PMID 2736531.. ... crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lysosomal enzyme". Journal of Molecular Biology. 227 (1): 265- ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human cathepsin D". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
Vitale V, Monami M, Mannucci E (2016). "Prostanoids in patients with peripheral arterial disease: A meta-analysis of placebo- ... Zhang Z, Austin SC, Smyth EM (September 2001). "Glycosylation of the human prostacyclin receptor: role in ligand binding and ... A meta-analysis of 18 clinical trials on the use of prostanoids including prinicpally IP receptor agonists on patients with ... "Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Prostacyclin Analogs for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Network Meta-Analysis" ...
Activated T cells also change their cell surface glycosylation profile.[38]. The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several ... "Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets in young and old people". Immunity & Ageing. 5 (6): 6. ...
Phosphorylation, O-linked glycosylation, N-acetylation (N-terminus) Threonine Thr Phosphorylation, O-linked glycosylation, N- ... Functional analyses for site-specific phosphorylation of a target protein in cells ... glycosylation, the addition of a glycosyl group to either arginine, asparagine, cysteine, hydroxylysine, serine, threonine, ... Many eukaryotic proteins also have carbohydrate molecules attached to them in a process called glycosylation, which can promote ...
Furthermore, the functionally important epitopes of the gp120 protein are masked by glycosylation, trimerisation and receptor- ... February 1998). "Immunological and Virological Analyses of Persons Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 while ... Further analysis presented at a 2011 AIDS conference in Bangkok revealed that participants receiving vaccines in the RV 144 ...
Glycosylation of membrane proteins plays a crucial role in various physiological events, including intercellular recognition ... Pavić T., Gornik O. (2017) Analysis of N-Glycosylation of Total Membrane Proteins. In: Lauc G., Wuhrer M. (eds) High-Throughput ... Huffman JE et al (2014) Comparative performance of four methods for high-throughput glycosylation analysis of immunoglobulin G ... Glycosylation of membrane proteins plays a crucial role in various physiological events, including intercellular recognition ...
Contact us today to find out how SGSs world-class Glycosylation Analysis can help determine how post-translational factors ... Life Sciences Glycosylation Analysis. Glycosylation analysis plays an important role in the safety and efficacy of final drug ... Glycosylation of Proteins: Structure, Function & Analysis. Download Glycosylation of Proteins: Structure, Function & Analysis ... Glycosylation site analysis. Our experts are always at hand to give advice on what may be most appropriate for you, whether you ...
... analysis, labeling, carbohydrate standards, and a product directory. ... Sigmas Glycoprotein Analysis Manual contains information on classification, purification, detection, strategies, ...
Neutral protease I from Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and its N-glycosylation properties were ... Glycosylation analysis of recombinant neutral protease I from Aspergillus oryzae expressed in Pichia pastoris ... Machida M, Asai K, Sano M et al (2005) Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae. Nature 438:1157-1161PubMedCrossRef ... Dean N (1999) Asparagine-linked glycosylation in the yeast golgi. BBA-Gen Subj 1426:309-322CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
RSSL can help define the important glycosylation features of your biologic, whether novel molecule, biosimilar or biobetter. ... Glycosylation Analysis. RSSL can provide detailed glycosylation analysis in accordance with the relevant guidelines (EMA, FDA ... Glycosylation Analysis. Glycosylation analytical strategies require multiple technologies, including selective enzymatic ... Leachables Glycosylation Analysis Process & Product Related Impurities Protein, Peptide & Glycoprotein Analysis Sterility ...
Statistical analysis of the protein environment of N-glycosylation sites: implications for occupancy, structure, and folding.. ... We recently reported statistical analysis of structural data on glycosidic linkages. Here we extend this analysis to the glycan ... There is an elevated probability of finding glycosylation sites in which secondary structure changes. An 11-class taxonomy was ... These data have significant implications for control of sequon occupancy and evolutionary selection of glycosylation sites and ...
... Fromell, Karin Uppsala University, Teknisk- ... Nanoparticles, Glycoprotein, Glycosylation Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-25395OAI: diva2: ... active proteins are glycosylated and various diseases have proven to correlate with alterations in protein glycosylation. ...
Therefore, we have developed a sensitive screening approach for the comprehensive analysis of N-glycans and glycosylation sites ... The glycosylation sites were elucidated by sequencing of PNGase F modified glycopeptides using nanoRP-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Alterations ... N-linked glycosylation profiling of pancreatic cancer serum using capillary liquid phase separation coupled with mass ... Ninety-two individual glycosylation sites and 202 glycan peaks with 105 unique carbohydrate structures were identified from ...
Structure and functional analysis of a new subfamily of glycosyltransferases required for glycosylation of serine-rich ... Structural and Functional Analysis of a New Subfamily of Glycosyltransferases Required for Glycosylation of Serine-rich ... Glycosylation of this family of adhesins is essential for their biogenesis. A glucosyltransferase (Gtf3) catalyzes the second ... The structural analysis indicates that Gtf3 forms a tetramer and shares significant structural homology with ...
Thus, profiling Env glycosylation and distinguishing interclade and intraclade glycosylation variations are necessary ... Our results also reveal a clade-specific glycosylation pattern. Discerning interclade and intraclade glycosylation variations ... The extensive glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env), gp120/gp41, is known to play an important role in evasion of host ... Go, E. P., Chang, Q., Liao, H.-X., Sutherland, L. L., Alam, S. M., Haynes, B. F., & Desaire, H. (2009). Glycosylation Site- ...
... glycosylation och totalt protein genom användning av western blöt. Vi introducerar ytterligare en GFP-märkningsmetod för att ...
Quantitative Analyses Reveal Novel Roles for N-Glycosylation in a Major Enteric Bacterial Pathogen. Sherif Abouelhadid, Simon J ... Functional analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked protein glycosylation pathway. Mol Microbiol 55:1695-1703. doi:10.1111 ... Functional analyses revealed novel roles for bacterial N-glycosylation in modulating multidrug efflux pump, enhancing nitrate ... Analysis of a glycosylation-deficient strain, revealed chaperones and stress-related proteins are more abundant, indicating a ...
We find that 1091 proteins have modified N-glycosylation sequons due to nsSNVs in the genome. Based on analysis of proteins ... Proteome-Wide Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Variations in the N-Glycosylation Sequon of Human Genes. ... Pathway and function enrichment analysis show that a significant number of proteins that gained or lost the glycosylation motif ... Home » Proteome-Wide Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Variations in the N-Glycosylation Sequon of Human Genes ...
Representative analyses of IgG glycosylation using UPLC-FLR, xCGE-LIF, MALDI-TOF-MS, and LC-ESI-MS are shown in Fig. 1. Details ... 2008) Analysis of immunoglobulin glycosylation by LC-ESI-MS of glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. Proteomics 8, 2858-2871. ... ER and MW have several patents in the field of glycosylation analysis. YSA declares that he is a founder and owner of "Yurii ... Representative data from IgG glycosylation analysis of the same individual by (A) UPLC-FLR (continuous lines - total IgG N- ...
Analysis of the role of pglI in pilin glycosylation of Neisseria meningitidis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 41:43-50. ... Functional analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked protein glycosylation pathway. Mol. Microbiol. 55:1695-1703. ... MS analysis of intact PilE carrying DATDH- or GATDH-based glycan forms. ESI-MS analyses of intact PilE utilizing pili from ... Genetic, Structural, and Antigenic Analyses of Glycan Diversity in the O-Linked Protein Glycosylation Systems of Human ...
N-glycosylation site analysis reveals sex-related differences in protein N-glycosylation in the rice brown planthopper ( ... N-glycosylation site analysis reveals sex-related differences in protein N-glycosylation in the rice brown planthopper ( ... N-glycosylation site analysis reveals sex-related differences in protein N-glycosylation in the rice brown planthopper ( ... N-glycosylation site analysis reveals sex-related differences in protein N-glycosylation in the rice brown planthopper ( ...
Avhandling: Ligation-mediated Molecular Analysis of Influenza Subtypes, Splicing and Protein Glycosylation . ... Ligation-mediated Molecular Analysis of Influenza Subtypes, Splicing and Protein Glycosylation Detta är en avhandling från ... Nyckelord: MEDICIN; MEDICINE; ligase; proximity ligation; gastric cancer; glycosylation; alternative splicing; avian influenza ... Current analysis techniques fail to provide sequences of complete transcripts beyond the read length of sequencing instruments ...
Mutagenesis and functional analysis of N-linked glycosylation of the major envelope fusion protein of Helicoverpa armigera ...
Mutational analysis of the N-linked glycosylation sites of the human insulin receptor. Thomas C. ELLEMAN, Maurice J. FRENKEL, ... Mutational analysis of the N-linked glycosylation sites of the human insulin receptor ... Mutational analysis of the N-linked glycosylation sites of the human insulin receptor ... Mutational analysis of the N-linked glycosylation sites of the human insulin receptor ...
Analysis of O-linked Glycosylation. Scientists at Genovis have discovered new O-glycan-specific enzymatic tools including: ... LC-MS Analysis of Etanercept using OpeRATOR Maps O-glycan Sites. Etanercept is an Fc-fusion protein with a highly O- ... EPO is a ~30 kDa glycoprotein with a single O-glycosylation site. N-glycans were removed from EPO using PNGaseF and sialic ... Figure 3. Specific digestion N-terminally of the O-glycosylation site. The reduced fragments were separated on a reversed phase ...
A New Approach to Localization of the O-Glycosylation Sites in Glycoproteins: Mass-Spectrometric Analysis of O-Glycopeptides ...
Structural and functional analysis of the canine histamine H2 receptor by site-directed mutagenesis: N-glycosylation is not ... Structural and functional analysis of the canine histamine H2 receptor by site-directed mutagenesis: N-glycosylation is not ... Structural and functional analysis of the canine histamine H2 receptor by site-directed mutagenesis: N-glycosylation is not ... Structural and functional analysis of the canine histamine H2 receptor by site-directed mutagenesis: N-glycosylation is not ...
Glycosylation of proteins can be classified into N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation depending on the manner in which the sugar ... Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins. ... Glycosylation of proteins can be classified into N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation depending on the manner in which the sugar ... developed glycosylation analysis service.. Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins. ...
We have developed a lectin array-based method, Qproteome™ GlycoArray kits, for rapid analysis of glycosylation profiles of ... A lectin array-based methodology for the analysis of protein glycosylation. DSpace/Manakin Repository. ... Glycosylation is the most versatile and one of the most abundant protein modifications. It has a structural role as well as ... The diverse roles of glycosylation in biological processes are rapidly growing areas ... read more of research, however, ...
In this study, we performed simultaneous site-specific glycosylation analysis of abundant serum glycoproteins by LC/Qq-TOF MS ... We successfully demonstrated site-specific glycosylation of 23 sites in abundant serum glycoproteins. ... Changes in the glycosylation of some serum proteins are associated with certain diseases. ... IgG glycosylation analysis.. *Carolin Huhn, Maurice H. J. Selman, L. Renee Ruhaak, André M. Deelder, Manfred Wuhrer ...
... Login ... Comparative genomic analysis of the flagellin glycosylation island of the Gram-positive thermophile Geobacillus. De Maayer, ... CONLUSIONS : Our comparative genomic analyses showed that, while not universal, flagellin glycosylation islands are relatively ... The Geobacillus flagellin glycosylation islands (FGIs) can be clustered into five distinct types, which are predicted to encode ...
Identification and Functional Analysis of O-G1cNAc Glycosylation on the Transcription Factor cAMP-Response Element Binding ... Lamarre-Vincent, Nathan (2007) Identification and Functional Analysis of O-G1cNAc Glycosylation on the Transcription Factor ... O-GlcNAc glycosylation, that provides an additional level of control of CREB activity. CREB glycosylation moderates ... CREB glycosylation offers us an example of how cells use multiple PTMs to control protein function and how dysfunction in the ...
... and O-glycosylation sites. An in-depth characterization of the glycosylation of etanercept was carried out using liquid ... The determination of N- and O-glycans and O-glycosylation sites in etanercept provides a basis for future studies addressing ... Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) was then used to pinpoint the 12 occupied O-glycosylation sites. ... and O-linked glycans and located the occupied O-glycosylation sites. Etanercept was first treated with peptide N-glycosidase F ...
Phylogenetic analyses, multiple sequence alignment, glyco-sylation sites analyses, and protein structure prediction were ... Evolutionary analysis of the antigenic determinant, glycosylation, and sialidase sites of neuraminidase from the human ... Six glycosylation sites (44 (NHT), 50 (NQS), 58 (NST), 63 (NHT), 70 (NNT), 434 (NTT), and 455 (NWS)) significantly changed, and ... H275Y, despite its missing glycosylation sites, can change its 3D structure.. Conclusions: Except for sialidase, some of the ...
To test the potential role for regulated glycosylation in cardiac excitability, our analysis began by determining whether ... Microarray Analysis.. Analysis of gene expression was conducted using a custom gene microarray (GLYCOv2 chip) produced by ... Inherent differences in glycosylation (unique glycosylation signatures) among ion channel subunits and isoforms as described ... Regulated and aberrant glycosylation modulate cardiac electrical signaling. Marty L. Montpetit, Patrick J. Stocker, Tara A. ...
  • Glycosylation of membrane proteins plays a crucial role in various physiological events, including intercellular recognition and intermolecular interactions on the cell surface (Gornik et al. (
  • To study composition and function of N -glycans on membrane proteins one has to have an efficient and reproducible analytical method, which includes protein extraction and analysis of glycans. (
  • In this chapter we provide an analytical approach that includes cloud-point extraction (CPE) of total membrane proteins with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 and subsequent analysis of their N -glycans using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-UPLC/HPLC. (
  • The protocol presented here can be used for parallel analysis of both membrane and intracellular proteins. (
  • Gornik O, Pavić T, Lauc G (2012) Alternative glycosylation modulates function of IgG and other proteins - Implications on evolution and disease. (
  • Shevchenko G, Sjo MOD, Malmstro D, Wetterhall M, Bergquist J (2010) Cloud-point extraction and delipidation of porcine brain proteins in combination with bottom-up mass spectrometry approaches for proteome analysis. (
  • Donoghue PM, Hughes C, Vissers JPC, Langridge JI, Dunn MJ (2008) Nonionic detergent phase extraction for the proteomic analysis of heart membrane proteins using label-free LC-MS. Proteomics 8(18):3895-3905. (
  • Pavić T., Gornik O. (2017) Analysis of N -Glycosylation of Total Membrane Proteins. (
  • Hydrophobic protein-glycan interactions and the low accessibility of glycosylation sites in folded proteins are common features and may be critical in mediating these functions. (
  • A majority of all biologically active proteins are glycosylated and various diseases have proven to correlate with alterations in protein glycosylation. (
  • Therefore, we have developed a sensitive screening approach for the comprehensive analysis of N-glycans and glycosylation sites on human serum proteins. (
  • The extensive glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env), gp120/gp41, is known to play an important role in evasion of host immune response by masking key neutralization epitopes and presenting the Env glycosylation as "self" to the host immune system. (
  • This work provides insights on the importance of general glycosylation in proteins in maintaining bacterial physiology, thus expanding our knowledge of the emergence of posttranslational modification in bacteria. (
  • N-linked glycosylation is one of the most frequent post-translational modifications of proteins with a profound impact on their biological function. (
  • Besides other functions, N-linked glycosylation assists in protein folding, determines protein orientation at the cell surface, or protects proteins from proteases. (
  • We find that 1091 proteins have modified N-glycosylation sequons due to nsSNVs in the genome. (
  • Based on analysis of proteins that have a solved 3D structure at the site of variation, we find that 48% of the variations that lead to changes in glycosylation sites occur at the loop and bend regions of the proteins. (
  • Pathway and function enrichment analysis show that a significant number of proteins that gained or lost the glycosylation motif are involved in kinase activity, immune response, and blood coagulation. (
  • Prime examples of this diversity include the glycosylation of major subunits of S-layers ( 53 ), flagella ( 40 ), and type IV pili, as well as nonpilus adhesins, such as autotransporters ( 7 , 51 ) and a family of serine-rich proteins identified in Gram-positive species ( 72 ). (
  • Recently, the pilin glycosylation system in the Gram-negative species Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the etiological agent of gonorrhea) was shown to be a general O-linked system in which a large set of structurally distinct periplasmic proteins undergo glycosylation ( 64 ). (
  • Likewise, a general O-linked glycosylation system targeting periplasmic and surface-exposed proteins has been documented in Bacteroides fragilis ( 19 ). (
  • Glycosylation is a common modification of proteins and critical for a wide range of biological processes. (
  • Male- and female-specific N-glycosylation sites were identified, and some of these sex-specific N-glycosylation sites were shown to be derived from proteins with a putative role in insect reproduction. (
  • Both lectin blotting experiments as well as transcript expression analyses with complete insects and insect tissues confirmed the observed differences in N-glycosylation of proteins between sexes. (
  • We demonstrate that this assay yields information about the splicing patterns in thousands of transcripts from cellular cDNA (Paper II).Expression changes of mucin proteins and glycosylation structures are frequently observed from the early stages of cancer development. (
  • Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins. (
  • Glycosylation of proteins can be classified into N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation depending on the manner in which the sugar chain and the peptide chain are linked. (
  • Based on the high-resolution mass spectrometer Obitrap Fusion Lumos, MtoZ Biolabs, an international contract research organization (CRO) providing advanced proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics related services, uses glycin software containing almost all glycoforms for glycosylation of peptides, proteins and antibody drugs to identify peptide or protein sample glycosylation sites. (
  • Changes in the glycosylation of some serum proteins are associated with certain diseases. (
  • BACKGROUND : Protein glycosylation involves the post-translational attachment of sugar chains to target proteins and has been observed in all three domains of life. (
  • Such structural diversity is the result of the activity of nearly 250 known glycosylation-associated genes such as glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and nucleotide sugar synthesis and transporter genes (glycogenes) that are responsible collectively for producing the glycans attached to lipids and proteins ( 2 ). (
  • Based on the limited homologies of these gene products with enzymes involved in glycosylation, we propose that the island encodes similar proteins involved in synthesis, activation, or polymerization of sugars that are necessary for flagellin glycosylation. (
  • Protein glycosylation in prokaryotic organisms is a relatively uncommon posttranslation modification process, first described in Archea, where the S layer proteins were shown to contain covalently attached sugars ( 1 ). (
  • Several bacterial proteins are now known to undergo glycosylation, including potential virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, such as the pilins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( 2 ), Neisseria meningitidis ( 3 ), and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 4 ), an adhesin of Chlamydia ( 5 ), a surface-exposed immunodominant protein of two Ehrlichia species ( 6 ), and the TiBA adhesin of ETEC ( 7 ). (
  • However, glycosylation is not restricted to proteins found within bacterial surface appendages. (
  • The genetic basis of glycosylation of selected bacterial proteins has been only recently approached. (
  • Similarly, the proteins of the general glycosylation system in C. jejuni ( 15 ) encoded by the pglA-G genes are involved in the modification of a number of proteins, including flagellin, and do not participate in the synthesis of LPS, despite their sequence similarity with the enzymes of LPS and capsule biosynthesis. (
  • Therefore, glycosylation of bacterial proteins represents a specific modification pathway and is not simply carried out as a secondary activity of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides or glycolipids. (
  • For these reasons, the development of analytical methods able to investigate the glycosylation of proteins in complex samples and to measure and characterize disease-related alterations is of great importance. (
  • In this thesis, the development and application of rapid and small-scale methods for the analysis of the glycosylation pattern on specific proteins in biological fluids, with a high degree of automation and potential for parallel sample treatment, is presented. (
  • This showed the N-glycosylation profile of SARS-CoV-2 S proteins at the levels of intact N-glycopeptides and glycosites, in addition to the glycan composition and site-specific number of glycans, as seen in Figure 3. (
  • Workflow for site-specific N-glycosylation characterization of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S proteins using two complementary proteases for digestion and simultaneous N-glycoproteomics analysis. (
  • Aberrant glycosylation of proteins is connected with cell immortalization, transformation, and metastasis. (
  • Due to its many biological functions, glycosylation is one of the most-studied PTMs of eukaryotic cell proteins. (
  • Produces neural network predictions of mucin type GalNAc O-glycosylation sites in mammalian proteins. (
  • Predicts N-Glycosylation sites in human proteins using artificial neural networks that examine the sequence context of Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr sequons. (
  • Produces neural network predictions for GlcNAc O-glycosylation sites in Dictyostelium discoideum proteins. (
  • Glycosylation of proteins is one of the most common post translation modifications (PTMs) and a critical quality attribute of biopharmaceutical products. (
  • A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. (
  • Asparagine-linked glycosylation of proteins by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) occurs when acceptor sites or sequons (N-x≠P-T/S) on nascent polypeptides enter the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Asparagine-linked glycosylation is one of the most common protein modification reactions in eukaryotic cells, occurring on N-(x≠P)-T/S/C consensus sequons on newly synthesized proteins in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). (
  • Two different mechanisms for protein glycosylation can be distinguished by the mode in which the glycans are transferred to proteins. (
  • In this study, we describe an improved protocol for a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with lectin detection method that can be used in glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. (
  • Also several other Tannerella proteins are modified with the S‑layer oligosaccharide, indicating the presence of a general O ‑glycosylation system. (
  • Glycosylation is one of the most widely observed, and structurally diverse, forms of post translational modification (PTM) of proteins. (
  • Application Note 15 Glycosylation Analysis of Human Serum Transferrin Glycoforms Using Pellicular Anion-Exchange Chromatography INTRODUCTION Glycoforms and Protein Sialylation Glycoproteins are proteins with a carbohydrate attached to the polypeptide backbones through one or more glycosylation sites. (
  • Glycosylation, the attachment of sugar moieties to proteins, is a post-translational modification (PTM) that provides greater proteomic diversity than other PTMs. (
  • However, expression of the Syrian hamster PCPH and mt-PCPH proteins in haploid yeast strains engineered to be GDPase deficient by targeted disruption of the single GDA1 allele did not complement their glycosylation-disabled phenotype, suggesting the existence of significant functional differences between the mammalian and yeast enzymes. (
  • A reader friendly overview of the structure and functional relevance of natural glycosylation and its cognate proteins (lectins), this book is also one of the few books to cover their role in health and disease. (
  • We constructed plasmids that contain the genes encoding wild-type prME (contain the signal of the prM, the prM, and the E coding regions) and three mutant prME proteins, in which the putative N-linked glycosylation sites are mutated individually or in combination, by site-directed mutagenesis. (
  • Together, these tools facilitate comprehensive computational analysis of proteins involved in biosynthesis of aglycone core and its downstream glycosylations. (
  • Despite the deduced proteins having low overall similarity, sequence analysis of the fasciclin domains in Arabidopsis FLAs identified two highly conserved regions that define this motif, suggesting that the cell adhesion function is conserved. (
  • The glycosylation pathway begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the enzyme oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which attaches a long chain of sugars to asparagine residues of target proteins. (
  • The central catalytic subunit contains binding sites for substrates and is flanked by accessory subunits that may facilitate delivery of newly translocated proteins for glycosylation. (
  • Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) is an essential membrane protein complex in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it transfers an oligosaccharide from a dolichol-pyrophosphate-activated donor to glycosylation sites of secretory proteins. (
  • This training course will cover critical aspects of engineering proteins through glycosylation , expressing bioactive glycoproteins in mammalian cells and the analysis of their glycosylation. (
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway protein glycosylation and in Protein modification . (
  • We surveyed 506 glycoproteins in the Protein Data Bank crystallographic database, giving 2592 glycosylation sequons (1683 occupied) and generated a database of 626 nonredundant sequons with 386 occupied. (
  • The glycosylation sites were elucidated by sequencing of PNGase F modified glycopeptides using nanoRP-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Alterations of glycosylation were analyzed by comparing oligosaccharide expression of serum glycoproteins at different disease stages. (
  • N-glycopeptide enrichment via lectin capturing using the high mannose/paucimannose-binding lectin Concanavalin A, or the Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin which interacts with complex N-glycans, resulted in the identification of over 1,300 N-glycosylation sites derived from over 600 glycoproteins. (
  • We have discovered an O-glycan-specific endoprotease - OpeRATOR, digesting O-glycoproteins N-terminally of the serine and threonine glycosylation sites. (
  • of research, however, Glycobiology research is limited by the lack of a technology for rapid analysis of glycan composition of glycoproteins. (
  • We have developed a lectin array-based method, Qproteome™ GlycoArray kits, for rapid analysis of glycosylation profiles of glycoproteins. (
  • Glycoanalysis is performed on intact glycoproteins, requiring only 4-6 h for most analysis types. (
  • Simultaneous glycosylation analysis of human serum glycoproteins by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. (
  • In this study, we performed simultaneous site-specific glycosylation analysis of abundant serum glycoproteins by LC/Qq-TOF MS of human serum tryptic digest, the albumin of which was depleted. (
  • A broad range of glycoproteins has been identified in C. jejuni ( 15 ) and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( 16 ), indicating that glycosylation in bacteria may be as common as it is in higher cells. (
  • Analysis of variable N-glycosylation site occupancy in glycoproteins by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (
  • Glycosylation influences structure and functionality of glycoproteins, and is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. (
  • N-glycosylation site occupancy is a physiological feature of glycoproteins and mainly contributes N-glycan. (
  • The general strategy of variable N-glycosylation site occupancy analysis in glycoproteins comprises the following procedures. (
  • The aims of GlyProt are (i) to evaluate whether a potential N-glycosylation site is spatially accessible, (ii) to generate reasonable three-dimensional models of glycoproteins with user-definable glycan moieties and (iii) to provide some evidence on how the physicochemical parameters can change between the varying glycoforms of a protein. (
  • It presents a first map of the human O-glycoproteome with almost 3000 glycosites in over 600 O-glycoproteins as well as an improved NetOGlyc4.0 model for prediction of O-glycosylation. (
  • Biosynthetic analysis of four human glycoproteins revealed that closely spaced sites are efficiently glycosylated by an STT3B-independent process unless the sequons contain non-optimal sequence features, including extreme close spacing between sequons (e.g. (
  • Surprisingly, siRNA-mediated depletion of STT3A in HeLa cells does not cause hypoglycosylation of most glycoproteins because the STT3B complex can mediate cotranslational, as well as post-translocational, glycosylation of sequons that are skipped by the STT3A complex. (
  • Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that modulates the structure and function of polypeptide components of glycoproteins [1] , [2] . (
  • The two membrane glycoproteins of JEV, prM and E, each contain a potential N-linked glycosylation site, at positions N15 and N154, respectively. (
  • Leukocyte selectin (L-selectin, CD62L) binds preferentially to O-linked carbohydrates present on a small number of mucin-like glycoproteins, such as glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule-1 (GlyCAM-1), expressed in high endothelial venules. (
  • No matter what your glycoprotein analysis needs, we offer a commitment to quality and applying international expertise at a local level. (
  • It is important to have an understanding of the structure of the glycans to reduce risks associated with patient safety (due to the formation of potentially allergenic structures), and loss of biological activity of the glycoprotein therapeutic (due to non-optimal glycosylation). (
  • Due to the complex nature of glycosylation and structural characterisation, different analytical approaches are required to fully assess the glycan or glycoprotein structure. (
  • EPO is a ~30 kDa glycoprotein with a single O-glycosylation site. (
  • Due to the crucial role of glycans in modulating protein function, glycosylation analysis is of prime importance in glycoprotein biopharmaceuticals quality control. (
  • Site-specific N-linked glycosylation of SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein. (
  • Characterizing the site-specific N-glycosylation including N-glycosylation site occupancy and site-specific glycan structure is important for understanding glycoprotein biosynthesis and function. (
  • Typically, a glycoprotein is enzymatically digested, the resulting peptide fragments are separated using HPLC and the peptides are identified by on-line MS analysis using electrospray ionization. (
  • In this case, as is the case for most glycoprotein analyses, MS/MS is simply not enough. (
  • Analysis of a murine glycoprotein database revealed that closely spaced sequons are surprisingly common, and are enriched for paired NxT sites when the gap between sequons is less than three residues. (
  • Global site-specific N-glycosylation analysis of HIV envelope glycoprotein. (
  • Glycoprotein glycoforms contain identical polypeptide backbones and differ from one another in the oligosaccharides attached to the glycosylation sites. (
  • The semi-preparative and the preparative columns can then be used to fractionate a larger quantity of the glycoprotein so that column fractions can be collected for further analysis. (
  • For any target glycoprotein, judicious selection of the most favorable MS1/MS2 transitions can first be determined from prior analysis of a purified surrogate standard that carries similar site-specific glycosylation but may differ in its exact range of glycoforms. (
  • In the past few years, several methods for high-throughput analysis of glycans have been developed, but thorough validation and standardization of these methods is required before significant resources are invested in large-scale studies. (
  • By manipulating the protein glycosylation ( pgl ) gene content and assessing the glycan structure by mass spectrometry and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, it was established that protein-associated glycans are antigenically variable and that at least nine distinct glycoforms can be expressed in vitro . (
  • This generates glycopeptides carrying O-glycans and enables O-glycan profiling, O-glycopeptide mapping as well as middle level analyses using mass spectrometry. (
  • The Geobacillus flagellin glycosylation islands (FGIs) can be clustered into five distinct types, which are predicted to encode highly variable glycans decorated with distinct and heavily modified sugars. (
  • CONLUSIONS : Our comparative genomic analyses showed that, while not universal, flagellin glycosylation islands are relatively common among members of the genus Geobacillus and that the encoded flagellin glycans are highly variable. (
  • An in-depth characterization of the glycosylation of etanercept was carried out using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods in a systematic approach in which we analyzed the N- and O-linked glycans and located the occupied O-glycosylation sites. (
  • Using this method, they were able to identify partial N-glycan occupancy on 17 out of 22 N-glycosylation sites with a combination of high mannose and complex type, but no hybrid-type glycans, as seen in Figure 5. (
  • Even though O-glycosylation has been expected on the spike protein of SARS-Cov-2, this is the first report of the site of O-glycosylation and identity of the O-glycans attached on the subunit S1. (
  • Creative Proteomics provides the N-linked glycans site occupancy analysis to obtain truly glycosylated peptides in the whole mixture of a number of potentially N-glycosylated sites that are may or may not be glycosylated. (
  • Although N-glycosylation is often described as a post-translational protein modification reaction, most N-linked glycans are added to ribosome-bound nascent polypeptides as the protein is passing through the protein translocation channel into the lumen of the RER. (
  • Glycans are generally attached to serine or threonine (O glycosylation) or to asparagine (N glycosylation) residues. (
  • Protein O ‑glycosylation impacts the life-style of T. forsythia since truncated S-layer glycans present in a defined mutant favor biofilm formation. (
  • Eight NSs and outlets for host cell protein N-linked and O-linked glycans as well as mAb glycosylation have been considered. (
  • To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N -linked IgG glycans using two approaches. (
  • As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N -glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N -glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842). (
  • Our analyses revealed the occurrence of a diverse mixture of mucin-type and O-mannosyl glycans carrying, in part, functionally relevant epitopes, such as 3-linked sialic acid, disialyl motifs, Le(X), sialyl-Le(X) or HNK-1 units. (
  • Because glycosylation is not driven by a template, current methods of analysis vary according to the different types of glycans and the different ways they can be linked. (
  • A revision to add a procedure for analysis of charged glycans is currently being proposed in Pharmacopeial Forum (PF) 41(5) which published September 1, 2015. (
  • In addition to the structural variety of N-glycans, there is a difference in the glycosylation pattern of human amylase isozymes [5,6]: both the N427 and N476 sites in human salivary amylase can be glycosylated to some extent, whereas those in human pancreatic amylase are either glycosylated to a lesser extent or not glycosylated. (
  • In previous studies in which HA mutants lacking either one (mutants G1 and G2) or both (mutant G1,2) glycosylation sites had been expressed from a simian virus 40 vector, we showed that these glycans regulate receptor binding affinity (M. Ohuchi, R. Ohuchi, A. Feldmann, and H. D. Klenk, J. Virol. (
  • Over the right time required for these analyses, glycans eluted within a windowpane of around 30 sec generally, so the ionization buy 572-30-5 efficiency shouldn't fluctuate as a consequence significantly. (
  • Guo M, Hang H, Zhu T et al (2008) Effect of glycosylation on biochemical characterization of recombinant phytase expressed in Pichia pastoris . (
  • For addressing the potential role of glycosylation sites in IgA1-TfR interaction, a variety of recombinant dimeric IgA1 molecules were used in binding studies on TfR with Daudi cells that express only TfR as IgA receptor. (
  • In this work, we describe a model-based platform for understanding the culture factors that affect recombinant protein glycosylation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the workhorse of the biopharmaceutical industry. (
  • We analyzed the glycosylation efficiency of N-glycosylation sites in recombinant Amy2A mutants produced by HEK293 cells and found that glycosylation efficiencies of N427 and N476 were 3% - 18% and 40% - 52%, respectively, indicating that the major N-glycosylation site of glycosylated Amy2A produced by HEK293 cells is N476. (
  • They carried out stepped collision energy (SCE) mass spectrometry following digestion with two complementary proteases to cover all potential N-glycosylation sequons and integrated N-glycoproteomics analysis. (
  • The attachment of an oligosaccharide to the N-glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head region of HA via N-glycosylation sequons (i.e. (
  • Glycosylation involves enzymatic addition of a precursor oligosaccharide (or glycan) to certain sites in an expressed protein with known peptide motifs within a protein sequence. (
  • Statistical analysis of the protein environment of N-glycosylation sites: implications for occupancy, structure, and folding. (
  • Here we extend this analysis to the glycan-protein linkage, and the peptide primary, secondary, and tertiary structures around N-glycosylation sites. (
  • There is an elevated probability of finding glycosylation sites in which secondary structure changes. (
  • An 11-class taxonomy was developed to describe protein surface geometry around glycosylation sites. (
  • These data have significant implications for control of sequon occupancy and evolutionary selection of glycosylation sites and are discussed in relation to mechanisms of protein fold stabilization and regional quality control of protein folding. (
  • Ninety-two individual glycosylation sites and 202 glycan peaks with 105 unique carbohydrate structures were identified from approximately 25 mug glycopeptides. (
  • The methodology described in this study may elucidate novel, cancer-specific oligosaccharides and glycosylation sites, some of which may have utility as useful biomarkers of cancer. (
  • A comprehensive investigation of the N-glycosylation sites from the adult stages of N. lugens was conducted, allowing a qualitative and quantitative comparison between sexes at the glycopeptide level. (
  • Furthermore, original data on N-glycosylation sites of N. lugens adults are presented, providing novel insights into planthopper's biology and information for future biological pest control strategies. (
  • Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to remove 15 of the 18 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, in 16 combinations, from the human exon 11-minus receptor isoform. (
  • The three glycosylation sites not mutated were asparagine residues 25, 397 and 894, which are known to be important in receptor biosynthesis or function. (
  • The digestion occurs N-terminally of the O-glycosylation sites. (
  • The histamine H2 receptor is a member of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors, and has three extracellular potential sites for N-glycosylation (Asn-4, Asn-162 and Asn-168). (
  • Tunicamycin treatment of the transfected cells yielded a sharp band with a molecular mass identical to that of the mutant devoid of all three potential sites for N-glycosylation. (
  • These findings indicate that the H2 receptor is N-glycosylated, and that N-glycosylation takes place mainly at two sites, Asn-4 and Asn-162. (
  • The main glycosylation in the peptide chain is Ser and Thr, in addition to tyrosine, hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline, and the linked sites are the hydroxyl oxygen atoms on the side chains of these residues. (
  • Etanercept is a highly glycosylated therapeutic Fc-fusion protein that contains multiple N- and O-glycosylation sites. (
  • Improve the understanding of evaluative characteristics of the NA gene, NA protease active sites, and NA glycosylation sites in H1N1 virus isolated from China during 1995-2012. (
  • H275Y, despite its missing glycosylation sites, can change its 3D structure. (
  • Except for sialidase, some of the antigenic determinants and glycosylation sites from Chinese H1N1 influenza NA genes have changed in the past 20 y, which is related to the periodic outbreak in China. (
  • System-wide quantification of the cell surface proteotype and identification of extracellular glycosylation sites is challenging when samples are limited. (
  • Deletion of either N - or O -linked glycosylation sites abrogated IgA1 binding to TfR, suggesting that sugars are essential for IgA1 binding. (
  • HCD or CID fragmentation provides glycan composition information, while ETD and EThcD is used to sequence the peptide and determine glycosylation sites. (
  • NetOGlyc is based on a carefully selected enlarged database of 299 O-glycosylation sites extracted from O-GLYCBASE, an averaging of eight independently trained networks and an additional variable threshold feature based on the surface accessibility. (
  • Analyses the statistics of amino acids in the sequential neighborhood of N- and O-glycosylation sites. (
  • GlySeq is a software for a statistical analysis of the amino acid composition around glycosylation sites. (
  • Enables proteome-wide discovery of O-glycan sites using 'bottom-up' ETD-based mass spectrometric analysis. (
  • A comprehensive tool for the systematic in silico identification of C-linked, N-linked, and O-linked glycosylation sites in the human proteome. (
  • GlycoMine was developed using the random forest algorithm and evaluated based on a well-prepared up-to-date benchmark dataset that encompasses all three types of glycosylation sites, which was curated from multiple public resources. (
  • Heterogeneous sequences and functional features were derived from various sources, and subjected to further two-step feature selection to characterize a condensed subset of optimal features that contributed most to the type-specific prediction of glycosylation sites. (
  • This server predicts the location of N-linked and O-linked glycosylation sites from amino acid sequence. (
  • The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. (
  • Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. (
  • Potential glycosylation sites move past the STT3A complex, which is associated with the translocation channel, at the protein synthesis elongation rate. (
  • Many, but not all, glycosylation sites that are skipped by the STT3A complex can be glycosylated by the STT3B complex. (
  • 4) not all potential N-glycosylation sites in proFib seem to be normally used, since we could produce over-N-glycosylated proFib in normal cells by brefeldin A mediated intracellular captivation and subsequent appearance of over-glycosylated Fib in culture medium upon removal of the compound. (
  • For analysis of Potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGs), amino acid sequences generated by the NCBI's Translate tool were applied to the HIVAlign and the N-glycosite tool within the Los Alamos Database. (
  • Structure-based bioinformatic analysis revealed independent evolutionary behaviour of both receptor domains and, together with multiple sequence alignment, identified putative binding sites for interferon- γ and receptor 1, the ligands of IFN γ R2. (
  • The extracellular domain contains five cysteine residues and six potential N-linked glycosylation sites. (
  • 7 9 Human serum transferrin (HST), a serum β-globulin, has been shown to contain two N-linked glycosylation sites. (
  • These amylases share a 97% - 99% amino acid sequence identity, and two potential N-glycosylation sites (N427 and N476) are commonly found in the C-terminal region. (
  • Although there are two potential N-glycosylation sites (N427 and N476) in the C-terminal region of these amylases, glycosylation of the amylases seems to occur in a tissuespecific manner. (
  • We also found that the glycosylation efficiencies of the N427 and N476 sites were different and the N476 site was more efficiently glycosylated than the N427 site. (
  • this evolution has resulted in the acquisition of asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA), thereby affecting the antigenic and receptor-binding properties, as well as virulence. (
  • However, the effects of these putative N-linked glycosylation sites on the immune response to JEV remained elusive. (
  • Our primary aim in this work was to investigate the role of the putative prME N-linked glycosylation sites in inducing an immune response. (
  • In this study, we constructed plasmids containing both the wild-type prME and mutant prME genes, in which the N-linked glycosylation sites are mutated individually or in combination. (
  • The binding sites of Copper atom in the structure of Crystal Structure Analysis of the Clock Protein EA4 (Glycosylation Form) (pdb code 2e47 ). (
  • Mutation of either one of two potential glycosylation sites (Asn 26 and Asn 114 ) of MD-2 resulted in the disappearance of the slowest mobility form, and only the fastest form was detected in hMD-2 carrying mutations at both Asn 26 and Asn 114 . (
  • Human (h)MD-2 consists of 160 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 18 kDa, and there are two potential N -linked glycosylation sites in this amino acid sequence. (
  • Hsiao ES, Chen JC, Tsai HY et al (2009) Determination of N-glycosylation site and glycan structures of pectin methylesterase in jelly fig ( Ficus awkeotsang ) achenes. (
  • The enzymes allow detailed characterization of O-glycosylations, both in terms of site occupancy and composition determination as demonstrated below. (
  • This N-glycosylation profiling and determination of differences between distinct expression systems could shed light on the infection mechanism and promote the development of targeted therapeutics and vaccines. (
  • Determination of N-linked glycosylation site occupancy using LC-ESI-MS/MS. (
  • Our expert teams have a wealth of experience in protein characterisation , host cell DNA quantification , host cell protein quantification, glycosylation profiling and carbohydrate determination. (
  • Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the glycosylation profiles of two rVV-expressed clade C Envs by identifying the glycan motifs on each glycosylation site and determining the degree of glycosylation site occupancy. (
  • The abundances of each glycan are summed into oligomannose-, hybrid, and complex-type glycosylation, showing the extensive heterogeneity in N-glycan composition and site occupancy. (
  • The degree of N-glycosylation site occupancy by itself correlates with the severity of the disease. (
  • MS-based labeling and label-free technologies for quantification of N-glycosylation site occupancy (Zhang et al . (
  • Quantification of N-glycosylation site occupancy is also important for disease research and drug development as N-glycosylation site occupancy could be physiological, affected by human disease or modified by heterologous protein overexpression. (
  • At Creative Proteomics, we provide both labeling and labeling-free technologies for the quantification of N-glycosylation site occupancy. (
  • We can provide trypsin catalyzed 18 O, SILAC, and iTRAQ labeling approaches for N-glycosylation site occupancy analysis. (
  • Isotope-coded glycosylation site-specific tagging (IGOT) can be used for large-scale N-glycosylation site occupancy analysis. (
  • Label-free quantification of N-glycosylation site occupancy is generally based on peptide-ion intensity or peak areas. (
  • Quantification of N-glycosylation site occupancy status based on labeling/label-free strategies with LC-MS/MS. Talanta , 2017, 170: 509-513. (
  • Given the concentrations or fluxes of the NSDs from the higher scale model in the cytosol, this model is capable of reproducing glycosylation profiles of commercial mAbs. (
  • The principal objective of this study was to report and compare results for the full range of analytical methods presently used in the glycosylation analysis of mAbs. (
  • We recently reported statistical analysis of structural data on glycosidic linkages. (
  • The structural analysis indicates that Gtf3 forms a tetramer and shares significant structural homology with glycosyltransferases from GT4, GT5, and GT20 subfamilies. (
  • Combining crystal structural analysis with site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro glycosyltransferase assays, we identified residues that are required for UDP- or UDP-glucose binding and for oligomerization of Gtf3 and determined their contribution to the enzymatic activity of Gtf3. (
  • Further in vivo studies revealed that the critical amino acid residues identified by the structural analysis are crucial for Fap1 glycosylation in S. parasanguinis in vivo. (
  • A structure-function analysis of a blood coagulation protein, antithrombin III and a protease, cathepsin D, showcases how a comprehensive study followed by structural analysis can help better understand the functional impact of the nsSNVs. (
  • The ∆6 ectodomain expressed in Lec8 cells was produced in quantity in a bioreactor for subsequent structural analysis. (
  • Post-translational glycosylation of flagellin, the main structural protein of the flagellum, is a common characteristic among many Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea. (
  • Glycosylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) that exerts profound structural and functional effects on the modified protein. (
  • Furthermore, as seen in Figure 2, the diverse signals which come from heterogeneous complex-type glycosylation are simplified by the summation of glycan intensities into a more limited variety of structural categories. (
  • Structural Analysis of Glycosylated Peptides in Complex Mixtures with ,,, Ion Trap MSn ( Structural Analysis of Glycosylated Pe. (
  • However, the structural and functional implications of glycosylation have not been elucidated in regard to the hMD-2 molecule. (
  • This software has been developed based on a comprehensive analysis of sequence/structural features of 102 GTrs of known specificity from 52 natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. (
  • Therefore, the antiepileptic mechanism of 3 on glycosylation changes in chronic epilepsy in mice was further investigated by using glycomics techniques. (
  • Moreover, bacterial glycosylation appears to resemble the analogous process in eukaryotic cells with asparagine, serine, and threonine residues serving as the acceptors for the first sugar on the protein ( 17 , 18 ). (
  • This post-translational modification consists of single GlcNAc residues that are connected to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine by a transferase catalyzing the O-glycosylation ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Functional analyses revealed novel roles for bacterial N- glycosylation in modulating multidrug efflux pump, enhancing nitrate reduction activity, and promoting host-microbe interaction. (
  • The similarities between these N- and O-linked systems are perhaps best illustrated by genetic and functional interactions between components of the C. jejuni oligosaccharide biosynthetic machinery and elements of the neisserial pilin glycosylation pathway ( 2 , 18 ). (
  • To investigate the presence, location and functional roles of N-glycosylation of the H2 receptor, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to eliminate the potential site(s) for N-glycosylation singly and collectively. (
  • Thus N-glycosylation of the H2 receptor is not required for cell surface localization, ligand binding or functional coupling to G-protein(s). (
  • In this thesis I describe the identification, characterization and functional analysis of a novel PTM of CREB, O-GlcNAc glycosylation, that provides an additional level of control of CREB activity. (
  • The quality of the IgG-Fc-glycosylation has important functional consequences, which have been found to be skewed toward low fucosylation in some antigen-specific immune responses. (
  • Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. (
  • In PLOS this week: functional potential of the cervicovaginal microbiome, glycosylation patterns in model archaea, and more. (
  • In general, salivary amylase is more frequently glycosylated than pancreatic amylase, and it is still uncertain why differences in the glycosylation pattern among human amylase isozymes occur. (
  • It is still uncertain, however, why differences in the glycosylation pattern among human amylase isozymes occur. (
  • Here, we investigate the roles of general protein glycosylation systems in bacteria using the enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni as a well-defined example. (
  • We have identified a cluster of 14 genes, encoding the determinants of the flagellin glycosylation machinery in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK, which we called the flagellin glycosylation island. (
  • Flagellin glycosylation can be detected only in bacteria expressing the a-type flagellin sequence variants, and the survey of 30 P. aeruginosa isolates revealed coinheritance of the a-type flagellin genes with at least one of the flagellin glycosylation island genes. (
  • These results provide the first evidence of a link between proteome stability and complex functions via a bacterial general glycosylation system. (
  • Dean N (1999) Asparagine-linked glycosylation in the yeast golgi. (
  • Glycosylation alters the asparagine side chain torsion angle distribution and reduces its flexibility. (
  • Subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase (OST) complex that catalyzes the initial transfer of a defined glycan (Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 in eukaryotes) from the lipid carrier dolichol-pyrophosphate to an asparagine residue within an Asn-X-Ser/Thr consensus motif in nascent polypeptide chains, the first step in protein N-glycosylation. (
  • The N -glycosylation site of rNPI was analyzed by nano LC-MS/MS after digesting by trypsin and Glu-C, and the unique potential site Asn 41 of mature peptide was found to be glycosylated. (
  • N-glycosylation is linked by the N-acetylglucosamine (Glc-NAc) at the reducing end of the sugar chain to the nitrogen atom on the side chain acylamino group of some Asn in the peptide chain. (
  • The protease is digested to produce different peptide sequences, and the complementarity of the peptide sequences is used to help improve the peptide coverage of the glycan analysis . (
  • Glycopeptide data interpretation is challenging because it requires both peptide sequencing and characterization of the glycosylation site(s) and overall glycan composition. (
  • This results in an accurate portrayal of the peptide sequence, its site(s) of glycosylation, and its glycan composition. (
  • Analysis can be accomplished in a single, automated process using any LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer with Data Dependent TM MS n in this case up to MS 4 and Dynamic Exclusion TM to successively isolate, fragment, and analyze the peptide and oligosaccharide structures. (
  • If an exact knowledge of protein/peptide quantities is required for further applications, quantitative amino acid analysis, qAAA, is a suitable assay, which can not only determine protein quantities precisely. (
  • It enables integration of XML-based glycan structure data into SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) files that describe glycosylation reaction networks. (
  • Mass spectrum and sophisticated glycan analysis software, combined with scientific library searching, are now providing detailed glycosylation analysis of glycoforms, glycopeptides, and glycan structure elucidation. (
  • Use of HPAE-PAD for Glycosylation Analysis of Fractionated Glycoforms Once the DNAPac PA-1 fractions are obtained, PNGase F digestions can be performed. (
  • Since the MS2 transitions to be used for extracting DIA data is common to that glycosylation site and not dictated by specific MS1 value, our workflow applies equally well to the identification of both targeted and unexpected glycoforms. (
  • Protein N-glycosylation is an essential posttranslational modification which is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • This mechanism has been described for N glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells ( 17 ) and in the general N glycosylation system of Campylobacter jejuni ( 45 ). (
  • N-glycosylation occurs cotranslationally and the complex associates with the Sec61 complex at the channel-forming translocon complex that mediates protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • It is a computational method to predict the deoxysugar biosynthesis unit pathway and the substrate specificity of glycosyltransferases involved in the glycosylation of polyketides . (
  • This protein is involved in the pathway protein glycosylation, which is part of Protein modification. (
  • The biological and clinical relevance of glycosylation is becoming increasingly recognized, leading to a growing interest in large-scale clinical and population-based studies. (
  • The analysis of protein glycosylation in biological fluids and tissues has considerable medical importance, as changes in glycan structures have now been associated with a number of diseases. (
  • IMPORTANCE Advances in genomics and mass spectrometry have revealed several types of glycosylation systems in bacteria. (
  • N sugar / O sugar type, glycosylation site sugar composition. (
  • The ability to assign an unfamiliar glycan to a specific subclass based on its retention time and value could demonstrate useful in its initial characterization and may provide insights for more targeted and detailed investigations (tandem MS analyses, enzymatic sequencing, etc.) to definitively assign its carbohydrate composition. (
  • Glycosylation analytical strategies require multiple technologies, including selective enzymatic cleavage, mass spectrometry and a range of HPLC-based chromatographic methods (SEC, HILIC, HIAX and IEX). (
  • Treatment of these digests with neuraminidase (an exoglycosidase that removes terminal sialic acid from sialylated oligosaccharides) and subsequent analysis of the digests with HPAE-PAD, confirms the presence of sialylated oligosaccharides in the glycoform fractions. (
  • Using technical experts, we build up a complete picture of your biopharmaceutical's glycosylation: structures of individual oligosaccharides, relative amounts, monosaccharide analysis and site(s) of attachment. (
  • The surface glycosylation pattern is a signature of physiological state of a cell. (
  • Recently, it was shown that Tannerella surface glycosylation has a role in restraining the Th17-mediated neutrophil infiltration in the gingival tissues. (
  • The difference in the glycosylation efficiency of each N-glycosylation site also seemed to contribute in part to generate different glycosylation patterns of human amylases. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the glycosylation state of human amylase isozymes and found that the different glycosylation patterns of human amylases were related to the types of amylase-producing cells rather than the types of amylase isozymes. (
  • These findings seem to be highly related to the different glycosylation pattern of human amylases. (
  • Conclusions: The abnormal location of FLT3 caused by different glycosylation status leads to the distinguishing signaling pathways. (
  • This leaves a deamidation within the NXS/T consensus sequence of formerly N -glycosylated peptides, indicating both surface localisation and glycosylation site. (
  • After extensive washing, N -glycopeptides are released by PNGase F provided in a plate heated to 37 °C. Using high-resolution MS, labelled extracellular peptides are identified by deamidated asparagines within the NXS/T glycosylation consensus sequence resulting from PNGase F cleavage. (
  • Molecular determinants of co- and post-translational N-glycosylation of type I transmembrane peptides. (
  • Post-translational N-glycosylation of type I transmembrane KCNE1 peptides: implications for membrane protein biogenesis and disease. (
  • By using a quantitative proteomic strategy, we were able to monitor changes in the C. jejuni proteome when glycosylation is disrupted. (
  • We demonstrate that in C. jejuni , N- glycosylation is essential to maintain proteome stability and protein quality control. (
  • Our quantitative proteomic results linked general protein N- glycosylation to maintaining proteome stability. (
  • In both cases, sugars are transferred en bloc by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) named PglL in N. meningitidis and PilO in P. aeruginosa . (
  • In the second mechanism, an oligosaccharide is preassembled onto a lipid carrier before being transferred en bloc to protein acceptors by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase). (
  • Millions afflicted with Chagas disease and other disorders of aberrant glycosylation suffer symptoms consistent with altered electrical signaling such as arrhythmias, decreased neuronal conduction velocity, and hyporeflexia. (
  • Here we show that regulated and aberrant glycosylation modulate cardiac ion channel activity and electrical signaling through a cell-specific mechanism. (
  • A mechanism is described by which cardiac function is controlled and modulated through physiological and pathological processes that involve regulated and aberrant glycosylation. (
  • These results indicate that aberrant glycosylation of IgA1 as well as immune complex formation constitute essential factors favoring mesangial TfR-IgA1 interaction as initial steps in IgAN pathogenesis. (
  • Advances in glycan engineering are paving the way to tailored glycosylation, such as in-vitro glycoengineering using glycosyltransferases and activated sugars, point mutation for selective glycosylation, modulation of the cell culture media, and modulation of therapeutic antibody effector functions by manipulation of golgi enzymes. (
  • It has been shown that the process of protein glycosylation can be partially driven by the intracellular availability of nucleotide sugars (NSs), which are the co-substrates to the glycosylation reactions. (
  • A hallmark of protein N-glycosylation is extensive heterogeneity associated with each glycosylation site. (
  • There is direct competition between glucose and phosphate at a single amino acid residue, resulting in a decrease in the level of phosphorylation when glycosylation occurs, and vice versa ( 3 , 6 ). (
  • Huffman JE et al (2014) Comparative performance of four methods for high-throughput glycosylation analysis of immunoglobulin G in genetic and epidemiological research. (
  • N-linked glycosylation profiling of pancreatic cancer serum using capillary liquid phase separation coupled with mass spectrometric analysis. (
  • The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of pancreatic cancer serum compared to normal serum. (
  • Here, we analyzed 30 pregnant women with anti-K alloantibodies from a prospective screening cohort and compared the type of Fc-tail glycosylation of total serum- and antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 using mass spectrometry. (
  • In conclusion, Fc-glycosylation profiles of serum- and antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 are highly similar. (
  • Sensitivity and linearity were suitable for serum analysis and LOQs were calculated to be 3.1 (transferrin) and 4.4 (trastuzumab) µg/mL. (
  • Mohanty, Debasisa (2005) SEARCHGTr: a program for analysis of glycosyltransferases involved in glycosylation of secondary metabolites Nucleic Acids Research, 33 (Suppl. (
  • Any variation (e.g. non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism or mutation) that abolishes the N-glycosylation sequence motif will lead to the loss of a glycosylation site. (
  • On the other hand, variations causing a substitution that creates a new N-glycosylation sequence motif can result in the gain of glycosylation. (
  • A total of 118 HIV env C2V3 sequence isolates generated previously from 59 Kenyan patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were examined for tropism and glycosylation patterns. (
  • Viral tropism can be determined either by using the more rigorous but expensive cell based phenotypic test or assigned on the basis of the relatively inexpensive genotyping sequence analysis that however, suffer from reduced sensitivity [ 9 ]. (
  • 95% sequence coverage for Env, provides semi-quantitative analysis of the glycosylation status at each glycosite. (
  • Publicly available microarray and expressed sequence tag data were used to select FLAs for further expression analysis. (
  • High-throughput protein and RNA analyses are agnostic toward spatial information, and antibody-based technologies like flow or mass cytometry are limited in their multiplexing capabilities and by the availability of high-quality antibodies. (
  • Furthermore, the alterations in antibody glycosylation in a disease context are described. (
  • The lowest scale model is the del Val glycosylation model [4] describing the N-linked glycosylation process of the antibody heavy chain through the Golgi apparatus viewed as a plug flow reactor. (
  • This work describes results of an interlaboratory study on the glycosylation of the Primary Sample (PS) of NISTmAb, a monoclonal antibody reference material. (
  • On August 25-26, 2015, USP hosted its first Glycosylation Analysis for Biopharmaceuticals workshop. (
  • Glycosylation is a topic of intense current interest in the development of biopharmaceuticals because it is related to drug safety and efficacy. (
  • Biopharmaceuticals are changing medicine, and analysis of their structure and safety demand skills beyond those applied to traditional pharmaceuticals. (
  • Both OTases are sufficient for glycosylation, but they require translocation of the undecaprenol-pyrophosphate-linked oligosaccharide substrates into the periplasm for activity. (
  • The ability to routinely assess the glycan type at each glycosylation site may facilitate design of improved vaccine candidates. (
  • Comparison of these N-glycopeptides revealed striking differences in protein N-glycosylation between sexes. (
  • Adapting data-independent acquisition for mass spectrometry-based protein site-specific N-glycosylation analysis. (
  • These findings guided us to investigate the role of N- glycosylation in modulating bacterial cellular activities. (
  • It is now well established that protein glycosylation based on both N- and O-linked modifications occurs in bacterial species. (
  • Examples of pathways using this mechanism are protein O glycosylation in the Golgi apparatus in eukaryotic cells ( 28 ) and flagellin O glycosylation in several bacterial species ( 24 ). (
  • To date, the C. jejuni system is the only well-characterized bacterial N glycosylation system. (
  • O glycosylation has been found in several bacterial species. (
  • Protein glycosylation has been long recognized as an important posttranslational modification process in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Protein glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification that occurs in all domains of life. (
  • Protein glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification in bacteria. (
  • In addition, the glycosylation-defective receptor was capable of activating adenylate cyclase and elevating the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in response to histamine in stable CHO cell lines. (
  • The most frequent type of intracellular glycosylation is O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). (
  • By requiring two recognition events, ligation-based molecular analyses provide highly specific detection of biomolecules in complex samples.We developed a highly multiplexed padlock-ligation assay targeting signature sequences in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. (
  • Data show that nearly half of 239 glycosylation-associated genes (glycogenes) were significantly differentially expressed among neonatal and adult atrial and ventricular myocytes. (
  • These results suggest that some or all of the 14 genes on the glycosylation island are the genes that are missing from strain PAO1 to allow glycosylation of an appropriate flagellin. (
  • Inactivation of either one of the two flanking genes present on this island abolished flagellin glycosylation. (
  • Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases ( ST6GAL1 , B4GALT1 , FUT8 , and MGAT3 ), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation ( IKZF1 , IL6ST-ANKRD55 , ABCF2-SMARCD3 , SUV420H1 , and SMARCB1-DERL3 ). (
  • His research interests are focused on chemical, biophysical and biochemical analysis of protein - carbohydrate interactions with biomedical relevance, such as the development of glycoscientific strategies for tumor diagnosis and therapy and the elucidation of functions of mammalian lectins. (