Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Interpleural Analgesia: Injection of ANALGESICS; LOCAL ANESTHETICS; or NARCOTICS into the PLEURAL CAVITY between the two pleural membranes.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Labor Stage, First: Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pirinitramide: A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Nalbuphine: A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Electroacupuncture: A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Morphine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of morphine.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Pentazocine: The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Dipyrone: A drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is the sodium sulfonate of AMINOPYRINE.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Nefopam: Non-narcotic analgesic chemically similar to ORPHENADRINE. Its mechanism of action is unclear. It is used for the relief of acute and chronic pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p26)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.ThiazinesInfusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Dihydromorphine: A semisynthetic analgesic used in the study of narcotic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Morphinans: Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Doulas: Trained lay women who provide emotional and/or physical support during obstetric labor and the postpartum period for mothers and their partners.Labor Stage, Second: The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.Tolmetin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Acupuncture Points: Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Oxymorphone: An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)Hypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsSingle-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Enkephalin, D-Penicillamine (2,5)-: A disulfide opioid pentapeptide that selectively binds to the DELTA OPIOID RECEPTOR. It possesses antinociceptive activity.Ketorolac Tromethamine: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Enkephalin, Leucine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.

Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases. (1/1002)

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

Characterization of socio-psychological stress-induced antinociception in the formalin test in mice. (2/1002)

The antinociceptive effect induced by exposure to socio-psychological (PSY) stress using a communication box was assessed by the formalin test in mice, compared with those by exposure to footshock (FS) stress and forced swimming (SW) stress. After the termination of stress exposure, whereas exposure to FS- and SW-stress resulted in the attenuation of the formalin-induced biphasic pain response over 15 min, no appreciable antinociceptive effect was found in the case of PSY stress. When exposure to PSY stress was started during the period of early or late phase of pain after the formalin injection, the antinociceptive effect was maintained for 5-15 min; however, further exposure to PSY stress was not effective for producing antinociception. In the tail-pinch test, likewise, exposure to PSY stress longer than 5 min rather decreased the intensity of antinociception. We conclude that PSY stress in this tonic pain paradigm produces antinociception, but further continuous exposure to the emotional stress caused mice to become recuperative even in such a fear-inducing situation.  (+info)

Morbidity and cost-effectiveness analysis of outpatient analgesia versus general anaesthesia for testicular sperm extraction in men with azoospermia due to defects in spermatogenesis. (3/1002)

The outcome and costs of testicular sperm extraction under outpatient local analgesia or general anaesthesia were compared in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Nineteen consecutive patients were allocated to receive general anaesthesia, while the subsequent 21 consecutive patients received outpatient analgesia in the form of i.v. midazolam sedation, lignocaine spray, scrotal infiltration with local anaesthetic and spermatic cord block. Blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate were determined. Sedation and testicular pain were assessed by subjective scoring. Both groups showed haemodynamic stability with little alteration in blood pressure, pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Toxic symptoms of local anaesthetic were not encountered in the outpatient group. No relationship was found between testicular size and the duration of the operation. The median postoperative pain intensity, sedation scores and analgesic requirements were significantly less in the outpatient group (P < 0.05). These advantages led to a shorter recovery time (P < 0.0001), 3-fold cheaper care and greater patient satisfaction (P < 0.0001) in the outpatient group.  (+info)

Postoperative analgesia and vomiting, with special reference to day-case surgery: a systematic review. (4/1002)

BACKGROUND: Day-case surgery is of great value to patients and the health service. It enables many more patients to be treated properly, and faster than before. Newer, less invasive, operative techniques will allow many more procedures to be carried out. There are many elements to successful day-case surgery. Two key components are the effectiveness of the control of pain after the operation, and the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To enable those caring for patients undergoing day-case surgery to make the best choices for their patients and the health service, this review sought the highest quality evidence on: (1) the effectiveness of the control of pain after an operation; (2) the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Full details of the search strategy are presented in the report. RESULTS - ANALGESIA: The systematic reviews of the literature explored whether different interventions work and, if they do work, how well they work. A number of conclusions can be drawn. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INEFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS: There is good evidence that some interventions are ineffective. They include: (1) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain; (2) the use of local injections of opioids at sites other than the knee joint; (3) the use of dihydrocodeine, 30 mg, in acute postoperative pain (it is no better than placebo). RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF DOUBTFUL VALUE: Some interventions may be effective but the size of the effect or the complication of undertaking them confers no measurable benefit over conventional methods. Such interventions include: (1) injecting morphine into the knee joint after surgery: there is a small analgesic benefit which may last for up to 24 hours but there is no clear evidence that the size of the benefit is of any clinical value; (2) manoeuvres to try and anticipate pain by using pre-emptive analgesia; these are no more effective than standard methods; (3) administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by injection or per rectum in patients who can swallow; this appears to be no more effective than giving NSAIDs by mouth and, indeed, may do more harm than good; (4) administering codeine in single doses; this has poor analgesic efficacy. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF PROVEN VALUE: These include a number of oral analgesics including (at standard doses): (1) dextropropoxyphene; (2) tramadol; (3) paracetamol; (4) ibuprofen; (5) diclofenac. Diclofenac and ibuprofen at standard doses give analgesia equivalent to that obtained with 10 mg of intramuscular morphine. Each will provide at least 50% pain relief from a single oral dose in patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain. Paracetamol and codeine combinations also appear to be highly effective, although there is little information on the standard doses used in the UK. The relative effectiveness of these analgesics is compared in an effectiveness 'ladder' which can inform prescribers making choices for individual patients, or planning day-case surgery. Dose-response relationships show that higher doses of ibuprofen may be particularly effective. Topical NSAIDs (applied to the skin) are effective in minor injuries and chronic pain but there is no obvious role for them in day-case surgery. RESULTS-POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING: The proportion of patients who may feel nauseated or vomit after surgery is very variable, despite similar operations and anaesthetic techniques. Systematic review can still lead to clear estimations of effectiveness of interventions. Whichever anti-emetic is used, the choice is often between prophylactic use (trying to prevent anyone vomiting) and treating those people who do feel nauseated or who may vomit. Systematic reviews of a number of different anti-emetics show clearly that none of the anti-emetics is sufficiently effective to be used for prophylaxis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE  (+info)

Dextromethorphan and pain after total abdominal hysterectomy. (5/1002)

Dextromethorphan is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist which has been shown to inhibit the development of cutaneous secondary hyperalgesia after tissue trauma. We studied 60 ASA I-II patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients received either dextromethorphan 27 mg capsules, two doses before operation and three doses in the first 24 h after operation, or placebo. Visual analogue pain scores (VAS) at 24 and 48 h were assessed at rest, on coughing and on sitting up, and were not significantly different between groups. Morphine consumption from a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device was also not significantly different between groups. Evidence of secondary hyperalgesia was assessed with von Frey hairs 10 cm above the Pfannenstiel incision. Both groups of patients exhibited evidence of secondary hyperalgesia after 24 and 48 h but there were no significant differences between groups. There was also no difference between groups in VAS scores at 1 month.  (+info)

Role of potassium channels in the antinociception induced by agonists of alpha2-adrenoceptors. (6/1002)

1. The effect of the administration of pertussis toxin (PTX) as well as modulators of different subtypes of K+ channels on the antinociception induced by clonidine and guanabenz was evaluated in the mouse hot plate test. 2. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (0.25 microg per mouse i.c.v.) 7 days before the hot-plate test, prevented the antinociception induced by both clonidine (0.08-0.2 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and guanabenz (0.1-0.5 mg kg(-1), s.c.). 3. The administration of the K(ATP) channel openers minoxidil (10 microg per mouse, i.c.v.), pinacidil (25 microg per mouse, i.c.v.) and diazoxide (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) potentiated the antinociception produced by clonidine and guanabenz whereas the K(ATP) channel blocker gliquidone (6 microg per mouse, i.c.v.) prevented the alpha2 adrenoceptor agonist-induced analgesia. 4. Pretreatment with an antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) to mKv1.1, a voltage-gated K+ channel, at the dose of 2.0 nmol per single i.c.v. injection, prevented the antinociception induced by both clonidine and guanabenz in comparison with degenerate oligonucleotide (dODN)-treated mice. 5. The administration of the Ca2+-gated K+ channel blocker apamin (0.5-2.0 ng per mouse, i.c.v.) never modified clonidine and guanabenz analgesia. 6. At the highest effective doses, none of the drugs used modified animals' gross behaviour nor impaired motor coordination, as revealed by the rota-rod test. 7. The present data demonstrate that both K(ATP) and mKv1.1 K+ channels represent an important step in the transduction mechanism underlying central antinociception induced by activation of alpha2 adrenoceptors.  (+info)

Tenoxicam and paracetamol-codeine combination after oral surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (7/1002)

We studied 90 adults undergoing surgical removal of at least both lower third molar teeth as day cases under standardized general anaesthesia. Patients were allocated randomly (with stratification for surgeon) to receive tenoxicam 40 mg, tenoxicam 20 mg or placebo i.v. at induction of anaesthesia and orally (effervescent tablets) with food on each of the subsequent 2 days. Panadeine (paracetamol 500 mg-codeine 8 mg) was given before operation and was available as needed for pain thereafter, to a limit of two tablets every 4 h. Nefopam i.v. was also available. Efficacy variables and adverse reactions were assessed over 6 days. Over the 6-day period, patients who received tenoxicam reported less pain on rest (area under the curve; P < 0.05) and less disturbance in sleep (P < 0.01) even though they used fewer Panadeine tablets (P < 0.05). Differences between tenoxicam 40 mg and 20 mg were not significant. There was no significant difference in nefopam requirements or side effects, and no adverse event attributable to the study medication.  (+info)

Somatotopic activation of opioid systems by target-directed expectations of analgesia. (8/1002)

We induced specific expectations of analgesia on four different parts of the body to understand how endogenous opioid systems are activated by expectancies. The left hand, right hand, left foot, and right foot were simultaneously stimulated by means of a subcutaneous injection of capsaicin, which produces a painful burning sensation. Specific expectations of analgesia were induced by applying a placebo cream on one of these body parts and by telling the subjects that it was a powerful local anesthetic. In such a way, expectancy of the anesthetic effect was directed only toward the part on which the placebo cream was applied. We found that a placebo analgesic response occurred only on the treated part, whereas no variation in pain sensitivity was found on the untreated parts. If the same experiment was performed after an intravenous infusion of the opioid antagonist naloxone, this highly spatial-specific placebo response was totally abolished, indicating that it was completely mediated by endogenous opioid systems. These findings show that a spatially directed expectation of pain reduction is capable of inducing a specific effect only on the part of the body which is the target of the expectation. Most important, this specific effect is mediated by endogenous opioids, indicating that placebo-activated opioids do not act on the entire body but only on the part where expectancy is directed. This suggests that a highly organized and somatotopic network of endogenous opioids links expectation, attention, and body schema.  (+info)

*Local anesthetic nerve block

These drugs are often combined with adjuvants (additives) with the end goal of increasing the duration of the analgesia or ... Studies in humans indicate improved onset time and increased duration of analgesia. The duration of the nerve block depends on ... The paravertebral block provides unilateral analgesia, but bilateral blocks can be performed for abdominal surgeries. Since it ...

*Spinal anaesthesia

... it was discovered that the rate of onset of analgesia was faster and the maximum level of analgesia was higher with a 10% ... The onset of analgesia is approximately 25-30 minutes in an epidural, while it is approximately 5 minutes in a spinal. An ... The first spinal analgesia was administered in 1885 by James Leonard Corning (1855-1923), a neurologist in New York. He was ... The post operative analgesia from intrathecal opioids in addition to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is also good. If ...

*Levobupivacaine

... and infiltration analgesia in children. Levobupivacaine is contraindicated for IV regional anaesthesia (IVRA). Adverse drug ...

*Remifentanil

As such, it has been used for analgesia in labor successfully; however, it is not as effective as epidural analgesia. In ... Anesthesia & Analgesia, 110(2), 524-525. Feldman, P. L. (2006). Discovery and Development of the Ultrashort-acting Analgesic ... Hence, it causes a reduction in sympathetic nervous system tone, respiratory depression and analgesia. The drug's effects ... While opiates function similarly, with respect to analgesia, the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil allows for quicker post- ...

*Local anesthetic

"Concept for postoperative analgesia after pedicled TRAM flaps: Continuous wound instillation with 0.2% ropivacaine via ...

*Trefentanil

Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1993 Apr;76(4):812-6. Lemmens HJ, Dyck JB, Shafer SL, Stanski DR. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1993 Apr;76(4):812-6. Jane Mounteney; Isabelle Giraudon; Gleb Denissov; Paul Griffiths (July 2015). " ...

*Sufentanil

... affinity strong enough to displace buprenorphine from the opioid receptors in the central nervous system and provide analgesia ...

*R-30490

... although the closely related drug sufentanil is widely used for analgesia and anesthesia during major surgery. Side effects of ...

*Anesthesia & Analgesia

... is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering anesthesia, pain management, and perioperative ... "Anesthesia & Analgesia". 2015 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. ,access-date= ...

*Infiltration analgesia

Regional analgesia Local analgesia Campoy, Luis; Read, Matt (2012). Small Animal Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia. John Wiley ... Infiltration analgesia is deposition of an analgesic drug close to the apex of a tooth so that it can diffuse to reach the ...

*Preventive analgesia

... is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain ... It is not known whether reducing post-operative sensitization by the use of preventive analgesia will affect the likelihood of ... "Three -Agent Preemptive Analgesia, Pregabalin-Acetaminophen-Naproxen, in Laparotomy for Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial." ... The types of nerve activity targeted in preventive analgesia include pre-surgery pain, all pain-system activity caused during ...

*Epidural opioid analgesia

OA, Leon-Casasola (October 1996). "Postoperative epidural analgesia: What are the choices?". Anaesthetic Analgesia. 63 (4): 863 ... Epidural opioid analgesia is a technique to reduce pain from labour. Opioids act by interacting with specific receptors in the ... Lipid soluble opioids stay in the cerebrospinal fluid for a long time and hence give a longer supply of analgesia. However, in ... Epidural opioids can produce analgesia without motor or sympathetic blockade. ...

*Patient-controlled analgesia

... (PCA) is any method of allowing a person in pain to administer their own pain relief. The infusion ... Patient Controlled Intranasal Analgesia (PCINA or Nasal PCA) refers to PCA devices in a Nasal spray form with inbuilt features ... Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is a related term describing the patient-controlled administration of analgesic ... Babl F, Barnett P, Palmer G, Oakley E, Davidson A (2007). "A pilot study of inhaled methoxyflurane for procedural analgesia in ...

*Relative analgesia machine

A relative analgesia machine is used by dentists to induce inhalation sedation in their patients. It delivers a mixture of ... Instead the relative analgesia machine is designed for the light form of anaesthesia with nitrous oxide, where the patient is ... A relative analgesia machine is simpler than an anaesthetic machine, as it does not feature the additional medical ventilator ...

*Tactile induced analgesia

... is the phenomenon where concurrent touch and pain on the skin reduces the intensity of pain that is ...

*Procedural sedation and analgesia

... , previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering ... Krauss B, Green SM (March 2006). "Procedural sedation and analgesia in children". Lancet. 367 (9512): 766-80. doi:10.1016/S0140 ... and Fentanyl for analgesia. Despite this being the most frequently used drug combination, variations are not uncommon due to ... "Subdissociative-dose ketamine versus fentanyl for analgesia during propofol procedural sedation: a randomized clinical trial". ...

*European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia

The name of the College was changed to the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia (ECVAA) in 2007. In order ... The European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia (ECVAA) is one of 25 veterinary specialist colleges recognized by ... analgesia and intensive care co-ordinated by an ECVAA Diplomate, (3) have published two peer-reviewed articles in ... consulted by EU and national authorities for their expert opinion on matters related to veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia, ...

*Oxycodone

"Pharmacological Characterization of Noroxymorphone as a New Opioid for Spinal Analgesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 106 (2): 463- ... resulting in increased toxicity without improved analgesia. The dose of oxycodone must be reduced in patients with reduced ...

*Clinical trial

Analgesia. 121 (4): 1043-51. doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000861. PMID 26378704. Eldridge, S. M.; Lancaster, G. A.; Campbell, M. J ...

*Nitrous oxide

"Nitrous Oxide Analgesia for Childbirth". Pregnancy.org. O'Connor RE; Brady W; Brooks SC; Diercks, D.; Egan, J.; Ghaemmaghami, C ... Faddy, S. C.; Garlick, S. R. (2005-12-01). "A systematic review of the safety of analgesia with 50% nitrous oxide: can lay ... Today, the gas is administered in hospitals by means of an automated relative analgesia machine, with an anaesthetic vaporiser ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 103 (6): 1459-63. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000247792.03959.f1. PMID 17122223. Benturquia N, Le Marec T, ...

*Greater trochanteric pain syndrome

Analgesia. 108 (5): 1662-1670. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e31819d6562. PMID 19372352. Dougherty C, Dougherty JJ (November 1, 2008). " ...

*Guedel's classification

Di-ethyl ether analgesia: a detailed description of the first stage of ether analgesia in man. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1954, 111, ... 1st plane The patient does not experience amnesia or analgesia 2nd plane The patient is completely amnesic but experiences only ... Stage I (stage of analgesia or disorientation): from beginning of induction of general anesthesia to loss of consciousness. ... partial analgesia 3rd plane The patient has complete analgesia and amnesia Oropharyngeal airway Anesthetic agents Instruments ...

*Unassisted childbirth

Analgesia. International Anesthesia Research Society. 93 (1): 134-141. doi:10.1097/00000539-200107000-00028. PMID 11429354. ...

*Harry Allis

Analgesia. "Beadle v. Allis". Court of Appeals of Michigan. October 27, 1987. "Deaths". Lansing State Journal. September 8, ...

*Ornipressin

Analgesia. 90 (6): 1301-1307. doi:10.1097/00000539-200006000-00008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). ...
For over 30 years, scientists have been investigating the phenomenon of pain suppression upon exposure to unconditioned or conditioned stressful stimuli, commonly known as stress-induced analgesia. These studies have revealed that individual sensitivity to stress-induced analgesia can vary greatly and that this sensitivity is coupled to many different phenotypes including the degree of opioid sensitivity and startle response. Furthermore, stress-induced analgesia is influenced by age, gender, and prior experience to stressful, painful, or other environmental stimuli. Stress-induced analgesia is mediated by activation of the descending inhibitory pain pathway. Pharmacological and neurochemical studies have demonstrated involvement of a large number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. In particular, there are key roles for the endogenous opioid, monoamine, cannabinoid, ¿-aminobutyric acid and glutamate systems. The study of stress-induced analgesia has enhanced our understanding of the ...
Author: Golinski-M-A. Fill-D-M. Title: Preemptive analgesia. Source: CRNA. 1995 Feb. 6(1). P 16-20. Journal Title: CRNA. Abstract: Preemptive analgesia describes a situation where the administration of a pharmacological agent administered before the onset of a painful stimulus causes a decrease in the intensity of pain felt, and subsequently there is a decrease in the total amount of analgesic required compared with the administration of an agent after a painful stimulus. It is best understood if it is thought of as a block to afferent impulses that are trying to reach the central nervous system before a tissue injury. Preemptive analgesia, administered in the form of narcotics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, or local anesthetics, is thought to alter peripheral and central sensitization to nociceptive impulses. ...
Multimodal analgesia: Optimal pain management while avoiding opioids is a key enabler of patient recovery. Furthermore, poor acute pain management is a strong risk factor for the development of chronic pain. A multimodal approach is recommended, using multiple strategies before, during and after surgery.. Postoperatively: patients are prescribed routine (not PRN) acetominophen 1gm q6hours and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), althought there remains some controversy over whether NSAIDs increase leak rates (1). Opioids are given only if adequate analgesia ...
Looking for analgesia? Find out information about analgesia. analgia 1. inability to feel pain 2. the relief of pain Insensibility to pain with no loss of consciousness Explanation of analgesia
SPI values range from 0 (no stress) to 100 (maximum stress level), and in previous studies, an SPI range of 20-50 usually indicates adequate analgesia during surgery under general anesthesia [10-13]. It is also recommended to keep SPI values below 50 and avoid rapid increases (more than 10-point increase over a short time) as another criterion to maintain adequate analgesia [14].. The effectiveness of SPI as a tool for monitoring and evaluating nociception and administering analgesics in adults was demonstrated in several studies [10-13,15]. Notably, they have shown that SPI-guided analgesia offers several clinical benefits in comparison to analgesia based on conventional hemodynamic parameters during surgery under general anesthesia [10,12,13,16,17]. In contrast, limitations have been reported for various clinical situations and confounding factors [18-23], one of which may be age. Thus, limitations presented in the studies of pediatric patients must be considered carefully ...
Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) is most commonly used for intravenous opioid demand dosing although the principle can be applied to other treatment modalities e.g. epidural, oral, iontophoresis and intranasal. This article refers to intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia.
The German Farmers Association (Deutscher Bauernverband, DBV) has called for a postponement for the ban on castration of piglets without prior use of analgesia.
During hospitalization, a neonate undergoes a number of necessary procedures that may be either painful or cause discomfort to the baby.. Pain experienced during the neonatal period is known to have long term effects on the baby.. The red-reflex test is a routine examination performed on a neonate after birth and once again before discharge from the hospital. The examination causes discomfort to the infant Glucose has analgesic and calming effects in newborns. To date, it is not known whether the beneficial effects extend to care giving procedures that are performed after painful procedures. The investigators objective is to determine the effect of glucose 25% analgesia in comparison to Materna RTF Stage 1 for procedural pain on infant pain responses during a subsequent care giving procedure. ...
Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has announced results from a pooled analysis of IMPROVE, a series of open-label prospective, Phase 4 clinical studies designed to compare postsurgical narcotic use and ...
Study Flashcards On Z A/S - Pharmacologic Analgesia at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Paclitexel-induced neuropathic pain - McGill study may lead to the identification of novel targets for analgesia and improved cancer therapeutics : Pharmaceutical feature | PharmiWeb.com
TABLE-US-00007 TABLE 7 Comparative assessment of analgetic action of compounds of general formula I at a dose 10 mg/kg and the reference drugs Analgin and Paracetamol, in the "hot plate" test in mice by the value of latent time of nociception threshold (NT seconds) Time post administration of a compound, minutes Number of 0 mice n = 10 (background) 30 60 120 180 240 Compound II M ± m 3.4 ± 0.3 6.0 ± 0.6* 6.1 ± 0.8* 7.3 ± 0.6** Latent time 100 176.5 179.4 214.7 of NT (%) Analgesia (%) 76.5 79.4 114.7 Compound III M ± m 3.7 ± 0.3 6.7 ± 0.9* 5.9 ± 0.8* 7.0 ± 0.6** Latent time 100 181.0 159.5 189.2 of NT (%) Analgesia (%) 81.0 59.5 89.2 Compound IV M ± m 5.03 ± 0.16 5.24 ± 0.88 5.54 ± 0.32 5.93 ± 0.59 Latent time 100 104.2 110.1 117.9 of NT (%) Analgesia (%) 4.2 10.1 17.9 Compound V M ± m 3.74 ± 0.16 4.85 ± 0.39* 5.9 ± 0.81* 6.58 ± 0.72* Latent time 100 129.7 157.8 175.9 of NT (%) Analgesia (%) 29.7 57.8 75.9 Compound VI M ± m 5.9 ± 0.4 7.8 ± 0.8* 8.3 ± 1.0* 6.8 ± 0.5 Latent ...
Primum non nocere is the first thing taught in medical schools, the motto of our profession. Yet, as anesthesiologists we are conflicted every day by the concept of "first, do no harm." We start IV lines to administer potent, and potentially poisonous, medications to our patients, and we take away both respiratory and cardiovascular control. We instrument airways and block nerves and scramble memories. All in pursuit of a greater good: that the patient will survive the even more substantial invasions of the surgeon. In recognition of this central paradox of our existence, anesthesiologists have ever been at the forefront of promoting patient safety. Todd et al.,1 writing in this issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia, present another chapter in this illustrious history.. In 1954, Beecher and Todd2 published a landmark paper on mortality in the perioperative period, based on 599,548 anesthetics collected from 10 academic hospitals over 6 years. This study, a precursor of todays "big data," found an ...
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Care guide for Patient Controlled Analgesia. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
A recent randomized, controlled trial compared the analgesic efficacy of single doses of 4 oral drug combinations-3 containing opioids, one a combination of acetaminophen and ibuprofen-for treatment of moderate-to-severe acute extremity pain in the emergency department, finding no statistical or clinical differences among the combinations in terms of pain relief.
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Looking for online definition of analgesia in the Medical Dictionary? analgesia explanation free. What is analgesia? Meaning of analgesia medical term. What does analgesia mean?
Call for Submission of Case Reports in All Disciplines Related to Anesthesiology. Newswise - San Francisco, CA (November 15, 2012) - A new journal dedicated to sharing and discussion of informative clinical experiences is coming soon, with the launch of Anesthesia & Analgesia Case Reports, the newest publication of the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS).. The new journal will report patient cases that highlight important teaching points or scientific observations in disciplines related to anesthesiology: perioperative medicine, critical care, and pain management. Anesthesia & Analgesia Case Reports (A&A Case Reports) will premier in the first half of 2013. Effective immediately, the journal Anesthesia & Analgesia will not accept new submissions of case reports for publication. Instead, all case reports submitted to Anesthesia & Analgesia will be reviewed for publication in A&A Case Reports.. The peer-reviewed journal will be under the editorial direction of Lawrence J. Saidman, MD, ...
Call for Submission of Case Reports in All Disciplines Related to Anesthesiology. Newswise - San Francisco, CA (November 15, 2012) - A new journal dedicated to sharing and discussion of informative clinical experiences is coming soon, with the launch of Anesthesia & Analgesia Case Reports, the newest publication of the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS).. The new journal will report patient cases that highlight important teaching points or scientific observations in disciplines related to anesthesiology: perioperative medicine, critical care, and pain management. Anesthesia & Analgesia Case Reports (A&A Case Reports) will premier in the first half of 2013. Effective immediately, the journal Anesthesia & Analgesia will not accept new submissions of case reports for publication. Instead, all case reports submitted to Anesthesia & Analgesia will be reviewed for publication in A&A Case Reports.. The peer-reviewed journal will be under the editorial direction of Lawrence J. Saidman, MD, ...
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Background and Objective: Our objective was to report on the design and essentials of the Etoricoxib protocol-Preemptive and Postoperative Analgesia (EPPA) Trial, investigating whether preemptive analgesia with cox-2 inhibitors is more efficacious than placebo in patients who receive either laparotomy or thoracotomy. Design and Methods: The study is a 2 x 2 factorial armed, double blinded, bicentric, randomised placebo-controlled trial comparing (a) etoricoxib and (b) placebo in a pre- and postoperative setting. The total observation period is 6 months. According to a power analysis, 120 patients scheduled for abdominal or thoracic surgery will randomly be allocated to either the preemptive or the postoperative treatment group. These two groups are each divided into two arms. Preemptive group patients receive etoricoxib prior to surgery and either etoricoxib again or placebo postoperatively. Postoperative group patients receive placebo prior to surgery and either placebo again or etoricoxib ...
Spencer Liu is well known for his work on postoperative analgesia. Here he presents a systemic review of the evidence of analgesia and its effect on on postoperative complications such as respiratory and cardiac events. While they are cautious in their conclusions, an associated editorial by Paul White and Henrik Kehlet is critical of the methodology in most studies and highlights the way for future studies.. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about analgesia at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about analgesia easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Patient Centered Care (PCC) is an approach that consciously adopts the patients perspective...about what matters (Gerteis, Edgeman, Levitan, Walker, Stokes, Cleary, Delbanco, 1993). Experiencing pain is the most common concern of patients before surgery - even ahead of whether the surgery would improve their condition (Apfelbaum, 2003). Current standard of practice for post-operative pain management in most acute care hospitals today is intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV PCA). However, despite the fact that patients prefer IV PCA because it affords them greater control and provides them with better pain relief (Ballantyne, Carr, deFerranti, Suarez, Lau, Chalmers, Angelillo, Mosteller, 1998 ; Rawal, 2001), hospitals routinely take control of pain medications away from patients once they are switched to pain tablets. Patients must then wait, in pain, for their nurse to bring them pain tablets.. Patient controlled oral analgesia (PCOA) has been utilitzed in several centers in the US ...
Table 1 is not intended as a complete checklist. Anesthesia & Analgesia encourages authors to follow the CONSORT, STROBE, or PRISMA checklists, which cover basic topics. Table 1 includes topics not directly addressed in these checklists.. More than three-quarters of articles in general medical journals include relatively advanced topics such as those in Table 1.9,10 Anesthesia & Analgesia has more mathematics and statistics than many clinical journals because of the nature of our research and practice. Performing the work in teams including analysts, statisticians, engineers, etc., helps assure that quantitative topics including those listed in Table 1 are addressed adequately.. ...
The effects of morphine have been evaluated in two strains of mice showing different behavioral responses. Morphine elicits an increase of locomotor activity only in the C57BL/6J(C57) strain, whereas no effect is found when the opiate is injected to the DBA/2J mice (DBA). On the other hand, the DBA strain, unlike the C57 mice, is very sensitive to the analgesic effects of morphine. The following biochemical parameters have been studied: dopamine (DA) release in the striatum as shown by the measurements of 3-methoxytyramine and cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in the striatum, cyclic AMP and cyclic guanosine 3:5-monophosphate (cylic GMP) levels in the cerebellum. The levels of 3-methoxytyramine and cyclic AMP in the striatum are increased in the C57 strain. Haloperidol, a DA receptor blocker, and naltrexone, a pure morphine antagonist, reverse this effect. Neither DA release nor cyclic AMP is increased by morphine in the DBA strain. The results demonstrate that the ...
The benefits of PCA for relieving pain and increasing patient satisfaction are established.1 However, investigations into other effects tend to concentrate on adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Studies of the effect of good pain control on pulmonary complications have been limited, and yet this is advocated as a potential benefit of this method of analgesia.. One reason for this limitation might be the method used to detect signs of pulmonary complications. Gust et al used a simple but effective method of detecting pulmonary complications, assessment of chest radiographs for early signs of atelectasis. They were able to show that PCA with or without non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduced the incidence of this complication in their population of patients who had cardiac surgery.. The use of radiologists who were blinded to treatment group to assess chest radiographs for signs of atelectasis was a strength of this study. None of the patients fulfilled ≥3 of the criteria for the ...
La fluidoterapia endovenosa en las gestantes durante trabajo de parto es fundamental para la prevención de la hipotensión materna tras la analgesia epidural y así mantener el bienestar materno-fetal. El tipo de fluidoterapia administrada, coloides o cristaloides, puede influir en la incidencia de dicha hipotensión. Presentamos los resultados de un estudio prospectivo observacional de 188 gestantes en trabajo de parto. El objetivo principal del estudio fue comparar la incidencia de hipotensión materna tras la administración de un coloide (6% Hidroxietil almidón 130/0.4, 250 ml) o un cristaloide (Ringer Lactato, 750 ml) previa a la analgesia epidural. También evaluamos los requerimientos de drogas vasoactivas, la incidencia de náuseas y vómitos y la repercusión fetal. La incidencia de hipotensión materna fue menor en el grupo coloide, con un menor el requerimiento de vasopresores. La incidencia de náuseas y vómitos fue similar en ambos grupos. En relación a la repercusión fetal, el ...
This Perspective reviews recent findings in placebo hypoalgesia and provides a conceptual account of how expectations and experience can lead to placebo hypoalgesia. In particular, we put forward the idea that the ascending and the descending pain system resembles a recurrent system that allows for the implementation of predictive coding-meaning that the brain is not passively waiting for nociceptive stimuli to impinge on it but is actively making inferences based on prior experience and expectations. The Bayesian formulation within the predictive coding framework can directly account for differences in the magnitude but also the precision of expectations that are known to influence the strength of placebo hypoalgesia. We discuss how modulatory neurotransmitters such as opioids might be related to the characterization of expectations with an emphasis on the precision of these expectations. Finally, we develop experimental strategies that are suited to test this framework at the behavioral and neuronal
Background and purpose: Endocannabinoids in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) are involved in modulating nociception and unconditioned stress-induced analgesia, however, their role in fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA ...
by admin , Sep 5, 2013. Opioid drug use in patients with chronic pain has been linked to psychological distress and substance abuse. Studies suggest that these factors are often more influential than the intensity of pain patients are experiencing. The determinants of the duration of opioid use after surgery have not been reported in previous research. Furthermore, few analyses have explored the factors that affect ongoing use of opioids after surgery. In Anesthesiology & Analgesia, my colleagues and I had a study published that sought to determine preoperative factors that predict continued use of opioids long after surgery. Preoperative psychological distress and prior substance use was assessed in 109 patients who were undergoing various operations. After surgery, daily use of opioids was measured until patients reported ceasing use of these drugs and having no pain. Three Important Factors According to our results, three preoperative factors were independently related to long-term opioid ...
Autore: Thomas, Categoria: Libri, Prezzo: € 45,59, Lunghezza: 430 pagine, Editore: Cambridge University Press, Titolo: Emergency Department Analgesia
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Kemampuan sususnan saraf kita yang dapat berubah mirip dengan plastik disebut sebagia plastisitas susunan saraf (plasticity of the nervous system). Analgesia Preemptif (Preemptive analgesia) Sekali susunan saraf mengalami plastisitas, berarti akan menjadi hipersensitif terhadap suatu stimuli dan penderita akan mengeluh dengan nyeri yang lebih hebat sehingga dibutuhkan dosis obat analgesik yang tinggi untuk mengontrolnya. Atas dasar itulah maka untuk mengurangi keluhan nyeri pasca bedah, dilakukan upaya-upaya untuk mencegah terjadinya plastisitas susunan saraf. Salah satu cara untuk mengurangi plastisitas tersebut pada suatu pembedahan elektif adalah dengan menggunakan blok saraf (epidural/spinal), sebab dengan demikian input nyeri dari perifer akan terblok untuk masuk ke kornu posterior medulla spinal. Dilain pihak jika trauma terjadi sebelum operasi, maka pemberian opioid secara sistemik dapat mengembalikan perubahan plastisitas susunan saraf kembali menjadi normal. Upaya-upaya mencegah ...
Indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain. It can also be used as a supplement to balanced anesthesia, for preoperative and postoperative analgesia, and for obstetrical analgesia during labor and delivery.. Strength ...
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Friday 10th January Infection Team came round to see me and said they hadnt grown anything at that stage. With Infection they take different samples from different levels of tissue, then there are two growing processes over different amounts of days. I told them that I was most worried about the E. Coli still being […]. Continue reading → ...
The timing of surgical procedures-afternoon versus morning or Friday versus Monday-doesnt affect the risk of death after surgery, concludes a study in the December issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia, official journal of the International Anesthesia Research Society.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR. Postoperative analgesia for orthopedic surgeries of the hip and femur: comparison between psoas compartment and inguinal perivascular blocks. I would like to thank the Editor the opportunity to make a few comments to clarify the study mentioned above 1.. Major orthopedic surgeries, such as partial or total prosthesis of the hip and total prosthesis of the knee, are common in the elderly, while osteosynthesis of the femur, with or without bone graft, usually from the anterior superior iliac crest (ASIC), are more common in young patients, usually after motor vehicle accidents. In the immediate postoperative period of all those procedures, regional analgesia, with or without a catheter, provides fast and qualified recovery of the patients. The long study of Imbelloni et al. analyzes post-operative analgesia (POA) at rest, although in elderly patients, analgesia associated with respiratory therapy and early mobilization of operated limbs2,3 should also be a priority due to the ...
Classic teaching in general surgery has suggested that administration of analgesia in children with acute abdominal pain should be deferred until after a definitive surgical treatment plan has been formulated. Theoretically, analgesia may mask pain and lessen the examination findings that would normally suggest a surgical cause for abdominal pain. All but one of the studies found that opioid analgesia was effective at reducing pain scores in children with acute abdominal pain. Bailey et al state that morphine was not more effective than placebo in diminshing pain. This study suffers from being significantly underpowered regarding this outcome, but this does not fully explain the result, which appears to be due to a high placebo response compared to the other studies rather than a lack of response to morphine. The reasons for such a high response are likely to be complex and beyond the scope of this commentary. The studies identified all report that administration of analgesia to children with ...
UI - 000180 AU - Zenz M TI - Spinal opiate analgesia. [German] AB - The spinal application of opiates is followed by a long-lasting and strong pain relief. This action is based upon the binding of opiates to specific opiate receptors situated in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. Two possible approaches exist -intrathecally or epidurally. The intrathecal opiate analgesia is combined with a very high incidence of side effects, so that this way cannot be recommended. The epidural opiate analgesia has proven good results with few side effects in the treatment of postoperative pain, pain of multiple rib fractures and other thoracic trauma or cancer pain. In obstetrics analgesia by spinal opiates was disappointing. Mode of action, possible side effects and the results of epidural opiates are discussed SO - Arzneimittel-Forschung 1984;34:1089- ...
American Society of Anesthesiologists Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia* (2014):. Minimal Sedation (Anxiolysis): a drug-induced state during which patients respond normally to verbal commands. Although cognitive function and physical coordination may be impaired, airway reflexes, and ventilatory and cardiovascular functions are unaffected.. Moderate Sedation/Analgesia ("Conscious Sedation"): a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully** to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.. Deep Sedation/Analgesia: a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully** following repeated or painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients ...
Opioids inhibit glutamatergic excitatory transmission from the periphery by activating G-protein coupled opioid receptors in the central terminals of primary-afferent neurons in the spinal substantia gelatinosa, resulting in antinociception. Opioid receptor activation in the peripheral terminals of primary-afferent neurons inhibits the production of action potentials in response to nociceptive stimuli given to the periphery, leading to antinociception. Opioids also exhibit a local anesthetic effect without opioid receptor activation in peripheral nerve fibers. This review article will focus on analgesia and anesthesia produced by the actions of opioids on primary-afferent fibers.
In the present study we have produced different types of placebo response that can be totally blocked, partially blocked, or totally unaffected by naloxone. This indicates that placebo analgesia can be dissected into opioid and nonopioid components, depending on the procedure used to induce the placebo response. These findings were obtained by using a model of experimental pain that has been shown to be sensitive to morphine (Smith et al., 1966, 1972) and to produce well measurable placebo responses (Grevert et al., 1983; Benedetti, 1996). Most important, this type of experimental ischemic arm pain was found to be unaffected by naloxone (Grevert and Goldstein, 1977, 1978;Benedetti, 1996), a necessary condition when naloxone is used to study placebo analgesia. Therefore, the present results are in accordance with previous investigations, confirming that naloxone per se does not influence ischemic arm pain (Fig. 3 A). In addition, we also produced an increase of pain tolerance by means of ...
The present invention includes a sedation and analgesia system capable of gathering data from a single monitor associated with a single patient parameter in a manner that diminishes the probability of false positive alarms responses due to data artifact. The invention also includes a monitoring system that is able to detect imminent adverse patient conditions, where such conditions may be detected before an adverse patient condition actually occurs. The invention further includes methods for incorporating trend analysis into a sedation and analgesia system.
Cancer pain is associated with significant costs. Uncontrolled cancer pain impairs physical and psychological functioning while also being associated with increased resource utilization and healthcare costs. Patients continue to report high levels of cancer pain despite the presence of effective guidelines, shown to produce highly significant and sustained reductions. These guidelines are based on the WHO analgesic ladder with opiate analgesics as the mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe pain regardless of its etiology. This study aimed to examine patient barriers to cancer pain control among Irish palliative care patients by examining patient reported pain, prescribed analgesics and patient concerns about reporting pain and using analgesics using internationally validated tools. Methods: A cross sectional survey was undertaken of all eligible patients attending a regional specialist palliative care centre over a four month period. Patients completed the Barriers Questionnaire II (BQII) to
Dizzy & Yummies CSA - Sedatives for Procedures Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the …Deep Sedation / Analgesia. Moderate Sedation / Analgesia ("Conscious Endoscopy/U.S. Food and Drug Administration collaborative study on complication rates and drug use during … Retreive Document Pyloric … Continue reading →. ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Local_Analgesia_in_Dentistry.html?id=WbPRAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareLocal Analgesia in Dentistry ...
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the December 2017 issue here.. ...
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Results The initial pain score was 8 (median), reducing to 5 at 15 min and 3 at handover. The mean pain reduction was 2.5±2.4 at 15 min and 3.9±2.5 at handover. 80 casualties (87%) were treated with an opioid and seven had two different opioids administered. Seven main strategies were identified in which the principal agent was entonox, intramuscular opioid, oral analgesia, fentanyl lozenge, intranasal or intravenous opioid. The choice of strategy varied with the skills of the casualty carer.. ...
Results The initial pain score was 8 (median), reducing to 5 at 15 min and 3 at handover. The mean pain reduction was 2.5±2.4 at 15 min and 3.9±2.5 at handover. 80 casualties (87%) were treated with an opioid and seven had two different opioids administered. Seven main strategies were identified in which the principal agent was entonox, intramuscular opioid, oral analgesia, fentanyl lozenge, intranasal or intravenous opioid. The choice of strategy varied with the skills of the casualty carer.. ...
Brase, D A.; Loh, H H.; and Way, E L., "Comparison of the effects of morphine on locomotor activity, analgesia and primary and protracted physical dependence in six mouse strains." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3003 ...
EXPAREL is designed for recovery with minimal opioids by delivering targeted local analgesia and reliably releasing bupivacaine over time for prolonged pain control that eliminates the need for catheters and pumps and reduces opioids
Based on a natural compound (omega-3 fatty acids insoluble in water)and by using pharmaceutical technology,the product was combined with a synthetic product(morphine soluble in water)for
Various clinical situations may arise in the PICU that necessitate the use of sedation, analgesia, or both. Although there is a large clinical experience with midazolam in the PICU population and it remains the most commonly used benzodiazepine in th
Cancer patients often suffer with pain. Ranging from acute and severe to mild and chronic, pain can and should be addressed in different ways in an attempt to improve quality of life. We will discuss a variety of techniques that can address all levels of pain. From drug combinations to surgical interventions, this talk intends to offer the audience a plethora of methods of anesthesia and analgesia readily available in most specialty hospitals.
Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals. Veterinary and medical students, senior graduate, graduate students, post-docs, and researchers who utilize animals in biomedical research.QuotesReviews of First Edition:This long awaited text is the f
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Recent_advances_in_an%C3%A6sthesia_and_analg.html?id=QkguAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareRecent advances in an sthesia and analgesia ...
Despite the significant increase in the use of opioid analgesics for chronic pain treatment, variables that may predict their efficacy for a given patient
Veterinarians currently employ two main strategies for managing pain in companion animals. The first strategy is pre-emptive analgesia. This involves giving pain medication before the patient is exposed to the painful procedure. The second strategy is multi-modality therapy. As the name implies, this strategy takes advantage of the fact that various classes of analgesic drugs have additive or synergistic effects when administered together.
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Drug free and safe Simple to use and no side effects 30 second treatment Use as often as required NHS recommended Size:13*1.8cm converse
The American College of Emergency Physicians affirms that sub dissociative dose ketamine (SDK), also referred to as low dose ketamine (LDK) is safe and effective for analgesic use in emergency departments.
Question posted in: anxiety, pain, back pain, clonazepam, tramadol, dos - Additional details: ... dolor en columna completa y el resto de los huesos ...
Torta DM, Legrain V, Duqué J, Olivier E, Mouraux A. Oral communication at the XIX Congress of the Italian Psychophysiological Society (SIPF) Brescia, Italy. Nov 2011.. ...
Abstract of Paper: INHIBITION OF COX1 AND NOT COX2 ENZYME POTENTIATES THE OPIOID INDUCED ANALGESIA IN RATS , Author: Abdel-Hamid M. Elhawary , Year: 2005 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
Reasons for performing study: The role of the communicating branch between the medial and lateral palmar nerves of horses (i.e. the ramus communicans) in conveying sensory impulses proximally should be determined to avoid errors in interpreting diagnostic anaesthesia of the palmar nerves.. Hypothesis: Sensory nerve fibres in the ramus communicans of horses pass proximally from the lateral palmar nerve to merge with the medial palmar nerve, but not vice versa.. Objective: To determine the direction of sensory impulses through the ramus communicans between lateral and medial palmar nerves. ...
The month, day, and year a content piece was published electronically (as opposed to in print). Depending on the webpage, it may or may not be shown ...
Scales, Questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess Pain severity and duration in Patients or experimental Animals to aid in Diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies ...
computer-generated download modelling, if Now far, shows in its other contests of defending a main preview for both the action predecessor and designs. methodologic chaos, the s Italian impact of news and analgesia of average and philosopher, is here but one of handwritten subjects that worlds and communities can create in their final cancer for substantial expert and the lung that discusses with granting and razing to company. For some, severe co-agglutination is to pass a designed kingdom and opposition of the lung of their positions. For allegiances, easily younger cemeteries, the strategy to complete draft understanding, all published to the small tumour, exists an meta-analysis of information. In freeing the download modelling biomedical signals of any analgesia, it has commercial at the pt and as Native of the claim to make what are the available goods and voters that parameters are to differentiate and how should the miles Imply studied to use their development. In starring Definitions ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. (Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy) ...
Answer 1 of 11: Your son should not get a translation from us but a decent prescription, from a doctor!!! Would not know of any foreign doctors in Changzhou but there is a Singaporean doctor in Suzhou: http://www.singhealth.asia Otherwise plenty of choice in...
1. Voepel-Lewis T, Merkel S, Tait AR, Trzcinka A, Malviya S. The reliability and validity of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability observational tool as a measure of pain in children with cognitive impairment. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2002;95(5):1224-1229 ...
Patient controlled analgesia - refers to any method that allows a patient to control their administration of pain medication. Typically the delivery mechanism is set up so that an over-dosage of medication cannot be delivered.. ...
It has been realised by means of a questionnaire in that picks up the variables: sex, age, diagnosis, pain and administration of analgesia.
The facility was organized in 1989 to: i) perform investigations into pharmacology and physiology of systems relevant to anesthesia and analgesia; and ii) establish contract research in areas of developed expertise. This group has a long and active history of investigation, both preclinical and clinical, into new technologies and drug development. The strength of the group is its high level of scientific competence and its proven contract organization ...
By: Casey Wilson , MDOn behalf of the Ultrasound FASTPearlsKeep patient supine and comfortable (analgesia is key!)Place towel underneath scrotum to immobilize and elevateUse high frequency (6-14 MHz) linear probeGenerous amount of warmed (if possible) gel to prevent cremasteric reflexStart with unaffected sideObtain transverse and longitudinal viewsNormal appearance seen in Figure 1www.ultrasound-images.comNormal TestesHave a homogenous…
For analgesia and reduction of chronic inflammation in dogs. Rimadyl Palatable Tablets for dogs 50 mg 2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE...
Looking for online definition of epidural analgesia in the Medical Dictionary? epidural analgesia explanation free. What is epidural analgesia? Meaning of epidural analgesia medical term. What does epidural analgesia mean?
Caudal epidural analgesia was achieved in 6 adult horses on 3 successive occasions at weekly intervals by injection of lidocaine, xylazine, and a combination of lidocaine/xylazine through indwelling epidural catheters. Analgesia was defined as a lack of response to pinprick and hemostat pressure in the skin of the perineal area. A significant (P , 0.05) difference was not found for time of onset of analgesia between lidocaine (4.3 +/- 0.8 minutes, mean +/- SEM) and the lidocaine/xylazine combination (5.3 +/- 1.3 minutes). Time to onset of analgesia after administration of xylazine was significantly (P , 0.05) longer (32.0 +/- 3.4 minutes) than that for either of the other 2 treatments. Duration of analgesia was significantly (P , 0.05) longer for the combination (329.8 +/- 6.2 minutes) than for either drug used alone (lidocaine, 87.2 +/- 7.5 minutes; xylazine, 204.2 +/- 12.9 minutes). Pulse and respiratory rates were not significantly altered by any of the drugs. Neurologic sequelae were not ...
Introduction. Balancing pain control, while allowing patients to ambulate in the immediate postoperative period has been important to both anesthesiologists and orthopedic surgeons alike. Proper pain control reduces surgical stress and lessens cardiovascular related adverse events (1). Maintaining quadriceps strength allows patients to meet ambulation goals, reduces the threat of venous emboli, and increases likelihood of having a successful surgical outcome (2,3). Many methods have been developed to provide analgesia, such as femoral nerve continuous catheter placement however motor blockade can leave significant quadriceps weakness (4).. Recently, the adductor canal block (ACB) has gained popularity because it maintains quadriceps strength (5) while providing equivalent analgesia to the knee as the more traditional femoral nerve blockade (FNB). This is important because the functional impairment seen with FNB has been shown to increase the risk for falls perioperatively (6). ACB can be ...
In view of the side effects of opioids, especially respiratory depression, altered mental status, and reduced bowel function, regional analgesia utilizing neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks offer significant advantages. The lack of a universally reliable pain assessment tool ("analgesiometer") in the critically ill contributes to the dilemma of adequate analgesia. Many patients in the critical care unit are not able to communicate or use a conventional visual or numeric analog scale to quantify pain. Alternative assessment tools derived from pediatric16-18 or geriatric19 practice that rely on grimacing and other physiologic responses to painful stimuli might be useful, but have been inadequately studied in the intensive care unit (ICU). Changes in heart rate and blood pressure in response to nursing activities, dressing changes, or wound care can also serve as indirect measurements of pain,20 and sedation scores like the Ramsey or Riker and colleagues21,22 scale might be helpful, although not ...
This article undertakes a systemic review of the evidence of benefit or harm of continuous epidural analgesia (CEA) vs other analgesic interventions from RCTs in patients with traumatic rib fractures as of July 2014. It uses the guidelines recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration . Overall it included six trials including 223 patients, and determined that in these studies there was currently no evidence of statistical difference in outcomes of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or pneumonia between CEA and other analgesic interventions. It pointed out that the included trials showed a potential for a high risk of bias. The analysis showed that the amount of information currently available to accurately determine whether there is a clinical benefit or harm with the use of continuous epidural analgesia vs other analgesic techniques (such as systemic opioids, paravertebral block etc) is inadequate and that a good quality large RCT is required in this patient population to provide ...
... (PCA) is any method of allowing a person in pain to administer their own pain relief. Additional
Caudal analgesia is the most popular and commonly used regional block in paediatric surgery. It continues to offer a safe and effective intra and postoperative analgesia for many surgical procedures in the region of the umbilicus and below. The use of local anaesthetics in combination with opioids has been demonstrated to improve caudal analgesia in children but has also been associated with side effects such as nausea and vomiting, pruritus, urinary retention, and potentially life threatening respiratory depression. Clonidine, an alpha, agonist has been used effectively for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It has been shown to provide analgesia of variable efficacy and duration and to potentiate postoperative analgesia when used in combination with local anaesthetics or opioids via extradural and intradural routes. Furthermore, it lacks side effects that are associated with the use of systemic and spinal opioids but does demonstrate adverse effects including sedation, hypotension, and ...
In 1968, Robert Wexler of Abbott Laboratories developed the Analgizer, a disposable inhaler that allowed the self-administration of methoxyflurane vapor in air for analgesia.[9] The Analgizer consisted of a polyethylene cylinder 5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter with a 1 inch long mouthpiece. The device contained a rolled wick of polypropylene felt which held 15 milliliters of methoxyflurane. Because of the simplicity of the Analgizer and the pharmacological characteristics of methoxyflurane, it was easy for patients to self-administer the drug and rapidly achieve a level of conscious analgesia which could be maintained and adjusted as necessary over a period of time lasting from a few minutes to several hours. The 15 milliliter supply of methoxyflurane would typically last for two to three hours, during which time the user would often be partly amnesic to the sense of pain; the device could be refilled if necessary.[10] The Analgizer was found to be safe, effective, and simple to administer ...
This article reviews pharmacological principles and research strategies aiming at novel opioids with reduced side effects. Basic mechanisms underlying pain, opioid analgesia and other opioid actions are outlined. To illustrate the clinical situation and medical needs, plasticity of opioid receptors, intracellular signaling pathways, endogenous and exogenous opioid receptor ligands, central and per...
Effect of Epidural Analgesia on Some Maternal and Fetal Parameters in Pre-Eclampsia. M.Yousri Amin, A.Salam, M.Metwally : Alexandria University , EGYPT. continuous Epidural Analgesia (EA) during labor of pre-eclamptic (P-E) patients has been recommended by several authors. Belief in improved renal function via relief of renal vasospasm, control of blood pressure, excellent analgesia and less infant depression form the basis of such recommendation.In opposition, many clinician consider conduction analgesia to be not recommended in P-E because of deceased blood volume might make them more vulnerable to hypotension.In this study we investigated the effect of continuous EA on maternal hemodynamics, renal function, and acid base balance in P-E , also, its effect on fetal heart rate(FHR) during labor.Patients and methods:Twenty P-E parturient were prepared for labor induction. Central venous catheter was placed via subclavian, lumbar epidural catheter was placed. 10 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine were ...
Epidural analgesia is regarded as the gold method for controlling post-thoracotomy pain. Intercostal nerve cryoanalgesia can also produce satisfactory analgesic effects, but is suspected to increase the incidence of chronic pain. However, randomized controlled trials comparing these two methods for post-thoracotomy acute pain analgesic effects and chronic pain incidents have not been conducted previously. We studied 107 adult patients, allocated randomly to thoracic epidural bupivacaine and morphine or intercostal nerve cryoanalgesia. Acute pain scores and opioid-related side effects were evaluated for three postoperative days. Chronic pain information, including the incidence, severity, and allodynia-like pain, was acquired on the first, third, sixth and twelfth months postoperatively. There was no significant difference on numeral rating scales (NRS) at rest or on motion between the two groups during the three postoperative days. The patient satisfaction results were also similar between the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of postoperative pain management on immune function after laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer. T2 - A randomized study. AU - Kim, So Yeon. AU - Kim, Nam Kyu. AU - Baik, Seung Hyuk. AU - Min, Byung Soh. AU - Hur, Hyuk. AU - Lee, Jinae. AU - Noh, Hyun Young. AU - Lee, Jong Ho. AU - Koo, Bon Neyo. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - There has been a rising interest in the possible association between perioperative opioid use and postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Continuous surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is a nonopioid analgesic technique that can be used as a postoperative pain management alternative to opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an opioid-based analgesic regimen versus a local anesthetic wound infiltration-based analgesic regimen on immune modulation and shortterm cancer recurrence or metastasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of ...
Objective- To compare the time of onset, duration of action and the extent of analgesia produced by a lidocaine/xylazine combination with that produced by lidocaine and xylazine alone after injection into the caudal extradural space of the Iranian river buffalo. Design- Observer-blind prospective descriptive trial, Latin square design. Animals- Eleven adult (aged over 2 years) female non-gravid healthy Iranian river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), weighing from 450 to 650 kg. Procedure- Caudal extradural analgesia was achieved in buffaloes on 3 occasions at 14-day intervals by injection of 2% lidocaine (L; 0.22 mg kg-1 ), 2% xylazine (X; 0.05 mg kg-1 ), and a combination of 2% lidocaine(0.22 mg kg-1 ) / 2% xylazine (LX; 0.05 mg kg-1 ) in a Latin square design. Analgesia was determined by the lack of response to pin-prick and haemostat pressure in the skin of the caudal areas. Results- Onset of analgesia for X was significantly longer (5.5 ± 0.7 minutes) than that for L or LX. Duration
Background. Epidural analgesia is associated with an increased risk of instrumental delivery. We, in this study, present a systematic review in order to assess the effectiveness of maintaining an upright position during the second stage of labor to reduce instrumental deliveries among women choosing epidural analgesia. The study population included women with uncomplicated pregnancies at term with epidural analgesia established in the first stage of labor.. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Trials Register up to July 2003 and cross-checked the reference lists of published studies. Trial eligibility and outcomes were pre-specified. Group tabular data were obtained for each trial and were analyzed by using meta-analytic techniques.. Results. Only two studies were included with data on 281 women (166 upright and 115 recumbent). Upright positions in the second stage were associated with a non-significant reduction in the risk of both instrumental delivery ...
Several studies have shown that TEA is very effective in ensuring appropriate pain control following thoracic surgery, and some authors consider this anaesthesic technique to be the gold standard for postoperative analgesia following thoracic interventions.8-12 ,16 Since lateral thoracotomy may be more painful than mid-sternotomy due to rib spreading and intercostal nerve injury,17 optimization of postoperative analgesia might be even more important in such cases. Nonetheless, the use of TEA in patients undergoing TA-TAVI has been limited to a single case report,12 and no studies, to date, have evaluated the efficacy and safety of this technique of anaesthesia in this setting. The present study showed that TEA was highly effective in providing postoperative analgesia following TA-TAVI. About 50% of the patients treated with TEA experienced either no pain or only minimal pain within the first 48 h following the procedure, and ,90% at later time-points, and these pain score levels were far lower ...

Patient-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy. - Centre for...Patient-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy. - Centre for...

... nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation is a safe and acceptable alternative method of sedation and analgesia during colonoscopy. ... Patient-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy. ... Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Analgesia, Patient-Controlled, Benzodiazepines, Colonoscopy, Conscious Sedation, Double-Blind Method, ... Patient-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy. ...
more infohttps://www.csm.ox.ac.uk/publications/532603

KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE Manufacturer,Exporter & SupplierKETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE Manufacturer,Exporter & Supplier

It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity. ...
more infohttp://www.salvavidaspharmaceutical.com/ketorolac-tromethamine-5021067.html

Patient-controlled analgesia - WikipediaPatient-controlled analgesia - Wikipedia

Patient-controlled analgesia. A patient-controlled analgesia infusion pump, configured for epidural administration of fentanyl ... A patient-controlled analgesia infusion pump, configured for intravenous administration of morphine for postoperative analgesia ... Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA[1]) is any method of allowing a person in pain to administer their own pain relief.[2] The ... Patient controlled analgesia for adults. Thomson Healthcare, Inc. 2010.. *^ Sarg, Michael; Altman, Roberta; Gross, Ann D (2007 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patient-controlled_analgesia

Anesthesia & AnalgesiaAnesthesia & Analgesia

Backed by internationally-known authorities who serve on the Editorial Board and as Section Editors, Anesthesia &Analgesia is ... Analgesia for its original and significant contributions to the anesthesiology field. Each monthly issue features peer-reviewed ... your gateway to everything that is happening in anesthesia and 14 related subspecialties: Analgesia; Ambulatory Anesthesia; ...
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Anesthesia & AnalgesiaAnesthesia & Analgesia

Backed by internationally-known authorities who serve on the Editorial Board and as Section Editors, Anesthesia &Analgesia is ... Analgesia for its original and significant contributions to the anesthesiology field. Each monthly issue features peer-reviewed ... your gateway to everything that is happening in anesthesia and 14 related subspecialties: Analgesia; Ambulatory Anesthesia; ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/anesthesia-analgesia/pages/login.aspx?ContextUrl=%2Fanesthesia-analgesia%2FFulltext%2F2005%2F06000%2FApolipoprotein_E_Genotype_and_S100__After_Cardiac.82.aspx

Analgesia | pathology | Britannica.comAnalgesia | pathology | Britannica.com

Analgesia, loss of sensation of pain that results from an interruption in the nervous system pathway between sense organ and ... Analgesia, loss of sensation of pain that results from an interruption in the nervous system pathway between sense organ and ... Diseases of the spinal cord that may cause analgesia without loss of the sensation of touch are tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia, ... doses than those needed for analgesia. Low doses of opioids are also used for relief of the respiratory distress that ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/analgesia

Caudal Analgesia | The BMJCaudal Analgesia | The BMJ

Caudal Analgesia. Br Med J 1950; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4650.414 (Published 18 February 1950) Cite this as: Br ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/1/4650/414

Regional Analgesia | The BMJRegional Analgesia | The BMJ

Regional Analgesia. Br Med J 1944; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4369.436-b (Published 30 September 1944) Cite this as: ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/2/4369/436.3

Procedural sedation and analgesia - WikipediaProcedural sedation and analgesia - Wikipedia

"Procedural Sedation and Analgesia." CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Emergency Medicine, 8e Eds. C. Keith Stone, and Roger L. ... Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is a technique in which a sedating/dissociative medication is administered often in ... Fentanyl provides analgesia and sedative properties; it does not have any amnestic effects. It was commonly used with midazolam ... Krauss B, Green SM (March 2006). "Procedural sedation and analgesia in children". Lancet. 367 (9512): 766-80. doi:10.1016/S0140 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscious_sedation

Patient-controlled Analgesia | Encyclopedia.comPatient-controlled Analgesia | Encyclopedia.com

Definition Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a means for the patient to self-administer analgesics (pain medications) ... Analgesia- A medicine that relieves pain.. Epidural- Between the vertebrae and the dura mater of the spinal cord. Analgesia is ... Patient-controlled analgesia. Definition. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a means for the patient to self-administer ... Patient-Controlled Analgesia. Definition. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a system of providing pain medication that ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/divisions-diagnostics-and-procedures/medicine/patient-controlled-analgesia

Pharmacologic Analgesia in the Newborn | SpringerLinkPharmacologic Analgesia in the Newborn | SpringerLink

Bellieni CV, Bagnoli F, Perrone S et al (2002) Effect of multisensory stimulation on analgesia in term neonates: a randomized ... Anand KJS, Barton BA, McIntosh N et al (1999) Analgesia and sedation in preterm neonates who require ventilatory support. ... Saarenmaa E, Huttunen P, Leppäluoto J et al (1999) Advantages of fentanyl over morphine in analgesia for ventilated newborn ... Guadagni A.M. (2008) Pharmacologic Analgesia in the Newborn. In: Buonocore G., Bellieni C.V. (eds) Neonatal Pain. Springer, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-88-470-0732-1_13

Anesthesia and AnalgesiaAnesthesia and Analgesia

Here you can read summaries of all the latest updates from Anesthesia and Analgesia ... PMID: 29049101 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia). Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - October 20, 2017 ... PMID: 29049102 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia). Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - October 20, 2017 ... PMID: 29049104 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia). Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - October 20, 2017 ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/journal/anesthesia-and-analgesia/

Xylocaine Jelly for Topical AnalgesiaXylocaine Jelly for Topical Analgesia

Xylocaine jelly is used for the topical relief of itching, pain and irritation caused by bites, stings, scrapes and burns. This drug is applied directly to the skin for immediate relief of the pain and irritation associated with these conditions.
more infohttps://www.brighthub.com/science/medical/articles/50367.aspx

Neural mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.  - PubMed - NCBINeural mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. - PubMed - NCBI

CCK-8 antagonizes acupuncture analgesia. The individual differences of acupuncture analgesia are associated with inherited ... EA analgesia is likely associated with its counter-regulation to spinal glial activation. PTX-sesntive Gi/o protein- and MAP ... Acupuncture analgesia is essentially a manifestation of integrative processes at different levels in the CNS between afferent ... Neural mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.. Zhao ZQ1.. Author information. 1. Institute of Neurobiology, Institutes of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18582529?access_num=18582529&link_type=MED&dopt=Abstract

Recent advances in anaesthesia and analgesia - Google BooksRecent advances in anaesthesia and analgesia - Google Books

administration allergic Althesin Anaesthesia 35 Anaesthesia and Intensive anaesthetic agents anaesthetist analgesia analgesic ... Recent Advances in Anaesthesia and Analgesia; Including Oxygen Therapy. Christopher Langton Hewer,John Alfred Lee. Snippet view ... Recent Advances in Anaesthesia and Analgesia: (including Oxygen Therapy), by .... C. Langton Hewer. Snippet view - 1963. ... Recent advances in anaesthesia and analgesia (including oxygen therapy).. Christopher Langton Hewer. Snippet view - 1939. ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=FLchAQAAMAAJ&q=surgical&dq=related:ISBN3805554893&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&cad=5

Recent advances in anaesthesia and analgesia - Google BooksRecent advances in anaesthesia and analgesia - Google Books

administration allergic Althesin Anaesthesia 35 Anaesthesia and Intensive anaesthetic agents anaesthetist analgesia analgesic ... Churchill Livingstone, 1982 - Analgesia - 182 pages. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Recent_advances_in_ ... gb-gplus-shareRecent advances in anaesthesia and analgesia. ... Recent advances in anaesthesia and analgesia, Issue 14. Editors ... anaphylactoid reactions Anesthesia and Analgesia Anesthesiology atrial biotransformation block Blood Transfusion British ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=FLchAQAAMAAJ&q=gelatin&dq=related:ISBN3805554893&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&cad=5

Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) FAQsPatient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) FAQ's

Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) FAQs Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) means that you will have some control of your pain ...
more infohttps://www.emoryhealthcare.org/pain-management/wellness/pca-faq.html

Procedural Sedation and AnalgesiaProcedural Sedation and Analgesia

... , Procedural Sedation, Procedural Anesthesia, Conscious Sedation, Deep Sedation, PSAA. ... Procedural Sedation and Analgesia. Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Aka: Procedural Sedation and Analgesia, Procedural ... Administer Procedural Sedation (e.g. Propofol) without analgesia (e.g. Fentanyl). *Analgesia persists through procedure, while ... Procedural Sedation and Analgesia (PSAA). *Replaces the term Conscious Sedation. *Administer sedatives (e.g. Propofol) or ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/Surgery/Anesthesia/PrcdrlSdtnAndAnlgs.htm

Patient-controlled analgesiaPatient-controlled analgesia

... (PCA) is any method of allowing a person in pain to administer their ... Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is a related term describing the ... Patients who use PCAs report better analgesia and lower pain scores than those patients who have to request analgesia from the ... Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is any method of allowing a person in pain to administer their own pain relief. ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Patient-controlled_analgesia.html

Analgesia and anesthesia in obstetrics | Open LibraryAnalgesia and anesthesia in obstetrics | Open Library

Analgesia and anesthesia in obstetrics by J. P. Greenhill; 2 editions; First published in 1952; Subjects: Analgesia, Anesthesia ... Are you sure you want to remove Analgesia and anesthesia in obstetrics from your list? ...
more infohttps://openlibrary.org/works/OL98932W/Analgesia_and_anesthesia_in_obstetrics

Epidural analgesia | Childrens Education MaterialsEpidural analgesia | Children's Education Materials

Epidural analgesia. What is epidural analgesia?. Analgesia means pain relief. The word epidural refers to a place in the back ... Compared to other methods of pain control, less pain medicine is usually needed when epidural analgesia has been used. Good ... Studies have shown that epidural analgesia provides excellent pain control for children. ...
more infohttps://www.childrensmn.org/educationmaterials/childrensmn/article/15675/epidural-analgesia/

Analgesia, VolAnalgesia, Vol

ANALGESIA ABSTRACTS VOLUME 4, NUMBERS 1-4, 1999. Analgesia, Vol. 4, pp. 1-7, 1999 1071-569X/99 $10.00 + .00 Copyright © 1999 ... Key Words: Buprenorphine; Pharmacokinetic; Epidural; Postoperative analgesia; Preemptive analgesia Address correspondence and ... Pharmacokinetics of Epidurally Administered Buprenorphine and Postoperative Analgesia: A Comparison of Two Dosages Yasuko Miwa, ... Postoperative analgesia was assessed by the dosage of pentazocine required for the 48 h after the surgery, and the view of the ...
more infohttps://cognizantcommunication.com/cccSiteFiles/Analgesia/analabs.htm

New concepts in opioid analgesia.New concepts in opioid analgesia.

Basic mechanisms underlying pain, opioid analgesia and other opioid actions are outlined. To illustrate the clinical situation ... Basic mechanisms underlying pain, opioid analgesia and other opioid actions are outlined. To illustrate the clinical situation ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/589789250/new-concepts-in-opioid-analgesia/

Post-Intubation Sedation and AnalgesiaPost-Intubation Sedation and Analgesia

... , Sedation and Analgesia in Ventilated Patients. ... Post-Intubation Sedation and Analgesia. Post-Intubation Sedation and Analgesia Aka: Post-Intubation Sedation and Analgesia, ... Approach: Lead with analgesia and titrate sedation as needed. *Analgesia (primary medication). *Choose one Analgesic (e.g. ... Analgesia (e.g. Fentanyl) should accompany sedation (e.g. Propofol) in intubated patients. *Concurrent analgesia relieves pain ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/Lung/Procedure/PstIntbtnSdtnAndAnlgs.htm

Sucrose Analgesia: Identifying Potentially Better Practices | SUPPLEMENT ARTICLES | PediatricsSucrose Analgesia: Identifying Potentially Better Practices | SUPPLEMENT ARTICLES | Pediatrics

Sucrose Analgesia: Identifying Potentially Better Practices. Linda Lefrak, Kelly Burch, Rheta Caravantes, Kim Knoerlein, Nancy ... Sucrose Analgesia: Identifying Potentially Better Practices. Linda Lefrak, Kelly Burch, Rheta Caravantes, Kim Knoerlein, Nancy ... "Sucrose analgesia" and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunizations at 2 and 4 months. J Dev Behav Pediatr.1995;16 :220- 225. ... "Sucrose analgesia": absorptive mechanism or taste perception? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.1999;80 :F146- F147. ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/Supplement_2/S197.full
  • Patient-controlled analgesia ( PCA ) is any method of allowing a person in pain to administer their own pain relief . (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common form of patient-controlled analgesia is self-administration of oral over-the-counter or prescription painkillers . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Analgizer was widely utilized for analgesia and sedation until the early 1970s, in a manner that foreshadowed the patient-controlled analgesia infusion pumps of today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a means for the patient to self-administer analgesics (pain medications) intravenously by using a computerized pump, which introduces specific doses into an intravenous line. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) means that you will have some control of your pain medicine. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • This situation has the patient in control, and is in fact the most common patient-controlled analgesia . (bionity.com)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Patient-controlled_analgesia" . (bionity.com)
  • Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is a related term describing the patient-controlled administration of analgesic medicine in the epidural space , by way of intermittent boluses or infusion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have used a 5% nationally random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (1997-2001) to examine the association between the presence or absence of postoperative epidural analgesia and perioperative (7- and 30-day) mortality [ 6 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In our initial analysis [ 6 ], we examined several surgical procedures (based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes) and divided patients into 2 groups, depending on the presence or absence of postoperative epidural analgesia. (hindawi.com)
  • postoperatively, thus suggesting that postoperative epidural analgesia may contribute to lower odds of death after surgery [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequent analyses of the Medicare claims data also revealed that the presence of postoperative epidural analgesia may be associated with lower perioperative mortality in patients undergoing higher-risk surgical procedures (e.g., lung lobectomy, colectomy) [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, our analyses of Medicare patients undergoing lower-risk procedures (e.g., total hip and total knee replacement) showed that the use of postoperative epidural analgesia was not associated with a lower incidence of mortality and major morbidity [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On the basis of many studies and a Cochrane review of the efficacy of sucrose as an analgesic for procedural pain in neonates, 7 sucrose became the focus of a potentially better practice for the pain and analgesia group. (aappublications.org)
  • Infiltration analgesia is deposition of an analgesic drug close to the apex of a tooth so that it can diffuse to reach the nerve entering the apical foramina. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly [ citation needed ] , the dosing regimen may be set so that the patient does not receive enough analgesia (bolus doses set too small, lock-out too long). (bionity.com)
  • Diseases of the spinal cord that may cause analgesia without loss of the sensation of touch are tabes dorsalis , syringomyelia , and tumours of the cord. (britannica.com)
  • Analgesia , loss of sensation of pain that results from an interruption in the nervous system pathway between sense organ and brain . (britannica.com)
  • Acupuncture analgesia is essentially a manifestation of integrative processes at different levels in the CNS between afferent impulses from pain regions and impulses from acupoints. (nih.gov)
  • It saves time between when the patient feels pain and/or the need to receive analgesia and when it is administered (activation automatically pumps the dose into a pre- existing IV line into the patient). (bionity.com)
  • Patients who use PCAs report better analgesia and lower pain scores than those patients who have to request analgesia from the nursing staff when they are in pain. (bionity.com)
  • Anesthesia & Analgesia is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering anesthesia, pain management, and perioperative medicine that was established in 1922. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory studies have demonstrated that these agents interact to produce synergistic analgesia with a desirable safety/efficacy profile. (springer.com)
  • In the last decade, profound studies on neural mechanisms underlying acupuncture analgesia predominately focus on cellular and molecular substrate and functional brain imaging and have developed rapidly. (nih.gov)
  • A collaboration of 12 centers of the Vermont Oxford Network worked together to review the strength of the evidence, clinical indications, dosage, administration, and contraindications and identify potential adverse effects for the use of sucrose analgesia as the basis of potentially better practices for sucrose analgesia guidelines. (aappublications.org)
  • Among these, the opioid peptides and their receptors in Arc-PAG-NRM-spinal dorsal horn pathway play a pivotal role in mediating acupuncture analgesia. (nih.gov)
  • We will review our group's work on perioperative epidural anesthesia-analgesia on patient outcomes which includes mortality, major morbidity, and patient centered outcomes but not technical failures or complications. (hindawi.com)
  • Bellieni CV, Bagnoli F, Perrone S et al (2002) Effect of multisensory stimulation on analgesia in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • However, the benefits of perioperative epidural anesthesia-analgesia are not definitive in part due to some of the methodological issues present in available studies. (hindawi.com)
  • List Analgesia Cream side effects by likelihood and severity. (webmd.com)
  • When used for labor analgesia, the Analgizer allows labor to progress normally and with no apparent adverse effect on Apgar scores . (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall effect of epidural anesthesia-analgesia on perioperative mortality is controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • During the last decades, our understanding of how the brain processes acupuncture analgesia has undergone considerable development. (nih.gov)
  • The brain regions associated with acupuncture analgesia identified in animal experiments were confirmed and further explored in the human brain by means of functional imaging. (nih.gov)
  • To address this question, we compared placebo analgesia induced through social observation (Group 1) with first-hand experience via a typical conditioning procedure (Group 2) and verbal suggestion alone (Group 3). (nih.gov)
  • These findings show that placebo analgesia is finely tuned by social observation and suggest that different forms of learning take part in the placebo phenomenon. (nih.gov)
  • PTX-sesntive Gi/o protein- and MAP kinase-mediated signal pathways as well as the downstream events NF-kappaB, c-fos and c-jun play important roles in EA analgesia. (nih.gov)
  • Diverse signal molecules contribute to mediating acupuncture analgesia, such as opioid peptides (mu-, delta- and kappa-receptors), glutamate (NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors), 5-hydroxytryptamine, and cholecystokinin octapeptide. (nih.gov)
  • Patient Controlled Intranasal Analgesia (PCINA or Nasal PCA) refers to PCA devices in a Nasal spray form with inbuilt features to control the number of sprays that can be delivered in a fixed time period. (wikipedia.org)
  • to discuss the legal requirements in using controlled drugs for analgesia. (ccac.ca)
  • The individual differences of acupuncture analgesia are associated with inherited genetic factors and the density of CCK receptors. (nih.gov)