Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.X-Ray Film: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Analog-Digital Conversion: The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Digital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Holography: The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Digital Dermatitis: Highly contagious infectious dermatitis with lesions near the interdigital spaces usually in cattle. It causes discomfort and often severe lameness (LAMENESS, ANIMAL). Lesions can be either erosive or proliferative and wart-like with papillary growths and hypertrophied hairs. DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS and TREPONEMA are the most commonly associated causative agents for this mixed bacterial infection disease.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.ComputersOsteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic: Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.RNA Cap Analogs: Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Radiographic Magnification: Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.Skin UlcerCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Photogrammetry: Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.TritiumAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Labor Presentation: The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.PrintingCarbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Anatomic Landmarks: Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.PhotochemistryRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.PrPC Proteins: Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie-infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease-sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Posttranslational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Larsen scoring of digitized X-ray images. (1/62)

OBJECTIVE: To determine how Larsen scores from digitized X-rays compare to those from film originals. METHODS: A hundred sets of radiographs of patients recruited with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were assessed using the Larsen scoring system. Digitized copies of these sets were then viewed on a computer screen and scored according to Larsen in a random order. The quality of the digitized image was also recorded. For each set of X-rays, the signed difference between the score from film and the score from the digitized images was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 95% of the digitized X-ray sets were scored successfully; 5% were not scored due to the images being unreadable. The mean difference between the two sets of scores was -1.2 (95% CI [-2.06, -0.37]). There was no trend in the difference with respect to the mean of the two scores (P>0.1). CONCLUSION: The Larsen scoring of digitized X-ray images has been validated.  (+info)

A new method of measuring propagation coefficients and characteristic impedance in blood vessels. (2/62)

True propagation coefficients of pulse wave harmonics in an artery can be determined in vivo by measuring pulsatile blood pressure and flow at each of two points along the length of the vessel. These coefficients, which are complex numbers that describe the attenuation and the phase shift imposed on a traveling wave, are independent of the reflected waves in the circulation and thus provide information about the viscoelastic state and other properties of an artery. The equations involved are implicit in standard transmission-line theory, but they have not previously been applied in this particular way to blood vessels. The femoral artery, exposed in situ, was studied in 11 anesthetized dogs. At 1.5 Hz, true attenuation constants averaged 0.0151 nepers/cm, and true phase constants averaged 0.0155 radians/cm. As frequency increased, the apparent phase velocity of flow, in contrast, was relatively low at the first harmonic and rose as frequency increased. True phase velocities lay between the apparent pressure and flow values. Characteristic impedance at 1.5 Hz had an average modulus of 1.76 times 10-4 dyne sec/cm5 and a phase of minus 0.31 radians. The modulus diminished as frequency increased, and the phase became less negative. These results show that true phase constants and characteristic impedances determined by this method are consistent with data reported by others and provide information not previously available about flow wave propagation.  (+info)

Nonlinear contribution of eye velocity to motion perception. (3/62)

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an extra-retinal signal combines with retinal velocity in a linear manner as described by existing models to determine perceived velocity. To do so, we utilized a method that allowed the determination of the relative contributions of the retinal-velocity and the extra-retinal signals for the perception of stimulus velocity. We determined the velocity (speed and direction) of a stimulus viewed with stationary eyes that was perceptually the same as the velocity of the stimulus viewed with moving eyes. Eye movements were governed by the tracking (or pursuit) of a separate pursuit target. The velocity-matching data were unable to be fit with a model that linearly combined a retinal-velocity signal and an extra-retinal signal. A model that was successful in explaining the data was one that takes the difference between two simple saturating non-linear functions, g and f, each symmetric about the origin, but one having an interaction term. That is, the function g has two arguments: retinal velocity, R, and eye velocity, E. The only argument to f is retinal velocity, R. Each argument has a scaling parameter. A comparison of the goodness of fits between models demonstrated that the success of the model is the interaction term, i.e. the modification of the compensating eye velocity signal by the retinal velocity prior to combination.  (+info)

Characterization and use of a digital light projector for vision research. (4/62)

For creating stimuli in the laboratory, digital light projection (DLP) technology has the potential to overcome the low output luminance, lack of pixel independence, and limited chromaticity gamut of the cathode ray tube (CRT). We built a DLP-based stimulator for projecting patterns on the in vitro primate retina. The DLP produces high light levels and has good contrast. Spatial performance was similar to that of a CRT. Temporal performance was limited by the refresh rate (63 Hz). The chromatic gamut was modestly larger than that of a CRT although the primary spectra varied to a small degree with light output and numerical aperture.  (+info)

An investigation of the centres of pressure under the foot while walking. (5/62)

The forces under the foot while walking have been measured using a high sensitivity force-plate of the strip-suspended type combined with simultaneous filming of the sole of the foot. The recording of data and the calculation and plotting of results were much simplified by computer aid. Normal and abnormal feet, both barefoot and shod, were investigated in sixteen subjects. It was found that in normal barefoot walking the forefoot carried a total load of the order of three times that of the heel. When footwear was worn the function of the forefoot was progressively reduced as the rigidity of the sole of the shoe increased. Painful conditions of the forefoot also produced a large reduction in the proportion of the total load transferred.  (+info)

A small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ current and Cl- current in rat dental pulp cells. (6/62)

We characterized a voltage-dependent ionic current in dental pulp cells on dental pulp slices using a nystatin perforated-patch recording configuration. The outward currents in dental pulp cells were inhibited by the following channel blockers: 1) Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution containing 10 mM Ba2+, 2) extracellular 400 nM apamin and 3) extracellular 300 nM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). On the other hand, 15 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) did not inhibit the outward currents. The inhibitory effects of Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution, apamin and DIDS had voltage-dependency. These results indicated that dental pulp cells expressed a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (SK current) and a DIDS-sensitive Cl- current. The functional significance of these channels is discussed.  (+info)

Computer-assisted mammographic imaging. (7/62)

Computer-assisted mammography imaging comprises computer-based analysis of digitized images resulting in prompts aiding mammographic interpretation and computerized stereotactic localization devices which improve location accuracy. The commercial prompting systems available are designed to draw attention to mammographic abnormalities detected by algorithms based on symptomatic practise in North America. High sensitivity rates are important commercially but result in increased false prompt rates, which are known to distract radiologists. A national shortage of breast radiologists in the UK necessitates evaluation of such systems in a population breast screening programme to determine effectiveness in increasing cancer detection and feasibility of implementation.  (+info)

Ocular oscillations on eccentric gaze. (8/62)

Many normal individuals show ocular oscillations on eccentric gaze. This study was designed to investigate the effect of visual disengagement and visual feedback on the nature of these end point oscillations. Three test conditions were examined: target present, target absent and when the target position was determined by the subject's eye position via a variable feedback control system. Feedback gains (i.e. target velocity/eye velocity) ranged from 0, where the target position was decoupled from the subject's eye movements (i.e. the target is stationary on the screen), to +1.0 where the retinal image was stabilised (i.e. the target is driven by the subject's eye movements). Only subjects who exhibited sustained end-point oscillations with no latency were included in the study (n=6). Seven different oscillations including square-wave jerks were recorded in the abducting eye during eccentric gaze of a stationary target. The three most common oscillations were the jerk oscillations, with decelerating, linear or pendular slow phases. A number of additional previously unreported waveforms were also recorded. On removal of the target, the mean drift velocity of the slow phase was greatly reduced. The response to the introduction of a change in the visual feedback was specific to each subject, although in all cases, the end-point oscillations generally were of a lower velocity, and gaze was shifted by up to 8 deg in the direction of the slow phase within the first two seconds. The important role of slow eye movement control for maintaining gaze holding is discussed.  (+info)

A power supply comprises at least one power switch adapted to convey power between input and output terminals of the power supply, and a digital controller adapted to control operation of the at least one power switch responsive to an output measurement of the power supply. The digital controller comprises an analog-to-digital converter providing a digital error signal representing a voltage difference between the output measurement and a reference value, a digital filter providing a digital control output based on a sum of previous error signals and previous control outputs, an error controller adapted to modify operation of the digital filter upon an error condition, and a digital pulse width modulator providing a control signal to the power switch having a pulse width corresponding to the digital control output. The analog-to-digital converter further comprises a windowed flash analog-to-digital converter having a transfer function defining a relationship between the voltage difference and
TC7116A The TC7116A/TC7117A Are 3-1/2 Digit CMOS Analog-to-digital Converters (ADCs)containing All The Active Components Necessary to Construct a 0 Features. Low Temperature Drift Internal Reference TC7116/TC7117 80 ppm/ C Typ. TC7116A/TC7117A 20 ppm/ C Typ. Display Hold Function Directly Drives LCD or LED Display Zero Reading with Zero Input Low Noise for Stable Display or 200mV Full Scale
A circuit protection device for use with an electrical unit comprises driver circuitry connected to the electrical unit and connecting means electrically connecting the device to the electrical unit to provide a voltage signal indicative of a voltage associated with the electrical unit. A voltage detector is connected to the connecting means and receives the voltage signal, and provides a conditioned voltage signal output representative of the voltage signal. An analog-to-digital converter receives the conditioned voltage signal output and converts the conditioned voltage signal output to a digital value. A digital processing device receives the digital value from the analog-to-digital converter and provides an output signal to the driver circuitry to turn off power to the primary if an error is detected. The device may also include current obtaining means for providing an electrical signal indicative of a current associated with the electrical unit, and a current detector circuit connected to and
The time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) is an architecture used to achieve a high sampling rate and high dynamic performance. However, estimation and compensation methods are required to maintain the dynamic performance of the constituent analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) due to channel mismatches. This paper proposes a blind adaptive method to calibrate the nonlinear mismatches in M-channel TIADCs (M-TIADCs). The nonlinearity-induced error signal is reconstructed by the proposed multiplier Hadamard transform (MHT) structure, and the nonlinear parameters are estimated by the filtered-X least-mean square (FxLMS) algorithm. The performance of cascade calibration is also analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed method consumes much less hardware resources while maintaining the calibration performance.
The general configuration of the proposed high-speed ADC was described. A train of optical pulses samples the analog signal applied to the optical modulato
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse function. There are several DAC architectures; the suitability of a DAC for a particular application is determined by figures of merit including: resolution, maximum sampling frequency and others. Digital-to-analog conversion can degrade a signal, so a DAC should be specified that has insignificant errors in terms of the application. DACs are commonly used in music players to convert digital data streams into analog audio signals. They are also used in televisions and mobile phones to convert digital video data into analog video signals which connect to the screen drivers to display monochrome or color images. These two applications use DACs at opposite ends of the frequency/resolution trade-off. The audio DAC is a low-frequency, high-resolution type while the video DAC is a high-frequency low- to ...
Automated Frequency Analysis, Automated Event Detection - Topographic Mapping This discussion is concerned with certain unique and valuable procedures that are possible using digital EEG (dEEG).. In dEEG, the continuously varying (analog) voltage changes detected by the electrodes are led into amplifiers, and then into analog-to-digital converters. The converter output consists of numerical values that are stored in a computer and are available for detailed analysis. (There are stringent requirements for the details of the digitization process but these are not discussed here.). Digital EEGs are always recorded using a common reference montage. Thus, activity at each electrode site is referenced to a single electrode. The recordings can then be remontaged as necessary to display the data to better advantage. (Remontaging, a very valuable feature of dEEG, has been discussed earlier.). Specific Uses of Digital EEG:. 1. Analysis of background rhythms (BGR) and special methods of presenting the ...
The performance of flash analog-to-digital converters is affected significantly by the choice of thermometer-tobinary decoder topology. In this work two different promising decoder topologies, multiplexer-based and onescounter, are evaluated. Two converters with different decoders, but otherwise similar, are therefore designed. Two test chips are also sent for manufacturing in a 130 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. The converter performance is evaluated by simulations using foundry provided models. The results show that both decoders can be used in high-speed converters, but the ones-counter decoder is more robust and yield a higher converter efficiency.. ...
A metal detector circuit includes a transmit coil (12) and a receive coil (56) arranged in a balanced induction configuration in an electromagnetic field. The receive signal from the receive coil (56) is input to electronic switches (146, 148) which receive quadrature reference inputs from a phase shift circuit (112). The phase demodulated outputs of the switches (146, 148) are passed through amplifiers and input to an analog-to-digital converter (324) to produce digital signal samples which are transmitted through a bus (326). The bus (326) is connected to random access memory (414, 416) and a read only memory (418) which includes a stored signal processing program. A microprocessor (374) is connected to the bus (376) for receiving the digital signal samples and the stored program from memory (418). The microprocessor (374) executes the stored signal processing program to produce a digital output signal which is transmitted through the bus (326) to a digital-to-analog converter (360). The converter
A flash ADC (also known as a direct-conversion ADC) is a type of analog-to-digital converter that uses a linear voltage ladder with a comparator at each "rung" of the ladder to compare the input voltage to successive reference voltages. Often these reference ladders are constructed of many resistors; however, modern implementations show that capacitive voltage division is also possible. The output of these comparators is generally fed into a digital encoder, which converts the inputs into a binary value (the collected outputs from the comparators can be thought of as a unary value). Flash converters are extremely fast compared to many other types of ADCs, which usually narrow in on the "correct" answer over a series of stages. Compared to these, a flash converter is also quite simple and, apart from the analog comparators, only requires logic for the final conversion to binary. For best accuracy, often a track-and-hold circuit is inserted in front of the ADC input. This is needed for many ADC ...
The invention features a telephone, intercom, and clock. The telephone comprises a receiver adapted to receive a signal representing encoded first voice data; a processor comprising a media access controller adapted to obtain the encoded first voice data from the signal, and a digital signal processor adapted to decode the first voice data obtained by the media access controller; an output circuit; a digital-to-analog converter adapted to convert the first voice data decoded by the digital signal processor to a first analog signal, wherein the first analog signal is output to the output circuit; an input circuit; an analog-to-digital converter adapted to receive a second analog signal from the input circuit, and to convert the second analog signal to second voice data; wherein the digital signal processor is further adapted to encode the second voice data; and a transmitter adapted to transmit signals representing the encoded second voice data.
The invention features a telephone, intercom, and clock. The telephone comprises a receiver adapted to receive a signal representing encoded first voice data; a processor comprising a media access controller adapted to obtain the encoded first voice data from the signal, and a digital signal processor adapted to decode the first voice data obtained by the media access controller; an output circuit; a digital-to-analog converter adapted to convert the first voice data decoded by the digital signal processor to a first analog signal, wherein the first analog signal is output to the output circuit; an input circuit; an analog-to-digital converter adapted to receive a second analog signal from the input circuit, and to convert the second analog signal to second voice data; wherein the digital signal processor is further adapted to encode the second voice data; and a transmitter adapted to transmit signals representing the encoded second voice data.
The invention provides a body-worn monitor featuring a processing system that receives a digital data stream from an ECG system. A cable houses the ECG system at one terminal end, and plugs into the processing system, which is worn on the patients wrist like a conventional wristwatch. The ECG system features: i) a connecting portion connected to multiple electrodes worn by the patient; ii) a differential amplifier that receives electrical signals from each electrode and process them to generate an analog ECG waveform; iii) an analog-to-digital converter that converts the analog ECG waveform into a digital ECG waveform; and iv) a transceiver that transmits a digital data stream representing the digital ECG waveform (or information calculated from the waveform) through the cable and to the processing system. Different ECG systems, typically featuring three, five, or twelve electrodes, can be interchanged with one another.
NW14A has three diffractometers: a MarCCD 165 with a MarDTB (Mar USA), an imaging-plate (IP) diffractometer (Rigaku, RAPID-SR3) and a seven-circle diffractometer (HUBER). Time-resolved measurements can be conducted with all diffractometers combined with the pulsed laser system. The data set for the structural analysis can be measured by the CCD with a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The readout time of the CCD is about 2.5 s. The CCD image has 2048 × 2048 pixels with a 80 µm × 80 µm pixel size. The camera length can be adjusted from 20 mm to 370 mm, and the maximum 2θ angle is 106°. When a diffraction image with a wide dynamic range is required for the charge density analysis, the IP diffractometer with a 20-bit ADC is suitable for the experiment. It has a 683 mm × 350 mm cylindrical shape with a 100 µm × 100 µm pixel size. The camera length is fixed at 191 mm, and the maximum 2θ angle is 145°. The goniometer of the IP diffractometer is a three-circle (φ, ω and χ) ...
Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are crucial blocks which form the interface between the physical world and the digital domain. ADCs are indispensable in numerous applications such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), wireless/wireline communication receivers and data acquisition systems. To achieve long-term, autonomous operation for WSNs, the nodes are powered by harvesting energy from ambient sources such as solar energy, vibrational energy etc. Since the signal frequencies in these distributed WSNs are often low, ultra-low-power ADCs with low sampling rates are required. The advent of new wireless standards with ever-increasing data rates and bandwidth necessitates ADCs capable of meeting the demands. Wireless standards such as GSM, GPRS, LTE and WLAN require ADCs with several tens of MS/s speed and moderate resolution (8-10 bits). Since these ADCs are incorporated into battery-powered portable devices such as cellphones and tablets, low power consumption for the ADCs is essential.. The ...
ADAPTIVE REAL-TIME SEIZURE PREDICTION SYSTEM AND METHOD - A real-time seizure prediction system. The system includes an implantable electrode configured to transmit an analog neuro-electrophysiological signal from a subject, an analog-to-digital converter configured to convert the analog neuro-electrophysiological signal to a digital neuro-electrophysiological signal based on a predetermined sampling rate, a processor configured to perform following steps during a period defined by the predetermined sampling rate: calculate a plurality of autocorrelation coefficients of the digital neuro-electrophysiological signal for a first predetermined number of samples, calculate a predicted future value of the digital neuro-electrophysiological data based on the plurality of autocorrelation coefficients and the first predetermined number of samples of the digital neuro-electrophysiological data, compare the predicted future value with an actual future value of the digital neuro-electrophysiological data ...
The MAX1359B smart data-acquisition systems (DAS) is based on a 16-bit, sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and system-support functionality for a microprocessor (µP)-based system. This device integrates an ADC, DAC, two operational amplifie
Its worth noting that the paper is well crafted and includes all the necessary details for the non-expert to understand without referring to other literature. In the introduction, the authors review ultra-high-speed OCT acquisition instruments. Separate paragraphs clarify key parameters of every Fd-OCT system: its sensitivity and roll-off, dynamic range, axial resolution, and imaging speed, with special focus on scan, pixel, and voxel rates. Because the acquisition speed limits available electronics, special consideration is devoted to assessing requirements of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) bit depth on OCT image quality. Interestingly, the authors prove that an effective bit depth above 7 is suitable for OCT imaging. Three FDML laser sources were used, and each of them is described in detail so that the reader can appreciate the many technological challenges and choices made by the authors. These include an ultra-high-speed bulk optics Fabry- Perot filter and buffering and dual output ...
The MAX1286 MAX1289 are low-cost, micropower, serial output 12-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) available in a tiny 8-pin SOT23 and an 8-pin TDFN. The MAX1286/MAX1288 operate with a single +5V supply. The MAX1287/MAX1289 operate with a single +
0041] The control circuit 100 includes a control processor 95 which produces pulse-width modulated (PWM) control signals for commutating the motor 42, as well a driver circuit 98 for converting the digital control signals into analog drive signals applied to the stator winding inputs A, B, and C. Control circuit 100 further includes a sampling circuit 97 for detecting back EMF signals from the motors rotor inputs A, B, and C; in some embodiments, sampling circuit 97 includes analog-to-digital converters to convert the voltages at the motor inputs to digital signals for use by control processor 95. In some embodiments, sampling circuit 97 may be synchronized to the PWM control signals produced by control processor 95, so that the back EMF for a given rotor input is only sampled when the drive for that input is floating. However, those skilled in the art will appreciate that in other embodiments the motor inputs may be sampled over the entire duty cycle, and the back EMF signals isolated by ...
A patient temperature repeating system and a method of repeating patient temperature information from a resistive-type patient temperature sensor allow one or more medical instruments to utilize a single patient temperature sensor. In one embodiment, the patient temperature repeating system (10) includes input and output connectors (12, 14), a microprocessor (20), optical isolators (22), a coarse digital potentiometer (24) in parallel with a fine digital potentiometer (26), a current sense resistor (28), amplifiers (30A, 30B), analog-to-digital converters (32A, 32B), a filter (34), fuses (36), a non-volatile memory device (38), and a relay (40). In operation, the microprocessor (20) reads the resistance level of a resistive-type patient temperature sensor (16) connected to the input connector (12) and provides the appropriate control signals through the optical isolators (22) to the coarse and fine digital potentiometers (24, 26) in order to set the resistance seen by a medical device (18) connected to
We design a broad gamut of RF/microwave, analog, mixed-signal, and digital integrated circuits in silicon (CMOS) technology as well as with III-V semiconductor technology, organic materials, and emerging nanoscale materials such as semiconductor nanowires. Our design portfolio includes a host of frequency reference circuits-e.g., self-sustained ring, LC, and wave oscillators, mode-locked (soliton) oscillators, integer/fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers, and delay-locked-loop (DLL) timing references-, time-domain temperature sensors for microprocessor thermal profiling, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with various digital background calibration techniques, and a variety of application-specific integrated circuits-e.g.micro electromagnet circuits to manipulate biological cells, RF NMR relaxometry chips to detect cancer marker proteins and human cancer cells and to analyze complex hydrocarbons for petrochemical analysis, RF NMR spectrometer chips to interrogate atomic ...
TI shrinks industrial designs with industrys smallest 12-, 14- and 16-bit SAR ADCs: Texas Instruments (TI) (NASDAQ: TXN) is enabling system designers to reduce the size of their industrial monitoring and control applications with its newest successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The ADS7042 is the industrys smallest and lowest-power 12-bit SAR ADC, and the ADS8354 family includes the industrys smallest 14- and 16-bit, …
The AD7612 is a 16-bit charge redistribution successive approximation register (SAR), architecture analog-to-digital converter (ADC) fabricated on Analog Devices, Inc.s iCMOS high voltage process. The device is configured through hardware or via a d
An offset double conversion technique to calibrate pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is presented, in which self-equalization is performed usin
The TMP75B is an integrated digital temperature sensor with a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that can operate at a 1.8-V supply, and is pin and register compatible with the industry-standard LM75 and TMP75.
A fully synchronous longitudinal position (LPOS) detection system is provided for improving the reliability of servo channels in tape systems. The system is based on the interpolation of the servo channel output signal, which is sampled by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at a fixed sampling rate, using a clock at a nominal frequency, so that interpolated signal samples are obtained at a predetermined fixed rate, independent of tape velocity. This predetermined fixed rate is defined in terms of samples per unit of length, as opposed to samples per unit of time, which is the measure of the ADC sampling rate. The resolution with which the servo channel signal is obtained at the interpolator output is thus determined by the step interpolation distance.
The AD7291 is a 12-bit, low power, 8-channel, successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an internal temperature sensor.The part operates from a single 3.3 V power supply and features an I2C-compatible interface. The part contains a 9-channel multiplexer and a track-and-hold amplifier than can handle frequencies up to 30 MHz. T
The microphone circuit is designed to give us a range of input voltage that we can use to correspond to numerical values in the Analog-to-Digital converter on the microcontroller. The schematic for this circuit is located in Appendix B. We first take the output from the microphone and use a 100nF capacitor as a DC block, so that we remove any DC noise from the signal. We then We then use a voltage divider to add our own DC signal to create a baseline for our sound. Using a 5.1k resistor and a 10k resistor, we get a baseline of about 1.7V, which is added to the AC component from the microphone input. This will be important later in the circuit. From this voltage divider, we input the signal to a non-inverting op-amp gain circuit. The gain of the system is 101, as we can see from the equation in the Flex Sensor section. The added capacitor helps to add a small amount of filtration to the signal, which is simply to denoise the circuit and ensure that we have less variation based on the surrounding ...
Shafiq M. Jamal Marvell Semiconductor will give his ISSCC presentation: A 10b 120MSample/s Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converter withDigital Background Calibration (10.4) Tuesday, January 29, 2002 3:30 p.m. CIS-101 ABSTRACT Digital calibration using adaptive signal processing corrects offset mismatch, gain mismatch, and sample-time error between time-interleaved channels in a 10b 120MSample/s pipelined ADC. With background calibration, peak SNDR is 56.8dB and power dissipation is 234mW from 3.3V. Active area is 12.5mm2 in 0.35um CMOS ...
The Model 331 features two inputs, with a high-resolution 24-bit analog-to-digital converter and separate current source for each input.
ADMS Design have executed a study of analog-to-digital converter performance evolution over time, and estimated performance at 2020. Our research results...
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The LM70 is a temperature sensor, Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter with an SPI and MICROWIRE compatible interface available in WSON and VSSOP 8-pin packages.
Define AIDS-dementia complex. AIDS-dementia complex synonyms, AIDS-dementia complex pronunciation, AIDS-dementia complex translation, English dictionary definition of AIDS-dementia complex. abbr. 1. aide-de-camp 2. Aid to Dependent Children 3. Air Defense Command 4. analog-to-digital converter abbreviation for 1. aide-de-camp 2....
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Two bands that I first heard in this year, Front 242 and Big Black, used drum machines in aggressive manners, quite unlike either acid house or techno, which were popular at the time. Also, the combination of unapologetically electronic drum sounds with guitars in Big Black was instructive as well as convenient to someone who had neither the space nor inclination to play drums.. Of course these two bands werent the only influences on me when I was adopting this technology. I already knew The Sisters of Mercy and Yello, but I also remember being intrigued by, of all things Killer by Adamski. In the combination of these things I could feel the seeds for a new kind of music.. My first attempt to distill this sound was in the cyber-space-pop anthem Set Phasers to Stun, which was remarkably embarassing but highly ambitious. Being able to record four tracks of samples as well as a vocal and a guitar track expanded the sound vastly. Unfortunately my lyrical and songwriting skills didnt match my ...
AVI-SPL Medical helps remove silos that separate surgical services, IT departments, and telehealth outreach programs. With the ongoing analog-to-digital conversion taking place in forward thinking hospitals, were helping hospitals embrace the efficiency of IT/AV convergence, so that healthcare providers can benefit from networked audio and video in places like the OR.. In future posts, Ill look at how the medical group is addressing the needs of different healthcare constituencies, including hospitals, practitioners and IT.. Go to the AVI-SPL Healthcare page and take a look at the audio visual solutions that improve clinical care and information sharing.. If you would like to learn more about what we offer, and how AVI-SPL solutions can help your healthcare facility, call 866-559-8197 or fill out our contact form.. ...
With the sensor properly connected, configuring it in ROBOTC is no more difficult than any of the official VEX sensors. In the Motors and Sensors Setup, on the VEX 2.0 Analog Sensors 1-8 tab, give the sensor a name and choose from Potentiometer, Light Sensor, or Line Follower for the sensor type. Any of these three types will work, as they are set up to return the raw A-to-D (Analog-to-Digital) values from the sensor. The Gyro and Accelerometer sensor types perform additional calculations on the raw sensor data, making them inappropriate choices for a basic analog sensor like the photoresistor. The VEX Light Sensor is the most similar to the Fischertechnik photoresistor, so its the logical choice ...
With the sensor properly connected, configuring it in ROBOTC is no more difficult than any of the official VEX sensors. In the Motors and Sensors Setup, on the VEX 2.0 Analog Sensors 1-8 tab, give the sensor a name and choose from Potentiometer, Light Sensor, or Line Follower for the sensor type. Any of these three types will work, as they are set up to return the raw A-to-D (Analog-to-Digital) values from the sensor. The Gyro and Accelerometer sensor types perform additional calculations on the raw sensor data, making them inappropriate choices for a basic analog sensor like the photoresistor. The VEX Light Sensor is the most similar to the Fischertechnik photoresistor, so its the logical choice ...
STMicroelectronics new L6671 Rotational Accelerometer System combines a MEMS capacitive rotational accelerometer plus an interface chip that integrates analog-to-digital conversion, filtering and interface functions in a single SO-24 package. The L6671 provides a digital output through a 3.3V (5V tolerant) three-wire serial bus and achieves a signal bandwidth of 800Hz, sensitivity of 2.5rad/s,sum,, a full scale sensitivity of 200rad/s,sum, and a signal-to-noise ratio of 37dB over 30-800Hz. Through the serial bus it is also possible to program device characteristics including gain, offset, filter performance and phase delay.. Inside the device, movement about the rotational axis - the axis orthogonal to the package - causes a displacement of a structure inside the MEMS sensor thus producing a capacitive change. These changes in capacitance are converted by the interface chip into a digital output for direct connection to a microprocessor. Capacitance changes as small as 0.05fF (0.05femtoFarad = ...
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This survey was distributed to the 123 ARL member libraries in February 2006. Sixty-eight libraries (55%) responded to the survey, of which all but two (97%) reported having engaged in digitization activities. Only one respondent reported having begun digitization activities prior to 1992; five other pioneers followed in 1992. From 1994 through 1998 there was a steady increase in the number of libraries beginning digital initiatives; 30 joined the pioneers at the rate of three to six a year. There was a spike of activity at the turn of the millennium that reached a high in 2000, when nine libraries began digital projects. Subsequently, new start-ups have slowed, with only an additional one to five libraries beginning digitization activities each year ...
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Add to iTunes , Add to YouTube , Add to Google , RSS Feed. Its community challenge time again! Heres your chance to put words in my mouth. Download the raw video, open it in your favorite video editor, remix the sucker, then re-upload your video as a response to this video so we can all see the fruits of your labor. Create your own narration cards, create your own product demonstration in the middle, whatever. Its your chance to play with me! Dont have me unpaper the same envelope… BE CREATIVE.. What invention have you been waiting for all of your life? Which technology breakthrough (real or imagined) are you going to report on? Put on your thinking cap and fire up the tools you already have. If you cant edit a MOV video file, you might care to convert it with your favorite video conversion tool - although, Id be surprised if you creative types had any problems with this.. In order to create this video, I used the Silent Film Director app on my iPhone. The app is fun and simple to use. ...
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Whats new in this version: Fixes many Apex Digital Tv Converter Box and crashes. Apex Digital Tv Converter Box is a utility that can be used for various purposes. Features: strips the characters ">" and "," from forwarded e-mails; formats the text into paragraphs, making it easier to read; changes the texts right margin, by indenting; can be used with any e-mail client. This is an extension for Google Apex Digital Tv Converter Box. A lot of links create new windows Apex Digital Tv Converter Box of new tabs, so Apex Digital Tv Converter Box moves every tabs of each windows in that where you Apex Digital Tv Converter Box the icon of Apex Digital Tv Converter Box. Apex Digital Tv Converter Box allows you to create you Apex Digital Tv Converter Box photographic mosaics, also known as Photomosaic. Choose the photo you want to reproduce, then choose any collection of Apex Digital Tv Converter Box to be used as the Apex Digital Tv Converter Box, including film and Apex Digital Tv Converter Box. Apex ...
On behalf of Telekom, techconsult is conducting a long-term study on digitization. The second edition of the SME digitization index results is now available.
Super�© Converter is the perfect complement to any antivirus or antispyware program and allows you to prevent access to your personal and important Super�© Converter and folders, as well as protect and guarantee the Super�© Converter and functioning of your system. It can make your Super�© Converter and folders completely Super�© Converter, inaccessible, or simply read-only. It can prevent change of configuration and accidental (or even intentional) system Super�© Converter deletion or alteration, so your PC will be healthy and more stable. Version 2006 has new features, and improvements available in this major update includes a completely redesigned interface. The new tab-based interface is more intuitive and makes it easy to protect the Control Panel applets, Administrative Tools and System Key Super�© Converter. Added some important security-related tweaks, tricks and hacks for optimizing, enhancing and securing the system. Weve tried many Super�© Converter tools that ...
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Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WXIA-TV originally had the only VHF allotment for digital television in the area, until ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital channel is multiplexed:. Channel. Video. Aspect. PSIP ... as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[9] The station's digital signal remained on its ... WXIA-TV, virtual channel 11 (VHF digital channel 10), is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Atlanta, Georgia, ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KERO-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over UHF channel 23, on June ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition VHF channel 10.[14] Through the use of PSIP, digital television ... Digital: 10 (VHF). Virtual: 23 (PSIP). Affiliations. 23.1: ABC (secondary 1953-1959; primary since 1996). 23.2: Court TV. 23.3: ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KWHY-TV became the first UHF station in the market to sign-on a high definition digital ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[40] The station's digital signal remained on ... Analog:. 22 (UHF, 1962-2009). Digital:. 42 (UHF, 2002-2019). Former affiliations. African American Ind. (1962-1964). English ...
ISBN 978-0-7923-8452-6. Marcel J.M. Pelgrom (2012). Analog-to-Digital Conversion (2nd ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. ... In analog circuit designs, a bootstrap circuit is an arrangement of components deliberately intended to alter the input ... "Bootstrapped IC Substrate Lowers Distortion in JFET Op Amps" (PDF). Analog Devices application note AN-232. Douglas Self (2014 ... Digital systems engineering, Cambridge University Press, 1998 ISBN 0-521-59292-5 pages 190-191. ...
... the resolution of the digital system becomes infinite. "Dithering in Analog-to-Digital Conversion" (PDF). e2v Semiconductors. ... Quantization noise is a model of quantization error introduced by the sampling process during analog-to-digital conversion (ADC ... "THE RELATIONSHIP OF DATA WORD SIZE TO DYNAMIC RANGE AND SIGNAL QUALITY IN DIGITAL AUDIO PROCESSING APPLICATIONS". www.analog. ... introduce additional rounding error analogous to the original quantization error introduced during analog to digital conversion ...
This is referred to as analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. If the integers generated by quantization are 8 bits each, then the ... Lossless audio compression produces a representation of digital data that decompress to an exact digital duplicate of the ... A digital sound recorder can typically store around 200 hours of clearly intelligible speech in 640 MB.[20] ... If the data to be compressed is analog (such as a voltage that varies with time), quantization is employed to digitize it into ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WANE-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 15, on June 12, 2009, the official ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP short ... The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 31.[13] Through the use of PSIP, digital television ... WANE-TV, virtual channel 15 (UHF digital channel 32), is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Fort Wayne, Indiana, ...
Repeated conversion between analog and digital can also cause loss. Generation loss was a major consideration in complex analog ... In analog systems (including systems that use digital recording but make the copy over an analog connection), generation loss ... According to ATIS, "Generation loss is limited to analog recording because digital recording and reproduction may be performed ... Copying a digital file gives an exact copy if the equipment is operating properly. This trait of digital technology has given ...
This is referred to as analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. If the integers generated by quantization are 8 bits each, then the ... Lossless audio compression produces a representation of digital data that decompress to an exact digital duplicate of the ... If the data to be compressed is analog (such as a voltage that varies with time), quantization is employed to digitize it into ... The Olympus WS-120 digital speech recorder, according to its manual, can store about 178 hours of speech-quality audio in .WMA ...
In some systems, the analog-to-digital conversion is performed before the peak is reshaped. The analog-to-digital converter ( ... low energy x radiation (due to internal conversion of the gamma ray), ... and converts that signal into a digital signal. ...
He is considered "the father of high-speed analog-to-digital conversion". At an early age Gordon developed an interest in ... While there, Gordon helped create the first current switching digital-to-analog converter in 1951 as part of the first digital ... including the core technologies of analog-to-digital conversion. These developments were fundamental to the subsequent medical ... Patent 4,350,974 Logarithmic analog-to-digital converter U.S. Patent 4,152,659 Low noise differential amplifier U.S. Patent ...
The first step in any signal processing approach is analog to digital conversion. The geophysical signals in the analog domain ... As the name suggests, the gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the analog domain are detected, sampled and stored for ... Halpeny, O. S.; Childers, Donald G. (1975-06-01). "Composite wavefront decomposition via multidimensional digital filtering of ... Dan E. Dudgeon, Russell M. Mersereau, "Multidimensional Digital Signal Processing", Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series, ...
R-2R ladder networks used for Digital-to-Analog conversion are rather old. A historic description is in a patent filed in 1955 ... Resistor ladder Digital-to-analog converter Attenuator circuits "Multiplying DACs, flexible building blocks" (PDF). Analog ... As in digital-to-analog converters, a binary word is applied to the ladder network, whose N bits are treated as representing an ... The logarithmic behavior of the circuit is its main differentiator in comparison with digital-to-analog converters in general, ...
The station's digital channel is multiplexed. Due to the Mexican analog-to-digital conversion mandate, XHTIT-TV shut down its ... Tijuana was the first Mexican city where the analog to digital conversion took place. XHTIT has authorized repeaters within ... XHTIT-TDT, virtual channel 21 (UHF digital channel 29), is a TV Azteca owned-and-operated television station located in Tijuana ... analog signal on May 28, 2013, and then again on July 18, 2013. ...
The AMP standard includes conversion from analog readouts to a digital "glass cockpit" configuration. The current RC-135 fleet ... 51 Sqn personnel began training at Offutt in January 2011 for conversion to the RC-135. The first RC-135W (ZZ664) was delivered ... The United Kingdom bought three KC-135R aircraft for conversion to RC-135W Rivet Joint standard under the Airseeker project. ... The success of the mission prompted conversion of additional aircraft for intelligence gathering duties. Not to be confused ...
A related phenomenon is dithering applied to analog signals before analog-to-digital conversion. Stochastic resonance can be ... 2003). "Stochastic resonance: another way to retrieve subthreshold digital data". Physics Letters A. 309 (1): 39-43. Bibcode: ...
The station's digital channel is multiplexed. Due to the Mexican analog to digital conversion mandate, XHBJ-TV discontinued its ... Tijuana was the first city where the analog to digital conversion begins in Mexico. However, due to penetration problems and ... where it was broadcast on analog channel 6 and digital channel 6.2. XHBJ added a digital signal in the late 2000s on channel 44 ... where it remained after Tijuana's first-in-Mexico digital conversion in 2013. However, due to the use of PSIP, DTV receivers ...
For the latter, ECC is an integral part of the initial analog-to-digital conversion in the receiver. The Viterbi decoder ... "Digital Video Broadcast (DVB); Frame structure, channel coding and modulation for a second generation digital terrestrial ... "International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting. 2008: 957846. doi:10.1155/2008/957846.. ... Clark, George C., Jr.; Cain, J. Bibb (1981). Error-Correction Coding for Digital Communications. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0 ...
Tijuana was the first Mexican city to start the analog to digital conversion in Mexico. XHUAA retained its virtual channel of ... Due to the conversion mandate, XHUAA-TV shut down its analog signal on May 28, 2013 and again on July 18, 2013, due to issues ... XHUAA began broadcasting in digital on UHF 22 in early 2006 making it the second station in Tijuana (and at the time one of ... XHUAA-TDT, virtual channel 57 (UHF digital channel 22), is a television station located in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, ...
For each antenna, a down conversion and analog-to-digital conversion step is typically completed. Then, a 1-D FIR filter with ... ISBN 1-10703-320-9. Dudgeon, D.E. and Mersereau, R.M., Multidimensional Digital Signal Processing, Prentice-Hall Signal ...
Tijuana was the first city in Mexico where the analog-to digital conversion took place. Immediately after the closure, worries ... The station's digital channel is multiplexed: XEWT discontinued its analog signal on May 28, 2013. ... XEWT-TDT, virtual channel 12 (UHF digital channel 32), informally called "Tu Canal" ("Your Channel"), is a Televisa owned-and- ... when XEWT and other Tijuana TV stations discontinued their analog signals again, this time for good. At this time, the callsign ...
After a digital-to-analog conversion in the transmitter the signal passes through a reconstruction filter. Then its frequency ... If the analog signal was digitized without a four-quadrant multiplier, the complex envelope has to be calculated by a digital ... At last the signal passes through an anti-aliasing filter and sampled (digitized). A digital modulator transforms a digital ... The input signal for the analog tract is at the intermediate frequency or in the L-band, in the second case it must be firstly ...
Analog to digital conversion: The Schmitt trigger is effectively a one bit analog to digital converter. When the signal reaches ... An open-loop op-amp and comparator may be considered as an analog-digital device having analog inputs and a digital output that ... It is an active circuit which converts an analog input signal to a digital output signal. The circuit is named a "trigger" ... It is approximately equal to the high threshold and may not be low enough to be a logical zero for next digital circuits. This ...
... provided radar video to the Mill Valley CDTS for analog-to-digital conversion. Mill Valley AFS was the "San Francisco Defense ...
Aliasing is a major concern in the analog-to-digital conversion of video and audio signals. In the creation of computer music ... A sonic artifact is sometimes a type of digital artifact, and in some cases is the result of data compression (not to be ... Data compression Digital artifact Dynamic range compression Glitch (music) Compression artifact Sampling (information theory) ...
For each range, analog to digital conversion is conducted separately, but the only range used is that with the highest ... Charge-to-analog converters (QAC) and time-to-analog converters (TAC) are contained in these modules that had dynamic range ... The Sun and about 80% of the visible stars produce their energy by the conversion of hydrogen to helium via ... In the previous phases, the ID-PMTs processed signals by custom electronics modules called analog timing modules (ATMs). ...
Part II, Analog-to-Digital Conversion , presents papers which address very high conversion speeds and very high resolution ... Analog to Digital Converters, Analog Computer Aided Design. Analog Circuit Design Operational Amplifiers, Analog to Digital ... Analog to Digital converters provide the link between the analog world of transducers and the digital world of signal ... Analog Circuit Design Operational Amplifiers, Analog to Digital Converters, Analog Computer Aided Design with ISBN ...
In addition, many of these digital systems have analog aspects.. The cell exists in an analog world. Concentrations of ... Positive feedback in eukaryotic gene networks: cell differentiation by graded to binary response conversion by Attila Becskei, ... Here, the analog signal is converted into whatever digital signals are necessary to initiate reaction and impose decisions. ... The question of why so many of the cells information systems are digital when analog systems are potentially so much smarter ...
... The CCD or CMOS sensor in a digital camera converts light photons into electrons. Each of the ... The analog to digital conversion process description above should have made it clear that RAW capture is essential in order to ... Digital Photo Processes. -- Introduction -- Lens & image -- A/D conversion -- Lumix & Leica -- Sharpness -- CCD noise1 -- CCD ... The voltage which represents the luminance of each pixel is then converted into a binary number by a 12-bit analog-to-digital ...
An interview with Cambridge Consultants, discussing Leap; a miniature camera that provides a digital view of live veins and ...
We developed an analog-to-digital chemical signal conversion that gives visual readout and applied it to an assay for cystatin ... Chemical Analog-to-Digital Signal Conversion Based on Robust Threshold Chemistry and Its Evaluation in the Context of ... analog input) into patterns of ON or OFF reaction outcomes (chemical digital readout). Quantification of small changes in ...
... and how to calculate the analog voltages. Freescale 9S12/HCS12 hardware and software interfacing & C examples for analog ... How to use the 16-channel 10-bit Analog-to-Digital converter on the PDQ Board for single and multiple conversions, ... Fundamentals of analog to digital conversion. An analog to digital converter samples an analog signal and outputs a digital ... Many instrument applications require monitoring of analog signals for analog data acquisition. Analog To Digital (ATD) ...
Ireland Electronic Engineering Digital and Analogue Electronics Module Digital and Analog Digital Electronics Undergraduate ... Analogue to Digital Conversion ADC).. *To use Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) to fade in and out an LED (Digital to Analogue ... 4. Fading an LED - Digital -, Analogue Conversion. In Section 2 we wired up an LED and at the end it was requested that you ... 3. Using the Arduino Analogue Inputs. Now we are going to build a second circuit to read an analogue value into the Arduino. To ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WXIA-TV originally had the only VHF allotment for digital television in the area, until ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The stations digital channel is multiplexed:. Channel. Video. Aspect. PSIP ... as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[9] The stations digital signal remained on its ... WXIA-TV, virtual channel 11 (VHF digital channel 10), is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Atlanta, Georgia, ...
4.2 Analog to Digital Conversion *4.3 Compression Algorithms *4.4 RTP Real Time Transport Protocol *4.5 RSVP *4.6 Quality of ... analog to digital converter), transmit it, and at the end transform it again in analog format with DAC (digital to analog ... 4.2 Analog to Digital Conversion This is made by hardware, typically by card integrated ADC. Today every sound card allows you ... First the ADC to convert analog voice to digital signals (bits). *Now the bits have to be compressed in a good format for ...
Analog-to-Digital Conversion. For this type of application, given the response time of the sensor, the sampling rate for data ... Analog-to-Digital Converter. A low power ADC can be a favorable converter for this application. This is achievable using the ... Analog Devices Uses Cookies for Enhanced Online Performance Some cookies are required for secure log-ins but others are ... Sensor Analog Signal Conditioning Circuit. It is important to understand the equivalent electrical diagram of the sensor probe ...
Hz and change the analog frequency of the signal. Observe the output for f s = 10 size 12 ... Analog and digital frequency. Digital frequency ( θ. size 12{θ} {}. ) is related to analog frequency ( f. size 12{f} {}. ) via ... Discrete waveform, Digital waveform, Analog frequency, Digital frequency and Number of samples skipped in ADC are also included ... which means one does not know from which analog signal the digital signal is created. Note the value of digital frequency is ...
... analog-digital analogy often comes the idea that the relation between rates and spikes is that of an analog-digital conversion ... timing (XVIII) Spiking as analog-digital conversion: the evolutionary argument. Publié le 13/02/2013. par romain ... Or spikes are seen as an analog-digital conversion from the membrane potential. I believe this comes from the evolutionary ... So if we wanted to make the case that spikes are only there to carry a truly analog value, the membrane potential, then it ...
... and also with proper layout techniques by keeping digital and analog sections of the board from overlapping. Below are the ... Digital HW Volume Control and Re-clocking: * Crystek CCHD-575 oscillator -- ultra low clock jitter of 82fSec ... Ultra low noise analog power supplies: * TPS7A4700 (4.17uV noise) for positive op-amp power supply ... The mainstream audio press has not given these Raspberry Pi devices much attention, but its clear to me that high-end digital ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KERO-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over UHF channel 23, on June ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The stations digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... The stations digital signal remained on its pre-transition VHF channel 10.[14] Through the use of PSIP, digital television ... Digital: 10 (VHF). Virtual: 23 (PSIP). Affiliations. 23.1: ABC (secondary 1953-1959; primary since 1996). 23.2: Court TV. 23.3: ...
... part one covers analog/digital audio conversion, bit rates, sample rates, and more. ... Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC). Analog sound is converted to a digital file when recording live instruments, or when ... Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC). For the opposite process, audio starts as music file stored as digital bits. A DAC ... The number of bits used in analog-to-digital conversion determines the accuracy with which the digital signal replicates the ...
... switch the analog-to-digital converter to the correct port, perform the analog-to-digital conversion, and begin the sound ... Analog-to-Digital Conversion. We embedded microphones into our drum boxes to determine how loud our output drum sound should be ... use of the microcontroller analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to convert the analog microphone data, the formula we used to ... Our project brings together analog circuitry and filters with digital concepts, such as hardware timing, interrupts, and a user ...
Analog-to-digital conversion.. Some Rights Reserved. Author(s): No creator set. ...
Analog to Digital Conversion.. Anesthesia Machines.. Aortic Stenosis and Systemic Hypertension, Modeling of. ...
PWM Digital-to-Analog Conversion with the SAM4S Xplained Pro. In this article well use the SAM4S Xplained Pro development ...
Analog-Digital Conversion. Bridge Circuits. Linearizing Devices. Miscellaneous Signal Modification Circuitry. Signal Analyzers ...
Circuit configuration for analog/digital conversion. US20060139624 *. 15 Feb 2006. 29 Jun 2006. Aurora Discovery, Inc.. ... an analog to digital converter coupled by a direct memory access device to a computer, or an analog phase comparator circuit ... an analog to digital converter coupled by a direct memory access device to a computer, or an analog phase comparator circuit ... Product packaging including digital data. US20030050543 *. 30 Nov 2000. 13 Mar 2003. Paul Hartmann. Method and device for ...
A microchip is positioned within the housing and operatively communicates with the membrane for transmitting a digital signal ... Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion. Accordingly, the microprocessor 90 operatively communicates with the membrane 56. ... This arrangement constitutes an analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion which is power effective since there is a simple counting of ... due to the inherent analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion mechanism employed in the sensor 50, e.g. the photoelectric cell array ...
3 Digital Signal Processing 49. 3.1 Continuous versus Discrete Signals 49. 3.2 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 50 ...
Circuit configuration for analog/digital conversion. US20060203700 *. May 16, 2006. Sep 14, 2006. Verification Technologies, ... Product packaging including digital data. US20030112423 *. Oct 18, 2002. Jun 19, 2003. Rakesh Vig. On-line verification of an ...
Circuit configuration for analog/digital conversion. US20060082770 *. 28 Nov 2005. 20 Apr 2006. Sru Biosystems, Inc.. Method ... adding a substrate analogue to the sample, wherein said substrate analogue is selected to react with said enzyme to form, ... Product packaging including digital data. US20030059855 *. 26 Jun 2002. 27 Mar 2003. Sru Biosystems, Llc. Method and instrument ... The substrate analogue then competes with the natural substrate for binding to the immobilised enzyme. ...
  • High-performance bipolar and MOS technologies result in high-resolution or high-speed convertors which can be applied in digital audio or video systems. (valorebooks.com)
  • The techniques and methodologies described demonstrate the advances being made in developing analog design tools comparable with those already available for digital design. (valorebooks.com)
  • The main intention of the workshop was to brainstorm with a group of about 100 analog design experts on the new possibilities and future developments on the above topics. (valorebooks.com)
  • WXIA-TV , virtual channel 11 ( VHF digital channel 10), is an NBC - affiliated television station licensed to Atlanta , Georgia , United States . (wikipedia.org)
  • KERO-TV , virtual channel 23 ( VHF digital channel 10), is an ABC - affiliated television station licensed to Bakersfield , California , United States . (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the low loss and dispersion of optical fiber and integrated optical waveguides enables most of the components in a broadband sensing or communication system, including all of the analog-to-digital and digital processing hardware, to be situated many feet or even miles from the antennas or other sensors with almost no performance penalty. (bu.edu)
  • In 2005, long before Raspberry Pi, a couple of Italian engineering lecturers came up with the idea of creating a small computer board that was cheap and easy to use, allowing anyone to mate digital computing with real-world components like motors, sensors, lights and switches. (techradar.com)
  • The analog input signal present in the second loop is magnetically coupled to a third, superconducting comparator, loop in which there is generated current feedback pulses which are magnetically fed back to the second loop to reduce and nullify (i.e., reduce to zero) the magnetic flux and circulating current in the second loop induced by the analog input signal. (google.com)
  • Between all you can eat Zune Pass, streaming radio Pandora, digital ecosystem iTunes, and unencumbered MP3's from Amazon, music is now available in pretty much any digital format, with any sort of imaginable payment scheme. (slashdot.org)
  • The MSP430F23x0 series is an ultra-low-power microcontroller with two built-in 16-bit timers, one universal serial communication interface (USCI), a versatile analog comparator, and 32 I/O pins. (ti.com)
  • The most straightforward way for a computer to make sound is to record, or sample , an existing source of sound (like a traditional non-digital musical instrument) and play back the recording. (wikibooks.org)
  • Some embodiments include apparatuses and methods having a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) in a digital phase-locked loop (PLL) and a control loop. (patents.com)