Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.RNA Cap Analogs: Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.ThymineAdenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)UracilThionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.PhotochemistryRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Photoaffinity Labels: Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Benztropine: A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.Deoxyribonucleosides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.PolyaminesCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.ThymidineAdenine NucleotidesCHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Lewis Bases: Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Visual Analog Scale: A subjective psychometric response scale used to measure distinct behavioral or physiological phenomena based on linear numerical gradient or yes/no alternatives.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Thionucleosides: Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Other thymidine analogues, for instance Idoxuridine (ATC: J05AB02) act by blocking base pairing during subsequent replication ... Such gene therapy-based approaches are still experimental, however, as problems associated with targeting the gene transfer to ... The level of thymidine kinase in serum or plasma is so low that the measurement is best based on the enzymatic activity. In ... Chain terminators are thymidine analogues that are included in the growing DNA chain, but modified so that the chain cannot be ...
It is used in combination with isoguanine in studies of unnatural nucleic acid analogues of the normal base pairs in DNA. It ... Isocytosine or 2-aminouracil is a pyrimidine base that is an isomer of cytosine. ...
It is also used in combination with isocytosine in studies of unnatural nucleic acid analogues of the normal base pairs in DNA ... Base Pairing in an Expanded Genetic System", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1997, 119 (20), pp. 4640-4649 (doi:10.1021/ja970123s).. ... Isoguanine or 2-hydroxyadenine is a purine base that is an isomer of guanine. It is a product of oxidative damage to DNA and ...
One irinotecan or SN-38 molecule stacks against the base pairs flanking the topoisomerase-induced cleavage site and poisons ( ... Irinotecan is an analogue of the cytotoxic natural alkaloid camptothecin, obtained from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata ... Camptothecin analogues irinotecan and topotecan, which inhibit TOP1, are among the most effective FDA-approved anticancer ... The article Camptothecin lists other analogues of camptothecin and the article Topoisomerase inhibitor lists other compounds ...
Although the genetic information is still stored in the four canonical base pairs (unlike other nucleic acid analogues), ... "Base Pairing Properties of D- and L-Cyclohexene Nucleic Acids (CeNA)". Oligonucleotides. 13 (6): 479-489. doi:10.1089/ ... Nucleic acid analogue Xenobiology Markus Schmidt (9 May 2012). Synthetic Biology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 151-. ISBN 978-3-527- ... Using a genetic code of six XNAs rather than the four naturally occurring DNA nucleotide bases yields endless opportunities for ...
... but the iodine atom added to the uracil component blocks base pairing. It is used only topically due to cardiotoxicity. It was ... It is a nucleoside analogue, a modified form of deoxyuridine, similar enough to be incorporated into viral DNA replication, ...
... conjugation Bacterial lawn Bacteriophage Balbiani ring Barr body Basal body Base Base analogue Base pair Base pairs Base ... Neurospora Neutral mutation Neutral petite Newborn screening NF Nickase Nicking NIH Nitrogen base Nitrogenous base Non-coding ... Gene fusion Gene interaction Gene library Gene locus Gene map Gene mapping Gene markers Gene mutation Gene orders Gene pair ... testing Cat coat genetics cDNA cDNA library Cell Centimorgan Central dogma of molecular biology Centromere Chemical base ...
CF3 group added to the uracil component blocks base pairing, thus interfering with viral DNA replication. Trifluridine passes ... It is a nucleoside analogue, a modified form of deoxyuridine, similar enough to be incorporated into viral DNA replication, but ...
... either an A paired with a T or a C paired with a G. These purine-pyrimidine pairs, which are called base complements, connect ... A vast number of nucleobase analogues exist. The most common applications are used as fluorescent probes, either directly or ... so those three bases are called the pyrimidine bases. Each of the base pairs in a typical double-helix DNA comprises a purine ... which permits base pairing by providing complementarity between the two bases, and which is essential for replication of or ...
... and its analogues are designed to be too wide to fit inside the normal span of the base pairs of B-DNA, causing it to bind ... This ability to bind to specific DNA base pairs allows for potential therapeutic applications of metallo-intercalators. In the ... Metallo-intercalators insert themselves between two intact base pairs without expelling or replacing the original nitrogenous ... Intercalation of metal compounds between DNA base pairs effectively stabilizes the double helix, increasing the melting ...
With du Vigneaud, she proved that sulfur-based amino acids could replace cystine. The pair attempted to isolate the active ... Her work at GWU included the discovery in 1938 that ethionine, an analogue of methionine, could not be substituted in medicine ... She also studied the efficacy of arsenic-based and lead-based compounds in combating cancer, tumors, and syphilis. In 1925, she ...
"Highly specific unnatural base pair systems as a third base pair for PCR amplification". Nucleic Acids Res. 40: 2793-2806. doi: ... aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-suppressor tRNA pairs for possible use in site-specific incorporation of amino acid analogues into ... The unnatural base pair used is dNaM-dTPT3. This unnatural base pair has been demonstrated previously, but this is the first ... published that his team designed an unnatural base pair (UBP). The two new artificial nucleotides or Unnatural Base Pair (UBP) ...
... pairs based on the three regular Euclidean tilings. Their cells and vertex figures are all regular hosohedra {2,n}, dihedra, {n ... They are higher-dimensional analogues of the order-2 apeirogonal tiling and apeirogonal hosohedron. There are ten flat regular ... As stated above, every positive integer pair {p,q} such that 1/p + 1/q < 1/2 gives a hyperbolic tiling. In fact, for the ... These occur as dual pairs as follows: The medial rhombic triacontahedron and dodecadodecahedron are dual to each other. The ...
Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. It was represented by A-T base pairs and G-C base pairs. The ... In addition to RNA and DNA, many artificial nucleic acid analogues have been created to study the properties of nucleic acids, ... Another type of base pairing is Hoogsteen base pairing where two hydrogen bonds form between guanine and cytosine. As hydrogen ... The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T ...
... such as in Tröger's base). Ligand Coordination complex Highest occupied molecular orbital Inert pair effect Shared pair IUPAC ... Power, Philip P. (2003). "Silicon, germanium, tin and lead analogues of acetylenes". Chemical Communications (17): 2091-101. ... Electron pairs are therefore considered lone pairs if two electrons are paired but are not used in chemical bonding. Thus, the ... They are also referred to in the chemistry of Lewis acids and bases. However, not all non-bonding pairs of electrons are ...
Karst Hoogsteen reported a crystal structure of a complex in which analogues of A and T formed a base pair that had a different ... A Hoogsteen base pair is a variation of base-pairing in nucleic acids such as the A•T pair. In this manner, two nucleobases, ... Hoogsteen base pairs have been observed in protein-DNA complexes. Some proteins have evolved to recognize only one base-pair ... Hoogsteen base pairs are, however, rarely observed. Hoogsteen pairs have quite different properties from Watson-Crick base ...
... which may pair with canonical bases, resulting in four possible base-pairs (8 bases:xA-T,xT-A,xC-G,xG-C, 16 bases if the unused ... different base pairing and base stacking properties. Examples include universal bases, which can pair with all four canonical ... 2001). "A highly fluorescent DNA base analogue that forms Watson-Crick base pairs with guanine". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (10): ... The asymmetric metal base pairing system is orthogonal to the Watson-Crick base pairs. Another example of an artificial ...
... as a consequence of the base-pair formation between G8 and C3, are now positioned such that an NOE between their bases is ... ribozyme appeared in 1994 in the form of an X-ray crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme bound to a DNA substrate analogue ... The core region is flanked by Stems I, II and III, which are in general made of canonical Watson-Crick base-pairs but are ... However, a G8C + C3G double-mutant that maintains the G8-C3 base pair found in the full-length hammerhead restores most of the ...
2012). "Highly specific unnatural base pair systems as a third base pair for PCR amplification". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (6 ... Auxotrophy Directed evolution Expanded genetic code Glycol nucleic acid Nucleic acid analogue Threose nucleic acid Xeno Nucleic ... tested the viability of 60 candidate bases (yielding potentially 3600 base pairs) for possible incorporation in the DNA. In ... Finally, non-natural base pairs can be used to introduce novel amino acid in proteins. The goal of substituting DNA by XNA may ...
The glycol unit has just three carbon atoms and still shows Watson-Crick base pairing. The Watson-Crick base pairing is much ... 1971). Soon thereafter it was shown that phosphate-linked oligomers of the analogues do in fact exhibit hypochromicity in the ... 1995, 1999) and Acevedo and Andrews (1996). The GNA-GNA self-pairing described by Zhang and Meggers is however novel, and the ... Synthesis of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) derivatives of nucleic bases. Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry (1971), 8(5), 827-9. ...
For this reason, when ribavirin is incorporated into RNA, as a base analog of either adenine or guanine, it pairs equally well ... Fischer, Janos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 504. ISBN 9783527607495. ... Alvarez D, Dieterich DT, Brau N, Moorehead L, Ball L, Sulkowski MS (October 2006). "Zidovudine use but not weight-based ... Ribavirin is possibly best viewed as a ribosyl purine analogue with an incomplete purine 6-membered ring. This structural ...
Models with three pseudo-atoms per base pair, representing the two backbone sugars and the helix axis, have been reported to ... Nucleic acid analogues Synthetic biology Mao, Chengde (December 2004). "The Emergence of Complexity: Lessons from DNA". PLoS ... However, models with five pseudo-atoms per base pair, explicitly including the backbone phosphates, are also used. Software for ... mainly that the double helix formed by nucleic acid duplexes has a fixed helicity of about 10.4 base pairs per turn, and is ...
In some indirect FM solid state circuits, an RF drive is applied to the base of a transistor. The tank circuit (LC), connected ... Vestigial-sideband modulation (VSB, or VSB-AM) is a type of modulation system commonly used in analogue TV systems. It is ... to the collector via a capacitor, contains a pair of varicap diodes. As the voltage applied to the varicaps is changed, the ... True FM and phase modulation are the most commonly employed forms of analogue angle modulation. Direct FM (true Frequency ...
... at TWRs Kidlington-based factory alongside the XJ220. Based upon a Sovereign model, it was fitted with uprated suspension with ... The XJ12 used the two twin-headlamp pairs, black radiator grille vanes, and a gold "growler" badge on the radiator grille top, ... From 1990 on, the binnacle was redesigned to use analogue gauges. Early cars used a two-spoke steering wheel that was later ... The base XJ6 of the model range was modestly equipped; extra-cost options included alloy wheels, anti-lock brakes, air ...
Moreover, since measurement of either member of an entangled pair destroys the entanglement they share, entanglement-based ... The Reeh-Schlieder theorem of quantum field theory is sometimes seen as an analogue of quantum entanglement. Entanglement has ... If a large number of pairs of such measurements are made (on a large number of pairs of entangled particles), then ... For example, if a pair of particles are generated in such a way that their total spin is known to be zero, and one particle is ...
Statistical, likelihood-based approaches: Statistical, likelihood-based [37][38] iterative expectation-maximization algorithms ... The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radioligand, most commonly fluorine-18, which ... If the biologically active tracer molecule chosen for PET is fludeoxyglucose (FDG), an analogue of glucose, the concentrations ... based regularization in a wavelet or other domain), such as via Ulf Grenander's Sieve estimator[41][42] or via Bayes penalty ...
2007) Medical therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension: updated ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 131: ... Analysis for statistically significant differences was performed with paired t test or with repeated measures analysis of ... These include: prostacyclin analogues (epoprostenol, treprostinil, and iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan and ... Outpatient dose titration of iloprost was based upon a perceived balance between prostanoid side effects and pulmonary ...
... using deuterium isotope-induced changes of nitrogen NMR chemical shifts in a model base Quantum effects in small molecular ... It has been hypothesised that proton tunnelling between paired nucleobases significantly enhances the formation of rare ... Proton transfer in guanine-cytosine base pair analogues studied by NMR spectroscopy and PIMD simulations R. Pohl, O. Socha, P. ... Proton transfer in guanine-cytosine base pair analogues studied by NMR spectroscopy and PIMD simulations ...
A systematic study of the base pairs microhydration using both the empirical and the high-level correlated ab initio ... These results based on the correlated ab initio calculations are in the excellent agreement with data obtained from our ... We show that the occurrence of water molecules and their gradually increasing number as well as the methylation of the bases ... Potential energy surfaces of monohydrated and dihydrated adenine-thymine and 9-methyladenine-1-methylthymine base pairs were ...
... both have unique properties among fluorescent base analogues (2, 3). F ... the three tricyclic base analogues all form stable base pairs with guanine and give minimal perturbations to the native ... established the first nucleic acid base analogue FRET-pair (4). This pair enables accurate distinction between distance- and ... Figure. Efficiency of energy transfer for the base analogue FRET-pair tCO - tCnitro estimated using decreases in tCO emission ( ...
Unnatural base pair (UBP)Edit. See also: Artificial gene synthesis, Expanded genetic code, Nucleic acid analogue, and Synthetic ... Top, a G.C base pair with three hydrogen bonds. Bottom, an A.T base pair with two hydrogen bonds. Non-covalent hydrogen bonds ... published that his team designed an unnatural base pair (UBP).[12] The two new artificial nucleotides or Unnatural Base Pair ( ... "Highly specific unnatural base pair systems as a third base pair for PCR amplification". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (6): 2793- ...
Type I and II Pseudo-base Pairs. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues. Importance of the ... Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues: Importance of the Configuration at the 6-Position and ... Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues. Importance of the Configuration at the 6′-Position and ... Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues. Importance of the Configuration at the 6′-Position and ...
Other thymidine analogues, for instance Idoxuridine (ATC: J05AB02) act by blocking base pairing during subsequent replication ... Such gene therapy-based approaches are still experimental, however, as problems associated with targeting the gene transfer to ... The level of thymidine kinase in serum or plasma is so low that the measurement is best based on the enzymatic activity. In ... Chain terminators are thymidine analogues that are included in the growing DNA chain, but modified so that the chain cannot be ...
It is used in combination with isoguanine in studies of unnatural nucleic acid analogues of the normal base pairs in DNA. It ... Isocytosine or 2-aminouracil is a pyrimidine base that is an isomer of cytosine. ...
Ethidium bromide intercalates between the base pairs of DNA. . DAPI and TOTO bind to the minor groove of DNA. . Also shown are ... Fluorescent nucleic acid bases. Yt base is an unusual naturally occurring base found in an Escherichia coli transfer ... Fluorescent Analogues in Biological Research. Joseph R Lakowicz, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA ... Fluorescent analogues of nucleotides and oligonucleotides. Pyrene forms excimers with other nearby pyrene groups. Fluorescein ...
Furuta et al., "Enhanced Transport of Nucleosides and Nucleoside Analogues with Complementary Base-Pairing Agents," Journal of ... Furuta et al., Enhanced Transport of Nucleosides and Nucleoside Analogues with Complementary Base Pairing Agents, Journal of ... The hybidization requirement is very well understood via complementary Watson-Crick or Hoogsteen base pairing. Unlike the ... 20 base pairs(B) TYPE: nucleic acid(C) STRANDEDNESS: single(D) TOPOLOGY: linear(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: other nucleic acid(A) ...
... base pair. If these base analogs slip into the DNA molecule between two adjacent base pairs, the intercalated molecule may ... cause DNAPol to "stutter" and copy the molecule as an extra base pair. This introduces a frameshift mutation. ... Intercalation of Base Analogs. Acridine dyes are histological stains with a planar three-ring structure that resembles a purine ...
... of unnatural base pairs formed between nucleotides bearing simple methyl-substituted phenyl ring nucleobase analogues. ... A novel copper-mediated DNA base pair. We describe a base pair with a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate nucleobase (Dipic) as a planar ... From this screen, we identify a class of unnatural base pairs which are extended more efficiently than any unnatural base pair ... DNA and RNA get a third base pair. We review a report by Hirao et al. demonstrating that DNA containing an unnatural base pair ...
The oligomers contain the base analog 5-propynyluracil, 5-propynylcytosine or related analogs. The oligomers of the invention ... provided the sequence normally includes one or more bases that is replaced with the analogs of the invention. Compositions of ... Augustyns et al., "Incorporation of hexose nucleoside analogues into oligonucleotides: synthesis, base-pairing properties and ... In the G-T motif, A-T pairs are recognized by adenine or thymine residues and G-C pairs by guanine residues.. In both of these ...
"Ambiguous base pairing of the purine analogue 1-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-imidazole-4-carboxamide during PCR," Nucleic ... Nucleoside analogues. WO1997029212A1. 7 Feb 1997. 14 Aug 1997. Affymetrix, Inc.. Chip-based speciation and phenotypic ... Pochet, Sylvie, et al., Ambiguous Base Pairing of 1-(2-Deoxy-D-Ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide During PCR, Nucleosides, ... "Transcription-based amplification system and detection of amplified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with a bead-based ...
When present, DNA was added at a DNA base pair to enzyme dimer ratio of 425. Bars, SEM of two to three independent experiments ... To establish whether oxygen-based ether analogues may also work as topoisomerase II ATPase inhibitors, we tested the ability of ... When present, closed circular DNA was added to obtain a DNA base pair to enzyme-dimer ratio of 425. ... Structure-based design of a potent purine-based cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Nat Struct Biol 2002; 9: 745-9. ...
... an analogue of a particular nucleotide has the same base-pairing specificity; i.e., an analogue of A will base-pair with T. [ ... Deletions may include any number of base pairs. Similarly, insertions may include any number of base pairs including, for ... a 17 base pair deletion in IL2RG (referred to as clone 2) and the other had a 1 base pair addition (referred to as clone 8). ... base pairs upstream or downstream of the site of cleavage, more preferably within 1-100 base pairs (or any value therebetween) ...
... an analogue of a particular nucleotide has the same base-pairing specificity; i.e., an analogue of A will base-pair with T. [ ... The left (base pairs 271-550) and right (base pairs 2121-2220) homology arms are shown in uppercase and underlined. The splice ... 0188] These experimentally derived preferences for every position in the 15 base pair and 18 base pair binding sites for the ... base pairs upstream or downstream of the site(s) of cleavage, more preferably within 1-100 base pairs (or any value ...
In a stopped-flow setup, this method is capable of resolving a single base-pair translocation motion of RNA polymerase in real ... Transcription RNA polymerase Translocation Fluorescence Base analogue Stopped-flow Rapid quench-flow ... This method utilizes commercially available base analogue fluorophores integrated into template DNA strand in place of natural ... Monitoring Translocation of Multisubunit RNA Polymerase Along the DNA with Fluorescent Base Analogues. ...
The group of aromatic base analogues of natural DNA bases reported is quite large due to the work of Benners,16,17 Kools,18, ... We observed that the binding energies of sugar-purine pairs were in the same range of an A-T base pair (Table 3). All these ... In our previous work, we computationally explored our pseudo base pairs glc-X and 6dglc-X (where X was a natural DNA base) ... DNA base mimics such as Kool isosteric nonpolar DNA bases34 also show this lack of selectivity when paired with natural bases ...
T wobble pairs flanked by G·C Watson-Crick base pairs. The stem regions adopt an A-type helical structure. Discrete changes in ... Analogue peptides with enhanced binding affinity to major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules are currently being used ... Solution structure of a hexitol nucleic acid duplex with four consecutive T center dot T base pairs HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, 83 ... Two H-bonds are formed in each wobble pair, and base stacking is preserved in the duplex, explaining the stability of the ...
... or sometimes replaced by dNTPs containing base analogues which Watson-Crick base-pair like the conventional four bases. ... The resulting PCR product was expected to be so large (greater than 1,000 base pairs) that its diffusion from site of origin ... For "single primer pair" experiments, the primers were PV 1 and PV2, dictating a 449 bp product from the HPV type 16 genome. ... Both Haase et al., supra, and Nuovo et al., supra, used a series of PCR primer pairs to specify a series of overlapping target ...
Non-naturally occurring nucleic acid analogues are those that while being capable of base pairing to nucleic acids, differ in ... the molecule can bind by base pairing to a nucleic acid containing a sequence of bases complementary to the sequence of bases ... 2 is that the PNA and the DNA part are able to hybridize by base pairing. It becomes clear that the way of linking the PNA ... While segment B1 is designed for binding to molecule A, segment B2 is designed to minimize binding by base pairing to segment ...
Our method is based on Hensel lifting by means of equations defining a higher dimensional analogue of X0(3). Curves with ... Abstract. Littlewoods conjecture in Diophantine approximation is that lim inf q ,,qx,, ,,qy,, = 0 for all pairs of real ... Abstract. Methods for finding rational points on algebraic curves and higher-dimensional varieties based on lattice-reduction ... prescribed complex multiplication are used in primality testing algorithms and as key parameters in pairing based cryptosystems ...
Visual analogue scale, (+) Comparison based on paired t-test. Surgical outcome of reduction and instrumented fusion in lumbar ... Disability and pain (both in lumbar region and leg) were measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analogue Scale ... visual analogue score (VAS)6, patient satisfaction and work status after surgery.. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF TRANSFORAMINAL LUMBAR ...
1b). The product would be nicked, but was expected to be stable under ambient conditions due to DNA base pairing of the sticky ... we needed a method to convert double-stranded products to their single-stranded analogues, which can serve as templates for ... They contain sequence domains A and B respectively, with 42 bases each, and sticky ends that have 10 bases. Initially, we began ... ALK buffer to denature the base pairing. After 15 min, the supernatant was recovered and ethanol precipitated, yielding single- ...
  • Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues: Importance of the Configuration at the 6'-Position and Differences between. (nih.gov)
  • Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues: Importance of the Configuration at the 6'-Position and Differences between the 6'-Amino and Hydroxy Series. (nih.gov)
  • Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues. (nih.gov)
  • She also worked on the total synthesis of pleuromutilin analogues. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Varinder Aggarwal and Chris Willis on stereocontrolled synthesis of polypropionates based on building block assembly strategies by lithiation-borylation methodologies. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • In the analogue domain, automatic synthesis has probably no sense and efforts must be done towards developing consistent and coherent CAD (Computer Aided Design) methods and tools. (design-reuse.com)
  • Minor groove hydrogen bonding (HB) interactions between DNA polymerases (pols) and N3 of purines or O2 of pyrimidines have been proposed to be essential for DNA synthesis from results obtained using various nucleoside analogues lacking the N3 or O2 contacts that interfered with primer extension. (proteopedia.org)
  • But in order to get to the RNA world, primitive life forms had to develop pathways for the synthesis of complex sugars (ribose) and nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines). (blogspot.com)
  • To achieve the synthesis of oligo-heteroaryles, we adopted a convergent procedure based on the cross-coupling of 2,6bis(oxazol-5-yl)pyridine (1) with 2-bromopyridine derivatives by the double C H activation of the oxazole rings (Scheme 2). (docme.ru)
  • Access to DNA functionalized with metal base pairs is granted mainly by solid-phase synthesis. (pasteur.fr)
  • We now describe the design and synthesis of pseudo‐deoxycytidine (ΨdC) derivatives for selective recognition of the CG base pair to expand the triplex‐forming sequence. (kyushu-u.ac.jp)
  • In a stopped-flow setup, this method is capable of resolving a single base-pair translocation motion of RNA polymerase in real time. (springer.com)
  • We describe two template DNA strand designs where translocation of RNA polymerase from a pre-translocation to a post-translocation state results in disruption of stacking interactions of fluorophore with neighboring bases, with a concomitant large increase in fluorescence intensity. (springer.com)
  • NaO O pairs are transcribed under the optimized concentrations of UTP and rNaTP in in vitro transcription catalyzed by T7 RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • Antiretroviral nucleoside analogues display mitochondrial toxicity, mostly due to inhibition of the enzyme gamma-polymerase. (natap.org)
  • Human DNA polymerase β (polβ) inserts, albeit slowly, T opposite the carcinogenic lesion O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) ∼30-fold more frequently than C. To gain insight into this promutagenic process, we solved four ternary structures of polβ with an incoming dCTP or dTTP analogue base-paired with O6MeG in the presence of active-site Mg(2+) or Mn(2+). (rcsb.org)
  • The viral polymerase incorporates these compounds with non-canon bases. (wikidoc.org)
  • A third base pair for the polymerase chain reaction: inserting isoC and isoG. (wikidoc.org)
  • We have examined the dCTP analogue, N 4 methyl-dCTP, for its ability to sustain a PCR, both with HotStart Taq DNA polymerase and with Pfu exo- DNA polymerase, amplifying a 200-bp amplicon within the pUC18 sequence. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Systematic base analogue substitutions at the -1:73 position of chemically synthesized microhelixHis substrates suggest that the G-1 base serves to position the 5'-monophosphate, which is critical for aminoacylation. (nih.gov)
  • The loss of HGPRT enzyme activity could arise from a variety of genetic insults at this locus, including frameshift mutations, base pair substitutions, chromosomal aberrations, and deletions. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of the base analogue substitutions on the interactions between the EcoR1 enzymes and their recognition sequence were examined by determining the steady state kinetic parameters of the enzymes with the octanucleotide analogues as substrates. (illinois.edu)
  • While some researchers utilize libraries with modified bases for aptamer selection, modified nucleotide substitutions are also applied post-selection to improve the performance of natural DNA and RNA aptamers. (basepairbio.com)
  • Ongoing since 1998, the lab has worked to develop unnatural base pairs (UBPs), achieving over the years stability in duplex DNA, acceptance by native polymerases, compatibility with PCR, linker modifications to allow attachment of novel functionality, and storage of information in a living cell. (scripps.edu)
  • Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) having four-hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding) unnatural base pairs have been developed. (springer.com)
  • Dhami K, Malyshev DA, Ordoukhanian P et al (2014) Systematic exploration of a class of hydrophobic unnatural base pairs yields multiple new candidates for the expansion of the genetic alphabet. (springer.com)
  • In addition, base-pairing between transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) forms the basis for the molecular recognition events that result in the nucleotide sequence of mRNA becoming translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins via the genetic code . (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the C73 and G-1 bases contain major groove exocyclic atomic groups that contribute to HisRS recognition. (nih.gov)
  • Thanks to its ability to form duplexes through selective base-pair recognition, DNA is a unique material for orderly self-assembled construction at the nanoscale. (soton.ac.uk)
  • We have examined DNA-protein interactions involved in the recognition of a specific DNA sequence by the EcoR1 restriction and modification enzymes by using base analogues to change functional groups in the major and minor grooves of the DNA. (illinois.edu)
  • In addition, the recognition sequence is short and self-complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotides that are only eight base pairs long and contain the recognition sequence are substrates for the enzymes thereby allowing simple substrates and their analogues to be examined. (illinois.edu)
  • Self-complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotides with base analogues in the EcoR1 recognition sequence were synthesized by a general method that allows incorporation of the analogues at specific positions in the sequence. (illinois.edu)
  • By a comparison of the reactivity of the octanucleotide analogues to a control octanucleotide, we have identified groups on the DNA that may be involved in site recognition and catalysis by each of the EcoR1 enzymes. (illinois.edu)
  • To address this question of importance in the establishment of G-quadruplex recognition rules, we were keen to develop further the class of neutral oxazole-based quadruplex binders with a new family that features a nonmacrocyclic oligomeric scaffold with alternate oxazole and pyridine motifs (Scheme 1). (docme.ru)
  • The information of the functional groups important for aptamer recognition will be helpful towards the design of aptamer based analytical methods where the knowledge of steric aspects, such as the geometric shape, and interaction with the functional groups, plays an important role. (iastate.edu)
  • The nucleoside analogue with a ribose lacking both 2' and 3' is called cordycepin , an anticancer drug. (wikidoc.org)
  • This study of CNAs leads us to hypothesize that a) the conformation of a single nucleoside analogue may be different from its conformation in an oligonucleotide and b) the conformational stress of a nucleotide analogue incorporated in an oligomer may contribute to the sequence-dependent thermal stability of oligonucleotide complexes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It can be concluded that the mass-spectrometrical analysis of the abasic site ligation serves as a highly specific means for the detection of single base mutations even in a competitive multiplex format. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • The effect of accumulated thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) on phenotypic resistance over time has been poorly characterized in the African setting. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 6 , 7 Unsurprisingly, therefore, thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) have been reported in patients following viral failure of tenofovir-containing first-line regimens, 8 contributing to multidrug resistance in these individuals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The preparation of a series of four analogues of the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin and paromomycin is described in which ring I, involved in critical binding interactions with the ribosomal target, is replaced by an apramycin-like dioxabicyclo[4.4.ctane system. (nih.gov)
  • 2011, 123, 8904 -8908 Angewandte Chemie pentacyclic analogue BOxaPy does not associate to quadruplexes, and may result from groove interactions. (docme.ru)
  • The individual bases form strong stacking interactions which are major contributors to duplex stability, as base stacking is much more prevalent in duplexes than in single strands ( Figure 1 ). (atdbio.com)
  • Base-stacking interactions are hydrophobic and electrostatic in nature, and depend on the aromaticity of the bases and their dipole moments. (atdbio.com)
  • Base-stacking interactions in nucleic acid duplexes are partly inter-strand and partly intra-strand in nature. (atdbio.com)
  • Some combinations of base pairs form more stable interactions than others, so nearest neighbour base-stacking interactions are important determinants of duplex stability. (atdbio.com)
  • Base-stacking interactions increase with increasing salt concentration, as high salt concentrations mask the destabilising charge repulsion between the two negatively charged phosphodiester backbones. (atdbio.com)
  • Experimental Evidence of Solvent-Separated Ion Pairs as Metastable States in Electrostatic Interactions of Biological Macromolecules. (utmb.edu)
  • The majority of the topo II and dual topo I/II inhibitors are DNA intercalators, where a flat polyaromatic drug chromophore intercalates between the base pairs, driven primarily by stacking and electrostatic interactions. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • This makes it possible to design DNA sequences that have no known analogue in nature. (cban.ca)
  • Here we present an extensive analysis of viral sequences from HIV-1 infected volunteers from the first "mechanism validation" phase II clinical trial of a mutagenic base analog in which individuals previously treated with antiviral drugs received 1600 mg of KP1461 twice per day for 124 days. (nih.gov)
  • The fluorescent dye 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is known to adopt different DNA binding modes in regions containing consecutive AT base-pairs as compared to those consisting of long sequences of GC base-pairs. (diva-portal.org)
  • This method uses chemistry to synthesize partial sequences but circumvents the need for blocked base analogues by incorporating the analogues enzymatically. (illinois.edu)
  • The key components are the C or DNA-binding domain, which binds with high affinity and specificity to DNA sequences (estrogen response elements [EREs]) to regulate transcription rates of target genes, and the E or ligand-binding domain, which binds estrogens and estrogen analogues. (uptodate.com)
  • :NaO O pair was replicated with the highest efficiency and selectivity among the series of Im:Na pairs using in vitro replication systems owing to the synergistic effect of favorable thermal and thermodynamic contributions from base pairing and specific H-bonding geometries. (springer.com)
  • Ambiguity in the nature of the rate-limiting step and active-site structural differences between correct and incorrect base-paired transition states remain obstacles to understanding DNA replication fidelity. (usc.edu)
  • The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a redundant copy of the genetic information encoded within each strand of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precision medicine focuses on developing personalized therapies tailored for an individual patient based on their genetic disposition. (uconn.edu)
  • Analogues with a bicyclic ring I carrying equatorial amino or hydroxyl groups mimicking the bound side chains of neomycin and paromomycin, respectively, show excellent activity and, by virtue of their novel structure, retain this activity in strains that are insensitive to the parent compounds. (nih.gov)
  • We have used RB69 DNA pol and 3-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine (3DA), an analogue of 2-deoxyadenosine, which has the same HB pattern opposite T but with N3 replaced with a carbon atom. (proteopedia.org)
  • In combination with the favorable base pairing properties this will facilitate detailed studies of nucleic acid structures and structural changes. (jbsdonline.com)
  • This observation, and the absence of an analogous effect on ground state analogue binding (Kd values), points to active-site structural differences at the chemical transition state. (usc.edu)
  • Studies with base analogues show good binding to phiT (where phi represents 1',2'-dideoxy-ribose), but much weaker binding to G phi. (soton.ac.uk)
  • To further probe the role of the G-1:C73 base pair in specific aminoacylation, we carried out atomic group "mutagenesis" studies. (nih.gov)
  • By screening 1,990 compounds from the National Cancer Institute diversity set library against human topoisomerase IIα, we identified a novel catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitor NSC35866, a S 6 -substituted analogue of thioguanine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • the physiological actions of estrogens and estrogen analogues (selective estrogen receptor modulators [SERMs]) are discussed separately. (uptodate.com)
  • The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes ) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000-25,000 distinct protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015. Structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Scientists developed a microRNA-based approach to inhibit proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells, thus preventing restenosis, while selectively promoting reendothelialization and preserving endothelial cell function. (celltherapynews.com)
  • however, it appears that the c 7 G:C base pair, while less stable than the canonical G:C pair is still too strong, so that problems due to hairpin formation persist. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Twenty analogues of pentamidine, 7 primary metabolites of pentamidine, and 30 dicationic substituted bis-benzimidazoles were screened for their inhibitory and fungicidal activities against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans . (asm.org)
  • The current work describes the antifungal activities of analogues of pentamidine (Table 1 ), metabolites of pentamidine (Table 2 ), and a series of compounds derived from the highly potent anti- P. carinii bis-benzimidazoles (Table 3 ) ( 38 ). (asm.org)