Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Celiac Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Reflex, Oculocardiac: Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Reflex, Babinski: A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Reflex, Abdominal: Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Gagging: Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)BiguanidesSural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
  • Based upon the presence or absence of voluntary motor or sensory anal function in the fourth and fifth sacral segments the SCI is ranked as "complete" or "incomplete. (spinalnetwork.org.au)
  • Initially, a functional classification was used based on cystometric findings: (1) reflex, (2) uninhibited, (3) autonomous, (4) motor paralytic, and (5) sensory. (aapmr.org)
  • The sensory limb of this reflex arc is mediated by cutaneous receptors of fast-conducting 1a afferents that converge on the internuncial pool of inhibitory interneurons. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Its purpose is to send motor commands from the brain to the body and sensory information from the body to the brain, as well as to coordinate reflexes. (statpearls.com)
  • right, Deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 2+ bilaterally, plantar bilaterally flexor, sensory system normal, cerebellar signs absent. (snacc.org)
  • In patients, the abnormal RAIR, the diminished IAS EMG as well as the presence of stools in the rectum at rest appear to be responsible for passage of flatus at coitus. (ovid.com)
  • The intrinsic plexuses collectively innervate the mucosa, muscle layers and blood vessels of the gut, and contain reflex pathways which mediate such activities as peristalsis. (bmj.com)
  • The incontinence in Huntington chorea and in other dementing illnesses is synergic loss of urine caused by the loss of central inhibitory pathways. (medscape.com)
  • When descending motor pathways that suppress and modulate the reflex are damaged, a lighter, nonpainful stimulus may elicit the reflex. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • However, we observed increased expression levels of genes involved in alternative vascularization signalling pathways in severely degenerated discs, suggesting that abnormal vascularization is part of the pathological progression of disc degeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When the agonist muscle is activated by the monosynaptic phasic stretch reflex , a branch from the 1a afferent of the muscle spindle, also excites interneurons that inhibit the antagonist motor neurons causing relaxation of the opposing antagonist muscleFrom Gardner E: Fundamentals of Neurology. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the lateral paragigantocellularis (LGPi) modulated the pudendal reflex via primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of DNP afferents (but not PN afferents), resulting in bilateral presynaptic inhibition. (ufl.edu)
  • Most reflexes, however, are more complicated and include internuncial or associative neurons intercalated between afferent and efferent neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Non-invasive, avoids the tendon reflexes are needed in nephrotic syndrome and those emotions are known, comply with easy to cover a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. (fbwhatsapquotes.com)
  • [1-SNM uses a continuous or cycling mode of electrical pulses to activate or inhibit neural reflexes associated with lower urinary tract function via stimulation of the sacral nerves, which innervate the lower urinary tract and pelvic floor. (mednemo.it)
  • This reflex is lost if the second to fourth sacral nerves are injured. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This region is called where there is a difference in caliber of intestine (narrow abnormal segment and dilated normal segment) is called the "transition" zone-the transition between the narrow distal bowel with no ganglion cells and the proximal dilated colon. (eapsa.org)
  • Many patients believe that any frequency of less than a daily bowel movement is abnormal. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Cervical compression results in quadriplegia, thoracic compression in paraplegia, upper lumbar involvement in bowel and bladder dysfunction and extensor plantar reflexes, and cauda equina involvement in loss of bowel and bladder function and lower motor neuron weakness with normal plantar reflexes. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The reflex helps prevent fecal incontinence, and allows for voluntary flatulation to occur without also eliminating solid waste, irrespective of the presence of fecal material in the rectal canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continence is maintained by several inter-related factors, including the anal sampling mechanism, and usually there is more than one deficiency of these mechanisms for incontinence to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS: One hundred forty abnormal nerves were positive for neuropathy in 106 studies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Liquid dye (contrast) is injected to see if there is a narrowing of intestine (area where the nerves are not present) along with a distended intestine above the abnormal segment. (eapsa.org)
  • If the animal can move the eyes normally and no abnormal movements are detected, the function of these nerves is usually within normal limits. (equimagenes.com)
  • Pupillary reflexes can be used to test in part for the function of the oculomotor nerves. (equimagenes.com)
  • 1. The active part played by the two dorsal and anal median fins, and the passive part played by the caudal fin in the normal swimming of Scylliorhinus are emphasised. (biologists.org)
  • 7. On supplying the dogfish with the nerve cord transected at the anterior end of the medulla with extra carbon dioxide, or stopping the oxygen supply, the Cheyne-Stokes rhythm, which is typical of respiration in mammals under abnormal conditions of oxygen and carbon dioxide supply, was found to take the place of the normal swimming rhythm. (biologists.org)
  • Inferior anal branch of inferior mesenteric) the anterior p.16 and posterior flaps 653 have been bothered by their generic names ending in -ase are generally enzymes. (bigsurlandtrust.org)
  • Note also the recurrent collateral from the alpha motor neuron contacting the Renshaw cell, which in turn makes contact with the anterior horn cell and sends a recurrent collateral to inhibit the inhibitory interneuron mediating reciprocal inhibition. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Endoscopy may reveal a solitary rectal ulcer on the anterior rectal wall 8 to 10 cm above the anal verge. (mussenhealth.us)
  • Perineum compression during EAUS enhances visualization of anterior anal sphincter defects. (scottishhernia.com)
  • PNTML- It measures neuromuscular integrity between the terminal portion of the pudendal nerve and the anal sphincter. (gastrotraining.com)
  • A normal PNTML does not exclude pudendal neuropathy, because the presence of a few intact nerve fibers can give a normal result, whereas an abnormal latency time is more significant. (gastrotraining.com)
  • Stimulation of either the DNP or PN bilaterally activates these motoneurons in the pudendal reflex. (ufl.edu)
  • for example, promoting the sparing of at least one side of the cord, or harnessing the sprouting ability of Ad or C fiber afferents involved in the pudendal reflex. (ufl.edu)
  • Degeneration of myenteric neurons and ICC-Is occurred simultaneously and it was similar in oral and anal to the site of transection. (bvsalud.org)
  • In all these forms digitalis interfereswith the passage of impulses from the auricle to the ventricle, or fromthe sinus to the auricle, by stimulating the inhibitory mechanism, whichlessens the conductivity of the connecting fibres. (granpallars.com)
  • Abnormal histone acetylation occurs during neuropathic pain through an epigenetic mechanism. (plos.org)
  • DNP reflex afferents also were bilaterally presynaptically inhibited segmentally by other DNP afferents, particularly by myelinated fibers. (ufl.edu)
  • Abnormal gait with diseases like betamethasone cross resistance in both associated with the nervous system. (rainierfruit.com)
  • ERG's, pupillary reflexes, and fundoscopic (ophthalmic) examination may also be necessary to detect whether a cause of blindness is related to the nervous system per se. (equimagenes.com)