Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.BooksConsensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Anus DiseasesCarcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Perianal GlandsRectal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Hemorrhoidectomy: The surgical removal of HEMORRHOIDS.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalEar Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.

Effects of short term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence. (1/1075)

BACKGROUND: Some patients with faecal incontinence are not amenable to simple surgical sphincter repair, due to sphincter weakness in the absence of a structural defect. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and possible mode of action of short term stimulation of sacral nerves in patients with faecal incontinence and a structurally intact external anal sphincter. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with faecal incontinence for solid or liquid stool at least once per week. METHODS: A stimulating electrode was placed (percutaneously in 10 patients, operatively in two) into the S3 or S4 foramen. The electrode was left in situ for a minimum of one week with chronic stimulation. RESULTS: Evaluable results were obtained in nine patients, with early electrode displacement in the other three. Incontinence ceased in seven of nine patients and improved notably in one; one patient with previous imperforate anus and sacral agenesis had no symptomatic response. Stimulation seemed to enhance maximum squeeze pressure but did not alter resting pressure. The rectum became less sensitive to distension with no change in rectal compliance. Ambulatory studies showed a possible reduction in rectal contractile activity and diminished episodes of spontaneous anal relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: Short term sacral nerve stimulation notably decreases episodes of faecal incontinence. The effect may be mediated via facilitation of striated sphincter muscle function, and via neuromodulation of sacral reflexes which regulate rectal sensitivity and contractility, and anal motility.  (+info)

Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women. (2/1075)

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

Faecal composition after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. (3/1075)

Diarrhoea and perianal excoriation occur frequently after the endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A new method of faecal analysis was performed on 3-day stool collections in 17 postoperative Hirschsprung patients and in 14 normal children, in order to define the faecal abnormality and to establish the cause of perianal excoriation in these patients. Loose stools in postoperative patients were deficient in dry solid content and contained an excess of extractable faecal water. This also had a raised electrolyte concentration, particularly with respect to sodium. Total daily output of faecal water was normal. Formed stools from postoperative patients were also deficient in drysolids but had a normal extractable water content. Excess extractable faecal water, the main abnormality of loose stools in these patients, is the result of abnormal water absorption from the distal colon. Perianal excoriation in these patients is most closely associated with the concentration of sodium in faecal water.  (+info)

Investigation and management of long-standing chronic constipation in childhood. (4/1075)

The anorectal physiology of 106 children with long-standing chronic constipation, who had failed to response to a trial of medical treatment, was assessed. 10 (9%) were shown to have ultrashort-segment Hischsprung's disease, later confirmed on histology, The remainder showed evidence of hypertrophy of the internal sphicter on anorectal manometry and had a vigorous anal dilatation (to accept 4 fingers) under general anesthesia. After this, 38% were able to be weaned off all medication and most of the remainder improved. Further anal dilatation and internal sphincterotomy allowed a further 10 children to stop laxative, bringing the total to 48%.  (+info)

Perception of and adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in patients with faecal incontinence. (5/1075)

BACKGROUND: Perception of, and adaptation of the rectum to, distension probably play an important role in the maintenance of continence, but perception studies in faecal incontinence provide controversial conclusions possibly related to methodological biases. In order to better understand perception disorders, the aim of this study was to analyse anorectal adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in subjects with incontinence. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between June 95 and December 97, 97 consecutive patients (nine men and 88 women, mean (SEM) age 55 (1) years) suffering from incontinence were evaluated and compared with 15 healthy volunteers (four men and 11 women, mean age 48 (3) years). The patients were classified into three groups according to their perception status to rectal isobaric distensions (impaired, 22; normal, 61; enhanced, 14). Anal and rectal adaptations to increasing rectal pressure were analysed using a model of rectal isobaric distension. RESULTS: The four groups did not differ with respect to age, parity, or sex ratio. Magnitude of incontinence, prevalence of pelvic disorders, and sphincter defects were similar in the incontinent groups. When compared with healthy controls, anal pressure and rectal adaptation to distension were decreased in incontinent patients. When compared with incontinent patients with normal perception, patients with enhanced perception experienced similar rectal adaptation but had reduced anal pressure. In contrast, patients with impaired perception showed considerably decreased rectal adaptation but had similar anal pressure. CONCLUSION: Abnormal sensations during rectal distension are observed in one third of subjects suffering from incontinence. These abnormalities may reflect hyperreactivity or neuropathological damage of the rectal wall.  (+info)

Anal ultrasound predicts the response to nonoperative treatment of fecal incontinence in men. (6/1075)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the etiology, treatment, and utility of anal ultrasound in men with fecal incontinence and to review the outcomes of conservative (nonoperative) treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of fecal incontinence in women is almost exclusively from obstetric or iatrogenic surgical injuries resulting in damage to the anal sphincters and/or pudendal nerves. Corresponding data on men with fecal incontinence are sparse. METHODS: Between January 1995 and January 1998, 37 men with fecal incontinence were evaluated in the John Radcliffe Hospital anorectal ultrasound unit. Their clinical histories, anal ultrasound results, anorectal physiology studies, and responses to conservative therapy were reviewed. RESULTS: Median age was 57 years. Major incontinence was present in 27% of the patients. Anal ultrasound localized anal sphincter damage in nine patients, and the characteristics of these nine patients with sphincter damage were then compared with the remaining 28 without sphincter damage. Prior anal surgery was more common in patients with sphincter damage. Hemorrhoids were more common in patients without sphincter damage. Anorectal physiology studies revealed significantly lower mean maximum resting and squeeze pressures in patients with sphincter damage, confirming poor sphincter function. With 92% follow-up, patients without sphincter damage were more likely to improve with nonoperative therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Anal ultrasound is extremely useful in the evaluation of fecal incontinence in men. Unlike women, the majority of men do not have a sphincter defect by anal ultrasound, and conservative management is usually successful in these patients. In contrast, in men with anal sphincter damage, almost all of these defects resulted from previous anal surgery. Conservative management rarely is successful in these cases, and surgical repair of the anal sphincter may be indicated. Therefore, because the presence or absence of sphincter damage on anal ultrasound usually predicts the response to nonoperative treatment, anal ultrasound should be used to guide the initial management of men with fecal incontinence.  (+info)

A bile acid-induced apoptosis assay for colon cancer risk and associated quality control studies. (7/1075)

Bile acids are important in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Bile acids induce apoptosis in colonic goblet cells at concentrations comparable to those found in fecal water after high-fat meals. Preliminary evidence indicated that cells of the normal-appearing (nontumorous) portion of the colon epithelium of colon cancer patients are more resistant to bile salt-induced apoptosis than are cells from normal individuals. In the present study, 68 patients were examined, and biopsies were taken at 20 cm from the anal verge, cecum, and descending colon. The patients included 17 individuals with a history of colorectal cancer, 37 individuals with adenomas, and 14 individuals who were neoplasia free. The mean bile salt-induced apoptotic index among normal individuals was 57.6 +/- 3.47 (SE), which differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean value of 36.41 +/- 3.12 in individuals with a history of colon cancer. The correlation between independent observers was 0.89 (P < 0.001), indicating good interobserver reliability. Components of variance comparing interindividual versus intraindividual sources of variation suggested that site-to-site variability, both between regions of the colon and for adjacent biopsies, was larger than the interpatient variability for individuals with a history of neoplasia. Therefore, there was "patchiness" of the susceptibility of regions of the colon to bile acid-induced apoptosis in individuals with a history of neoplasia (a patchy field effect). There was no obvious correlation of low-apoptotic index regions with regions in which previous neoplasias had been found and removed. On the other hand, for normal, i.e., neoplasia-free, individuals, there was relatively less intraindividual variation compared to interindividual variation. Our assay shows an association between resistance to bile acid-induced apoptosis, measured at 20 cm from the anal verge, and colon cancer risk. Thus, this assay may prove useful as a biomarker of colon cancer risk.  (+info)

Topographical and electrophysiological characteristics of highly excitable S neurones in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig ileum. (8/1075)

1. Most intracellular electrical recordings from myenteric neurones have been made from the centre of large ganglia. In this study, we examined the electrophysiological properties of neurones at the corners of large ganglia close to internodal strands and in microganglia. 2. Of 150 neurones in these locations: 111 were tonic S neurones; 9 were phasic S neurones and 30 were AH neurones. 3. Tonic S neurones were characterized by: (i) low resting membrane potentials (-50 +/- 1 mV, mean +/- s.e.m.); (ii) high input impedance (522 +/- 23 MOmega); (iii) low threshold for action potential (AP) generation (0.012 +/- 0.004 nA); (iv) firing of APs throughout a depolarizing pulse (duration <= 1 s) and one to four APs following a hyperpolarizing pulse and (v) spontaneous fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (FEPSPs). A substantial proportion of tonic S neurones (43 %) also fired APs spontaneously (7.6 +/- 0.6 Hz; range, 0.3-19 Hz). All APs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). 4. Tonic S neurones were subclassified, according to their post-stimulus responses, as SAH or SAD neurones. Following a burst of APs, SAH neurones exhibited a prominent after-hyperpolarization (duration, 711 +/- 10 ms) and SAD neurones an after-depolarization (duration, 170 +/- 10 ms). The after-hyperpolarization was reduced in four of ten neurones by apamin (0.3 microM). 5. FEPSPs were evoked in 20 of 38 S neurones by electrical stimulation applied both oral and anal to the recording site. Repetitive stimuli evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (SEPSPs) in some tonic S neurones. 6. Three functional classes of S neurones were identified after injection of neurobiotin through the recording microelectrode: (i) longitudinal muscle motor neurones, (ii) short circular muscle motor neurones, and (iii) ascending interneurones. 7. In conclusion, there appears to be topographical organization of highly excitable, tonic S neurones within the myenteric plexus, since, in contrast to other S neurones, they can be readily impaled in myenteric ganglia close to internodal strands and in microganglia.  (+info)

*Internal anal sphincter

This is thought to allow a small amount of rectal contents to descend into the anal canal where specialized mucosa samples ... The IAS contributes 55% of the resting pressure of the anal canal. It is very important for bowel continence, especially for ... The internal anal sphincter, IAS, (or sphincter ani internus) is a muscular ring that surrounds about 2.5-4.0 cm of the anal ... "Human cells engineered to make functional anal sphincters in lab", Science Daily. August 10, 2011. Retrieved 3 feb 2017 "Anal ...

*Surgical management of fecal incontinence

Anal encirclement effectively supplements the anal sphincter, narrowing the anal canal and its barrier function to stool, ... Narrowing of anal canal to increase the outlet resistance without any dynamic component Anal encirclement (Thiersch procedure) ... The fluid is transferred to the balloon by the manual pump, resulting in deflation of the cuff, opening of the anal canal and ... The muscle is then moved to wrap around the anal canal completely, and also attached to the periosteum of the inferior ramus of ...

*Anal canal

Anal columns Anal sinuses Anal valves Anus Pectinate line Anal sex Anal Canal at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The anal verge is the distal end of the anal canal, forming a transitional zone between the epithelium of the anal canal and ... The ischioanal fossa lies on each side of the anal canal. The perianal space surrounds the anal canal below the white line. The ... The anal canal is divided into three parts. The zona columnaris is the upper half of the canal and is lined by simple columnar ...

*Anus

Anal canal Imperforate anus; a birth defect. Chin, K.; Erickson, G.M.; et al. (1998-06-18). "A king-sized theropod coprolite". ...

*Anal triangle

The anal triangle is the posterior part of the perineum. It contains the anal canal. The anal triangle can be defined either by ... body Sacrotuberous ligament Sacrospinous ligament Pudendal nerve Internal pudendal artery and Internal pudendal vein Anal canal ... posterior border of perineal membrane forms anterior border of anal triangle) the two sacrotuberous ligaments Some components ... of the anal triangle include: Ischioanal fossa Anococcygeal ...

*Ovulinae

The anal canal is twisted anteriorly. The extremities are usually short and the outer lip of the aperture has well-developed ...

*Maxwellia gemma

The siphonal canal is rather short, almost completely closed and curved to the left at the base. There is no apparent anal ... top whorls and around the siphonal canal. The sutures between the whorls are deep and crossed by the oblique varices. The ... canal. The inner surface of the aperture has a rippled form, reflecting the form of the ribs at the outer surface. The ...

*Large intestine

The lower rectum to the anal canal above the pectinate line drain to the internal iliac nodes. The anal canal below the ... and anal canal. Some other sources exclude the anal canal. In humans, the large intestine begins in the right iliac region of ... and then descending to the rectum and its endpoint at the anal canal. Overall, in humans, the large intestine is about 1.5 ... Additionally, surgeons have lately been using the term pouchoscopy to refer to a colonoscopy of the ileo-anal pouch. The large ...

*Pudendal nerve

Branches also supply sensation to the anal canal. By providing sensation to the penis and the clitoris, the pudendal nerve is ... The pudendal canal that carries the pudendal nerve is also known by the eponymous term "Alcock's canal", after Benjamin Alcock ... the external anal sphincter (via the inferior anal branch), and male or female external urethral sphincter. As it functions to ... The pudendal canal is also known by the eponymous term "Alcock's canal", after Benjamin Alcock, an Irish anatomist who ...

*Nigro protocol

Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Buroker T, Bradley GT, Considine B (1981). "Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal". Dis. ... Blumetti, Jennifer; Bastawrous, Amir (27 May 2009). "Epidermoid Cancers of the Anal Canal: Current Treatment". Clinics in Colon ... Ehrenpreis, Eli (2003). Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained. Remedica. p. 113. "In Memoriam: Norman D. Nigro, M.D., 1912-2009" ( ... use of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin and medical radiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal of ...

*Maxwellia santarosana

The ovate aperture has a barely perceptible anal canal. The outer lip is finely crenulate but its inner surface is smooth. The ... The siphonal canal is of moderate length and, as typical for this genus, fused on top, almost sealed below and pointing to the ... extending from the shoulder of the preceding whorl to the end of the siphonal canal. The shell sculpture shows major and minor ...

*List of -otomies

Treating mucosal fissures from the anal canal/sphincter Thoracotomy -> Incision into the pleural space of the chest Thyrotomy ...

*Defecography

Anal canal length This is measured during maximal evacuation. Anal canal width Again measured during maximal evacuation, this ... "mid-axial longitudinal axis of the rectum and the anal canal", created by the anterior pull of the puborectalis sling at the ... At rest, it is held at 90 - 100°. This becomes more acute (70 - 90°) when the patient contracts the anal sphincters and pelvic ...

*Human digestive system

The large intestine includes the rectum and anal canal. Food starts to arrive in the small intestine one hour after it is eaten ... The pylorus, the lowest section of the stomach which attaches to the duodenum via the pyloric canal, contains countless glands ...

*Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization

Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions found in the anal canal. 15% of a human's continence mechanism is attributed to the ...

*Anorectal canal

The anorectal canal develops into the rectum and the anal canal. Sadler, Thomas W. (2011-12-15). Langman's Medical Embryology. ... The anorectal canal is an embryonic structure in humans that develops from the posterior portion of the cloaca, after it is ...

*Bursidae

The anterior and posterior canals are well developed. The siphonal canal at the anterior end is usually short. The anal canal ...

*Development of the digestive system

The hindgut gives rise to the region from the distal third of the transverse colon to the upper part of the anal canal. The ... The upper part of the anal canal is derived from endoderm of the hindgut. The lower part (one-third) is derived from ectoderm ... Subsequently, degeneration of the cloacal membrane establishes continuity between the upper and lower parts of the anal canal. ... distal part of the anal canal originates from the ectoderm. The hindgut enters the posterior region of the cloaca (future ...

*External anal sphincter

The deeper portion forms a complete sphincter to the anal canal. Its fibers surround the canal, closely applied to the internal ... 1) It is, like other muscles, always in a state of tonic contraction, and having no antagonistic muscle it keeps the anal canal ... Posteriorly, they are not attached to the coccyx, but are continuous with those of the opposite side behind the anal canal. The ... The external anal sphincter measures about 8 to 10 cm in length, from its anterior to its posterior extremity, and is about 2.5 ...

*Maxwellia angermeyerae

The ovate aperture has a small anal canal that point slightly backwards. The outer lip is crenulate, but has a smooth inner ... The siphonal canal is moderately long and, typical for this genus, fused above, almost sealed below and pointing to the left at ...

*Anal stricture

... or anal stenosis is a narrowing of the anal canal. It can be caused by a number of surgical procedures including ... Katdare, MV; Ricciardi, R (February 2010). "Anal stenosis". The Surgical clinics of North America. 90 (1): 137-45, Table of ... Ehrenpreis, Eli D. (2003). Anal and rectal diseases explained. London: Remedica Group. p. 53. ISBN 9781901346671. ...

*Perineum

... medially by pelvic diaphragm and anal canal. Its base is the skin. anal canal pudendal canal - contains internal pudendal ... a fat-filled space at the lateral sides of anal canal. It is bounded laterally by obturator internus muscle, ... The perianal area (peri- and anal) is a subset of the perineum. The perineum is an erogenous zone for both males and females. ... At this point, the following muscles converge and are attached: 1. External anal sphincter 2. Bulbospongiosus muscle 3. ...

*Fecal incontinence

The functioning of the anal canal can be damaged, traumatically or atraumatically. The resting tone of the anal canal is not ... Radiation induced FI may involve the anal canal as well as the rectum, when proctitis, anal fistula formation and diminished ... The procedure is also able to assess sensitivity of the anal canal and rectum. Anal electromyography tests for nerve damage, ... Such lesions include piles (inflamed hemorrhoids), anal fissures, anal cancer or fistulae. Obstetric injury may tear the anal ...

*Fissure

Anal Fissure: a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal. Fissure of the nipple Fissure can also refer to an unnatural tract ... or ulcer, most commonly found in the anus and called an anal fissure.. ...

*Argyropeza

The ovate aperture has a marked siphonal canal and a weak anal canal. The aperture is closed off by a thin, corneous, ...

*Childbirth

The fetal head is bowed, chin on chest, so that the back or crown of its head leads the way through the birth canal, until the ... Tears can involve the perineal skin or extend to the muscles and the anal sphincter and anus. The midwife or obstetrician may ... The vagina is called a 'birth canal' when the baby enters this passage. Station refers to the relationship of the fetal ... The fetal head may temporarily change shape substantially (becoming more elongated) as it moves through the birth canal. This ...

*Pectinate line

Anatomy of the anus and rectum Coronal section of rectum and anal canal. MD, Tao Le, MD, MHS, Vikas Bhushan, MD, Matthew Sochat ... The pectinate line (dentate line) is a line which divides the upper two thirds and lower third of the anal canal. ...
Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) is the most common cause of fecal incontinence (FI) in women. Obstetric-related FI may occur early after childbirth. Previous obstetric injury is also a major cause of FI in older women, and risk of FI increases with time and further childbirths. FI is involuntary loss of solid or liquid stool. Symptoms range from fecal urgency, soiling, to daily passive or urge fecal incontinence. FI is a stigmatizing condition. It can have a distressing impact and restriction on quality of life, including isolation and depression.. Tears during delivery is classified (Sultan) as first degree tears including vaginal epithelium, second degree tears into the perineal muscle, third degree involving the anal sphincter complex and fourth degree including sphincter complex and anorectal epithelium. OASIS includes third and fourth degrees tears.. First line of therapy of FI is conservative treatment including drug therapy and biofeedback. If conservative treatment fails, ...
Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) is the most common cause of fecal incontinence (FI) in women. Obstetric-related FI may occur early after childbirth. Previous obstetric injury is also a major cause of FI in older women, and risk of FI increases with time and further childbirths. FI is involuntary loss of solid or liquid stool. Symptoms range from fecal urgency, soiling, to daily passive or urge fecal incontinence. FI is a stigmatizing condition. It can have a distressing impact and restriction on quality of life, including isolation and depression.. Tears during delivery is classified (Sultan) as first degree tears including vaginal epithelium, second degree tears into the perineal muscle, third degree involving the anal sphincter complex and fourth degree including sphincter complex and anorectal epithelium. OASIS includes third and fourth degrees tears.. First line of therapy of FI is conservative treatment including drug therapy and biofeedback. If conservative treatment fails, ...
The anal and rectal area contains specialized muscles that are helpful to regulate proper passage of bowel movements.. Normally, when stool enters the rectum, the anal sphincter muscle tightens to prevent passage of stool at an inconvenient time. If this muscle is weak or does not contract in a timely way, incontinence (leakage of stool) may occur.. Normally, when a person pushes or bears down to have a bowel movement, the anal sphincter muscles relax. This will cause the pressures to decrease allowing evacuation of stool. If the sphincter muscles tighten when pushing, this could contribute to constipation. Anal manometry measures how strong the sphincter muscles are and whether they relax as they should during passing a stool. It provides helpful information to the doctor in treating patients with fecal incontinence or severe constipation.. There are many causes of fecal incontinence. Weak anal sphincter muscles or poor sensation in the rectum can contribute to fecal incontinence. If these ...
PURPOSE:. Paradoxical puborectalis contraction during defecation is one possible explanation for constipation. The degree of paradoxical contraction can be evaluated by intramuscular electromyography from the puborectalis and external anal sphincter muscles. This study aimed to determine whether a noninvasive technique with surface electrodes placed over the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter is feasible in the evaluation of paradoxical activity.. METHODS:. Twenty-five patients with constipation were studied. Sphincter muscle activity during strain and squeeze maneuvers was recorded using surface electrodes placed 1 cm from the anal verge. In addition, intramuscular recordings were made simultaneously from the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles. The degree of paradoxical activation was calculated as a strain/squeeze index. The patients were examined either in the left lateral position or sitting on a commode.. RESULTS:. The study revealed significant (P , .01) ...
The internal anal sphincter, IAS, (or sphincter ani internus) is a muscular ring that surrounds about 2.5-4.0 cm of the anal canal; its inferior border is in contact with, but quite separate from, the external anal sphincter. It is about 5 mm thick, and is formed by an aggregation of the involuntary circular fibers of the rectum. Its lower border is about 6 mm from the orifice of the anus. Its action is entirely involuntary, and it is in a state of continuous maximal contraction. It helps the Sphincter ani externus to occlude the anal aperture and aids in the expulsion of the feces. Sympathetic fibers from the superior rectal and hypogastric plexuses stimulate and maintain internal anal sphincter contraction. Its contraction is inhibited by parasympathetic fiber stimulation. This sphincter is tonically contracted most of the time to prevent leakage of fluid or gas, but is relaxed upon distention of the rectal ampulla, requiring voluntary contraction of the puborectalis and external anal ...
Background: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are tears of the anal sphincters, eventually also involving the rectum, sustained during vaginal birth, and 30% to 50% of women experience anal incontinence (AI) after OASIS, which is the main cause of AI in younger women. Furthermore, increasing OASIS rates were observed in Norway and other countries during the last decades. There was a strong need for improved sphincter repairs in order to reduce the morbidity after OASIS and for effective preventive measures. The Norwegian health authorities launched an action plan in 2006 aiming to reduce the OASIS rates. The plan included an interventional study of implementation of "hands-on" manual perineal support during the expulsive phase of labour, in which our department participated.. Aims: We aimed to compare the overlap technique and the traditional end-to-end approximation technique for the primary repair of OASIS with regard to faecal incontinence. Further, to investigate the association of ...
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine sphincter volume, length, and external anal sphincter thickness in healthy controls and fecal incontinent patients by use of a three-dimensional reconstruction of endoanal ultrasonography images. MET
Anismus or "spastic pelvic floor syndrome" is thought to be one cause of severe constipation.2 7 Its pathophysiological basis is PSC during straining. However, there is no single test by which the diagnosis can be confirmed so it is possible that it is a laboratory artefact. None the less, operations to solve the problem by posterior division of the puborectalis muscle have been performed.8 During the past few years functional outlet obstruction has been widely acknowledged as a cause of chronic constipation. In organic diseases such as tumour stenosis, outlet obstruction is continuously maintained by a rectal tumour mass. On the other hand, in functional forms of outlet obstruction the physiology is normal when the patient does not defaecate and becomes pathological only during defaecation. Paradoxical sphincter contraction during straining has been claimed as one of the main causes of functional outlet obstruction.9 The concept of PSC as a specific finding in constipated patients has been ...
Nitroglycerine (glyceryl trinitrate) is used for treatment of anal fissure, as it has muscle relaxant property. Spasm of internal anal sphincter muscles, which reduce blood flow to the internal anal sphincter muscles possibly play an important role in causation of anal fissure as well in healing of anal fissures and ...
The primary functions of the rectum and pelvic floor muscles are to prevent incontinence (loss of control) or accidental leakage and to allow defecation to occur.. The rectum is very elastic, which allows it to store food residues prior to a bowel movement. But it must also be stiff enough to funnel food residues toward the anus during a bowel movement.. The pelvic floor, located below the rectum, is made up of many different muscles including the puborectalis muscle and the external and internal anal sphincter muscles.. The rectum is surrounded by sensory nerves that detect the filling of the rectum with food residues. This sensation of rectal filling enables us to consciously or unconsciously squeeze the external anal sphincter to prevent incontinence until we can reach a toilet. These sensory nerves are also involved in reflexes that let the sphincter muscles relax during a bowel movement.. Bowel incontinence or accidental leakage ...
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Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 4.. Anal fissure Retroflexed Image.. In a closed sphincterotomy, a No. 11 blade is inserted sideways into the intersphincteric groove laterally. It is then rotated medially and drawn out to cut the internal sphincter. Care is taken not to cut the anal mucosa, because doing so could result in a fistula. After the knife is removed, the anal mucosa overlying the sphincterotomy is palpated, and a gap in the internal sphincter can be felt through it. The sphincterotomy is extended into the anal canal for a distance equal to the length of the anal fissure.. In an open sphincterotomy, a 0.5- to 1-cm incision is made in the intersphincteric plane. The internal sphincter is then looped on a right angle and brought up into the incision. The internal sphincter is then cut under direct visualization. The two ends are allowed to fall back after being cut. A gap can then be palpated in the internal sphincter through the anal mucosa, as in the closed technique. The incision can ...
Rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is a physiological modulated reflex involved in anorectal continence and defined by a relaxation of internal anal sphincter following rectal distension. Its existenc
Masaaki Ito, Yuji Nishizawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Akihiro Kobayashi. National Cancer Center Hospital East. Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the short-term results and surgical tips of down-to-up TME by TAMIS following trans-anal intersphincteric dissection (ISD+TAMIS-TME) for very low rectal cancer near the anus.. Methods: We experienced this procedure in thirty-one C-Stage lower rectal cancers locating within 5cm from the anal verge. In the first step of this procedure, transanal intersphincteric dissection was performed from 2cm distal side of the tumor till the level that the puborectal muscle was fully exposed and then placed Gelpoint path in the anal canal. Distal stump was closed to prevent cancer cell dissemination and irrigate the anal canal. Down-to-up TME was performed under pneumoperitoneum using conventional laparoscopic devices till the level of the peritoneal reflux. Next, we moved to the abdominal side and did conventional laparoscopic procedures to make resection of the ...
Click here for External anal sphincter pictures! You can also find pictures of Fertilization of ovum, Fallopian tubes, Facial vein.
If I did not post this sentence, someone would probably respond: the heat of a warm bath causes the anal sphincter to relax. This causes the anal sphincter to stop spasming. A muscles relaxing is synonymous with a muscles not spasming. Responding that heat causes the anal sphincter to relax is like saying heat causes an anal sphincter to stop spasming because heat causes the anal sphincter to stop spasmsing. It does not answer the question ...
Background: Although there are numerous modalities to evaluate perianal fistula, there is still a need to determine the most sensitive, specific, and accurate modality. This study was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography (C-3DEAUS) considering surgery as the gold standard.. Methods: A total of 36 patients who were diagnosed of having anal fistula with 10-MHz hydrogen peroxide-enhanced three-dimensional EAUS underwent MRI followed by surgery. Both of tests were done the day before surgery. Fistula classification was determined with each modality according to Parks criteria as inter-sphincteric, trans-sphincteric, extra-sphincteric, or supra-sphincteric and was compared with the surgical findings in all patients. If the accuracy of each modality was at least 85 % compared with the surgery, it was considered as clinically useful.. Results: Agreement for the classification of the ...
Objective: This work aimed to analyze the association between maternal position at birth in spontaneous deliveries and the occurrence of anal sphincter tears (AST) given the lack of evidence related to the least traumatic birth position. Study design: A total of 7832 vaginal deliveries were included. Vaginal-operative deliveries and deliveries with fundal pressure were excluded. Birth positions on bed, in water, kneeling, and in a squatting position on a low stool were compared. Birth position on bed was considered as the reference group, and a logistic regression analysis adjusting for important fetomaternal parameters was performed. Results: The overall incidence of AST was 1.1%. AST rate was significantly increased in squatting (2.9%) and kneeling (2.1%) positions compared with birth position on bed (1.0%) or in water (0.9%). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly higher risk for ASTs in squatting (OR 2.92, CI 95% 1.04-8.18) and in kneeling positions (OR 2.14, CI 95% 1.05-4.37) ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Im trying to find information on a rare anal canal cancer. My husband is 57 and has had Perianal Crohns Disease since his early 20s. Has never allowed an illeostomy to be performed. A rare (from what his doctors tell us) cancer was found in his anal canal. The "tumor" itself is actually filled with a gelatinous material which is the cancer, when debulked prior to treatment, the tumor was flat. My husband refused surgery and recently finished chemo/radiation therapy. 6 weeks with the infusion pump (5-FU) and 6 weeks radiation. Just wondering if anyone has infomation on this type of adenocarcinoma they can share. Thanks! ...
Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is a surgical approach that allows resection of low lying rectal cancers that abut or invade the sphincter complex while avoiding the creation of a permanent stoma. While removing a portion of or the entire internal anal sphincter, the goal of therapy is complete extirpation of the cancer while preserving the external sphincter for anastomosis and preservation of continence through the anal canal. The critical considerations revolve around cancer outcomes (local and distant recurrence rates), as well as bowel function/continence. ...
Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is a surgical approach that allows resection of low lying rectal cancers that abut or invade the sphincter complex while avoiding the creation of a permanent stoma. While removing a portion of or the entire internal anal sphincter, the goal of therapy is complete extirpation of the cancer while preserving the external sphincter for anastomosis and preservation of continence through the anal canal. The critical considerations revolve around cancer outcomes (local and distant recurrence rates), as well as bowel function/continence. ...
Surgery, also called surgical resection, involves removing the tumor during an operation. The surgeon removes the area of the colon or rectum containing the tumor as well as nearby tissues and lymph nodes. If possible, the surgeon will then reconnect the healthy sections of the colon or rectum in a process called anastomosis, keeping the bodys waste-removal system operational.. Sometimes the area of anastomosis needs to be bypassed to allow more time for healing and to reduce the risk of a stool leak. This is usually done in the treatment of rectal cancer, especially after being treated with radiation and/or if the connection (or anastomosis) is close to the anal sphincter muscles. In those cases, the surgeon will create an opening in the wall of the abdomen and attach either part of the colon or part of the small intestine to the opening. This procedure is called a colostomy (if the colon is used) or ileostomy (if the small bowel is used), and the opening is called a stoma. A pouch is then ...
If the make and started drugs skuterze kopniakiem. Butt plugs are a great way to explore anal sensations and anal play. My partner and I will soon have anal sex for the first time. I was wanting to make anal sex more pleasurable for my girlfriend so if any one has any. If he cums in your ass, that. The easy way to have painless anal sex. Anal sex is more pleasurable for a man than a woman. The anus has no natural lubricant, so make sure you apply enough for a comfortable experience. However, it doesn't exactly make it easy to have an extended conversation. There is always a risk of contracting HIV or any other STD when having sex or while engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Anal stretching can randomly tear anal sphincter muscle fibers as can aggressive anal sex, leading to variable degrees of incontinence. Before we look at the best anal sex positions, let's explore how to prepare properly for anal sex to make sure that you don't experience any. In order for you to enjoy it fully ...
Grade 3a involves less than 50 % and grade 3b involves greater than 50 % of the EAS. The injury causes J. Gosling and A. Emmanuel a tear in the anterior portion of the muscles which is typically repaired primarily using an end--to--end or overlapping technique. Persisting sphincter defects cause dysfunction due to the mechanical disadvantage of an absent continuous muscular ring. There is much interest into the pathophysiology of incontinence in patients without a structural defect of the external anal sphincter, previously termed idiopathic faecal incontinence. The ability of normal volunteers to retain a saline enema was not hindered; in fact it improved in two cases. Pathophysiology of Anorectal Sensation Baldi et al. and Kamm et al. have shown reduced rectal sensation as tested by balloon and electrical stimulation in some patients with idiopathic constipation [89, 90]. This suggests a sensory neuropathy. This could be within the intrinsic supply within the rectal wall or the extrinsic nerve ...
(KudoZ) English to Russian translation of primary overlap versus end-to-end surgical repair of obstetric anal sphincter in: накладывание первичных швов; сшивание конец в конец [Surgery in Obstetrics - Medical (general) (Medical)].
This drug acts by expanding or dilating the blood vessels of the body which allows for more blood to flow to the heart. These days, they are available in bottles and can be sniffed directly. Isobutyl nitrite gives people a head rush on inhaling and the effects of this drug last a couple of minutes. Many people have reported their orgasms to last for longer periods when they sniffed poppers during sex. Men have reported enhanced erections after sniffing isobutyl nitrite and this could be well due to the increased blood flow in the body. Sometimes this drug is also used to relax the anal sphincter muscle region of a person.. There are a few precautions although which need to be taken before you sniff isobutyl nitrite. The effects of isobutyl nitrite can increase drastically during or immediately after physical exercise such as jogging, dancing, swimming etc. These effects may sometimes give people a slight headache or make them feel sick or weak. All of these effects wear off within a few minutes ...
The commonest injury to the sphincter complex is obstetric [3]; by disruption at traumatic (forceps) delivery, tearing, or by misplaced episiotomy. If not recognised by the attending obstetrician and...
PURPOSE: Anal pathology occurs in 20 to 80 percent of patients with Crohns disease in which abscesses, fistulas, and fissures account for considerable morbidity. The etiology is not clearly defined, but altered anorectal pressures may play a role. T
Under general anesthesia, the patient was placed in the lithotomy position. The port for the camera was created first at the umbilicus using the open method. Two 5-mm ports were inserted through the right upper and lower quadrants, and the upper port was placed where a diverting stoma would be created. Two needlescopic forceps (Endo-Relief™, Hope Denshi Co.,Chiba, Japan), with or without a trocar, were inserted into the left upper and lower quadrants. Thereafter, we performed the following procedures: ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV), dissection of the mesentery, total mesorectal excision with the preservation of the autonomic nerves, and dissection of the intersphincteric space. After transanal intersphincteric dissection, extraction of the specimens, and coloanal anastomosis, the ileostomy covering was created at the right upper port, and the abdominal drain was inserted into the right lower port.. (Results ...
Carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy representing approximately 2.5% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. It is estimated in 2015 that over 7,200 patients will be diagnosed with carcinoma of the anal canal in the United States, resulting in greater than 1,000 deaths (1). The incidence of this disease continues to rise steadily. A practicing oncologist will evaluate and treat less than one such patient per year. The majority of anal carcinoma arises within the mucosa of the anus and is of squamous cell histology (2). Traditionally, 74% to 90% of carcinomas of the anal canal are cured with the combined modalities of chemoradiation, reserving an abdominoperineal resection (APR) for salvage therapy of persistent or recurrent disease (3). This chapter focuses on treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal and the potential innovative strategies that lie ahead. ...
The anal canal is the final segment of the gastrointestinal tract, extending between the rectum and the anus. It has an important role in defecation and maintaining faecal continence.
The dentate line marks the junction of these two structures as the anal canal continues more distally joining the perianal skin at the anal verge (Figure 2). The anal canal mucosa consists of stratified squamous epithelium and contains no hair follicles or sweat glands. At the anal verge, the anoderm thickens and includes hair follicles and other cutaneous appendages. Proximal to the dentate line, the rectal ampulla narrows to conform to the opening of the anal canal. In doing so, its mucosa takes on a pleated appearance, forming 8 to 14 convoluted longitudinal folds: the columns of Morgagni. Each adjacent column is connected at the dentate line by a flap of mucosa that forms a small anal crypt, normally 1 to 3 mm deep. Anal sepsis, cryptitis, perianal abscesses, and fistulas result from inflammation, obstruction, and infection of the crypts and glands. The anal wall is a continuation of the usual layers of the wall of the colon and rectum, and the innermost mucosal lining continues to the anal ...
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The anal canal is the cylindrical termination of the large bowel, which is approximately 4 to 5 cm in length 1 . Anatomically it is defined to begin at the anal verge and continue to the level of the puborectalis muscle of the anorectal ring or pelvic floor. Histologically the canal had been defined as three zones. The upper part of the canal (colorectal zone) is lined by the same type columnar epithelium as is seen in the distal rectum. The transitional zone, a short segment of mucosa just proximal to the dentate line, is composed of various epithelial elements or "transitional epithelium." Distal to the dentate line is the squamous zone, which is lined by stratified squamous epithelium that continues to the anal verge 12 .. The variety of epithelial cell types of the anal canal leads to a variety of neoplasms with different histological appearances in this region. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma followed by cloacogenic (basaloid or transitional cell) carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma ...
An anal fissure is a narrow tear that extends from the muscles that control the anus (sphincters) up into the anal canal. These tears usually develop when anal tissue is damaged during a hard bowel movement or when higher-than-normal tension develops in the anal sphincters.. An anal fistula is a tubelike passage (tract) from the anal canal to a hole in the skin near the anus. This may occur after rectal surgery, after an abscess in the rectal area, or as a complication of a bowel disease. ...
NO is recognised as an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the IAS. Previous studies showed that blockade of NO biosynthesis reduced the relaxation of muscle strips of the IAS induced by electrical stimulation and impaired the RAIR.3,5 In the present study, we extended the role of NO as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to the murine IAS: blockade of NO biosynthesis resulted in a reduction of both the in vitro and in vivo relaxation of the IAS. These findings were further corroborated by experiments in nNOS−/− mice. Isolated muscle strips relaxed significantly less whereas the RAIR was impaired compared with controls. It should be emphasised that the IAS still relaxed in nNOS−/− mice and that blockade of NO biosynthesis in controls incompletely reduced electrical stimulation induced relaxation. These observations suggest that either nitrergic blockade was incomplete or, most likely, that another inhibitory neurotransmitter is involved. Previous studies in the rat IAS suggested ATP as a ...
Eventually, most damage to the bladder and the urethra heal, but it takes time and the improvement in continence is gradual, with complete recovery taking from six to 18 months. The most common cause of incontinence after a radical prostatectomy is a weak external sphincter muscle, Dr. Catalona said. The surgeon has to try his best not to injure it and to preserve its length. Most important is to protect muscle fibers of external sphincter. A recent study at Memorial Sloan Kettering connected the length of the sphincter before surgery with how quickly continence returned after surgery. The external sphincter muscle squeezes the urethra, enabling it to retain the urine until the sphincter releases its hold. Its action is both involuntary and voluntary. The effectiveness of the sphincter is a combination of length and strength. The longer it is, the more efficient it is. The stronger it is, the more effective it is. Patients can not control how long their sphincter muscle is, but they can ...
Visit Site Ergonomic handles and a specially engineered squeeze motion has made Fiskars Squeeze Punches two times easier to squeeze than other hand punches. An open punch head lets the user see where they are punching for a perfect punch every time without wasting paper and the Squeeze Punches nest together for convenient space-saving storage. Fiskars Squeeze Punches are available in medium, large and extra-large sizes to add distinctive style to craft projects of all kinds. Visit Fiskars.com to see the full line of Squeeze Punches awarded the Ease-of-Use Commendation.. ...
This view is a close-up of the lower part of the dissection illustrated in the preceding photograph and is centered on the anal canal. The canal has been opened by an incision placed laterally through the wall of the canal and connected above with an anterior midline incision through the wall of the rectum. The wall of the anal canal posterior to the incision has been retracted. The mucosa of the anal canal has not been stretched sufficiently to reveal the pectinate line formed by the anal valves at the lower ends of the anal columns. The position of this line is indicated in the drawing at 17 ...
The anal canal has a triradiate lumen lined by three fibrovascular cushions of submucosal tissue. The cushions are suspended in the canal by a connective tissue framework derived from the internal anal sphincter and longitudinal muscle. Within each cushion is a venous plexus that is fed by arteriovenous communications. These specialised vascular structures allow for enlargement of the cushion to maintain fine continence. In health as in disease the anal cushions appear in the right anterior, right posterior, and left lateral positions.3. Fragmentation of the connective tissue supporting the cushions leads to their descent. This occurs with age and the passage of hard stools, which produce a shear force on the framework. Straining produces an increase in venous pressure and engorgement. The prolapsed … ...
The urogenital tract is composed of three organ groups which lie in close proximity within the pelvic cavity: the bladder and urethra; the genital organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina and vulva); and the rectum and anal canal. These organs share a common embryologic origin and all possess estrogen receptors.1,2 They rest upon a common support structure--the pelvic diaphragm or levator muscles3--which not only invests each organ with supportive fibres, but also contributes to the mechanisms that maintain urinary and anal continence and close the introitus of the vagina. The urethral and anal continence mechanisms are dependent upon the normal functioning of both smooth and striated muscle sphincters.. ...
A stent for assisting urinary release in a male patient includes a first segment, a second segment, and a connecting member disposed between the first and second segments. The first segment includes a multi-winged malecot. When the stent is properly positioned within the patients urinary system, the first segment is located on one side of the external sphincter with the multi-winged malecot located within the bladder to inhibit migration of the stent, and the second segment is located on the other side of the external sphincter and also tends to inhibit migration of the stent. The connecting segment is sized to extend through the external sphincter to couple the first and second segments together while not interfering with the normal operation of the external sphincter.
The gastrointestinal tract terminates in a short segment, the anal canal. Its external margin is poorly demarcated, but the skin of the anal canal can usually
Spread may occur to the vagina, urethra and anal canal as well. This called local spread. If the cancer has spread to the urinary tract there may be difficulty in urinating. If the cancer has spread to the anal canal there may be problems with bowel motions etc.. Around 5% cases show a more distant spread. This may involve major organs like lungs, liver and brain. The consequences are usually life threatening. Spread to the liver manifests as jaundice and that to the lungs as fluid collection around the lungs and breathlessness. The cancer can also spread to bones causing bone pain and easy fractures.. ...
Aim of the work The present study aimed to declare the commonly and rarely occurred anorectal affections in farm animals as well as the description of their surgical management.
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 2 conditions that can cause Throbbing Pain in the Eye and Anorectal Pain. There is 1 uncommon condition that can cause Throbbing Pain in the Eye and Anorectal Pain. There is 1 rare condition that can cause Throbbing Pain in the Eye and Anorectal Pain.
A urethral prosthesis with prostatic and bulbar segments connected by two types of ties allows the prosthesis to assume at least two configurations different with inter-segmental distances adapted to situations where the patient either has or does not have normal control of the external sphincter. This is particularly useful for a patient undergoing an anesthetic procedure that affects the external sphincter muscles. When the muscles are anesthetized, the prosthesis may provide constant urine voiding, and when the anesthetic effects wear off, the prosthesis may assume a different configuration to allow the sphincter to reassert control over urinary voiding.
Anal Abscess is one of the most common types of diseases related to anus and anal canal in which a localized collection of pus develops in the underlying tissues of anus. Anal Abscess is a [...] ...
skin squeeze: Effect on the skin of exposure to a pressure less than that of the surrounding environmental pressure. Skin squeeze is most prevalent among pilots and underwater divers working...
Benign ano-rectal conditions have a major share in a General Surgeons practice but at the same time could be frustrating due to recurrences. No doubt therefore that there are multiple modalities of treatment for a single condition. New techniques are developing in this field and it may be difficult for a practicing surgeon to keep up with the same. This course aims to revisit the standard techniques and provide an update with newer modalities of treatment. The hall mark of this course would be virtual hands-on training on models with experts as faculty.. ...
... ,Super High Density 360 degree radial rectal transducer. High resolution in the near field and lower frequencies for deeper penetration make this transducer the optimal choice when scanning the anal canal and sphincter muscles.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Hard motions can lead to pain and splitting of the delicate lining of the anal canal (a fissure), which can hurt or itch. Another common ...
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Back in the day, Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio were pioneers in the world of celebrity-athlete pairings.Welcome to Squeeze Play, our newest feature on
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Now, the delicate part is not in the signal module. Trading suspension for example is not a signal issue but a position size one. If sizes are too small, then trades are rejected. For example, sometimes currency pairs flip-flops between bull and bear. So, we count entries and add penalty for each full exit. This reduces risk per trade. If the overall equity is ain a drawdown, then position sizes get smaller. If they are too small, they are automatically rejected. This allows us to trade more pairs as some of them stop trading.. From: Graham. How do you simulate borrowing costs when testing a shorting strategy?. Everything at General Collateral (GC) +0,15% added to slippage. The question is probably related to hard to source issues or crowded shorts.. Do not short issues with borrow ,5%, except on the Long side: squeeze box. Do not squeeze people: it is bad karma. From: Nikhil. 1) Majority of ideas for a short strategies seem to fail rigorous testing on larger time frames so one should focus on ...
Originally Posted by dsade You could probably squeeze another few grams into it. i dont follow this post. I read the other posts. squeeze a few grams
Do not pick or squeeze your blackheads and pimples - As tempting as it may be, do not squeeze, scratch, rub or touch your pimples and blackheads.
Mumbai - Indian film production giant Yash Raj Films (YRF) Thursday announced the launch of its official e-commerce store www.yrfstore.com. For starters, i
We talked to experts to find out the scoop behind the famous 7-Minute Workout. Heres how to squeeze the most out of a short training session.
my 3 (or 4 year old) CX-300s died today - Or at least the cable in the left ear peice has finally broke and I cant really just squeeze or bend the cables...
Great-Planes #GPMGPMR6007. The Pro CA Glues are clog-resistant with extra-long applicator tips to easily reach into tight spots. Easy to squeeze bottles aid in applying just the right amount of glue-for easier sanding and less mess. All Great Planes CA glues have a satisfaction guarantee, best if used by date and are clear. Wicks quickly for instant bonds on tight-fitting parts, tacking and CA hinges ...
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Shake Well Before Using. Add 1 full squeeze of the dropper bulb to 2 oz. of water or juice, 2 to 4 times per day. Best taken between meals.. ...
ఇండియాటుడే ప్రతి ఏటా నిర్వహించే స్టేట్ ఆఫ్ ది స్టేట్స్ కాంక్లేవ్ కార్యక్రమంలో భాగంగా తెలంగాణ రాష్ర్టానికి మౌలిక సదుపాయాలు, ఇన్ఫర్మేషన్ టెక్నాలజీ రంగాల్లో ఉత్తమ అవార్డు లభించింది. • లింగ భేదాలను నిర్మూలించడంలో భారత్ 114వ స్థానంలో నిలిచింది. ప్రపంచ ఆర్థిక వేదిక (డబ్ల్యూఎఫ్) రూపొందించిన ఈ జాబితాలో ఐస్లాండ్ మొదటి స్థానంలో ఉండగా, ఫిన్లాండ్ రెండో ప్లేస్లో ఉంది. • దక్షిణ చైనా ...
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The external anal sphincter (or sphincter ani externus ) is a flat plane of muscular fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the skin surrounding the margin of the anus. The external anal sphincter measures about 8 to 10 cm in length, from its anterior to its posterior extremity, and is about 2.5 cm opposite the anus, when defecation occurs the sphincter muscle retracts. It consists of two strata, superficial and deep. The superficial, constituting the main portion of the muscle, arises from a narrow tendinous band, the anococcygeal raphe, which stretches from the tip of the coccyx to the posterior margin of the anus; it forms two flattened planes of muscular tissue, which encircle the anus and meet in front to be inserted into the central tendinous point of the perineum, joining with the superficial transverse perineal muscle, the levator ani, and the bulbospongiosus muscle also known as the bulbocavernosus. The deeper portion forms a complete sphincter to the anal canal. Its ...
Looking for online definition of anal canal in the Medical Dictionary? anal canal explanation free. What is anal canal? Meaning of anal canal medical term. What does anal canal mean?
Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy What is a lateral internal sphincterotomy? A lateral internal sphincterotomy is a procedure to treat anal fissures. What is an anal fissure? An anal fissure is a t...
Median Episiotomy vs. Mediolateral Episiotomy. This multi-image surgical exhibit compares the benefits of a mediolateral episiotomy versus that a median episiotomy during childbirth. The medical illustrations demonstrate that a median incision carries greater involvement and risk of damage to the external anal sphincter muscle and rectal mucosa. The potential for injury can be lessened, typically, by a mediolateral incision.
Dr. Zadeh responded: Sphincterotomy. Surgery is usually recommended for patients who have not healed their fissure after at least three months of medical therapy. Surgical treatment for anal fissures is highly effective and recurrence is low. The procedure is called a lateral internal sphincterotomy and involves cutting a portion of the internal anal sphincter muscle. This helps the fissure heal and decreases pain and spasm.
Global Journal of Health Science; Vol. 7, No. 1; 2015 ISSN E-ISSN Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Prolonged Second Stage of Labor and Levator Ani Muscle Injuries
Full text available only in PDF format". REFERENCES. 1. Thornton MJ, Lam A, King DW. Laparoscopic or transanal repair of rectocele? A retrospective matched cohort study. Dis Colon Rectum 2006;49:661-667.. 2. Dietz HP, Steensma AB. Posterior compartment prolapse on two-dimensional and three-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound: the distinction between true rectocele, perineal hypermobility and enterocele. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;26:73-77.. 3. Perniola G, Shek C, Chong CC, Chew S, Cartmill J, Dietz HP. Defecation proctography and translabial ultrasound in the investigation of defecatory disorders. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;31:567-571.. 4. Cronje HS. Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2004;85:30-35.. 5. Cronje HS, De Beer JAA. Culdocele repair in female pelvic organ prolapse. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2008;100:262-266.. ...
The aim of the present study was to analyze disease-specific quality of life, as assessed by the Hirschsprung Disease/Anorectal Malformation Quality of Life (HAQL) questionnaire, in children and adults with anorectal malformations (ARM). As much as 175 children and 62 adults who were members of the Italian Association for Anorectal Malformations were asked to complete the Italian version of the HAQL questionnaire developed for this study. For children under 16 years of age, mothers were asked to fill up the questionnaires. Patients were also asked to indentify their type of malformation from a list of eight choices. Most subscales of the Italian HAQL had acceptable reliability. Compared to children, adults reported significantly lower levels of QL on subscales measuring emotional functioning, body image, and physical symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify whether these results can be attributed to improvements in surgical techniques that have contributed to improved QL in younger ...
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) are similar techniques that allow surgeons to remove benign polyps and early stage cancers without the use of invasive surgery.. More about TEM. Developed in the 1980s, TEM was created to enable surgeons to remove polyps and tumors in the rectum using a port placed through the rectum and a microscopic lens. This technology has demonstrated precise excision of polyps and tumors with preservation of anal sphincter muscle control.. More about TAMIS. TAMIS was developed in 2009 and has been utilized for the same indications as TEM.. What is the difference between TEM and TAMIS? The primary difference between the two techniques is that a resterilized, reusable port is used for TEM, while a disposable port is used for TAMIS.. What are the benefits of TEM and TAMIS?. Many benefits have been noted for patients undergoing TEM and TAMIS: no visible incisions, decreased postoperative pain, faster recovery, and a ...
A. The rectum is empty. There is no urge to defecate.. B. Stool enters the rectum and stretches the rectal wall, causing a sensation of fullness.. C. Rectal wall distention causes relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, allowing the stool to descend into the proximal anal canal. This movement causes awareness that stool passage is imminent.. D. The pelvic floor muscles contract to maintain continence, moving the stool upward and out of the anal canal.. E. If the stool remains in the rectum after the pelvic floor returns to its resting state, then stool will no longer be in contact with the anus. The rectal wall relaxes; reducing the pressure and wall tension, and the urge to defecate abates.. F. Defecation occurs when the pelvic floor relaxes, and the pressure in the rectum is greater than pressure from the external anal sphincter and the pelvic floor. Stool moves from the region of higher pressure to the area of lower pressure. The accompanying increase in intra-abdominal pressure propels ...
Objective To establish the effect of childbirth on pudendal nerve function and identify obstetric factors associated with such damage.. Design A prospective investigational study.. Setting Antenatal clinic, St Bartholomews (Homerton) Hospital.. Subjects One hundred and twenty-eight unselected pregnant women beyond 34 weeks gestation.. Intervention Pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies (PNTML) and perineal plane were measured during pregnancy and six to eight weeks after delivery, and remeasured in a subgroup (n= 22) at six months.. Main outcome measures Effect of mode of delivery on PNTML and the plane of the perineum.. Results Vaginal delivery resulted in a significant (P , 0.0001) prolongation of the mean PNTML bilaterally in both primipara (n= 57) 1.91 ms (SD 0.19) vs 2.00 ms (SD 0.22), antenatal vs postnatal, right PNTML; 1.96 ms (SD 0.21) vs 2.06 ms (SD 0.24) left PNTML, and multipara (n= 32) (P , 0.01). Perineal descent during straining was also increased after vaginal delivery (P , ...
In some cases, surgery can damage the anal sphincter muscles (the ring of muscles that open and close the anus). If the muscles are damaged, you may lose control of your bowels, leading to faeces leaking uncontrollably from your rectum (the area where they are stored). This is known as faecal or bowel incontinence.. The likelihood of incontinence occurring after surgery will depend on the type of surgery you had and the position of your fistula. If you had some bowel incontinence before surgery, this may get worse.. Incontinence after a fistulotomy (surgery that opens up the fistula) is more common in women and in people with Crohns disease, a condition that causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive system. Rates of incontinence vary, although most studies report incontinence in between 3% and 7% of people.. After using seton techniques, the incontinence rate is 17%, and after an advancement flap procedure the incontinence rate is around 6-8%. Ask your Dr. B C Shah about the risks ...
The study by Harari et al enhances previous research on faecal incontinence in patients with stroke as it includes only patients with newly acquired faecal incontinence after stroke. Most importantly for healthcare professionals, this study assessed the contribution of potentially modifiable risk factors such as functional difficulties with toilet access and use of drugs that could lead to constipation with overflow.. Bowel continence status was assessed using a question from the Barthel Index. Patients were classified into 1 of 3 categories: "never" losing bowel control, "occasional accident," or "all the time." Although the validity of the Barthel Index as a functional measure has been shown, it may be limited in its ability to assess faecal incontinence. This limitation is apparent when one considers that a patient may have had only 1 faecal incontinence episode and yet be classified within the faecal incontinent sample. This classification may increase the similarity between the 2 groups ...
Internal sphincter muscle of anus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
The most recent estimates, and statistics show that the future of cold and flu, most people visit their doctors, because it hurts the various parts of the body. While it is normal to come back pains after -particularly aches- a stressful or hectic day exercise, back pain is often a result of constipation. Other causes pain to the back of stress, excessive walking, degenerative disc disease, climbing stairs, bending, heavy lifting and standing for long periods. If the above-mentioned non-common part of daily activities, and then constipation, it is likely that there are a bout of back pain and constipation. Straining to pass hard stool can cause pain in the lower back. It hurts happens because the anus and inflamed because of the stress put on it when trying to defecate. Children are also known to suffer from these problems. Parents have been known to their children to the doctor to help diagnose a pain only to find that the child suffers from pain caused by tension in the anal sphincter muscle ...
inproceedings{243807, author = {De Looze, Danny and De Muynck, Martine and Van Laere, Myriam and Tahmaseb, E and De Bie, S and Elewaut, Andr{\e}}, booktitle = {GASTROENTEROLOGY}, issn = {0016-5085}, language = {eng}, number = {4, suppl.}, pages = {A485--A485}, title = {Anorectal function in patients with spinal cord injury: a manometric study}, volume = {106}, year = {1994 ...
Another name for Foreign Body in the Anal Canal is Anorectal Foreign Body. Symptoms of an anorectal foreign body include: * Anal pain * Anal bleeding ...
PURPOSE: To compare GI symptoms, measures of generic and disease specific health related quality of life (HRQoL), anorectal and pudendal nerve function and anal sphincter morphology between (i) patients ≥2 years after 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)±high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for carcinoma of the prostate and aged matched patients before radiotherapy and (ii) symptomatic and asymptomatic patients ≥2 years after 3D-CRT ± HDR brachytherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodology included: (i) modified LENT-SOMA scales for GI symptoms, (ii) EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-PR25 questionnaires for generic and disease specific HRQoL, (iii) anorectal manometry and terminal motor latency for anorectal and pudendal nerve function and (iv) endorectal ultrasound for anal sphincter morphology ...
We studied 386 anal cancers to examine the association between HPV status and histopathological characteristics in detail. Overall, we detected hrHPV in 90% of invasive anal cancers in women and 63% of those in men. Using in situ hybridization and HPV-16-specific PCR in 99 patients, Holm et al. (9) found HPV in similar proportions of anal canal cancers in women (89%) and men (56%). Another study of 93 women and 36 men with in situ or invasive anal cancer showed 70% of the tumors in women and 67% of those in men to be PCR positive to one or more of HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18, but a distinction between anal canal cancers and perianal skin cancers was not presented (8) .. Whether cancers involving the anal canal contain HPV more often than perianal skin cancers has been the subject of only few investigations. One study reported more HPV-16 in cancers originating above than below the dentate line (17 , 18) , and another small study detected HPV-16 by DNA in situ hybridization in 81% of anal canal ...
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Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer by Giulio A Santoro starting at $313.24. Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris
MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy ...
HOUSTON -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan out, a randomized trial revealed.
Use of chemotherapy with the drug cisplatin before other treatments did not improve disease-free survival for patients with anal canal cancer compared to the standard treatment regimen.
Anorectal manometry is a quick procedure that will allow the doctors to measure the function of the sphincter muscles. Find more details about it, here.
Caused by trauma to the anus and anal canal due to bowel movement, anal fissure is a cut or tear occurring in the anus that extends up into the anal canal. Anal fissures are fairly common in men as well as women and can occur at any age including infancy. Symptoms of fissures include the patient suffering from anal pain that worsens with bowel movements. This pain may be bearable or severe in some cases. Sometimes the pain can also affect urination and cause discomfort while urinating, inability to urinate or frequent urination. To suggest an appropriate fissures treatment the doctor needs to first diagnose and evaluate the problem. This means the doctor will inspect the anus to confirm the presence of a fissure before suggesting a mode of treatment.. The goal of any anal fissures treatment is to break the cycle of spasm of the anal sphincter and discontinue its repeated tearing of the anoderm. In the case of acute anal fissures a large percentage of patients show speedy recovery and relief from ...
Find the best faecal incontinence doctors in Gurgaon. Get guidance from medical experts to select faecal incontinence specialist in Gurgaon from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Caused by trauma to the anus and anal canal due to bowel movement, anal fissure is a cut or tear occurring in the anus that extends up into the anal canal. Anal fissures are fairly common in men as well as women and can occur at any age including infancy. Symptoms of fissures include the patient suffering from anal pain that worsens with bowel movements. This pain may be bearable or severe in some cases. Sometimes the pain can also affect urination and cause discomfort while urinating, inability to urinate or frequent urination. To suggest an appropriate fissures treatment the doctor needs to first diagnose and evaluate the problem. This means the doctor will inspect the anus to confirm the presence of a fissure before suggesting a mode of treatment.. The goal of any anal fissures treatment is to break the cycle of spasm of the anal sphincter and discontinue its repeated tearing of the anoderm. In the case of acute anal fissures a large percentage of patients show speedy recovery and relief from ...
Learn about the congenital birth defect called anorectal malformation including the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment from St. Louis Childrens Hospital.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) on postoperative anal function and quality of life in patients with benign rectal tumor and early rectal cancer. METHODS Clinical data of 50 patients with rectal adenoma and early rectal cancer undergoing transanal endoscopic microsurgery in our hospital from October 2008 to June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Anorectal manometry, endorectal ultrasonography (ERUS), the fecal incontinence severity index (FISI), and the physical and mental health status scores (SF-36) were used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative anorectal function and quality of life. RESULTS Anorectal manometry indicated anal resting pressure (ARP), maximum squeeze pressure (MSP), rectal volume at sensory threshold(RVST), maximum tolerable volume(MTV) decreased significantly at the first month after surgery (P|0.05). MSP returned to preoperative level at the 3rd month (P|0.05). ARP and MTV returned to normal values at the 6th month (P|0.05). RVST
PURPOSE: Disconnection of an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has been proposed for treatment of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis failure caused by septic or functional complications. We report our experience with repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and document functional outcome and quality of life.. METHODS: Of 101 patients undergoing laparotomy, ileoanal disconnection, and repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 80 were referred from other institutions. Indications included: chronic anastomotic leak (n=27), perineal or pouch-vaginal fistula (n=47), anastomotic stricture (n=22), dysfunction/long efferent limb of S-pouch (n=36), and previous ileal pouch-anal anastomosis excision or exclusion (n=6). In 64 cases a "septic" indication was observed. Pathologic features of Crohns disease were present in 4 patients preoperatively and 15 more after repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Four patients had clinical features of Crohns disease.. RESULTS: Three patients had ...
The standard treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma is total mesorectal excision (TME). The technique involves a low anterior rectal or colo-anal resection
Gentler, Kinder Cut Whats New in Minimally invasive Colorectal Surgery? Samuel C. Oommen, MD, FACS, FASCRS Bay Area Colon and Rectal Surgeons Walnut Creek, Ca Topics To be Covered • Trans anal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) • Laparoscopic Colectomy • Total Mesorectal Excision & Autonomic Nerve Preservation (TME & ANP) • Hand Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery (HALS) • Robotic Colorectal Surgery Trans anal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery Introduced by Gerhard Buess in 1983 for excision of proximal rectal lesions not amenable to a standard Transanal excision(TAE) Operating Proctoscope with ports for CO2 insufflation and instrumentation Six fold stereoscopic view Facilitates negative surgical margins when direct visualization of the radial extent of the tumor is visible TRANSANAL ENDSCOPIC MICROSURGERY (TEM) Indications For TEM  Adenocarcinoma T1 lesion (Confined to Submucosa) Well or Moderately differentiated Without Lympho vascular invasion T2 ...
|p|Currarino syndrome was first described as a triad by Guido Currarino, an American radiologist in 1981. It is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease known by the triad of anorectal stenosis, anterior sacral defect, and a presacral mass that is most often an anterior sacral meningocele.|/p| |p|We represent a 3 year boy with refractory constipation from birth, which had been wrongly diagnosed and treated as Hirschsprungs disease since early childhood. The patient underwent urgent colostomy because of water intoxication due to bowel irrigation, and following investigations (CT, MRI) revealed anorectal anomaly and presacral mass compatible with Curarrinos syndrome.|/p| |p|Definitive operation was done with perineal approach, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty, with interval colostomy closure 2 months after perineal operation. An uncomplicated postoperative recovery ensued. The patients bowel habits successfully returned to normal soon after the operation. A
Sacral nerve stimulation using a tined lead as an extended testing phase to evaluate the predictive value of this form of testing by comparing the long-term (6 months) response to permanent sacral nerve stimulation in the groups classified by the test.. The tined lead test stimulation (TiLTS) is of 6 weeks duration and involves an active period of 2 weeks of active subsensory sacral nerve stimulation, and a placebo or sham period of 2 weeks of pretend subsensory sacral nerve stimulation. These periods are around a central 2 weeks of no testing (a washout period) giving a total of 6 weeks in this testing phase. Study participants are randomised into either group A or B who receive the active and sham testing in reversed orders, and so blinding both the assessment researchers and participants to the order of active and sham testing. Participants will identify on a visual analogue scale of 0-100 on how much they feel each 2 week period has improved their symptoms compared to baseline. ...
References. 1. Broden B, Snellman B. Procidentia of the rectum studied with cineradiography: a contribution to the discussion of causative mechanism. Dis Colon Rectum. 1968;11:330 -347.. 2. Kuijpers HC. Treatment of complete rectal prolapse: to narrow, to wrap, to suspend, to fix, to encircle, to plicate or to resect? World J Surg. 1992;16:826-830.. 3. Nicholls RJ. Rectal prolapse and the solitary ulcer syndrome. Ann Ital Chir. 1994;65:157-162.. 4. Parks AG, Swash M, Urich H. Sphincter denervation in anorectal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Gut. 1977;18:656-665.. 5. Roig JV, Buch E, Alos R, et al. Anorectal function in patients with complete rectal prolapse: differences between continent and incontinent individuals. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1998;90:794-. 805.. 6. Yakut M, Kaymakcioglu N, Simsek A, Tan A, Sen D. Surgical treatment of rectal prolapse: a retrospective analysis of 94 cases. Int Surg. 1998;83:53-55.. 7. SansilvestriMorel,Rupin ABadier CommanderC, Imbalance in synthesis of collagen type ...
This study has demonstrated that symptoms of both urinary and faecal incontinence are reported after vaginal and elective caesarean delivery. However, the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence was far greater after multiple vaginal deliveries, suggesting that elective caesarean section reduces this risk.. The lack of significant differences in other urinary symptoms and faecal symptoms between vaginal delivery and elective caesarean section delivery may be due to our small sample size. It may also be that these symptoms are not wholly related to damage to the pelvic floor during vaginal delivery but to changes that occur in pregnancy.. This study suggests that elective caesarean section may protect against the development of urinary incontinence, but the risk of faecal incontinence and other urinary symptoms including urge incontinence may not be reduced. The clinical relevance of the high prevalence of occult anal sphincter injuries after vaginal delivery of up to 35%4 is also questioned as ...

Malignant Melanoma of Anal Canal | The BMJMalignant Melanoma of Anal Canal | The BMJ

Malignant Melanoma of Anal Canal. Br Med J 1956; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4972.903 (Published 21 April 1956) Cite ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/1/4972/903/submit-a-rapid-response

Anal canal - WikipediaAnal canal - Wikipedia

Anal columns Anal sinuses Anal valves Anus Pectinate line Anal sex Anal Canal at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The anal verge is the distal end of the anal canal, forming a transitional zone between the epithelium of the anal canal and ... The ischioanal fossa lies on each side of the anal canal. The perianal space surrounds the anal canal below the white line. The ... The anal canal is divided into three parts. The zona columnaris is the upper half of the canal and is lined by simple columnar ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anal_canal

KEGG DISEASE: Cancer of the anal canalKEGG DISEASE: Cancer of the anal canal

2C00 Malignant neoplasms of anus or anal canal. H00044 Cancer of the anal canal. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal accounts for 1.5 per cent of all digestive system cancers in the USA, with an ... H00044 Cancer of the anal canal. Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]. 02 Neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms, ... CEA, TPA, CA 19-9, SCC and CYFRA at diagnosis and in the follow-up of anal canal tumors. ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?H00044

Anal Canal Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Tissue, Nerves, and Muscles, Pathophysiologic VariantsAnal Canal Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, Tissue, Nerves, and Muscles, Pathophysiologic Variants

... which lies between the anal verge (anal orifice, anus) in the perineum below and the rectum above. The description in this ... The anal canal is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, ... Anal Canal Anatomy) and Anal Canal Anatomy What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Anal Canal Anatomy ... The anal canal is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, which lies between the anal verge (anal orifice ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1990236-overview

Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/Guidelines - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldRadiation Oncology/Anal canal/Guidelines - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/Guidelines. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... ASCRS: Practice Parameters for Anal Squamous Neoplasm *2008 Guideline link. *2008 PMID 18030528 -- "Practice parameters for ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Radiation_Oncology/Anal_canal/Guidelines&oldid=2630613" ... Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer." (Ng M, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Radiation_Oncology/Anal_canal/Guidelines

Cisplatin Induction Gives No Survival Benefit in Anal Canal Cancer | Medpage TodayCisplatin Induction Gives No Survival Benefit in Anal Canal Cancer | Medpage Today

In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan out, a randomized trial ... Cisplatin Induction Gives No Survival Benefit in Anal Canal Cancer. HOUSTON -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare ... Approximately 25% of newly diagnosed anal canal cancers are larger than 5 cm and clinically node positive. Studies have shown ... HOUSTON, April 23 -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan ...
more infohttps://www.medpagetoday.com/hematologyoncology/othercancers/9211

Carcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study - BioPortfolio.comCarcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study - BioPortfolio.com

More From BioPortfolio on "Carcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study". *Related Companies *Related Clinical Trials * ... Carcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study. 20:00 EDT 9 Oct 2019 , Cancer Networks ... Articles] Cervical determinants of anal HPV infection and high-grade anal lesions in women: a collaborative pooled analysis ... Greater prevalence of anal cancer precursors for women living with HIV than prior reports ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/4132207/Carcinoma-of-the-Anal-Canal-A-Feasibility-Study.html

Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/RT Technique - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldRadiation Oncology/Anal canal/RT Technique - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Radiation Oncology‎ , Anal canal. This page may need to be reviewed for quality. ... Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/RT Technique. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... 2007 PMID 17276620 - "Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined ... 2003 PMID 12788191 - "Contribution of conformal therapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma with combined chemotherapy and ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Radiation_Oncology/Anal_canal/RT_Technique

Successful in Anal Canal Cancer -- MEDICA Trade FairSuccessful in Anal Canal Cancer -- MEDICA Trade Fair

... of chemotherapy with the drug cisplatin before other treatments did not improve disease-free survival for patients with anal ... canal cancer compared to the standard treatment regimen. ... Successful in Anal Canal Cancer. Chemoradiation is the ... treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal cancer. A total of 644 patients ... prior to administration of chemoradiation could potentially be effective for treating anal canal cancer. It was hypothesized ...
more infohttps://www.medica-tradefair.com/cgi-bin/md_medica/lib/pub/tt.cgi/Successful_in_Anal_Canal_Cancer.html?oid=24434&lang=2&ticket=g_u_e_s_t

Perianal Crohns Disease/Cancer in Anal Canal | Cancer Survivors NetworkPerianal Crohns Disease/Cancer in Anal Canal | Cancer Survivors Network

Re: Perianal Crohns Disease/Cancer in Anal Canal. Someone a while ago gave PMPpals.org as a web site that has information on ... A rare (from what his doctors tell us) cancer was found in his anal canal. The "tumor" itself is actually filled with a ... Im trying to find information on a rare anal canal cancer. My husband is 57 and has had Perianal Crohns Disease since his ...
more infohttps://csn.cancer.org/node/142937

Idiopathic Hypertensive Anal Canal: a Place of Internal Sphincterotomy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govIdiopathic Hypertensive Anal Canal: a Place of Internal Sphincterotomy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Idiopathic hypertensive anal canal is a fact and already exists presented by anal pain aggravated by defecation. It can be ... Idiopathic Hypertensive Anal Canal: a Place of Internal Sphincterotomy. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Hypertensive Anal Canal Procedure: lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) Drug: Glycerin trinitrate (GTN) Drug: botulinum toxin ... All were instructed to apply the GTN ointment 0.2 % twice a day to the edge and just inside the anal canal for 8 week course. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00927849?term=Hypertonia&rank=16

The effect of dose escalation for large squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal | SpringerLinkThe effect of dose escalation for large squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal | SpringerLink

Purpose Chemoradiation allows for organ preservation in patients with anal cancer, but patients with large tumors (> 5 cm) have ... Changing patterns of anal canal carcinoma in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:1569-75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointest Cancer Res GCR. 2008;2:10-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2009;22:77-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12094-018-1863-y

Leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal: case report and review of the literature.Leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal: case report and review of the literature.

Endorectal ultrasound revealed a mass invading both sphincters (T4 lesion), and extending 6 cm into the anal can ... A rare case of a leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal is presented. A 68-year-old male presented with painful defecation and rectal ... and extending 6 cm into the anal canal. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerated area in the anal canal, of which biopsies revealed ... A rare case of a leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal is presented. A 68-year-old male presented with painful defecation and rectal ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Leiomyosarcoma-anal-canal-case-report/18274436.html

Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Anal Canal Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govNivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Anal Canal Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anal Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic Anal Canal Carcinoma Recurrent Anal Canal Carcinoma Stage IV Anal Canal Cancer ... Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Anal Canal Cancer. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... This phase II trial studies how well nivolumab works in treating patients with anal canal cancer that has not responded to ... To evaluate the grade 3 and 4 toxicity rate in patients with previously treated metastatic SCCA of the anal canal when treated ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02314169

Anal canal pressure after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with strengthened internal anal sphincter.Anal canal pressure after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with strengthened internal anal sphincter.

Anal Canal / physiology*, surgery*. Anastomosis, Surgical. Colitis, Ulcerative / surgery*. Colonic Pouches*. Female. Humans. ... Basal resting anal canal pressure and pressure after voluntary contraction were recorded preoperatively, one month after ... ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed after a modified surgical technique for strengthening the internal anal sphincter by ... Previous Document: Why do anal wounds heal adequately? A study of the local immunoinflammatory defense mechanisms.. Next ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Anal-canal-pressure-after-ileal/15622579.html

White line of anal canal | definition of white line of anal canal by Medical dictionaryWhite line of anal canal | definition of white line of anal canal by Medical dictionary

What is white line of anal canal? Meaning of white line of anal canal medical term. What does white line of anal canal mean? ... Looking for online definition of white line of anal canal in the Medical Dictionary? white line of anal canal explanation free ... white line of anal canal. white line of a·nal ca·nal. a bluish pink, narrow, wavy zone in the mucosa of the anal canal below ... Hilton white line - a zone in the mucosa of the anal canal said to be palpable. Synonym(s): white line of anal canal ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/white+line+of+anal+canal

Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal - Gate2Biotech.comOrgan-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal - Gate2Biotech.com

METHODS: Forty biopsy-proven untreated patients (28 men) with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal received two cycles of ... Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Date: 4.1.2011 ... sequential chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and of salvage surgery in those in whom this ... Three patients had post-treatment anal stenosis requiring repeated dilatation and two had chronic non-healing ulcers at the ...
more infohttp://www.gate2biotech.com/organ-preserving-multimodality-management-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-anal-canal/

Archive ouverte HAL - Management of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent...Archive ouverte HAL - Management of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent...

... squamous-cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCCAC) is concurrent chemo-radiotherapy delivering 36-45 Gy to the prophylactic ... Keywords : Anal canal Cancer Chemo-radiotherapy Helical tomotherapy Intensity-modulated radiation therapy Squamous-cell ... Abstract : The best curative option for locally advanced (stages II-III) squamous-cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCCAC) is ... Management of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy Guillaume ...
more infohttps://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01926996

Metachronous Anal Canal and Prostate Cancers with Simultaneous Definitive Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the LiteratureMetachronous Anal Canal and Prostate Cancers with Simultaneous Definitive Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

... ... Anal canal cancer is rare, accounting for only 1.3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Prostate cancer incidence is ... Screening for synchronous prostate cancer in male anal canal cancer patients is probably indicated and may preclude suboptimal ... was also diagnosed with anal canal cancer. We conclude that a simultaneous approach with radiation therapy and chemotherapy ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2011/864371/abs/

Surgical Anatomy of the Rectum, Anal Canal, Perineum, and Colon | Springer for Research & DevelopmentSurgical Anatomy of the Rectum, Anal Canal, Perineum, and Colon | Springer for Research & Development

Walls EW (1959) Recent observations on the anatomy of the anal canal. Proc R Soc Med [Suppl] 52:85-87Google Scholar ... Lane R, Parks AG (1977) Function of the anal sphincters following colo-anal anastomosis. Br J Surg 64:596-599PubMedCrossRef ... Huber A. (1998) Surgical Anatomy of the Rectum, Anal Canal, Perineum, and Colon. In: Marti MC., Givel JC. (eds) Surgical ... Dickinson VA (1978) Maintenance of anal continence: a review of pelvic floor physiology. Gut 19:1163-1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-662-10169-8_1

Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.  - PubMed - NCBICase report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. - PubMed - NCBI

Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.. Fayaz S1, Vasishta ... A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20084726

Surgery in Treating Patients With Early Stage Anal Canal or Perianal Cancer and HIV Infection | Clinical Research Trial Listing...Surgery in Treating Patients With Early Stage Anal Canal or Perianal Cancer and HIV Infection | Clinical Research Trial Listing...

Stage 0 Anal Canal Cancer , HIV infection , Surgery in Treating Patients With Early Stage Anal Canal or Perianal Cancer and HIV ... Clinical trial for Stage I Anal Canal Cancer , Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , ... Surgery in Treating Patients With Early Stage Anal Canal or Perianal Cancer and HIV Infection Brief description of study. This ... anal squamous cancers at sites other than the location of the index SISCCA in patients treated with excision of anal canal and ...
more infohttps://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/72808/anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-surgery-treating-patients-early/?radius=50

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal | Molecular Cancer ResearchComprehensive Genomic Profiling of Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal | Molecular Cancer Research

Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal. Van Morris, Xiayu Rao, Curtis ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare gastrointestinal malignancy with an increasing annual incidence ... Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal ... Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal ...
more infohttp://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2017/08/28/1541-7786.MCR-17-0060

A rare treatment of the Fistula from the gluteal area up to anal canal with TEM procedure - SAGES Abstract ArchivesA rare treatment of the Fistula from the gluteal area up to anal canal with TEM procedure - SAGES Abstract Archives

A rare treatment of the Fistula from the gluteal area up to anal canal with TEM procedure. Turgut Ipek, PROFDR, Erhun Eyuboglu ... A large caliber fistulous tract was running medially from the gluteal area up to anal canal. The features were suggestive of ...
more infohttps://www.sages.org/meetings/annual-meeting/abstracts-archive/a-rare-treatment-of-the-fistula-from-the-gluteal-area-up-to-anal-canal-with-tem-procedure/

Variants of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal and Perianal Skin and Their Relation to Human Papillomaviruses | Cancer...Variants of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal and Perianal Skin and Their Relation to Human Papillomaviruses | Cancer...

... and located in the anal canal (P ≤ 0.01) than were cancers in heterosexual men. In both women and men, anal canal cancers ... had cancers involving the anal canal, whereas 44% (n = 24) had perianal skin cancers. These proportions of anal canal cancers ... Anal Localization and Age.. Patients with anal canal cancers were older (median = 64 years for women and 62 years for men) than ... hrHPV and Anal Localization.. Considerably more cancers involving the anal canal were hrHPV positive (95% among women and 83% ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/59/3/753
  • The best curative option for locally advanced (stages II-III) squamous-cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCCAC) is concurrent chemo-radiotherapy delivering 36-45 Gy to the prophylactic planning target volume with an additional boost of 14-20 Gy to the gross tumor volume with or without a gap-period between these two sequences. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • compare this with the anal canal skin above the anal verge, which is also pigmented and keratinized but does not have skin appendages. (medscape.com)
  • Three patients had post-treatment anal stenosis requiring repeated dilatation and two had chronic non-healing ulcers at the anal verge. (gate2biotech.com)
  • The submucous space of the canal lies above the white line between the mucous membrane and internal anal sphincter muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anal canal pressure after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with strengthened internal anal sphincter. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 26 patients (54.17 percent of the cases), 10 males and 16 females, ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed after a modified surgical technique for strengthening the internal anal sphincter by creation of a smooth muscle cuff through plication of a mucosectomized segment of residual rectum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Internal anal sphincter - surrounds the upper 2/3 of the anal canal. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • It is formed by the fusion of the internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscle, and is palpable on digital rectal examination . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • HPV infection is transient in most immunocompetent individuals, but HIV-positive patients have evidence of persistent HPV infection within the anal canal. (genome.jp)
  • Patient and methods: Sixty three patients complaining of anal pain without any anal pathology and 10 healthy volunteers were examined. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients with hypertensive anal canal were randomized into three groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I. To evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) of nivolumab in patients with previously treated metastatic SCCA of the anal canal. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the grade 3 and 4 toxicity rate in patients with previously treated metastatic SCCA of the anal canal when treated with nivolumab. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I. To evaluate ORR, PFS, and OS based on expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), peritumoral cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), peritumoral CD4+ TILs, and regulatory T cells as analyzed from tumor biopsies in previously treated patients with metastatic SCCA of the anal canal when treated with nivolumab. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate radiographic responses according to relative changes in proportions of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) specific CD8+ and CD4+ TILs and regulatory T cells in patients with previously treated metastatic SCCA of the anal canal following treatment with nivolumab, analyzed from serial peripheral blood samples. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients quality of life was improved for those undergoing the modified ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ihre T (1974) Studies of anal function in continent and incontinent patients. (springer.com)
  • Swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the anal or groin areas. (gcrsa.com)
  • Idiopathic hypertensive anal canal is a fact and already exists presented by anal pain aggravated by defecation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The entire length of the anal canal is surrounded by sphincter muscles, and the canal remains closed except during defecation and passage of flatus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anal canal is the final segment of the gastrointestinal tract, that has an important role in defecation and maintaining faecal continence. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Kerremans R (1969) Morphological and physiological aspects of anal continence and defaecation. (springer.com)
  • Haemorrhoids are vascular cushions found within the anal canal of healthy individuals, which help with the maintenance faecal continence. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • femoral canal the cone-shaped medial part of the femoral sheath lateral to the base of Gimbernat's ligament. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mean age, 35.52 years) with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis after proctocolectomy in 1986 to 2002. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This effect was absent after the standard ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We utilized a tetracycline-regulatable histone H2B-GFP transgenic mice model, previously used to identify hair follicle stem cells, to fluorescently label slow-cycling anal epithelial cells (e.g., prospective stem cells) in combination with a panel of putative stem cell markers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In conclusion, we identified a unique population of cells at the anorectal junction which can be separated from the other basal anal epithelial cells based upon the expression of the stem cell marker CD34 and integrin α6, and thus represent a putative anal stem cell population. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some arise from the special mucosal cells lining the upper anal canal and are called cloacogenic carcinomas. (gcrsa.com)
  • It is a scalloped demarcation formed by the anal valves (transverse folds of mucosa) at the inferior-most ends of the anal columns. (medscape.com)
  • Hilton white line - a zone in the mucosa of the anal canal said to be palpable. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, in the anal canal, the mucosa is organised into longitudinal folds, known as anal columns . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The author believes that it should be called anal skin (anoderm), as it looks like (pigmented) skin, is sensitive like skin (why a fissure-in-ano is very painful), and is keratinized (but does not have skin appendages). (medscape.com)
  • The upper 2/3 of the anal canal is supplied by the superior rectal artery which is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower third of the anal canal is supplied by the inferior rectal artery which is a branch of the internal pudendal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • they are called anal cushions and contain branches and tributaries of superior rectal (hemorrhoidal) artery and vein. (medscape.com)
  • Its lower ends are joined together by folds of mucous membrane called anal valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anal columns (of Morgagni) are 6-10 longitudinal (vertical) mucosal folds in the upper part of the anal canal. (medscape.com)
  • The demarcation between the rectum above and the anal canal below is the anorectal ring or anorectal flexure, where the puborectalis muscle forms a sling around the posterior aspect of the anorectal junction, kinking it anteriorly. (medscape.com)
  • At the anorectal flexure or angle, the anorectal junction is pulled anterosuperiorly by the puborectal sling to continue below as the anal canal. (medscape.com)
  • We identified a population of long-term GFP label-retaining cells concentrated at the junction between the anal canal and the rectum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At the junction of the rectum and the anal canal, there is a muscular ring - known as the anorectal ring . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Basal resting anal canal pressure and pressure after voluntary contraction were recorded preoperatively, one month after surgery, and every six months for two years. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerated area in the anal canal, of which biopsies revealed high-grade leiomyosarcoma--only the eighteenth such case at the time of this submission. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study we determined the prevalence and nature of HPV co-infections in the anal canal of 324 HIV+ MSM attending a high specialty medical center in Mexico City, DNA extraction and amplification with generic primers for HPV was performed, followed by detection of specific types and co-infections with INNO-Lipa, and identification of variants by amplification and sequencing of the E6 and LCR region of HPV 16. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Q . Treatment of choice for anal canal high grade lymphoma on a young immunocompromised male? (mcqsurgery.com)
  • Why do anal wounds heal adequately? (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chronic local inflammation - People with long-standing anal fistulas or open wounds are at a slightly higher risk. (gcrsa.com)
  • In front of (anterior to) the anal canal is the rectovesical fascia (of Denonvilliers), and behind (posterior) is the presacral endopelvic fascia (of Waldeyer), under which lie a rich presacral plexus of veins. (medscape.com)
  • Behind this lies the anal gland which secretes lymphal discharge and built up fecal matter from the colon lining. (wikipedia.org)