The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Highly contagious infectious dermatitis with lesions near the interdigital spaces usually in cattle. It causes discomfort and often severe lameness (LAMENESS, ANIMAL). Lesions can be either erosive or proliferative and wart-like with papillary growths and hypertrophied hairs. DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS and TREPONEMA are the most commonly associated causative agents for this mixed bacterial infection disease.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.
The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.
Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie-infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease-sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Posttranslational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.

Larsen scoring of digitized X-ray images. (1/62)

OBJECTIVE: To determine how Larsen scores from digitized X-rays compare to those from film originals. METHODS: A hundred sets of radiographs of patients recruited with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were assessed using the Larsen scoring system. Digitized copies of these sets were then viewed on a computer screen and scored according to Larsen in a random order. The quality of the digitized image was also recorded. For each set of X-rays, the signed difference between the score from film and the score from the digitized images was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 95% of the digitized X-ray sets were scored successfully; 5% were not scored due to the images being unreadable. The mean difference between the two sets of scores was -1.2 (95% CI [-2.06, -0.37]). There was no trend in the difference with respect to the mean of the two scores (P>0.1). CONCLUSION: The Larsen scoring of digitized X-ray images has been validated.  (+info)

A new method of measuring propagation coefficients and characteristic impedance in blood vessels. (2/62)

True propagation coefficients of pulse wave harmonics in an artery can be determined in vivo by measuring pulsatile blood pressure and flow at each of two points along the length of the vessel. These coefficients, which are complex numbers that describe the attenuation and the phase shift imposed on a traveling wave, are independent of the reflected waves in the circulation and thus provide information about the viscoelastic state and other properties of an artery. The equations involved are implicit in standard transmission-line theory, but they have not previously been applied in this particular way to blood vessels. The femoral artery, exposed in situ, was studied in 11 anesthetized dogs. At 1.5 Hz, true attenuation constants averaged 0.0151 nepers/cm, and true phase constants averaged 0.0155 radians/cm. As frequency increased, the apparent phase velocity of flow, in contrast, was relatively low at the first harmonic and rose as frequency increased. True phase velocities lay between the apparent pressure and flow values. Characteristic impedance at 1.5 Hz had an average modulus of 1.76 times 10-4 dyne sec/cm5 and a phase of minus 0.31 radians. The modulus diminished as frequency increased, and the phase became less negative. These results show that true phase constants and characteristic impedances determined by this method are consistent with data reported by others and provide information not previously available about flow wave propagation.  (+info)

Nonlinear contribution of eye velocity to motion perception. (3/62)

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an extra-retinal signal combines with retinal velocity in a linear manner as described by existing models to determine perceived velocity. To do so, we utilized a method that allowed the determination of the relative contributions of the retinal-velocity and the extra-retinal signals for the perception of stimulus velocity. We determined the velocity (speed and direction) of a stimulus viewed with stationary eyes that was perceptually the same as the velocity of the stimulus viewed with moving eyes. Eye movements were governed by the tracking (or pursuit) of a separate pursuit target. The velocity-matching data were unable to be fit with a model that linearly combined a retinal-velocity signal and an extra-retinal signal. A model that was successful in explaining the data was one that takes the difference between two simple saturating non-linear functions, g and f, each symmetric about the origin, but one having an interaction term. That is, the function g has two arguments: retinal velocity, R, and eye velocity, E. The only argument to f is retinal velocity, R. Each argument has a scaling parameter. A comparison of the goodness of fits between models demonstrated that the success of the model is the interaction term, i.e. the modification of the compensating eye velocity signal by the retinal velocity prior to combination.  (+info)

Characterization and use of a digital light projector for vision research. (4/62)

For creating stimuli in the laboratory, digital light projection (DLP) technology has the potential to overcome the low output luminance, lack of pixel independence, and limited chromaticity gamut of the cathode ray tube (CRT). We built a DLP-based stimulator for projecting patterns on the in vitro primate retina. The DLP produces high light levels and has good contrast. Spatial performance was similar to that of a CRT. Temporal performance was limited by the refresh rate (63 Hz). The chromatic gamut was modestly larger than that of a CRT although the primary spectra varied to a small degree with light output and numerical aperture.  (+info)

An investigation of the centres of pressure under the foot while walking. (5/62)

The forces under the foot while walking have been measured using a high sensitivity force-plate of the strip-suspended type combined with simultaneous filming of the sole of the foot. The recording of data and the calculation and plotting of results were much simplified by computer aid. Normal and abnormal feet, both barefoot and shod, were investigated in sixteen subjects. It was found that in normal barefoot walking the forefoot carried a total load of the order of three times that of the heel. When footwear was worn the function of the forefoot was progressively reduced as the rigidity of the sole of the shoe increased. Painful conditions of the forefoot also produced a large reduction in the proportion of the total load transferred.  (+info)

A small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ current and Cl- current in rat dental pulp cells. (6/62)

We characterized a voltage-dependent ionic current in dental pulp cells on dental pulp slices using a nystatin perforated-patch recording configuration. The outward currents in dental pulp cells were inhibited by the following channel blockers: 1) Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution containing 10 mM Ba2+, 2) extracellular 400 nM apamin and 3) extracellular 300 nM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). On the other hand, 15 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) did not inhibit the outward currents. The inhibitory effects of Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution, apamin and DIDS had voltage-dependency. These results indicated that dental pulp cells expressed a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (SK current) and a DIDS-sensitive Cl- current. The functional significance of these channels is discussed.  (+info)

Computer-assisted mammographic imaging. (7/62)

Computer-assisted mammography imaging comprises computer-based analysis of digitized images resulting in prompts aiding mammographic interpretation and computerized stereotactic localization devices which improve location accuracy. The commercial prompting systems available are designed to draw attention to mammographic abnormalities detected by algorithms based on symptomatic practise in North America. High sensitivity rates are important commercially but result in increased false prompt rates, which are known to distract radiologists. A national shortage of breast radiologists in the UK necessitates evaluation of such systems in a population breast screening programme to determine effectiveness in increasing cancer detection and feasibility of implementation.  (+info)

Ocular oscillations on eccentric gaze. (8/62)

Many normal individuals show ocular oscillations on eccentric gaze. This study was designed to investigate the effect of visual disengagement and visual feedback on the nature of these end point oscillations. Three test conditions were examined: target present, target absent and when the target position was determined by the subject's eye position via a variable feedback control system. Feedback gains (i.e. target velocity/eye velocity) ranged from 0, where the target position was decoupled from the subject's eye movements (i.e. the target is stationary on the screen), to +1.0 where the retinal image was stabilised (i.e. the target is driven by the subject's eye movements). Only subjects who exhibited sustained end-point oscillations with no latency were included in the study (n=6). Seven different oscillations including square-wave jerks were recorded in the abducting eye during eccentric gaze of a stationary target. The three most common oscillations were the jerk oscillations, with decelerating, linear or pendular slow phases. A number of additional previously unreported waveforms were also recorded. On removal of the target, the mean drift velocity of the slow phase was greatly reduced. The response to the introduction of a change in the visual feedback was specific to each subject, although in all cases, the end-point oscillations generally were of a lower velocity, and gaze was shifted by up to 8 deg in the direction of the slow phase within the first two seconds. The important role of slow eye movement control for maintaining gaze holding is discussed.  (+info)

ADS1110 SBAS276A − MARCH 2003 − REVISED NOVEMBER 2003 16-Bit ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER with Onboard Reference FEATURES DESCRIPTION D COMPLETE DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM IN The ADS1110 is a precision, continuously self−calibrating Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter with differential inputs and up to 16 bits of resolution in a small SOT23-6 package. The onboard 2.048V reference provides an input range of ±2.048V differentially. The ADS1110 uses an I2C-compatible serial interface and operates from a single power supply ranging from 2.7V to 5.5V. A TINY SOT23-6 PACKAGE D ONBOARD REFERENCE: Accuracy: 2.048V ±0.05% Drift: 5ppm/°C D D D D D D D ONBOARD PGA ONBOARD OSCILLATOR 16-BITS NO MISSING CODES INL: 0.01% of FSR max CONTINUOUS SELF-CALIBRATION SINGLE-CYCLE CONVERSION PROGRAMMABLE DATA RATE: 15SPS TO 240SPS D I2CINTERFACE-EIGHT AVAILABLE ADDRESSES D POWER SUPPLY: 2.7V to 5.5V D LOW CURRENT CONSUMPTION: 240µA The ADS1110 can perform conversions at rates of 15, 30, 60, or 240 samples per ...
A power supply comprises at least one power switch adapted to convey power between input and output terminals of the power supply, and a digital controller adapted to control operation of the at least one power switch responsive to an output measurement of the power supply. The digital controller comprises an analog-to-digital converter providing a digital error signal representing a voltage difference between the output measurement and a reference value, a digital filter providing a digital control output based on a sum of previous error signals and previous control outputs, an error controller adapted to modify operation of the digital filter upon an error condition, and a digital pulse width modulator providing a control signal to the power switch having a pulse width corresponding to the digital control output. The analog-to-digital converter further comprises a windowed flash analog-to-digital converter having a transfer function defining a relationship between the voltage difference and
TC7116A The TC7116A/TC7117A Are 3-1/2 Digit CMOS Analog-to-digital Converters (ADCs)containing All The Active Components Necessary to Construct a 0 Features. Low Temperature Drift Internal Reference TC7116/TC7117 80 ppm/ C Typ. TC7116A/TC7117A 20 ppm/ C Typ. Display Hold Function Directly Drives LCD or LED Display Zero Reading with Zero Input Low Noise for Stable Display or 200mV Full Scale
A circuit protection device for use with an electrical unit comprises driver circuitry connected to the electrical unit and connecting means electrically connecting the device to the electrical unit to provide a voltage signal indicative of a voltage associated with the electrical unit. A voltage detector is connected to the connecting means and receives the voltage signal, and provides a conditioned voltage signal output representative of the voltage signal. An analog-to-digital converter receives the conditioned voltage signal output and converts the conditioned voltage signal output to a digital value. A digital processing device receives the digital value from the analog-to-digital converter and provides an output signal to the driver circuitry to turn off power to the primary if an error is detected. The device may also include current obtaining means for providing an electrical signal indicative of a current associated with the electrical unit, and a current detector circuit connected to and
The time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) is an architecture used to achieve a high sampling rate and high dynamic performance. However, estimation and compensation methods are required to maintain the dynamic performance of the constituent analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) due to channel mismatches. This paper proposes a blind adaptive method to calibrate the nonlinear mismatches in M-channel TIADCs (M-TIADCs). The nonlinearity-induced error signal is reconstructed by the proposed multiplier Hadamard transform (MHT) structure, and the nonlinear parameters are estimated by the filtered-X least-mean square (FxLMS) algorithm. The performance of cascade calibration is also analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed method consumes much less hardware resources while maintaining the calibration performance.
The general configuration of the proposed high-speed ADC was described. A train of optical pulses samples the analog signal applied to the optical modulato
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse function. There are several DAC architectures; the suitability of a DAC for a particular application is determined by figures of merit including: resolution, maximum sampling frequency and others. Digital-to-analog conversion can degrade a signal, so a DAC should be specified that has insignificant errors in terms of the application. DACs are commonly used in music players to convert digital data streams into analog audio signals. They are also used in televisions and mobile phones to convert digital video data into analog video signals which connect to the screen drivers to display monochrome or color images. These two applications use DACs at opposite ends of the frequency/resolution trade-off. The audio DAC is a low-frequency, high-resolution type while the video DAC is a high-frequency low- to ...
Automated Frequency Analysis, Automated Event Detection - Topographic Mapping This discussion is concerned with certain unique and valuable procedures that are possible using digital EEG (dEEG).. In dEEG, the continuously varying (analog) voltage changes detected by the electrodes are led into amplifiers, and then into analog-to-digital converters. The converter output consists of numerical values that are stored in a computer and are available for detailed analysis. (There are stringent requirements for the details of the digitization process but these are not discussed here.). Digital EEGs are always recorded using a common reference montage. Thus, activity at each electrode site is referenced to a single electrode. The recordings can then be remontaged as necessary to display the data to better advantage. (Remontaging, a very valuable feature of dEEG, has been discussed earlier.). Specific Uses of Digital EEG:. 1. Analysis of background rhythms (BGR) and special methods of presenting the ...
The performance of flash analog-to-digital converters is affected significantly by the choice of thermometer-tobinary decoder topology. In this work two different promising decoder topologies, multiplexer-based and onescounter, are evaluated. Two converters with different decoders, but otherwise similar, are therefore designed. Two test chips are also sent for manufacturing in a 130 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. The converter performance is evaluated by simulations using foundry provided models. The results show that both decoders can be used in high-speed converters, but the ones-counter decoder is more robust and yield a higher converter efficiency.. ...
A metal detector circuit includes a transmit coil (12) and a receive coil (56) arranged in a balanced induction configuration in an electromagnetic field. The receive signal from the receive coil (56) is input to electronic switches (146, 148) which receive quadrature reference inputs from a phase shift circuit (112). The phase demodulated outputs of the switches (146, 148) are passed through amplifiers and input to an analog-to-digital converter (324) to produce digital signal samples which are transmitted through a bus (326). The bus (326) is connected to random access memory (414, 416) and a read only memory (418) which includes a stored signal processing program. A microprocessor (374) is connected to the bus (376) for receiving the digital signal samples and the stored program from memory (418). The microprocessor (374) executes the stored signal processing program to produce a digital output signal which is transmitted through the bus (326) to a digital-to-analog converter (360). The converter
A flash ADC (also known as a direct-conversion ADC) is a type of analog-to-digital converter that uses a linear voltage ladder with a comparator at each rung of the ladder to compare the input voltage to successive reference voltages. Often these reference ladders are constructed of many resistors; however, modern implementations show that capacitive voltage division is also possible. The output of these comparators is generally fed into a digital encoder, which converts the inputs into a binary value (the collected outputs from the comparators can be thought of as a unary value). Flash converters are extremely fast compared to many other types of ADCs, which usually narrow in on the correct answer over a series of stages. Compared to these, a flash converter is also quite simple and, apart from the analog comparators, only requires logic for the final conversion to binary. For best accuracy, often a track-and-hold circuit is inserted in front of the ADC input. This is needed for many ADC ...
The goal of DSP is usually to measure, filter and/or compress continuous real-world analog signals. The first step is usually to convert the signal from an analog to a digital form, by sampling it using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which turns the analog signal into a stream of numbers. However, often, the required output signal is another analog output signal, which requires a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Even if this process is more complex than analog processing and has a discrete value range, the application of computational power to digital signal processing allows for many advantages over analog processing in many applications, such as error detection and correction in transmission as well as data compression.[1] DSP algorithms have long been run on standard computers, on specialized processors called digital signal processors (DSPs), or on purpose-built hardware such as application-specific integrated circuit (ASICs). Today there are additional technologies used for digital ...
The invention features a telephone, intercom, and clock. The telephone comprises a receiver adapted to receive a signal representing encoded first voice data; a processor comprising a media access controller adapted to obtain the encoded first voice data from the signal, and a digital signal processor adapted to decode the first voice data obtained by the media access controller; an output circuit; a digital-to-analog converter adapted to convert the first voice data decoded by the digital signal processor to a first analog signal, wherein the first analog signal is output to the output circuit; an input circuit; an analog-to-digital converter adapted to receive a second analog signal from the input circuit, and to convert the second analog signal to second voice data; wherein the digital signal processor is further adapted to encode the second voice data; and a transmitter adapted to transmit signals representing the encoded second voice data.
The invention features a telephone, intercom, and clock. The telephone comprises a receiver adapted to receive a signal representing encoded first voice data; a processor comprising a media access controller adapted to obtain the encoded first voice data from the signal, and a digital signal processor adapted to decode the first voice data obtained by the media access controller; an output circuit; a digital-to-analog converter adapted to convert the first voice data decoded by the digital signal processor to a first analog signal, wherein the first analog signal is output to the output circuit; an input circuit; an analog-to-digital converter adapted to receive a second analog signal from the input circuit, and to convert the second analog signal to second voice data; wherein the digital signal processor is further adapted to encode the second voice data; and a transmitter adapted to transmit signals representing the encoded second voice data.
Ʃ-Δ analog-to-digital converters are widely used in motor drives where high signal integrity and galvanic isolation are required. While the Σ-Δ technology itself is well understood, the converters are
The invention provides a body-worn monitor featuring a processing system that receives a digital data stream from an ECG system. A cable houses the ECG system at one terminal end, and plugs into the processing system, which is worn on the patients wrist like a conventional wristwatch. The ECG system features: i) a connecting portion connected to multiple electrodes worn by the patient; ii) a differential amplifier that receives electrical signals from each electrode and process them to generate an analog ECG waveform; iii) an analog-to-digital converter that converts the analog ECG waveform into a digital ECG waveform; and iv) a transceiver that transmits a digital data stream representing the digital ECG waveform (or information calculated from the waveform) through the cable and to the processing system. Different ECG systems, typically featuring three, five, or twelve electrodes, can be interchanged with one another.
NW14A has three diffractometers: a MarCCD 165 with a MarDTB (Mar USA), an imaging-plate (IP) diffractometer (Rigaku, RAPID-SR3) and a seven-circle diffractometer (HUBER). Time-resolved measurements can be conducted with all diffractometers combined with the pulsed laser system. The data set for the structural analysis can be measured by the CCD with a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The readout time of the CCD is about 2.5 s. The CCD image has 2048 × 2048 pixels with a 80 µm × 80 µm pixel size. The camera length can be adjusted from 20 mm to 370 mm, and the maximum 2θ angle is 106°. When a diffraction image with a wide dynamic range is required for the charge density analysis, the IP diffractometer with a 20-bit ADC is suitable for the experiment. It has a 683 mm × 350 mm cylindrical shape with a 100 µm × 100 µm pixel size. The camera length is fixed at 191 mm, and the maximum 2θ angle is 145°. The goniometer of the IP diffractometer is a three-circle (φ, ω and χ) ...
Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are crucial blocks which form the interface between the physical world and the digital domain. ADCs are indispensable in numerous applications such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), wireless/wireline communication receivers and data acquisition systems. To achieve long-term, autonomous operation for WSNs, the nodes are powered by harvesting energy from ambient sources such as solar energy, vibrational energy etc. Since the signal frequencies in these distributed WSNs are often low, ultra-low-power ADCs with low sampling rates are required. The advent of new wireless standards with ever-increasing data rates and bandwidth necessitates ADCs capable of meeting the demands. Wireless standards such as GSM, GPRS, LTE and WLAN require ADCs with several tens of MS/s speed and moderate resolution (8-10 bits). Since these ADCs are incorporated into battery-powered portable devices such as cellphones and tablets, low power consumption for the ADCs is essential.. The ...
ADAPTIVE REAL-TIME SEIZURE PREDICTION SYSTEM AND METHOD - A real-time seizure prediction system. The system includes an implantable electrode configured to transmit an analog neuro-electrophysiological signal from a subject, an analog-to-digital converter configured to convert the analog neuro-electrophysiological signal to a digital neuro-electrophysiological signal based on a predetermined sampling rate, a processor configured to perform following steps during a period defined by the predetermined sampling rate: calculate a plurality of autocorrelation coefficients of the digital neuro-electrophysiological signal for a first predetermined number of samples, calculate a predicted future value of the digital neuro-electrophysiological data based on the plurality of autocorrelation coefficients and the first predetermined number of samples of the digital neuro-electrophysiological data, compare the predicted future value with an actual future value of the digital neuro-electrophysiological data ...
The MAX1359B smart data-acquisition systems (DAS) is based on a 16-bit, sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and system-support functionality for a microprocessor (µP)-based system. This device integrates an ADC, DAC, two operational amplifie
Its worth noting that the paper is well crafted and includes all the necessary details for the non-expert to understand without referring to other literature. In the introduction, the authors review ultra-high-speed OCT acquisition instruments. Separate paragraphs clarify key parameters of every Fd-OCT system: its sensitivity and roll-off, dynamic range, axial resolution, and imaging speed, with special focus on scan, pixel, and voxel rates. Because the acquisition speed limits available electronics, special consideration is devoted to assessing requirements of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) bit depth on OCT image quality. Interestingly, the authors prove that an effective bit depth above 7 is suitable for OCT imaging. Three FDML laser sources were used, and each of them is described in detail so that the reader can appreciate the many technological challenges and choices made by the authors. These include an ultra-high-speed bulk optics Fabry- Perot filter and buffering and dual output ...
The MAX1286 MAX1289 are low-cost, micropower, serial output 12-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) available in a tiny 8-pin SOT23 and an 8-pin TDFN. The MAX1286/MAX1288 operate with a single +5V supply. The MAX1287/MAX1289 operate with a single +
with the last 4 bits being 1001. To deal with the wide dynamic rage necessary for a radio receiver or corresponding applications, but to avoid impractically high resolution at high data rates, the approach of using a floating-point analog-to-digital converter (FP-ADC) has been investigated. 16 We saw that 38 − 0.375 Already have … The design of floating-point format allows various optimisations, resulting from the easy generation of a base-2 logarithm approximation from an integer view of the raw bit pattern. 2 Similarly, the standard represents two different bit patters for +INF and -INF. However, the subnormal representation is useful in filing gaps of floating point scale near zero. 2 The traditional view is that the floating-point number format is superior to the fixed-point number format when it comes to representing sound digitally. Please write to us at [email protected] to report any issue with the above content. 2 We can see that: 0 11111111 110000000000000000000000 ...
0041] The control circuit 100 includes a control processor 95 which produces pulse-width modulated (PWM) control signals for commutating the motor 42, as well a driver circuit 98 for converting the digital control signals into analog drive signals applied to the stator winding inputs A, B, and C. Control circuit 100 further includes a sampling circuit 97 for detecting back EMF signals from the motors rotor inputs A, B, and C; in some embodiments, sampling circuit 97 includes analog-to-digital converters to convert the voltages at the motor inputs to digital signals for use by control processor 95. In some embodiments, sampling circuit 97 may be synchronized to the PWM control signals produced by control processor 95, so that the back EMF for a given rotor input is only sampled when the drive for that input is floating. However, those skilled in the art will appreciate that in other embodiments the motor inputs may be sampled over the entire duty cycle, and the back EMF signals isolated by ...
A patient temperature repeating system and a method of repeating patient temperature information from a resistive-type patient temperature sensor allow one or more medical instruments to utilize a single patient temperature sensor. In one embodiment, the patient temperature repeating system (10) includes input and output connectors (12, 14), a microprocessor (20), optical isolators (22), a coarse digital potentiometer (24) in parallel with a fine digital potentiometer (26), a current sense resistor (28), amplifiers (30A, 30B), analog-to-digital converters (32A, 32B), a filter (34), fuses (36), a non-volatile memory device (38), and a relay (40). In operation, the microprocessor (20) reads the resistance level of a resistive-type patient temperature sensor (16) connected to the input connector (12) and provides the appropriate control signals through the optical isolators (22) to the coarse and fine digital potentiometers (24, 26) in order to set the resistance seen by a medical device (18) connected to
We design a broad gamut of RF/microwave, analog, mixed-signal, and digital integrated circuits in silicon (CMOS) technology as well as with III-V semiconductor technology, organic materials, and emerging nanoscale materials such as semiconductor nanowires. Our design portfolio includes a host of frequency reference circuits-e.g., self-sustained ring, LC, and wave oscillators, mode-locked (soliton) oscillators, integer/fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers, and delay-locked-loop (DLL) timing references-, time-domain temperature sensors for microprocessor thermal profiling, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with various digital background calibration techniques, and a variety of application-specific integrated circuits-e.g.micro electromagnet circuits to manipulate biological cells, RF NMR relaxometry chips to detect cancer marker proteins and human cancer cells and to analyze complex hydrocarbons for petrochemical analysis, RF NMR spectrometer chips to interrogate atomic ...
TI shrinks industrial designs with industrys smallest 12-, 14- and 16-bit SAR ADCs: Texas Instruments (TI) (NASDAQ: TXN) is enabling system designers to reduce the size of their industrial monitoring and control applications with its newest successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The ADS7042 is the industrys smallest and lowest-power 12-bit SAR ADC, and the ADS8354 family includes the industrys smallest 14- and 16-bit, …
The AD7612 is a 16-bit charge redistribution successive approximation register (SAR), architecture analog-to-digital converter (ADC) fabricated on Analog Devices, Inc.s iCMOS high voltage process. The device is configured through hardware or via a d
An offset double conversion technique to calibrate pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is presented, in which self-equalization is performed usin
The TMP75B is an integrated digital temperature sensor with a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that can operate at a 1.8-V supply, and is pin and register compatible with the industry-standard LM75 and TMP75.
A fully synchronous longitudinal position (LPOS) detection system is provided for improving the reliability of servo channels in tape systems. The system is based on the interpolation of the servo channel output signal, which is sampled by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at a fixed sampling rate, using a clock at a nominal frequency, so that interpolated signal samples are obtained at a predetermined fixed rate, independent of tape velocity. This predetermined fixed rate is defined in terms of samples per unit of length, as opposed to samples per unit of time, which is the measure of the ADC sampling rate. The resolution with which the servo channel signal is obtained at the interpolator output is thus determined by the step interpolation distance.
An analog front-end circuit transmits and receives data between a baseband circuit and a radio unit. An analog-to-digital converter converts an analog received signal output from the radio unit into a
The microphone circuit is designed to give us a range of input voltage that we can use to correspond to numerical values in the Analog-to-Digital converter on the microcontroller. The schematic for this circuit is located in Appendix B. We first take the output from the microphone and use a 100nF capacitor as a DC block, so that we remove any DC noise from the signal. We then We then use a voltage divider to add our own DC signal to create a baseline for our sound. Using a 5.1k resistor and a 10k resistor, we get a baseline of about 1.7V, which is added to the AC component from the microphone input. This will be important later in the circuit. From this voltage divider, we input the signal to a non-inverting op-amp gain circuit. The gain of the system is 101, as we can see from the equation in the Flex Sensor section. The added capacitor helps to add a small amount of filtration to the signal, which is simply to denoise the circuit and ensure that we have less variation based on the surrounding ...
Shafiq M. Jamal Marvell Semiconductor will give his ISSCC presentation: A 10b 120MSample/s Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converter withDigital Background Calibration (10.4) Tuesday, January 29, 2002 3:30 p.m. CIS-101 ABSTRACT Digital calibration using adaptive signal processing corrects offset mismatch, gain mismatch, and sample-time error between time-interleaved channels in a 10b 120MSample/s pipelined ADC. With background calibration, peak SNDR is 56.8dB and power dissipation is 234mW from 3.3V. Active area is 12.5mm2 in 0.35um CMOS ...
The Model 331 features two inputs, with a high-resolution 24-bit analog-to-digital converter and separate current source for each input.
In full duplex (FD), which improves spectrum efficiency and achieves flexible resource assignment between the uplink and downlink, the throughput cannot be improved to an ideal level due to self-interference (SI) from a transmitter when traffic loads are symmetric between the downlink and uplink. This paper investigates the effect of symbol repetition in every slot, which we recently proposed, on the signal-to-interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) at a demodulator input after SI suppression assuming the radio frame structure based on New Radio (NR) radio interface for FD. We first show that the maximum allowable input power of analog-to-digital converter doesnt affect the SINR at a demodulator input. Then, we present the improvement in the SINR at a demodulator input and the resultant throughput when applying symbol repetition in every slot for some sets of subcarrier spacing and slot structures for FD with an asymmetric traffic distribution ...
ADMS Design have executed a study of analog-to-digital converter performance evolution over time, and estimated performance at 2020. Our research results...
I сокр. от air data computer. вычислитель воздушных сигналов. II сокр. от analog-to-digital converter. аналого-цифровой преобразователь, АЦП. III сокр. от automatic disk changer. устройство автоматической смены дисковых инструментальных магазинов
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) Arduino Using the arduino we can measure analog voltages using the 6 Inputs ADC. The analog voltage between 0 and 5 V is converted into a 10bit digital number, from 0 to 1023. this can be used to read a value from a sensor, eg a temperature sensor such as the TMP36, a potentiometer or from the electrodes. Sound Card - Line In If the potentials we want to measure are mostly changes/modulations in voltages, we can also use the analog-to-digital converter from the sound card. Although that means we cannot measure static voltages, but only fast changes changes, frequencies above ~ 1hz. The sound card is a very fast and precise ADC (single if mono, or double for stereo), sampling at 44khz or up to 96khz and 24 bit resolution. Amplification If the signals are to low, such as µV in the example of potentials in plants, we need to amplify the signal and make sure we do not have too much noise or other garbage in our signals. INA118 is a high end instrumental amplifier, ...
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) Arduino Using the arduino we can measure analog voltages using the 6 Inputs ADC. The analog voltage between 0 and 5 V is converted into a 10bit digital number, from 0 to 1023. this can be used to read a value from a sensor, eg a temperature sensor such as the TMP36, a potentiometer or from the electrodes. Sound Card - Line In If the potentials we want to measure are mostly changes/modulations in voltages, we can also use the analog-to-digital converter from the sound card. Although that means we cannot measure static voltages, but only fast changes changes, frequencies above ~ 1hz. The sound card is a very fast and precise ADC (single if mono, or double for stereo), sampling at 44khz or up to 96khz and 24 bit resolution. Amplification If the signals are to low, such as µV in the example of potentials in plants, we need to amplify the signal and make sure we do not have too much noise or other garbage in our signals. INA118 is a high end instrumental amplifier, ...
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) Arduino Using the arduino we can measure analog voltages using the 6 Inputs ADC. The analog voltage between 0 and 5 V is converted into a 10bit digital number, from 0 to 1023. this can be used to read a value from a sensor, eg a temperature sensor such as the [slime_mold_culture.jpg TMP36], a potentiometer or from the electrodes. Sound Card - Line In If the potentials we want to measure are mostly changes/modulations in voltages, we can also use the analog-to-digital converter from the sound card. Although that means we cannot measure static voltages, but only fast changes changes, frequencies above ~ 1hz. The sound card is a very fast and precise ADC (single if mono, or double for stereo), sampling at 44khz or up to 96khz and 24 bit resolution. Amplification If the signals are to low, such as µV in the example of potentials in plants, we need to amplify the signal and make sure we do not have too much noise or other garbage in our signals. INA118 is a high end ...
Freescale Semiconductor Application Note Document Number: AN4059 Rev. 0, 3/2010 Heart Rate Monitor and Electrocardiograph Fundamentals by: Carlos Casillas RTAC Americas Guadalajara Mexico 1 Introduction This application note demonstrates fundamental implementations of the cost effective heart hate monitor (HRM) and electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) devices using Freescale products. The heart rate monitor is implemented on a low cost MC9RS08KA2 ultra low-end 8-bit microcontroller using an analog comparator module (ACMP) and standard IO pins. The electrocardiograph is implemented on the MC9S08JM60 USB device 8-bit microcontroller using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and USB connectivity to send data to a PC. This document is intended to be used by biomedical engineers, medical equipment development engineers, or any person related with medicine and interested in understanding the operation of HRMs and ECGs. However, it is necessary to know the fundamentals of electronic analog and digital ...
A video composition method and apparatus select segments from image source material stored on a plurality of storage media and denote serially connected sequences of the segments to thereby form a program sequence. The equipment inputs source material, records the source material on the storage media, and further segments the source material as it is being input. An analog-to-digital converter digitizes frames of the source material, as the source material is being input, and each segment has associated therewith at least one digitized frame. The apparatus further has a plurality of pictorial display monitors arranged in an ordered array for providing a visual presentation of video labels selected from the digitized frames, the video labels, in sequence, representing a sequence of the video segments. An operator control circuitry is operative with the stored digitized frames and, in combination with the composing control circuitry, selectively supplies each pictorial display monitor, while the source
AACI alternative adjacent channel interference AC asynchronous connectionless ACA anisotropic conductive adhesive ACC adaptive cruise control ACIR adjacent channel interference ratio ACLR adjacent channel leakage ratio ACMPA aperture-coupled microstrip patch antenna ACP adjacent channel power ACPR adjacent channel power rejection ACPR adjacent channel protection ratio ACPW asymmetrical coplanar waveguide ACW autonomous collision warning (system) ADC analog-to-digital converter ADEOS . . .
There is a debate for who invented the first hearing aid. - Recognized for text telecommunications - Works closely with 911 services, government, local groups. It has a behind-the-ear portion that contains the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, the digital signal processing (DSP), and the digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. In 100 A.D., Greek physician Archigenes suggested blowing trumpets into a patients ear as a cure for deafness. Johann Heinrich August Duncker (1767-1843), a German optics manufacturer, patents the first speaking tube. The master hearing aid enables a hearing aid dispenser to test which combination of microphone and receiver provides the approximate gain and frequency response most useful for a given client. According to American Hearing Aid Association data, in 1953 there were an estimated 225,000 hearing aids sold in the U.S. Of these, 100,000 were all-transistor, 75,000 were hybrid, and 50,000 were vacuum tube models. Spanish monk, Pedro Ponce de Leon (1520-1584), uses oral ...
MEM 540 Control Applications of DSP Microprocessors 3.0 Credits. Most of the control systems today are digital and implemented using microprocessors. In this course, the students will learn how to employ the state-of-the-art DSP microprocessors to perform analog-to-digital conversion, digital-to-analog conversion, digital signal processing, decision making, and feedback control action to achieve precise regulation/ tracking, disturbance reduction, and robust stability/performance for physical systems. In addition to lectures by the instructor, the course will feature eight hands-on lab projects centered on the design and microprocessor implementation of digital controllers for MIMO (multi-input-multi-output) electro-mechanical systems. Cross-listed with undergraduate course MEM 459 ...
Prerequisites: J E ENGR 3510 and J E MATH 3260. Introduction to the concepts of transmission of information via communication channels. Amplitude and angle modulation for the transmission of continuous-time signals. Analog-to-digital conversion and pulse code modulation. Transmission of digital data. Introduction to random signals and noise and their effects on communication. Optimum detection systems in the presence of noise. Elementary information theory. Overview of various communication technologies such as radio, television, telephone networks, data communication, satellites, optical fiber, and cellular radio.. J E ENGR 4720 Internet Communications (3) Prerequisites: Senior Standing. This course will introduce and cover the architecture, protocols, security, and quality of service (QoS) of Internet Communications. Starting with the design principles and architecture of the Internet, communication applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, and presence and instant ...
The Print Production Automation Lab is driving the analog-to-digital transformation in commercial printing by automating digital print production and taking advantage of the unique capabilities of digital printing.
Analog data were analyzed off-line after analog-to-digital conversion at 300 samples per second per channel. The principles of the software for data acquisition and time-variant spectral analysis have been escribed elsewhere.15 16 17 Time-variant spectral analysis of heart period variability represents a development of usual autoregressive power spectral analysis. It is based on a recursive least-squares-method algorithm, which makes the autoregressive identification procedure suitable to update the coefficients of the model every new beat. Therefore, power spectral analysis can be performed on a beat-by-beat basis, permitting the evaluation of the changes in the spectral components during unstable conditions like transient ischemia15 and syncopal events.17 The forgetting factor ω weighs the prediction error terms exponentially, thus permitting focus on the most recent data out of the window of interest. This latter is defined by ω, according to the formula n=1/(1−ω), where n=number of ...
For electrophysiological tests, slices were submerged into a perfusion chamber with a constant flow of oxygenated ACSF. The flow rate was set to 1-2 ml/min. During the recordings, the chamber temperature was maintained at 26-27°C. The preceding experiments at various temperatures (range of 23-30°C) showed that, under the given conditions, slices from animals older than 1 year were best maintained at this temperature, the quality criterion being the level of astrocytic membrane potentials at break-in, in addition to the visual appearance of the slices. Pipette resistance was 3-6 MΩ when filled with the following saline (in mm): 100 K-gluconate, 50 KCl, 5 NaCl, 0.5 CaCl2, 5 EGTA, 25 HEPES, 2 Mg-ATP, and 0.3 GTP. Electrophysiological signals were acquired using an EPC-8 amplifier (List), a 16-bit analog-to-digital board (ITC-16; HEKA Elektronik), and the software TIDA 4.11 (HEKA Elektronik). The signals were sampled at a rate of 10 kHz and filtered at 3 kHz. Liquid junction potentials were not ...
Speed Video Converter is a small video conversion tool. Fast conversion speed and easy user interface are its distinct strongpoints.
LucidLogix Virtu MVP featuring HyperFormance™ Technology boosts your discrete graphics card up to 60% beyond its original performance through the test of 3DMark Vantage. Designed for Intel® processor graphics and Windows® 7 PCs, it perfectly combines the performance of discrete graphics cards with fast computing iGPU. Also with the newly designed Virtual Sync, users can enjoy a smoother gaming experience by eliminating tearing artifacts. LucidLogix Virtu MVP could also dynamically assign tasks to the best available graphics resource, based on power, performance and system load. This allows users to fully utilize 3x faster video conversion with Intel® Quick Sync Video 2.0 technology while retaining high-end 3D rendering and gaming performance, provided by both NVIDIA® and AMD graphic cards. When the discrete graphics card is not required, power consumption goes automatically down to near zero, making the system more environmentally-friendly. For users searching for perfection, LucidLogix ...
An image sensor in which a first chip and a second chip are stacked comprises: a pixel unit; output lines each configured to output a pixel signal from the pixel unit; and an analog-digital converter
All about the Kangaroo Rats, little, seed-eating rodents of the genus Dipodomys -- their scientific names, common names, description, behavior, range, habitats and life cycle.
TITLE OF THE PROJECT: Characteristics of the fundamental cognitive process. An Epistemological Study of Analog-Digital Duality to Approximate Dynamics and Computation CODE: UPV003.230HA137/92 SUPPORTING INSTITUTION: UPV/EHU DATE FROM: January of 1993 UNTIL: December of 1993 DIRECTOR: Prf. Alvaro Moreno, Faculty of Philosophy, UPV/EHU TITLE OF THE PROJECT: An Epistemological Study of Emergent Computation: Models of Emergence of Logic Processes to Approximate Dynamic and Computation in Artificial Intelligence CODE: UPV003.230-HA168/93SUPPORTING INSTITUTION: UPV/EHU DATE FROM: January of 1994 UNTIL: -December of 1994 DIRECTOR: Prf. Alvaro Moreno, Faculty of Philosophy, UPV/EHU TITLE OF THE PROJECT:(Distributed Information Systems to study the problem of evolution in Artificial Life CODE: UPV003.230-HA160/94 SUPPORTING INSTITUTION: UPV/EHU DATE FROM: January of 1995 UNTIL: Diciembre de 1995 DIRECTOR: Prf. Alvaro Moreno, Faculty of Philosophy, UPV/EHU TITLE OF THE PROJECT: Study and Simulation of ...
Wave speed, c, and characteristic impedance, Z c, are two important vessel parameters determining its wave transmission and reflection properties. These two quantities can be derived from so-called...
BCGs machinery, automation, and digitization experts partner with leading companies to develop digital strategies, build new businesses, and digitize the value chain.
New approaches and projects - Parallel session 2 - track 2.1 |br/||b|Iryna Kuchma|/b||br/|Institution : EIFL : Lithuania|br/||br/||a href=http://etd2016.sciencesconf.org/92758 target=_blank|Retrospective digitization projects: issues, challenges and benefits|/a||br/||br/||b|Cathy Boylan|/b||br/|Institution : ProQuest : United States|br/||br/||b|Fiona Greig|/b||br/|Institution : University of Surrey Library : United Kingdom|br/||br/||br/|
One of the positive effects of the pandemic has been the acceleration of the digitization of cultural treasures as museums and concert halls scrambled to put centuries of human achievement online. Here are some of the artworks and performances you can now enjoy from home.
MagnaFlow specializes in superior catalytic converter and exhaust technology and has spent the past 30+ years earning its reputation as a global market leader. American engineered and manufactured, MagnaFlow Catalytic Converters combine efficient industrial design to produce a product that exceeds, rather than meets, the highest standards of product performance and efficiency in the industry. MagnaFlow uses both Ceramic and Metallic substrates with different combinations of cell density and wall thickness to meet vehicle specific requirements. MagnaFlow Direct-Fit Catalytic Converters are designed for easy bolt-on installation for the Professional Installer. Each is designed to exact the original equipment specifications. While the majority of the Direct-Fit Catalytic Converter products do not require welding, cutting or bending, limited applications may require additional welding for optimal installation.. All Federal catalytic converters meet EPA requirements. Federal Catalytic Converters are ...
MagnaFlow specializes in superior catalytic converter and exhaust technology and has spent the past 30+ years earning its reputation as a global market leader. American engineered and manufactured, MagnaFlow Catalytic Converters combine efficient industrial design to produce a product that exceeds, rather than meets, the highest standards of product performance and efficiency in the industry. MagnaFlow uses both Ceramic and Metallic substrates with different combinations of cell density and wall thickness to meet vehicle specific requirements. MagnaFlow Direct-Fit Catalytic Converters are designed for easy bolt-on installation for the Professional Installer. Each is designed to exact the original equipment specifications. While the majority of the Direct-Fit Catalytic Converter products do not require welding, cutting or bending, limited applications may require additional welding for optimal installation.. All Federal catalytic converters meet EPA requirements. Federal Catalytic Converters are ...
Fred Ash. Q: Whats your story?. Converters Unlimited started up 30 years ago buying scrap converters and stripping them for their precious metals. They gradually moved away from scrap and began re-building converters and selling directly to consumers out of trucks. As the company and market continued to evolve, the owner of Converters Unlimited recognized the need to move away from this type of sales and into the wholesale market. This is where I came in. The owner knew my reputation in the industry and called me for an interview. Honestly, I only agreed in order to spy on the enemy, but they ended up making me an offer I couldnt refuse. I became the Sales Manager and moved Converters Unlimited out of the peddler market and into the world of wholesale. We began making appointments and selling to auto shops.. About two years ago, I decided to make an offer to purchase the company. I knew with the right staff, we could make some necessary changes to Converters Unlimited. It was a long process ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
An AC-to-DC power converter configured to provide power factor correction and a single isolated low-voltage output. The power converter includes a single-stage resonant power converter including an isolation transformer, a resonant tank, a rectifier, and a bulk storage capacitor coupled to an output of the isolation transformer. In typical applications, at least one non-isolated power converter is coupled to the output of the single-stage isolated power factor correction converter.
The purpose of any catalytic converter is to reduce harmful emissions from the exhaust of a properly tuned combustion engine. It accomplishes this through a combination of heat and a precious metal catalyst that causes the harmful emissions to either oxidize or reduce to safe elements in the exhaust flow. If the engine is out of tune and not calibrated to OEM specs, the catalytic converters efficiency is greatly diminished and could lead to a converter failure. The precious metal catalyst is bound to an extruded ceramic honeycomb substrate. The ceramic has hundreds of flow channels that allow the exhaust gasses to come in contact with a maximum amount of surface area where the catalyst reaction takes place. The catalyst must come in direct contact with the exhaust gasses for the reaction to take place.. If the ceramic inside your converter becomes clogged or coated with carbon, lead or oil, then the converters efficiency is greatly reduced.. There are three basic types of automotive ...
Chrysler Le Baron 1993, Standard Duty Catalytic Converter by AP Exhaust®. Emissions: EPA compliant. Converter Configuration: Universal Fit. Catalytic Converter Body Shape: Oval. Without O2 Sensor Port. Catalytic Converter Overall Length: 14. In our web store you can purchase top-notch AP Exhaust Technologies exhaust and emission products that provide numerous years of reliable and efficient service.
Oldsmobile Cutlass 1989, Standard Duty Catalytic Converter by AP Exhaust®. Emissions: EPA compliant. Converter Configuration: Universal Fit. Catalytic Converter Body Shape: Oval. Without O2 Sensor Port. Catalytic Converter Overall Length: 14. In our web store you can purchase top-notch AP Exhaust Technologies exhaust and emission products that provide numerous years of reliable and efficient service.
Precision of New Hampton is the largest privately -held torque converter remanufacturer in the world. Precision remanufactures 2700 different types of converters - over 500,000 per year. We make torque converters for all makes and models: on highway, off highway, as well as OE converters in small runs up to 20,000 a year.
Precision of New Hampton is the largest privately -held torque converter remanufacturer in the world. Precision remanufactures 2700 different types of converters - over 500,000 per year. We make torque converters for all makes and models: on highway, off highway, as well as OE converters in small runs up to 20,000 a year.
Heavy Duty Torque Converter: - Our Heavy Duty and Low Stall Torque Converters are built to withstand all the stresses put on a Converter when towing or ....
LIC - Link 11 Interface Converter. Looking for abbreviations of LIC? It is Link 11 Interface Converter. Link 11 Interface Converter listed as LIC
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helium audio converter vector Gratis descargar software en UpdateStar - Whether you are looking to convert between formats or just re-encode tracks at a different bitrate in order to save space, Helium Audio Converter makes it easy to select the options you want to use.
combinemattomat_fixeddt.m % A MATLAB script for combining the files saved by running calcsumcurr_manyareagsynmediumtau_parts_fixeddt.py 20 0.025 0.000042 10000 10000 2 myseed 200 % Expects that the variable myseed has been initialized % Tuomo Maki-Marttunen, 2014-2016 synloctype = 2; nsegs = 20; dt = 0.025; tstop = 10000; Nsynlocs = 10000; singleSimT = 200; syngmaxes = [nan 0.000042 nan]; syngmax = syngmaxes(synloctype); Nsims = floor(1.0*tstop/singleSimT+0.9999); Nparts = 13; ina = []; ik = []; ica = []; ih = []; il = []; VtimesA = []; imemb = []; Vsoma = []; icap = []; times = []; dt_int = 0.1; tic for isim=1:Nsims disp([isim= num2str(isim)]); disp([Loading isim= num2str(isim) , myseed= num2str(myseed) , toc= num2str(toc)]); A = load([currsums_parts_ num2str(Nsynlocs) areagsynsmediumtau_fixeddt_type num2str(synloctype) _amp num2str(syngmax) _tstop num2str(tstop) .0_nseg num2str(nsegs) _dt num2str(dt) _seed num2str(myseed) _sim num2str(isim-1) x200.0.mat]); times = ...
This success case shows how a single device can accomplish sensor fusion in a multi-vendor scenario, real-time high frequency processing at the edge and high-availability networking, with a full implementation of cybersecurity mechanisms, and how a company benefits from using reconfigurable hardware capable to evolve with the business and the market requirements, without additional costs.. ...
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Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WXIA-TV originally had the only VHF allotment for digital television in the area, until ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital channel is multiplexed:. Channel. Video. Aspect. PSIP ... as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[9] The station's digital signal remained on its ... WXIA-TV, virtual channel 11 (VHF digital channel 10), is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Atlanta, Georgia, ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WJRT-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over VHF channel 12, on June ... Digital Television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts ... WKNX-LP (22 Analog Ind). *W24DL-D 24 (.1 3ABN, .2 3ABN Proclaim!, .3 3ABN Dare to Dream, .4 3ABN Latino, .5 3ABN Radio, .6 3ABN ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WKAQ-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 2, on June 12, 2009, the official ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP short ... The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 28.[7] Through the use of PSIP, digital television ... Digital: 28 (UHF). Virtual: 2 (PSIP). Branding. Telemundo (general). Telemundo Puerto Rico (website). Telenoticias (newscasts) ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KERO-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over UHF channel 23, on June ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition VHF channel 10.[14] Through the use of PSIP, digital television ... Digital: 10 (VHF). Virtual: 23 (PSIP). Affiliations. 23.1: ABC (secondary 1953-1959; primary since 1996). 23.2: Court TV. 23.3: ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KWHY-TV became the first UHF station in the market to sign-on a high definition digital ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[40] The station's digital signal remained on ... Analog:. 22 (UHF, 1962-2009). Digital:. 42 (UHF, 2002-2019). Former affiliations. African American Ind. (1962-1964). English ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KBLR shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 39, on June 12, 2009, the official date ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 39 ... The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 40 until August 22, 2018,[6] at which point it was ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KPRC-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over VHF channel 2, on June ... as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[10] The station's digital signal remained on ... As part of the SAFER Act,[11][12] KPRC kept its analog signal on the air until July 12 to inform viewers of the digital ... KPRC-TV, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 35), is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Houston, Texas, United ...
... analog-to-digital conversion; AV synchronization; and media reformatting to fit the specific type of TV screen optimally.[ ... move their digital transmission either back to their old analog channel, or to a third channel (sometimes the former analog of ... ATSC DVD recorders Digital broadcasting Digital switchover Digital terrestrial television High-definition television in the ... "Commerce Department Issues Final Rule To Launch Digital-to-Analog Converter Box Coupon Program". NTIA. 2007-03-12. Archived ...
1 page) Lippel, Bernhard (December 1955). "A Decimal Code for Analog-to-Digital Conversion". IRE Transactions on Electronic ... In Susskind, Alfred Kriss (ed.). Notes on Analog-Digital Conversion Techniques. Technology Books in Science and Engineering. 1 ... Digital Equipment Corporation. 1983. VAX-11 Architecture Handbook. Digital Equipment Corporation. 1985. "ILE RPG Reference". ... "Cyclic Decimal Codes for Analogue to Digital Converters". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part ...
ISBN 978-0-7923-8452-6. Pelgrom, Marcel J.M. (2012). Analog-to-Digital Conversion (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 210-211. ISBN 978-1- ... In analog circuit designs, a bootstrap circuit is an arrangement of components deliberately intended to alter the input ... "Bootstrapped IC Substrate Lowers Distortion in JFET Op Amps" (PDF). Analog Devices application note AN-232. Douglas Self (2014 ... ISBN 0-7506-7445-8. Dally, William J.; Poulton, John W. (1998). Digital systems engineering. Cambridge University Press. pp. ...
"Analog to Digital Compression". Columbia University. "Defying Nyquist in Analog to Digital Conversion". Centre Tecnològic de ... and digital signal processing rates in analog-to-digital converters. Eldar's innovations will enable portable ultrasound ... Her postdoctoral research was completed in 2002 at the Digital Signal Processing Group at MIT. Eldar moved back to Israel in ... Yonina Eldar's pioneering work on sub-Nyquist sampling and reconstruction of sparse analog signals has demonstrated the ...
... the resolution of the digital system becomes infinite. "Dithering in Analog-to-Digital Conversion" (PDF). e2v Semiconductors. ... Quantization error introduced during analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) can be modeled as quantization noise. It is a rounding ... "Relationship of Data Word Size to Dynamic Range and Signal Quality in Digital Audio Processing Applications". www.analog.com. ... introduce additional rounding error analogous to the original quantization error introduced during analog-to-digital conversion ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WANE-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 15, on June 12, 2009, the official ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP short ... The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 31.[13] Through the use of PSIP, digital television ... WANE-TV, virtual channel 15 (UHF digital channel 32), is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Fort Wayne, Indiana, ...
Cottini, C; Gatti, E; Svelto, V (1 July 1963). "A new method for analog to digital conversion". Nuclear Instruments and Methods ... developments and to implementations throughout the world and is currently used in high differential linearity analog-to-digital ... These studies contributed to the development of modern digital pulse processors of the radiation detectors currently used in ...
A 24-bit analog-to-digital conversion channel is commonplace. Practical devices are linear to roughly one part per million. ... analog and digital. Analog seismographs require analog recording equipment, possibly including an analog-to-digital converter. ... Today, the most common recorder is a computer with an analog-to-digital converter, a disk drive and an internet connection; for ... The output of a digital seismograph can be simply input to a computer. It presents the data in a standard digital format (often ...
Repeated conversion between analog and digital can also cause loss. Generation loss was a major consideration in complex analog ... In analog systems (including systems that use digital recording but make the copy over an analog connection), generation loss ... According to ATIS, "Generation loss is limited to analog recording because digital recording and reproduction may be performed ... Copying a digital file gives an exact copy if the equipment is operating properly. This trait of digital technology has given ...
This is referred to as analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. If the integers generated by quantization are 8 bits each, then the ... Lossless audio compression produces a representation of digital data that decompress to an exact digital duplicate of the ... A digital sound recorder can typically store around 200 hours of clearly intelligible speech in 640 MB.[20] ... If the data to be compressed is analog (such as a voltage that varies with time), quantization is employed to digitize it into ...
Digital mixing consoles inherently introduce conversion between analog and digital signals. Since digital signals are ... is their latency which is introduced in the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion processes. Latency is cumulative ... However, many modern stage boxes convert between analog and digital, using a single twisted pair cable instead of an analog ... Digital stage boxes are typically easier to set up and more reliable than their analog counterparts, and their cables are much ...
This is referred to as analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. If the integers generated by quantization are 8 bits each, then the ... Lossless audio compression produces a representation of digital data that can be decoded to an exact digital duplicate of the ... International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting. 2019: 1-16. doi:10.1155/2019/8265301. The Olympus WS-120 digital ... If the data to be compressed is analog (such as a voltage that varies with time), quantization is employed to digitize it into ...
4 pages) Powell, E. Alexander (June 1968). "Codes particularly useful for analogue to digital conversions". A short note on ... Before the days of digital computing, digital counters were used to measure rates of random events such as radioactive decays ... Counter (digital) Ring oscillator Linear-feedback shift register Johnson counter circuits with single states decoded in this ... "Digital dividers with symmetrical outputs - The author uses Johnson counters with controlled feedback to give symmetrical even ...
Digital-analog conversion is completed at the end of April "without confusion". How much did the TV sell?]. AV Watch (in ...
He is considered "the father of high-speed analog-to-digital conversion". At an early age Gordon developed an interest in ... While there, Gordon helped create the first current switching digital-to-analog converter in 1951 as part of the first digital ... including the core technologies of analog-to-digital conversion. These developments were fundamental to the subsequent medical ... Patent 4,350,974 Logarithmic analog-to-digital converter U.S. Patent 4,152,659 Low noise differential amplifier U.S. Patent ...
The first step in any signal processing approach is analog to digital conversion. The geophysical signals in the analog domain ... For this purpose one need to use various analog or digital filters. Magnetometers are used to measure the magnetic fields, ... As the name suggests, the gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the analog domain are detected, sampled and stored for ... Halpeny, O. S.; Childers, Donald G. (1975-06-01). "Composite wavefront decomposition via multidimensional digital filtering of ...
Additional delays are introduced through analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion. Latency can be reduced by sending ... digital signal processing and the conversions between analog and digital. Also, licensing the technology or purchasing the ... and often from other digital or analog sources simultaneously), and process the audio using digital filters and effects (for ... Additionally, the use of digital multiplexing allows audio to be transmitted using less cabling than analog audio. CobraNet was ...
R-2R ladder networks used for Digital-to-Analog conversion are rather old. A historic description is in a patent filed in 1955 ... Resistor ladder Digital-to-analog converter Attenuator circuits "Multiplying DACs, flexible building blocks" (PDF). Analog ... As in digital-to-analog converters, a binary word is applied to the ladder network, whose N bits are treated as representing an ... The logarithmic behavior of the circuit is its main differentiator in comparison with digital-to-analog converters in general, ...
His focus is on signal processing and analog-to-digital conversion for professional audio. He is a leader in the development of ... digital signal processing, and log-domain analog filters" Elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 2018 Olstein, K. (21 ... as well as one of the earliest digital audio recorders. In 1988, he joined the Converter Group of Analog Devices as a Senior ... "for contributions to analog and digital signal processing" Received the IEEE Donald O. Pederson Award, 2015 "for contributions ...
Aberrant Decoding ACMA Australian Communications and Media Authority A/D Analog-to-digital conversion. absolute event A ... ADC Analog-to-digital converter: A device to convert analog signals to digital. aircheck The recorded copy of a broadcast. AMD ... DAC Digital-to-analog converter: Equipment that changes digital signals into pictures or sound. dayparting The radio station's ... in digital conversion explains the presence of this encoded data in various content on Netflix, Hulu, and other digital content ...
The station's digital channel is multiplexed: Due to the Mexican analog-to-digital conversion mandate, XHTIT-TV shut down its ... Tijuana was the first Mexican city where the analog to digital conversion took place. XHTIT retained its virtual channel of 21 ... XHTIT-TDT, virtual channel 21 (UHF digital channel 29), is a TV Azteca owned-and-operated television station located in Tijuana ... analog signal on May 28, 2013, and then again on July 18, 2013. ...
"Reallocation of tangible benefits and extension of deadline to complete analog to digital conversion". 9 March 2016. "Archived ... July 10, 2017: Shaw Direct launched a new High Definition receiver (HDDSR800) and a new Dual Tuner High Definition Digital ... March 1997: Activated their first customer, Archie Gray, who purchased a receiver for $999 with 100 digital channels when he ... August 2010: Shaw Direct launched a more advanced dual tuner High Definition Digital Video Recorder (HDPVR630), their first ...
Analog to digital conversions were achieved through Steinberg, and in some cases Mytek, converters. The album was recorded and ... mixed exclusively with Steinberg Cubase digital audio workstations on Microsoft windows operating systems with Waves SSL and ...
For the latter, ECC is an integral part of the initial analog-to-digital conversion in the receiver. The Viterbi decoder ... "Digital Video Broadcast (DVB); Frame structure, channel coding and modulation for a second generation digital terrestrial ... "International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting. 2008: 957846. doi:10.1155/2008/957846.. ... Clark, George C., Jr.; Cain, J. Bibb (1981). Error-Correction Coding for Digital Communications. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0 ...
Tanks upgraded after the year 2000 received an improved 1A40-01M fire control system which makes use of a TBV digital ballistic ... The most obvious external difference relative to Soviet analogs is the reduced number of KMT mounting points on the lower hull ... South Africa also offers a self-propelled artillery conversion for existing T-72s, rearming the chassis with a turret adopted ... A large amount of reactive armor (analog to T-90MS). New radio communication. New panoramic sight. Increased protection against ...
For each range, analog to digital conversion is conducted separately, but the only range used is that with the highest ... Charge-to-analog converters (QAC) and time-to-analog converters (TAC) are contained in these modules that had dynamic range ... The Sun and about 80% of the visible stars produce their energy by the conversion of hydrogen to helium via ... In the previous phases, the ID-PMTs processed signals by custom electronics modules called analog timing modules (ATMs). ...
Digital Equipment Corporation. 1973. p. 165.. *^ "Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual Volume 2 (2A, 2B ... The bit-level analogue of little-endian (least significant bit goes first) is used in RS-232, HDLC, Ethernet, and USB. Some ... Some compilers have options to generate code that globally enables the conversion for all file IO operations. This allows ... There exist several digital processors that use other formats. That is true for typical embedded systems as well as for general ...
Similar to dBFS, but also applicable to analog systems. According to ITU-T Rec. G.100.1 the level in dBov of a digital system ... Conversion between units of level and a list of corresponding ratios Unit. In decibels. In bels. In nepers. Power ratio. Field ... Video and digital imagingEdit. In connection with video and digital image sensors, decibels generally represent ratios of video ... The level of a tone with a digital amplitude (peak value) of x. over. {\displaystyle x_{\text{over}}}. is therefore L. =. −. ...
Digital predistortion[edit]. An optical communication system transmitter consists of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a ... although electronic repeaters are still widely used as transponders for wavelength conversion. ... TOSLINK is the most common format for digital audio cable using plastic optical fiber to connect digital sources to digital ... The transmitter digital signal processor performs digital predistortion on the input signals using the inverse transmitter ...
Secondly, due to inherent analog digital conversion problems, the effect of aliasing is unavoidable, so that the audio output ... Digital speakers[edit]. Main article: Digital speaker. Digital speakers have been the subject of experiments performed by Bell ... The term "digital" or "digital-ready" is often used for marketing purposes on speakers or headphones, but these systems are not ... Conversion of sensitivity to energy efficiency in percent for passive loudspeakers. *Article on sensitivity and efficiency of ...
... it was announced that the conversion date for standard LPTVs and translators still broadcasting in analog had been suspended ... Digital-to-analog converters[edit]. Main article: Digital television adapter. Now that the switch from analog to digital ... Further information: Digital television transition. The digital transition in the United States was the switchover from analog ... broadcasters transmitted their signals in both analog and digital formats, though a few were already digital-only. Digital ...
"EE News Analog. Retrieved 14 Jun 2019.. *^ "DS3231m RTC" (PDF). DS3231m RTC Datasheet. Maxim Inc. 2015. Retrieved 26 Mar 2019. ... and a number of Digital Cameras (various Canon Digital IXUS models). Also used in PCs to park the hard disk head when free-fall ... Silicon nanowires, fabricated through the thermal oxidation of silicon, are of further interest in electrochemical conversion ... Analog Devices has pioneered the industrialization of surface micromachining and has realized the co-integration of MEMS and ...
The fundamental limits of analog-to-digital conversion.. *Neil Foley, Associate Professor of History, University of Texas, ... Aparecida Vilaça, Associate Professor of Social Anthropology, National Museum, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro: Conversion ...
In combination with physical device profiling, it allows for reproducible representations of color, in both analog and digital ... Conversion[edit]. Main article: Color translation. Color space conversion is the translation of the representation of a color ... Conversion[edit]. Main article: Color translation. A color in one absolute color space can be converted into another absolute ... It is most commonly seen in its digital form, YCbCr, used widely in video and image compression schemes such as MPEG and JPEG. ...
... the ultimately reachable instrument throughput is thus dictated solely by the analog-to-digital conversion rate of the camera, ... with cameras operating at more than 10 MHz A/D conversion rates and available optics, fluidics and enzymatics, throughput can ...
... and passband transmission of digital data as a form of digital-to-analog conversion. ... While analog transmission is the transfer of a continuously varying analog signal over an analog channel, digital ... digital transmission or digital communications is the physical transfer of data (a digital bit stream or a digitized analog ... The term tele transmission involves the analog as well as digital communication. In most textbooks, the term analog ...
Can be implemented as analog or digital circuits.. *Since temperature varies slowly with time, there are no steady-state ... MPPT devices are typically integrated into an electric power converter system that provides voltage or current conversion, ...
In some systems, the analog-to-digital conversion is performed before the peak is reshaped. The analog-to-digital converter ( ... low energy x radiation (due to internal conversion of the gamma ray), ... and converts that signal into a digital signal. ...
AP digital. 2007-07-29. Retrieved 2013-04-30.. *^ "CNG-Diesel train launch in India". Times of India. 2015-01-15. Retrieved ... These analogs collectively suggest it would take at least 30 years for hybrid and electric vehicles to capture 80% of the US ... With large vehicles conversion losses decrease, and the advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than ... The analogs are (1) the electric motors in US factories in the early 20th century, (2) diesel electric locomotives on US ...
6. Analogue transmissions ceased as of 5 May 2011 as part of the conversion to digital television. ... Analog/. Digital). First air date. ERP. (Analog/. Digital). HAAT. (Analog/. Digital)1. Transmitter Coordinates. Transmitter ... 38°23′57″S 146°33′53″E / 38.39917°S 146.56472°E / -38.39917; 146.56472 (VTV) (analog). 38°23′37″S 146°33′34″E / 38.39361° ... S 146.55944°E / -38.39361; 146.55944 (VTV) (digital). Mount Tassie. Murray River Valley. Swan Hill. 50 (UHF)6. 60 (UHF). 1 ...
Ingelesez) «How Do Electronic Drums Work? A Beginners Guide To Digital Kits» Studio D: Artist Interviews, Gear Reviews, Product ... 2014-09). «Modelling piezoelectric energy harvesting potential in an educational building» Energy Conversion and Management (85 ... www.analog.com . Noiz kontsultatua: 2019-12-11. *↑ Gui Xie; Hong Shen. «A highly scalable speck image coder» 2004 International ... 2019-06). «Fabrication of a simple and easy-to-make piezoelectric actuator and its use as phase shifter in digital speckle ...
Digital television adapter. *U.S. Converter Box Coupon Program *legislation. *Analog passthrough ...
Wilhelmsson and Tor (2016). Fluorescent Analogs of Biomolecular Building Blocks: Design and Applications. New Jersey: Wiley. ... "PlantEdDL - Using SRL digital cameras in quantitative investigations of plants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)". ... They can have excitation and emission wavelengths far enough apart to achieve conversion between red and green light. ... "An epifluorescent attachment improves whole-plant digital photography of Arabidopsis thaliana expressing red-shifted green ...
... to more secure digital systems, such as those working on a GSM system, such as TETRA.[51] ... More recently many services worldwide have moved from traditional analog UHF/VHF sets, which can be monitored externally, ... would only sell vehicles for ambulance conversion if they are diesel-powered. Beginning in 2010, Ford will sell its ambulance ...
"Digital Library and Archives. Retrieved 2010-02-21.. *^ du Vigneaud V, Ressler C, Swan JM, Roberts CW, Katsoyannis PG (1954). " ... Stancampiano R, Melis MR, Argiolas A (1991). "Proteolytic conversion of oxytocin by brain synaptic membranes: role of ... a close analogue of oxytocin and peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, notably does produce antidepressant-like effects in animals ...
Difference between digital and analog hearing aids[edit]. Analogue hearing aids amplify (makes louder) all the sounds picked up ... To do this, an external sound from a microphone first converted into a binary code, and after the conversion the reverse ... Analog[edit]. Analog audio may have:. * *Adjustable control: The audio circuit is analog with electronic components that can be ... digital camera. The combination of high performance analog components and digital signal processing capability has led to the ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. KJZZ-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 14, on June 12, 2009, as part of the ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... On February 16, 2017, KJZZ-TV added Comet on digital subchannel 14.2, TBD on digital subchannel 14.3, and Charge! on digital ... Analog:. 14 (UHF, 1989-2009). Digital:. 46 (UHF, 2003-2018). Former affiliations. Independent (1989-1995, 2001-2006). UPN (1995 ...
Its availability solved one of the many analog-to-digital conversion problems faced by the eventual SAGE.. (Edwards footnote 55 ... the Air Force Cambridge Research Center (AFCRC) [had] recently developed methods for digital transmission of data over ... a Cold War systems development organization which developed telephone modem communications for a Digital Radar Relay in 1949.[5 ... telephone lines [with] Digital Radar Relay (DRR)55 The DRR research, begun just after World War II, had taken four years to ...
... The CCD or CMOS sensor in a digital camera converts light photons into electrons. Each of the ... The analog to digital conversion process description above should have made it clear that RAW capture is essential in order to ... Digital Photo Processes. -- Introduction -- Lens & image -- A/D conversion -- Lumix & Leica -- Sharpness -- CCD noise1 -- CCD ... The voltage which represents the luminance of each pixel is then converted into a binary number by a 12-bit analog-to-digital ...
An interview with Cambridge Consultants, discussing Leap; a miniature camera that provides a digital view of live veins and ...
NI designed 24-bit delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) into many of their high-performance data acquisition (DAQ) ... The conversion of an analog signal into a digital signal introduces noise in the signal, which is called quantization noise. ... This delay may or may not have to be compensated for, depending on whether you are using a digital or analog trigger. ... National Instruments designed 24-bit delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) into many of their high-performance data ...
We developed an analog-to-digital chemical signal conversion that gives visual readout and applied it to an assay for cystatin ... Chemical Analog-to-Digital Signal Conversion Based on Robust Threshold Chemistry and Its Evaluation in the Context of ... analog input) into patterns of ON or OFF reaction outcomes (chemical digital readout). Quantification of small changes in ...
... and how to calculate the analog voltages. Freescale 9S12/HCS12 hardware and software interfacing & C examples for analog ... How to use the 16-channel 10-bit Analog-to-Digital converter on the PDQ Board for single and multiple conversions, ... Fundamentals of analog to digital conversion. An analog to digital converter samples an analog signal and outputs a digital ... Many instrument applications require monitoring of analog signals for analog data acquisition. Analog To Digital (ATD) ...
Ireland Electronic Engineering Digital and Analogue Electronics Module Digital and Analog Digital Electronics Undergraduate ... Analogue to Digital Conversion ADC).. *To use Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) to fade in and out an LED (Digital to Analogue ... 4. Fading an LED - Digital -, Analogue Conversion. In Section 2 we wired up an LED and at the end it was requested that you ... 3. Using the Arduino Analogue Inputs. Now we are going to build a second circuit to read an analogue value into the Arduino. To ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WXIA-TV originally had the only VHF allotment for digital television in the area, until ... Digital television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The stations digital channel is multiplexed:. Channel. Video. Aspect. PSIP ... as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[9] The stations digital signal remained on its ... WXIA-TV, virtual channel 11 (VHF digital channel 10), is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Atlanta, Georgia, ...
Analog-to-digital conversion[edit]. WJRT-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over VHF channel 12, on June ... Digital Television[edit]. Digital channels[edit]. The stations digital signal is multiplexed: Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short ... the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts ... WKNX-LP (22 Analog Ind). *W24DL-D 24 (.1 3ABN, .2 3ABN Proclaim!, .3 3ABN Dare to Dream, .4 3ABN Latino, .5 3ABN Radio, .6 3ABN ...
... adalah pengubah input analog menjadi kode - kode digital. ADC banyak digunakan sebagai pengatur proses industri, komunikasi ... Analog To Digital Converter (ADC) adalah pengubah input analog menjadi kode - kode digital. ADC banyak digunakan sebagai ... ADC (Analog to Digital Convertion). Friday, April 16th 2021. , Teori Elektronika Mesothelioma Law Firm, Sell Annuity Payment ... Buat Pesan Untuk Artikel "ADC (Analog to Digital Convertion)". Be nice, Keep it clean, Stay on topic and No spam. ...
4.2 Analog to Digital Conversion *4.3 Compression Algorithms *4.4 RTP Real Time Transport Protocol *4.5 RSVP *4.6 Quality of ... analog to digital converter), transmit it, and at the end transform it again in analog format with DAC (digital to analog ... 4.2 Analog to Digital Conversion This is made by hardware, typically by card integrated ADC. Today every sound card allows you ... First the ADC to convert analog voice to digital signals (bits). *Now the bits have to be compressed in a good format for ...
Analog-to-Digital Conversion. For this type of application, given the response time of the sensor, the sampling rate for data ... Analog-to-Digital Converter. A low power ADC can be a favorable converter for this application. This is achievable using the ... Analog Devices Uses Cookies for Enhanced Online Performance Some cookies are required for secure log-ins but others are ... Sensor Analog Signal Conditioning Circuit. It is important to understand the equivalent electrical diagram of the sensor probe ...
... part one covers analog/digital audio conversion, bit rates, sample rates, and more. ... Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC). Analog sound is converted to a digital file when recording live instruments, or when ... Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC). For the opposite process, audio starts as music file stored as digital bits. A DAC ... The number of bits used in analog-to-digital conversion determines the accuracy with which the digital signal replicates the ...
Hz and change the analog frequency of the signal. Observe the output for f s = 10 size 12 ... Analog and digital frequency. Digital frequency ( θ. size 12{θ} {}. ) is related to analog frequency ( f. size 12{f} {}. ) via ... Discrete waveform, Digital waveform, Analog frequency, Digital frequency and Number of samples skipped in ADC are also included ... which means one does not know from which analog signal the digital signal is created. Note the value of digital frequency is ...
... analog-digital analogy often comes the idea that the relation between rates and spikes is that of an analog-digital conversion ... timing (XVIII) Spiking as analog-digital conversion: the evolutionary argument. Publié le 13/02/2013. par romain ... Or spikes are seen as an analog-digital conversion from the membrane potential. I believe this comes from the evolutionary ... So if we wanted to make the case that spikes are only there to carry a truly analog value, the membrane potential, then it ...
... and also with proper layout techniques by keeping digital and analog sections of the board from overlapping. Below are the ... Digital HW Volume Control and Re-clocking: * Crystek CCHD-575 oscillator -- ultra low clock jitter of 82fSec ... Ultra low noise analog power supplies: * TPS7A4700 (4.17uV noise) for positive op-amp power supply ... The mainstream audio press has not given these Raspberry Pi devices much attention, but its clear to me that high-end digital ...
... switch the analog-to-digital converter to the correct port, perform the analog-to-digital conversion, and begin the sound ... Analog-to-Digital Conversion. We embedded microphones into our drum boxes to determine how loud our output drum sound should be ... use of the microcontroller analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to convert the analog microphone data, the formula we used to ... Our project brings together analog circuitry and filters with digital concepts, such as hardware timing, interrupts, and a user ...
Analog to Digital Conversion.. Anesthesia Machines.. Aortic Stenosis and Systemic Hypertension, Modeling of. ...
PWM Digital-to-Analog Conversion with the SAM4S Xplained Pro. In this article well use the SAM4S Xplained Pro development ...
This digital signal can then be used by the PLC to control outputs. Figure 5: Analogue to Digital Conversion (Allaboutcircuits. ... An analogue to digital converter (ADC) produces a digital output from an analogue input. When the start convert signal is ... PLCs are digital devices, they are only capable of reading digital values; this can be a problem when the input is an analogue ... This was necessary as the analogue signal produced by the load cell was far too minute for an analogue to digital module and ...
Analog-Digital Conversion. Bridge Circuits. Linearizing Devices. Miscellaneous Signal Modification Circuitry. Signal Analyzers ...
Circuit configuration for analog/digital conversion. US20060139624 *. 15 Feb 2006. 29 Jun 2006. Aurora Discovery, Inc.. ... an analog to digital converter coupled by a direct memory access device to a computer, or an analog phase comparator circuit ... an analog to digital converter coupled by a direct memory access device to a computer, or an analog phase comparator circuit ... Product packaging including digital data. US20030050543 *. 30 Nov 2000. 13 Mar 2003. Paul Hartmann. Method and device for ...
A microchip is positioned within the housing and operatively communicates with the membrane for transmitting a digital signal ... Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion. Accordingly, the microprocessor 90 operatively communicates with the membrane 56. ... This arrangement constitutes an analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion which is power effective since there is a simple counting of ... due to the inherent analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion mechanism employed in the sensor 50, e.g. the photoelectric cell array ...
3 Digital Signal Processing 49. 3.1 Continuous versus Discrete Signals 49. 3.2 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 50 ...
Circuit configuration for analog/digital conversion. US20060203700 *. May 16, 2006. Sep 14, 2006. Verification Technologies, ... Product packaging including digital data. US20030112423 *. Oct 18, 2002. Jun 19, 2003. Rakesh Vig. On-line verification of an ...
Circuit configuration for analog/digital conversion. US20060082770 *. 28 Nov 2005. 20 Apr 2006. Sru Biosystems, Inc.. Method ... adding a substrate analogue to the sample, wherein said substrate analogue is selected to react with said enzyme to form, ... Product packaging including digital data. US20030059855 *. 26 Jun 2002. 27 Mar 2003. Sru Biosystems, Llc. Method and instrument ... The substrate analogue then competes with the natural substrate for binding to the immobilised enzyme. ...
... which combines dual switched-capacitor integrators with high precision analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Throughout this ... Keywords: analog-to-digital conversion; biosensor; nanoribbon; pH sensing; Point-of-Care diagnostics; switched capacitor; TFT; ... analog-to-digital conversion; biosensor; nanoribbon; pH sensing; Point-of-Care diagnostics; switched capacitor; TFT; urea- ... which combines dual switched-capacitor integrators with high precision analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Throughout this ...
Analog to Digital conversion in sensory arrays. Technology scaling and impact. Low voltage and implications regarding signal ... Analog-to-Digital conversion and anti-aliasing requirements. Multichannel biomedical data acquisition. Real-time requirements. ... Basics of analog integrated circuit design. Computer-aided modelling. Fabrication processes and their influence on analog ... Digital imaging. Solid state light sources. Spectroscopy.. Course Hours: 3 units; (3-0) Antirequisite(s): Credit for Electrical ...
Conversion• Bit rate is the number of bits per second.• Baud rate is the number of signal elements per second.• I… ... 1. Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion• Bit rate is the number of bits per second.• Baud rate is the number of signal ... In the analog transmission of digital data, the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. ... The two binary states, logic 0 (low) and 1 (high), are represented by an analog waveform. Logic 0 is represented by a wave at a ...
... this updated and expanded edition of the bestselling The Digital Signal ... Analog-to-Digital Conversion Architectures; Stephen Kosonocky and Peter Xiao Quantization of Discrete Time Signals; Ravi P. ... DIGITAL FILTERING; Lina J. Karam and James H. McClellan. Digital Filtering; Lina J. Karam, James H. McClellan, Ivan W. ... Now available in a three-volume set, this updated and expanded edition of the bestselling The Digital Signal Processing ...
  • National Instruments designed 24-bit delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) into many of their high-performance data acquisition (DAQ) devices, including the NI SC Express family, which includes integrated signal conditioning for directly measuring sensors. (ni.com)
  • Analog To Digital (ATD) converters can perform this function. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • After a hardware reset, the AN0-AN15 pins are configured as analog inputs, with the digital I/O drivers and both 8-channel ATD converters off by default. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • Similar digital-to-analog converters can be found in digital speakers such as USB speakers, and in sound cards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensor is coupled to an integrated circuit (IC), which combines dual switched-capacitor integrators with high precision analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). (mdpi.com)
  • This invention relates to high performance analog-to-digital (A/D) converters and magnetometers and, in particular, to A/D converters and magnetometers employing superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and having a wide dynamic range. (google.com)
  • Our project brings together analog circuitry and filters with digital concepts, such as hardware timing, interrupts, and a user-friendly interface. (cornell.edu)
  • The candidate shall be well versed in, integrated circuit design, ASIC design and development, Digital Signal Processing (DSP), analog circuitry, the development of chip scale devices and CAD tools for IC design. (rfcafe.com)
  • Within the block, 10-bit ADC circuitry is included for converting sensor's reading to digital output. (intel.com)
  • The dual-layer design of the chassis separates the analogue circuitry from the digital, preventing noise for uncompromised sound quality. (sony.com)
  • These typically take the form of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) mixed-signal integrated circuit chips that integrate both analog and digital circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In circuits embodying the invention an analog input signal is magnetically coupled from an input superconducting loop to a second superconducting loop. (google.com)
  • Analog circuits, analog-to-digital conversion, RF and wireless circuits. (umich.edu)
  • Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing , 10 (1-2), 101-118. (tue.nl)
  • In order to achieve the millisecond to second time constants required for these synaptic dynamics, analog subthreshold circuits are usually employed. (frontiersin.org)
  • An analog-to-digital conversion that converts an input signal to an output signal by using multiple analog-to-digital converting circuits. (patents.com)
  • High-end operation amp components are used in the RSX-GS9's analogue circuits for greater depth of sound and audio realism. (sony.com)
  • Many instrument applications require monitoring of analog signals for analog data acquisition. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • An ATD converter samples analog signals and converts them to digital values that can be stored, processed, or displayed. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • These acoustic waves correspond to continuous, smooth analog electrical signals produced or generated by a speaker or microphone. (djtechtools.com)
  • The analog signals appear entirely different in these two cases but the discrete signals are similar. (quizover.com)
  • DACs are commonly used in music players to convert digital data streams into analog audio signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also used in televisions and mobile phones to convert digital video data into analog video signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most modern audio signals are stored in digital form (for example MP3s and CDs) and, in order to be heard through speakers, they must be converted into an analog signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • FSK is a method of transmitting digital signals. (slideshare.net)
  • Now available in a three-volume set, this updated and expanded edition of the bestselling The Digital Signal Processing Handbook continues to provide the engineering community with authoritative coverage of the fundamental and specialized aspects of information-bearing signals in digital form. (routledge.com)
  • These results suggest that the upregulation of presynaptic glutamate release facilitates a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into digital spikes in postsynaptic neurons, i.e., a functional compatibility between presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The conversions of digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital signals are fulfilled by the interactions of the synapses and neurons [ 3 - 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Information flow in neural network is a sequence of action potentials at presynaptic neurons, signal transmission at synapses and action potentials at postsynaptic cells, i.e., sequential conversions of digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital signals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to the conventional method, the optofluidic laser performs digital detection to amplify the fluorescent signals. (photonics.com)
  • A time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter for conversion of L analog input signals to L corresponding digital output signals comprises an array of N. (patents.com)
  • Digital sampling introduces quantization error that manifests as low-level noise in the reconstructed signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This quantization of analog information, from continuous data to discrete data, from unfiltered information to 1’s and 0’s, is a process which intentionally simplifies and restructures the natural world in order to increase control and accuracy. (interactivearchitecture.org)
  • The digital spikes and analogue synaptic responses constitute the brain codes for well-organized behaviors and cognition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CCD or CMOS sensor in a digital camera converts light photons into electrons. (linkwitzlab.com)
  • For example, an 8-bit ATD converts an analog signal into one of 256 discrete digital numbers, while a 10-bit ATD converts an analog signal into one of 1024 discrete digital numbers. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DAC converts this back into an analog electrical signal, which drives an audio amplifier, which in turn drives a loudspeaker, which finally produces sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receiving an analog input it converts the analog signal to digital, displays the data, and transmits the data via the L&J 4-wire data highway or other digital protocols to the system computer. (ljtechnologies.com)
  • The conversion process adds electrical circuit noise to the light voltage. (linkwitzlab.com)
  • The voltage which represents the luminance of each pixel is then converted into a binary number by a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. (linkwitzlab.com)
  • To obtain the same 18% gray output voltage level the gain after the CCD charge conversion is increased. (linkwitzlab.com)
  • Before we can turn a PWM signal into a digitally controlled analog voltage, we need to generate a PWM signal, and in my opinion, this is not as straightforward as one might expect. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • The two binary states, logic 0 (low) and 1 (high), are represented by an analog waveform. (slideshare.net)
  • To create a discrete signal, sample the analog signal at a rate controlled by the sampling frequency. (quizover.com)
  • To prevent aliasing, the analog frontend of a data acquisition device often uses an analog lowpass filter that attenuates frequency components greater than the Nyquist frequency, prior to sampling by the ADC. (ni.com)
  • Again, the ratio of analog frequency to sampling frequency is known as digital or normalized frequency. (quizover.com)
  • to increase the digital or normalized frequency of an analog signal by lowering the number of samples. (quizover.com)
  • Hz and change the analog frequency of the signal. (quizover.com)
  • For the second case, the sampling frequency is less than twice that of the analog signal frequency. (quizover.com)
  • Note the value of digital frequency is 0.1 radians for the first case and 2.1 radians for the second case. (quizover.com)
  • To prevent any aliasing, keep the digital frequency less than 0.5 radians. (quizover.com)
  • Analog photonic channelization, linearization, and frequency conversion systems can be designed to alleviate this bottleneck. (bu.edu)
  • The hardware architecture of a delta-sigma (also referred to as sigma-delta) ADC consists of an integrator, a comparator, and a 1-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) arranged in a negative-feedback loop, as shown in Figure 1. (ni.com)
  • Analog To Digital Converter (ADC) adalah pengubah input analog menjadi kode - kode digital. (web.id)
  • ADC ( Analog to Digital Converter ) memiliki 2 karakter prinsip, yaitu kecepatan sampling dan resolusi . (web.id)
  • Input analog Vi yang akan diubah ke bentuk digital diberikan secara simultan pada sisi + pada komparator tersebut, dan input pada sisi - tergantung pada ukuran bit converter. (web.id)
  • Many years ago we discovered that sending a signal to a remote destination could have be done also in a digital fashion: before sending it we have to digitalize it with an ADC (analog to digital converter), transmit it, and at the end transform it again in analog format with DAC (digital to analog converter) to use it. (faqs.org)
  • An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known in the art to use single and double junction SQUIDs in analog,to-digital (A/D) converter and digital magnetometer systems as illustrated in U.S. Pat. (google.com)
  • The invention relates to a digital to analog converter and a method for a digital to analog conversion, wherein the digital to analog converter comprises at. (patents.com)
  • A digital to analog converter (DAC) includes a thermometer coder that generates a plurality of micro-current source analog controls on a frame-by-frame or. (patents.com)
  • Among other things, an arrangement for a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is provided herein. (patents.com)
  • The RSX-GS9 is a feat of audio engineering, boasting a unique combination of our most refined sound technologies - including native DSD lossless playback and an industry-leading ESS digital-to-analogue converter. (sony.com)
  • Experience the same calibre of sound usually reserved for high-end home audio products, thanks to the ESS DAC chip - an industry-leading converter that realises optimum quality for all of your digital music files. (sony.com)
  • Kecepatan sampling suatu ADC menyatakan seberapa sering sinyal analog dikonversikan ke bentuk sinyal digital pada selang waktu tertentu. (web.id)
  • This violates the Nyquist sampling rate leading to aliasing, which means one does not know from which analog signal the digital signal is created. (quizover.com)
  • The first part of this article addresses the pH probe, which is followed by an examination of the different design challenges related to the front-end signal conditioning circuit and how to achieve a low cost with high precision and reliability in data conversion. (analog.com)
  • A high-precision clock generator works to improve digital-to-analogue conversion accuracy, while a separated digital block ensures minimal noise from interference. (sony.com)
  • DACs and ADCs are part of an enabling technology that has contributed greatly to the digital revolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital Filters. (wiley.com)
  • From The Bench-In Theory and in Practice Part 1: Digital Filters , by Jeff Bachiochi, 72. (circuitcellar.com)
  • The binary output of the comparator is clocked into the digital decimation filter on every edge of the ADC oversample clock F oversamp . (ni.com)
  • For the opposite process, audio starts as music file stored as digital bits. (djtechtools.com)
  • The number of bits used in analog-to-digital conversion determines the accuracy with which the digital signal replicates the actual analog value at any given point. (djtechtools.com)
  • The large range of output voltages V1 that is generated by the photon conversion process is, for example, digitized by a 12-bit linear ADC for storage as a RAW file. (linkwitzlab.com)
  • The digital decimation filter averages the bit stream to output an n-bit sample at the desired sample rate F s . (ni.com)
  • Sebagai contoh: ADC 8 bit akan memiliki output 8 bit data digital, ini berarti sinyal input dapat dinyatakan dalam 255 (2 n - 1) nilai diskrit. (web.id)
  • ADC 12 bit memiliki 12 bit output data digital, ini berarti sinyal input dapat dinyatakan dalam 4096 nilai diskrit. (web.id)
  • These normally take the digital output of a compatible CD player or dedicated transport (which is basically a CD player with no internal DAC) and convert the signal into an analog line-level output that can then be fed into an amplifier to drive speakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The world's first high-side current/power sensor to feature both a configurable analog output and a 2-wire digital bus. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • Many users are reporting significant improvements with the latest Yggy updates (Analog 2 output, Gen5 USB). (computeraudiophile.com)
  • Capable of handling a network AV installation of any size, the DM‑NVX‑363 includes features such as secure web-based control and management, a scaling HDMI® output, video wall processing, an analog audio input or output, surround sound audio with downmixing, native Dante® and AES67 transmit and receive capability, USB 2.0 and KVM integration, and support for copper and fiber Ethernet connectivity. (crestron.com)
  • DACs are therefore found in CD players, digital music players, and PC sound cards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analog input signal present in the second loop is magnetically coupled to a third, superconducting comparator, loop in which there is generated current feedback pulses which are magnetically fed back to the second loop to reduce and nullify (i.e., reduce to zero) the magnetic flux and circulating current in the second loop induced by the analog input signal. (google.com)
  • The MSP430F23x0 series is an ultra-low-power microcontroller with two built-in 16-bit timers, one universal serial communication interface (USCI), a versatile analog comparator, and 32 I/O pins. (ti.com)
  • function in the C glossary for information on configuring some or all of these lines as digital inputs, and see the Digital I/O chapter of this document for information about reading digital data from these inputs. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • The digital stream is then divided into network packets where it may be sent along with other digital data, not necessarily audio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The digital voice data is then extracted from the packets and assembled into a digital data stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the analog transmission of digital data, the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. (slideshare.net)
  • ASK is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. (slideshare.net)
  • Any values can be displayed on the local LCD and the data transmitted back to a central computer/receiver via the standard L&J Tankway 4-wire digital highway or other digital protocol. (ljtechnologies.com)
  • This provides the ability to add virtually any type of instrument or sensing device to the system without the need of running individual analog data wires back to the control room. (ljtechnologies.com)
  • Refined intelligence data can be transferred from Rivet Joint to AWACS through the Tactical Digital Information Link TADIL/A or into intelligence channels via satellite and the TACTICAL INFORMATION BROADCAST SERVICE (TIBS), which is a nearly real-time theater information broadcast. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The Viterbi decoder implements a soft-decision algorithm to demodulate digital data from an analog signal corrupted by noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it's an analog meter, parallax introduces errors. (allaboutcircuits.com)
  • In today's digital audio world- the process of converting digital to analog inevitably introduces pulse noise- distorting the original audio image. (integrahometheater.com)
  • The PDQ Board hosts 16 channels of 10-bit analog to digital conversion to address a wide variety of instrumentation and control applications. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • The caller's voice is converted into an analog electrical signal by a microphone, then the analog signal is converted to a digital stream by an ADC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, an acoustic soundwave…into an analog electrical signal. (lynda.com)
  • This seminar will highlight the advantages and other features of analog photonic systems (including some specific systems that the author has constructed and tested for the US Department of Defense), and will review and explain multiple techniques for optimizing their performance. (bu.edu)
  • Methods and systems for performing analog-to-digital conversion are described. (patents.com)
  • Then the course digs into digital audio workstations (DAWs), explaining the concepts and misconceptions involved in digital recording systems. (lynda.com)
  • Because of this "risk-pooling" effect, digital communication systems that use ECC tend to work well above a certain minimum signal-to-noise ratio and not at all below it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This first part covers how analog sound becomes digital audio - and what sample and bit rates really are. (djtechtools.com)
  • The concept of the software digital audio workstation is the emulation of a traditional recording studio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Powered Zone 2 & 3 speaker outputs let you send amplified network, S/PDIF, or analog audio sourced to a pair of speakers into a second or third room. (integrahometheater.com)
  • Learn everything you need to know about working with digital audio. (lynda.com)
  • Next, he brings the audio signal into the digital domain, discussing analog to digital conversion, digital gain staging, file formats and compression, and dither. (lynda.com)
  • With its expanded bandwidth, native Direct Stream Digital (DSD) playback delivers superior audio resolution. (sony.com)
  • Connect speakers in another room to the Powered Zone 2 outputs to share analog and digital audio sources, including HDMI® inputs* and digital audio. (onkyousa.com)
  • Some embodiments include apparatuses and methods having a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) in a digital phase-locked loop (PLL) and a control loop. (patents.com)
  • ECC processing in a receiver may be applied to a digital bit stream or in the demodulation of a digitally modulated carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • As explained in the Digital I/O chapter, the AN0-AN15 pins can be configured as either analog or digital inputs. (mosaic-industries.com)
  • Prinsip kerja ADC adalah mengkonversi sinyal analog ke dalam bentuk besaran yang merupakan rasio perbandingan sinyal input dan tegangan referensi. (web.id)
  • Line‑synchronized outputs ensure perfect synchronization of content across multiple displays for applications such as digital signage and video walls. (crestron.com)
  • In voice over IP applications, the source must first be digitized for transmission, so it undergoes conversion via an ADC and is then reconstructed into analog using a DAC on the receiving party's end. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, that they appeared to transmit information and the information was analog does not mean information is now used in the same way. (romainbrette.fr)
  • To build a sensor circuit that senses ambient light level and uses its sensor reading to make a decision (Analogue to Digital Conversion ADC). (google.com)
  • Umumnya ADC digunakan sebagai perantara antara sensor yang kebanyakan analog dengan sistim komputer seperti sensor suhu, cahaya, tekanan/berat, aliran dan sebagainya kemudian diukur dengan menggunakan sistim digital (komputer). (web.id)
  • Or spikes are seen as an analog-digital conversion from the membrane potential. (romainbrette.fr)
  • So if we wanted to make the case that spikes are only there to carry a truly analog value, the membrane potential, then it would lead us to discard spikes as a relevant descriptive quantity, and a fortiori to discard rates as well. (romainbrette.fr)
  • A microchip is positioned within the housing and operatively communicates with the membrane for transmitting a digital signal indicative of the parameter. (google.com)
  • For the latter, ECC is an integral part of the initial analog-to-digital conversion in the receiver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound waves in the acoustic domain are converted to a mic-level analog signal by a transducer like a microphone. (lynda.com)
  • The part incorporates digital offset and gain adjust registers per channel. (analog.com)
  • Many ECC encoders/decoders can also generate a bit-error rate (BER) signal which can be used as feedback to fine-tune the analog receiving electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The part also features a digital I/O port that is programmed via the serial interface. (analog.com)
  • Analog sound is converted to a digital file when recording live instruments, or when recording a mix from an analog mixer into your computer. (djtechtools.com)
  • Save Your Voice-A Digital Sound Board, by DuanePerkins , 40. (circuitcellar.com)
  • The clock generator further refines digital-to-analogue conversion for precise, stable sound. (sony.com)
  • The MCG 1200M provides for a convenient reliable interface between the gauging or SCADA system and various analog devices. (ljtechnologies.com)
  • Following on the previous post, with the analog-digital analogy often comes the idea that the relation between rates and spikes is that of an analog-digital conversion. (romainbrette.fr)
  • How the synapse dynamics quantitatively regulates the encoding of postsynaptic digital spikes remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the processing of signal conversion, how presynaptic sequential spikes influence synapse dynamics and in turn regulate postsynaptic spike encoding remains to be addressed in a quantitative manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The revelation of these regulations helps understanding how numerous synapses are convergent onto each neuron and drive it to encode digital spikes precisely. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It remains unclear how these presynaptic factors regulate the dynamics of individual synapses, the signal integration from numerous synapses and the encoding of digital spikes at postsynaptic neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Between all you can eat Zune Pass, streaming radio Pandora, digital ecosystem iTunes, and unencumbered MP3's from Amazon, music is now available in pretty much any digital format, with any sort of imaginable payment scheme. (slashdot.org)
  • Digital pianos, such as those offered by Roland, provide interactive lessons and games using the built-in features of the instrument to teach music fundamentals. (wikipedia.org)
  • These generic building blocks make the system easy to port between technologies and the large digital circuit part inherent in an SC system benefits fully from technology scaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • also we saw that digital signal is more noise tolerant than the analog one (see GSM vs TACS). (faqs.org)
  • Matt describes how memory, CPU speed, and storage affect your DAW's performance, as well as how to manage computer resources and understand the plethora of file formats associated with digital recording. (lynda.com)
  • To keep things simple, let's use an example…with only the acoustic and analog domains. (lynda.com)
  • By discussing and recontextualizing Jean Baudrillard's concept of the hyperreal in a digital modernity, I question the emerging technologies in contemporary music, art, and architectural practices. (interactivearchitecture.org)
  • Digital music technologies are widely used to assist in music education for training students in the home, elementary school, middle school, high school, college and university music programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of digital musical technologies can be traced back to the analog music technologies of the early 20th century, such as the electromechanical Hammond organ, which was invented in 1929. (wikipedia.org)