Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Anus DiseasesSemicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Proctoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.Fissure in Ano: A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Colostomy: The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Rectal Prolapse: Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)

Effects of short term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence. (1/1075)

BACKGROUND: Some patients with faecal incontinence are not amenable to simple surgical sphincter repair, due to sphincter weakness in the absence of a structural defect. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and possible mode of action of short term stimulation of sacral nerves in patients with faecal incontinence and a structurally intact external anal sphincter. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with faecal incontinence for solid or liquid stool at least once per week. METHODS: A stimulating electrode was placed (percutaneously in 10 patients, operatively in two) into the S3 or S4 foramen. The electrode was left in situ for a minimum of one week with chronic stimulation. RESULTS: Evaluable results were obtained in nine patients, with early electrode displacement in the other three. Incontinence ceased in seven of nine patients and improved notably in one; one patient with previous imperforate anus and sacral agenesis had no symptomatic response. Stimulation seemed to enhance maximum squeeze pressure but did not alter resting pressure. The rectum became less sensitive to distension with no change in rectal compliance. Ambulatory studies showed a possible reduction in rectal contractile activity and diminished episodes of spontaneous anal relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: Short term sacral nerve stimulation notably decreases episodes of faecal incontinence. The effect may be mediated via facilitation of striated sphincter muscle function, and via neuromodulation of sacral reflexes which regulate rectal sensitivity and contractility, and anal motility.  (+info)

Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women. (2/1075)

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

Faecal composition after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. (3/1075)

Diarrhoea and perianal excoriation occur frequently after the endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A new method of faecal analysis was performed on 3-day stool collections in 17 postoperative Hirschsprung patients and in 14 normal children, in order to define the faecal abnormality and to establish the cause of perianal excoriation in these patients. Loose stools in postoperative patients were deficient in dry solid content and contained an excess of extractable faecal water. This also had a raised electrolyte concentration, particularly with respect to sodium. Total daily output of faecal water was normal. Formed stools from postoperative patients were also deficient in drysolids but had a normal extractable water content. Excess extractable faecal water, the main abnormality of loose stools in these patients, is the result of abnormal water absorption from the distal colon. Perianal excoriation in these patients is most closely associated with the concentration of sodium in faecal water.  (+info)

Investigation and management of long-standing chronic constipation in childhood. (4/1075)

The anorectal physiology of 106 children with long-standing chronic constipation, who had failed to response to a trial of medical treatment, was assessed. 10 (9%) were shown to have ultrashort-segment Hischsprung's disease, later confirmed on histology, The remainder showed evidence of hypertrophy of the internal sphicter on anorectal manometry and had a vigorous anal dilatation (to accept 4 fingers) under general anesthesia. After this, 38% were able to be weaned off all medication and most of the remainder improved. Further anal dilatation and internal sphincterotomy allowed a further 10 children to stop laxative, bringing the total to 48%.  (+info)

Perception of and adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in patients with faecal incontinence. (5/1075)

BACKGROUND: Perception of, and adaptation of the rectum to, distension probably play an important role in the maintenance of continence, but perception studies in faecal incontinence provide controversial conclusions possibly related to methodological biases. In order to better understand perception disorders, the aim of this study was to analyse anorectal adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in subjects with incontinence. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between June 95 and December 97, 97 consecutive patients (nine men and 88 women, mean (SEM) age 55 (1) years) suffering from incontinence were evaluated and compared with 15 healthy volunteers (four men and 11 women, mean age 48 (3) years). The patients were classified into three groups according to their perception status to rectal isobaric distensions (impaired, 22; normal, 61; enhanced, 14). Anal and rectal adaptations to increasing rectal pressure were analysed using a model of rectal isobaric distension. RESULTS: The four groups did not differ with respect to age, parity, or sex ratio. Magnitude of incontinence, prevalence of pelvic disorders, and sphincter defects were similar in the incontinent groups. When compared with healthy controls, anal pressure and rectal adaptation to distension were decreased in incontinent patients. When compared with incontinent patients with normal perception, patients with enhanced perception experienced similar rectal adaptation but had reduced anal pressure. In contrast, patients with impaired perception showed considerably decreased rectal adaptation but had similar anal pressure. CONCLUSION: Abnormal sensations during rectal distension are observed in one third of subjects suffering from incontinence. These abnormalities may reflect hyperreactivity or neuropathological damage of the rectal wall.  (+info)

Anal ultrasound predicts the response to nonoperative treatment of fecal incontinence in men. (6/1075)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the etiology, treatment, and utility of anal ultrasound in men with fecal incontinence and to review the outcomes of conservative (nonoperative) treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of fecal incontinence in women is almost exclusively from obstetric or iatrogenic surgical injuries resulting in damage to the anal sphincters and/or pudendal nerves. Corresponding data on men with fecal incontinence are sparse. METHODS: Between January 1995 and January 1998, 37 men with fecal incontinence were evaluated in the John Radcliffe Hospital anorectal ultrasound unit. Their clinical histories, anal ultrasound results, anorectal physiology studies, and responses to conservative therapy were reviewed. RESULTS: Median age was 57 years. Major incontinence was present in 27% of the patients. Anal ultrasound localized anal sphincter damage in nine patients, and the characteristics of these nine patients with sphincter damage were then compared with the remaining 28 without sphincter damage. Prior anal surgery was more common in patients with sphincter damage. Hemorrhoids were more common in patients without sphincter damage. Anorectal physiology studies revealed significantly lower mean maximum resting and squeeze pressures in patients with sphincter damage, confirming poor sphincter function. With 92% follow-up, patients without sphincter damage were more likely to improve with nonoperative therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Anal ultrasound is extremely useful in the evaluation of fecal incontinence in men. Unlike women, the majority of men do not have a sphincter defect by anal ultrasound, and conservative management is usually successful in these patients. In contrast, in men with anal sphincter damage, almost all of these defects resulted from previous anal surgery. Conservative management rarely is successful in these cases, and surgical repair of the anal sphincter may be indicated. Therefore, because the presence or absence of sphincter damage on anal ultrasound usually predicts the response to nonoperative treatment, anal ultrasound should be used to guide the initial management of men with fecal incontinence.  (+info)

A bile acid-induced apoptosis assay for colon cancer risk and associated quality control studies. (7/1075)

Bile acids are important in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Bile acids induce apoptosis in colonic goblet cells at concentrations comparable to those found in fecal water after high-fat meals. Preliminary evidence indicated that cells of the normal-appearing (nontumorous) portion of the colon epithelium of colon cancer patients are more resistant to bile salt-induced apoptosis than are cells from normal individuals. In the present study, 68 patients were examined, and biopsies were taken at 20 cm from the anal verge, cecum, and descending colon. The patients included 17 individuals with a history of colorectal cancer, 37 individuals with adenomas, and 14 individuals who were neoplasia free. The mean bile salt-induced apoptotic index among normal individuals was 57.6 +/- 3.47 (SE), which differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean value of 36.41 +/- 3.12 in individuals with a history of colon cancer. The correlation between independent observers was 0.89 (P < 0.001), indicating good interobserver reliability. Components of variance comparing interindividual versus intraindividual sources of variation suggested that site-to-site variability, both between regions of the colon and for adjacent biopsies, was larger than the interpatient variability for individuals with a history of neoplasia. Therefore, there was "patchiness" of the susceptibility of regions of the colon to bile acid-induced apoptosis in individuals with a history of neoplasia (a patchy field effect). There was no obvious correlation of low-apoptotic index regions with regions in which previous neoplasias had been found and removed. On the other hand, for normal, i.e., neoplasia-free, individuals, there was relatively less intraindividual variation compared to interindividual variation. Our assay shows an association between resistance to bile acid-induced apoptosis, measured at 20 cm from the anal verge, and colon cancer risk. Thus, this assay may prove useful as a biomarker of colon cancer risk.  (+info)

Topographical and electrophysiological characteristics of highly excitable S neurones in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig ileum. (8/1075)

1. Most intracellular electrical recordings from myenteric neurones have been made from the centre of large ganglia. In this study, we examined the electrophysiological properties of neurones at the corners of large ganglia close to internodal strands and in microganglia. 2. Of 150 neurones in these locations: 111 were tonic S neurones; 9 were phasic S neurones and 30 were AH neurones. 3. Tonic S neurones were characterized by: (i) low resting membrane potentials (-50 +/- 1 mV, mean +/- s.e.m.); (ii) high input impedance (522 +/- 23 MOmega); (iii) low threshold for action potential (AP) generation (0.012 +/- 0.004 nA); (iv) firing of APs throughout a depolarizing pulse (duration <= 1 s) and one to four APs following a hyperpolarizing pulse and (v) spontaneous fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (FEPSPs). A substantial proportion of tonic S neurones (43 %) also fired APs spontaneously (7.6 +/- 0.6 Hz; range, 0.3-19 Hz). All APs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). 4. Tonic S neurones were subclassified, according to their post-stimulus responses, as SAH or SAD neurones. Following a burst of APs, SAH neurones exhibited a prominent after-hyperpolarization (duration, 711 +/- 10 ms) and SAD neurones an after-depolarization (duration, 170 +/- 10 ms). The after-hyperpolarization was reduced in four of ten neurones by apamin (0.3 microM). 5. FEPSPs were evoked in 20 of 38 S neurones by electrical stimulation applied both oral and anal to the recording site. Repetitive stimuli evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (SEPSPs) in some tonic S neurones. 6. Three functional classes of S neurones were identified after injection of neurobiotin through the recording microelectrode: (i) longitudinal muscle motor neurones, (ii) short circular muscle motor neurones, and (iii) ascending interneurones. 7. In conclusion, there appears to be topographical organization of highly excitable, tonic S neurones within the myenteric plexus, since, in contrast to other S neurones, they can be readily impaled in myenteric ganglia close to internodal strands and in microganglia.  (+info)

A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological Anal sphincter repair is an operation performed on the back passage to repair the gap in the damaged anal sphincter muscle. The external anal sphincter is composed of skeletal muscle, is under voluntary control, (but not under anesthesia when the muscles relax). Sphincter muscle, any of the ringlike muscles surrounding and able to contract or close a bodily passage or opening. One of the most important human sphincter muscles The thickness of the anal sphincter muscles and the length of Normal Anal Sphincter Anatomy and Age- and Sex-related Variations at High-Spatial-Resolution ...
Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) is the most common cause of fecal incontinence (FI) in women. Obstetric-related FI may occur early after childbirth. Previous obstetric injury is also a major cause of FI in older women, and risk of FI increases with time and further childbirths. FI is involuntary loss of solid or liquid stool. Symptoms range from fecal urgency, soiling, to daily passive or urge fecal incontinence. FI is a stigmatizing condition. It can have a distressing impact and restriction on quality of life, including isolation and depression.. Tears during delivery is classified (Sultan) as first degree tears including vaginal epithelium, second degree tears into the perineal muscle, third degree involving the anal sphincter complex and fourth degree including sphincter complex and anorectal epithelium. OASIS includes third and fourth degrees tears.. First line of therapy of FI is conservative treatment including drug therapy and biofeedback. If conservative treatment fails, ...
The anal and rectal area contains specialized muscles that are helpful to regulate proper passage of bowel movements.. Normally, when stool enters the rectum, the anal sphincter muscle tightens to prevent passage of stool at an inconvenient time. If this muscle is weak or does not contract in a timely way, incontinence (leakage of stool) may occur.. Normally, when a person pushes or bears down to have a bowel movement, the anal sphincter muscles relax. This will cause the pressures to decrease allowing evacuation of stool. If the sphincter muscles tighten when pushing, this could contribute to constipation. Anal manometry measures how strong the sphincter muscles are and whether they relax as they should during passing a stool. It provides helpful information to the doctor in treating patients with fecal incontinence or severe constipation.. There are many causes of fecal incontinence. Weak anal sphincter muscles or poor sensation in the rectum can contribute to fecal incontinence. If these ...
PURPOSE:. Paradoxical puborectalis contraction during defecation is one possible explanation for constipation. The degree of paradoxical contraction can be evaluated by intramuscular electromyography from the puborectalis and external anal sphincter muscles. This study aimed to determine whether a noninvasive technique with surface electrodes placed over the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter is feasible in the evaluation of paradoxical activity.. METHODS:. Twenty-five patients with constipation were studied. Sphincter muscle activity during strain and squeeze maneuvers was recorded using surface electrodes placed 1 cm from the anal verge. In addition, intramuscular recordings were made simultaneously from the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles. The degree of paradoxical activation was calculated as a strain/squeeze index. The patients were examined either in the left lateral position or sitting on a commode.. RESULTS:. The study revealed significant (P , .01) ...
The internal anal sphincter, IAS, (or sphincter ani internus) is a muscular ring that surrounds about 2.5-4.0 cm of the anal canal; its inferior border is in contact with, but quite separate from, the external anal sphincter. It is about 5 mm thick, and is formed by an aggregation of the involuntary circular fibers of the rectum. Its lower border is about 6 mm from the orifice of the anus. Its action is entirely involuntary, and it is in a state of continuous maximal contraction. It helps the Sphincter ani externus to occlude the anal aperture and aids in the expulsion of the feces. Sympathetic fibers from the superior rectal and hypogastric plexuses stimulate and maintain internal anal sphincter contraction. Its contraction is inhibited by parasympathetic fiber stimulation. This sphincter is tonically contracted most of the time to prevent leakage of fluid or gas, but is relaxed upon distention of the rectal ampulla, requiring voluntary contraction of the puborectalis and external anal ...
Cesarean Sections and Anal Sphincter InjuriesOccurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries found by 3D EAUS among primiparas delivered by cesarean section: a pilot study ...
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine sphincter volume, length, and external anal sphincter thickness in healthy controls and fecal incontinent patients by use of a three-dimensional reconstruction of endoanal ultrasonography images. MET
Anismus or "spastic pelvic floor syndrome" is thought to be one cause of severe constipation.2 7 Its pathophysiological basis is PSC during straining. However, there is no single test by which the diagnosis can be confirmed so it is possible that it is a laboratory artefact. None the less, operations to solve the problem by posterior division of the puborectalis muscle have been performed.8 During the past few years functional outlet obstruction has been widely acknowledged as a cause of chronic constipation. In organic diseases such as tumour stenosis, outlet obstruction is continuously maintained by a rectal tumour mass. On the other hand, in functional forms of outlet obstruction the physiology is normal when the patient does not defaecate and becomes pathological only during defaecation. Paradoxical sphincter contraction during straining has been claimed as one of the main causes of functional outlet obstruction.9 The concept of PSC as a specific finding in constipated patients has been ...
Nitroglycerine (glyceryl trinitrate) is used for treatment of anal fissure, as it has muscle relaxant property. Spasm of internal anal sphincter muscles, which reduce blood flow to the internal anal sphincter muscles possibly play an important role in causation of anal fissure as well in healing of anal fissures and ...
Bloating Worsens Constipation. One condition that can trigger your internal anal sphincter muscle to tighten up is a big accumulation of gas (flatulence) in your colon. If you have so much gas that your abdominal area is puffed up, then the pressure from that quantity of gas in the colon triggers the internal anal sphincter muscle to tighten up and close.. In this case, you have to very first eliminate the pressure by getting a few of the gas out, prior to you attempt to have a defecation. The very best method to do this is by lying flat on your bed, doing some colonic massage, then lying flat once again and simply permitting your body to entirely unwind and release. Sleep, or check out a book, however rest totally flat in whatever position is comfy for you (in your corner, your stomach, etc) and enable the gas to come out, as your body is all set to launch it.. ColoZone Plus works to help with bowel regularity and constipation, colon cleanse, reduce stomach acid and also acts as a magnesium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Robotic versus laparoscopic coloanal anastomosis with or without intersphincteric resection for rectal cancer. AU - Baek, Se-Jin. AU - AL-Asari, Sami. AU - Jeong, Duck Hyoun. AU - Hur, Hyuk. AU - Min, Byung Soh. AU - Baik, Seung Hyuk. AU - Kim, Nam Kyu. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the field of rectal cancer surgery. This study aimed to compare the short- and long-term outcomes between robotic and laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection (uLAR) and coloanal anastomosis (CAA). Between January 2007 and December 2010, a retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with low rectal cancer who underwent curative uLAR and CAA with or without intersphincteric resection using either a robotic or a laparoscopic approach. The study excluded patients with tumors invading the levator ani or external sphincter, patients with T4 cancers invading the prostate or vagina, and patients for whom an open approach was used. Patients short- ...
The primary functions of the rectum and pelvic floor muscles are to prevent incontinence (loss of control) or accidental leakage and to allow defecation to occur.. The rectum is very elastic, which allows it to store food residues prior to a bowel movement. But it must also be stiff enough to funnel food residues toward the anus during a bowel movement.. The pelvic floor, located below the rectum, is made up of many different muscles including the puborectalis muscle and the external and internal anal sphincter muscles.. The rectum is surrounded by sensory nerves that detect the filling of the rectum with food residues. This sensation of rectal filling enables us to consciously or unconsciously squeeze the external anal sphincter to prevent incontinence until we can reach a toilet. These sensory nerves are also involved in reflexes that let the sphincter muscles relax during a bowel movement.. Bowel incontinence or accidental leakage ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Perineal body length as a risk factor for ultrasound-diagnosed anal sphincter tear at first delivery. AU - Geller, E. J.. AU - Robinson, B. L.. AU - Matthews, C. A.. AU - Celauro, K. P.. AU - Dunivan, G. C.. AU - Crane, A. K.. AU - Ivins, A. R.. AU - Woodham, P. C.. AU - Fielding, J. R.. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. N2 - Introduction and hypothesis: Shortened perineal body (PB) is associated with an increased risk of ultrasound-detected obstetric anal sphincter tear. The objective was to determine if shortened perineal body length (,3 cm) is a risk factor for ultrasound-detected anal sphincter tear at first delivery. Methods: Pregnant nulliparous women were recruited over 18 months. At 35-37 weeks gestation and 6 weeks postpartum perineal body length (PB) was measured and subjects completed quality of life questionnaires. Primary outcome was ultrasound-diagnosed anal sphincter tear at 6 weeks post-partum. Secondary outcomes were also assessed. A priori power analysis determined ...
Rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is a physiological modulated reflex involved in anorectal continence and defined by a relaxation of internal anal sphincter following rectal distension. Its existenc
Masaaki Ito, Yuji Nishizawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Akihiro Kobayashi. National Cancer Center Hospital East. Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the short-term results and surgical tips of down-to-up TME by TAMIS following trans-anal intersphincteric dissection (ISD+TAMIS-TME) for very low rectal cancer near the anus.. Methods: We experienced this procedure in thirty-one C-Stage lower rectal cancers locating within 5cm from the anal verge. In the first step of this procedure, transanal intersphincteric dissection was performed from 2cm distal side of the tumor till the level that the puborectal muscle was fully exposed and then placed Gelpoint path in the anal canal. Distal stump was closed to prevent cancer cell dissemination and irrigate the anal canal. Down-to-up TME was performed under pneumoperitoneum using conventional laparoscopic devices till the level of the peritoneal reflux. Next, we moved to the abdominal side and did conventional laparoscopic procedures to make resection of the ...
Click here for External anal sphincter pictures! You can also find pictures of Fertilization of ovum, Fallopian tubes, Facial vein.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicentre study of robotic intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. AU - Park, J. S.. AU - Kim, N. K.. AU - Kim, Seon Hahn. AU - Lee, K. Y.. AU - Lee, K. Y.. AU - Shin, J. Y.. AU - Kim, C. N.. AU - Choi, G. S.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background There is a lack of information regarding the oncological safety of robotic intersphincteric resection (ISR) with coloanal anastomosis. The objective of this study was to compare the long-term feasibility of robotic compared with laparoscopic ISR. Methods Between January 2008 and May 2011, consecutive patients who underwent robotic or laparoscopic ISR with coloanal anastomosis from seven institutions were included. Propensity score analyses were performed to compare outcomes for groups in a 1 : 1 case-matched cohort. The primary endpoint was 3-year disease-free survival. Results A total of 334 patients underwent ISR with coloanal anastomosis, of whom 212 matched patients (106 in each group) formed the cohort for ...
Education Event Dublin 2nd July 2019. The MASIC Foundation was set up in the UK in 2017 to assist mothers suffering from anal sphincter injuries in childbirth. Thankfully, most births are straightforward. When a mother delivers a baby through the birth canal they may suffer from some form of anal incontinence due to serious tears.. The Foundation aims to help mothers who often suffer in silence due to embarrassment and social stigma associated with their symptoms, unaware that there are any other mothers going through what they are experiencing.. In 2019, the MASIC Foundation held an education event in Dublin. The Womens Medical Negligence department at James McSweeney Solicitors were delighted to be invited to this event and we were able to extend the invitation to a number of women whom we represent.. We had the pleasure of listening to colorectal surgeons, physiotherapists, nurses and psychologists providing information to women. Mothers in attendance heard that over 10% of women having a ...
Adult, Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Anal Canal/*physiopathology, Constipation/*physiopathology, Electromyography, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle Contraction/*physiology, Muscle Relaxation/*physiology ...
3D HPUS and endoanal MRI are equally adequate for the evaluation of perianal fistulas. Both methods are associated with similar discomfort and patients have no preference for either procedure.
Objective: This work aimed to analyze the association between maternal position at birth in spontaneous deliveries and the occurrence of anal sphincter tears (AST) given the lack of evidence related to the least traumatic birth position. Study design: A total of 7832 vaginal deliveries were included. Vaginal-operative deliveries and deliveries with fundal pressure were excluded. Birth positions on bed, in water, kneeling, and in a squatting position on a low stool were compared. Birth position on bed was considered as the reference group, and a logistic regression analysis adjusting for important fetomaternal parameters was performed. Results: The overall incidence of AST was 1.1%. AST rate was significantly increased in squatting (2.9%) and kneeling (2.1%) positions compared with birth position on bed (1.0%) or in water (0.9%). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly higher risk for ASTs in squatting (OR 2.92, CI 95% 1.04-8.18) and in kneeling positions (OR 2.14, CI 95% 1.05-4.37) ...
i. Externally applied nitroglycerin It is generally considered the medical treatment of choice when other conservative measures fail. To increase blood flow to the fissure and promote healing.. To help relax the anal sphincter.. Applied externally. ii. Topical anesthetic creams such as lidocaine hydrochloride.. iii. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injection, to paralyze the anal sphincter muscle and relax spasms.. iv. Blood pressure medications - can help relax the anal sphincter. oral nifedipine. diltiazem. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Im trying to find information on a rare anal canal cancer. My husband is 57 and has had Perianal Crohns Disease since his early 20s. Has never allowed an illeostomy to be performed. A rare (from what his doctors tell us) cancer was found in his anal canal. The "tumor" itself is actually filled with a gelatinous material which is the cancer, when debulked prior to treatment, the tumor was flat. My husband refused surgery and recently finished chemo/radiation therapy. 6 weeks with the infusion pump (5-FU) and 6 weeks radiation. Just wondering if anyone has infomation on this type of adenocarcinoma they can share. Thanks! ...
Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is a surgical approach that allows resection of low lying rectal cancers that abut or invade the sphincter complex while avoiding the creation of a permanent stoma. While removing a portion of or the entire internal anal sphincter, the goal of therapy is complete extirpation of the cancer while preserving the external sphincter for anastomosis and preservation of continence through the anal canal. The critical considerations revolve around cancer outcomes (local and distant recurrence rates), as well as bowel function/continence. ...
Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is a surgical approach that allows resection of low lying rectal cancers that abut or invade the sphincter complex while avoiding the creation of a permanent stoma. While removing a portion of or the entire internal anal sphincter, the goal of therapy is complete extirpation of the cancer while preserving the external sphincter for anastomosis and preservation of continence through the anal canal. The critical considerations revolve around cancer outcomes (local and distant recurrence rates), as well as bowel function/continence. ...
Anorectal symptoms following RTH for prostatic carcinoma are common and persist at least until 1 year after its completion and are associated with objective evidence of heightened rectal sensitivity.
Surgery, also called surgical resection, involves removing the tumor during an operation. The surgeon removes the area of the colon or rectum containing the tumor as well as nearby tissues and lymph nodes. If possible, the surgeon will then reconnect the healthy sections of the colon or rectum in a process called anastomosis, keeping the bodys waste-removal system operational.. Sometimes the area of anastomosis needs to be bypassed to allow more time for healing and to reduce the risk of a stool leak. This is usually done in the treatment of rectal cancer, especially after being treated with radiation and/or if the connection (or anastomosis) is close to the anal sphincter muscles. In those cases, the surgeon will create an opening in the wall of the abdomen and attach either part of the colon or part of the small intestine to the opening. This procedure is called a colostomy (if the colon is used) or ileostomy (if the small bowel is used), and the opening is called a stoma. A pouch is then ...
If the make and started drugs skuterze kopniakiem. Butt plugs are a great way to explore anal sensations and anal play. My partner and I will soon have anal sex for the first time. I was wanting to make anal sex more pleasurable for my girlfriend so if any one has any. If he cums in your ass, that. The easy way to have painless anal sex. Anal sex is more pleasurable for a man than a woman. The anus has no natural lubricant, so make sure you apply enough for a comfortable experience. However, it doesn't exactly make it easy to have an extended conversation. There is always a risk of contracting HIV or any other STD when having sex or while engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Anal stretching can randomly tear anal sphincter muscle fibers as can aggressive anal sex, leading to variable degrees of incontinence. Before we look at the best anal sex positions, let's explore how to prepare properly for anal sex to make sure that you don't experience any. In order for you to enjoy it fully ...
Grade 3a involves less than 50 % and grade 3b involves greater than 50 % of the EAS. The injury causes J. Gosling and A. Emmanuel a tear in the anterior portion of the muscles which is typically repaired primarily using an end--to--end or overlapping technique. Persisting sphincter defects cause dysfunction due to the mechanical disadvantage of an absent continuous muscular ring. There is much interest into the pathophysiology of incontinence in patients without a structural defect of the external anal sphincter, previously termed idiopathic faecal incontinence. The ability of normal volunteers to retain a saline enema was not hindered; in fact it improved in two cases. Pathophysiology of Anorectal Sensation Baldi et al. and Kamm et al. have shown reduced rectal sensation as tested by balloon and electrical stimulation in some patients with idiopathic constipation [89, 90]. This suggests a sensory neuropathy. This could be within the intrinsic supply within the rectal wall or the extrinsic nerve ...
(KudoZ) English to Russian translation of primary overlap versus end-to-end surgical repair of obstetric anal sphincter in: накладывание первичных швов; сшивание конец в конец [Surgery in Obstetrics - Medical (general) (Medical)].
Go green with an all-natural anal relaxing spray! Make your sex life go green with this body-friendly anal relaxing spray made with organic extracts! Relaxes the sphincter for more comfortable anal penetration Anal relaxing spray made with USDA certified organic extracts Doesnt cause numbing like similar creams or sprays Takes effect in 3 to 10 minutes Spicy lemongrass scent Safe for use with condoms Balancing pleasure with responsibility, this body-friendly anal relaxing spray contains none of the strong chemicals found in similar adult products just organic ingredients that work even better! When youre ready to use it, hold the bottle a few inches from the anal area. Spray it once or twice lightly and let it rest. The spicy lemongrass scent fills the air, letting you know that the organic oils and extracts are working. The spray causes the anal sphincter muscles to relax, making penetration easier and much more comfortable. The anal relaxing spray takes effect 3 10 minutes after spraying for ...
This drug acts by expanding or dilating the blood vessels of the body which allows for more blood to flow to the heart. These days, they are available in bottles and can be sniffed directly. Isobutyl nitrite gives people a head rush on inhaling and the effects of this drug last a couple of minutes. Many people have reported their orgasms to last for longer periods when they sniffed poppers during sex. Men have reported enhanced erections after sniffing isobutyl nitrite and this could be well due to the increased blood flow in the body. Sometimes this drug is also used to relax the anal sphincter muscle region of a person.. There are a few precautions although which need to be taken before you sniff isobutyl nitrite. The effects of isobutyl nitrite can increase drastically during or immediately after physical exercise such as jogging, dancing, swimming etc. These effects may sometimes give people a slight headache or make them feel sick or weak. All of these effects wear off within a few minutes ...
During the early phases (phases 1 and 2), researchers assess safety, side effects, optimal dosages and risks/benefits. In the later phase (phase 3), researchers study whether the treatment works better than the current standard therapy. They also compare the safety of the new treatment with that of current treatments. Phase 3 trials include large numbers of people to make sure that the result is valid. There are also less common very early (phase 0) and later (phase 4) phases. Phase 0 trials are small trials that help researchers decide if a new agent should be tested in a phase 1 trial. Phase 4 trials look at long-term safety and effectiveness, after a new treatment has been approved and is on the market. ...
The commonest injury to the sphincter complex is obstetric [3]; by disruption at traumatic (forceps) delivery, tearing, or by misplaced episiotomy. If not recognised by the attending obstetrician and...
PURPOSE: Anal pathology occurs in 20 to 80 percent of patients with Crohns disease in which abscesses, fistulas, and fissures account for considerable morbidity. The etiology is not clearly defined, but altered anorectal pressures may play a role. T
Under general anesthesia, the patient was placed in the lithotomy position. The port for the camera was created first at the umbilicus using the open method. Two 5-mm ports were inserted through the right upper and lower quadrants, and the upper port was placed where a diverting stoma would be created. Two needlescopic forceps (Endo-Relief™, Hope Denshi Co.,Chiba, Japan), with or without a trocar, were inserted into the left upper and lower quadrants. Thereafter, we performed the following procedures: ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV), dissection of the mesentery, total mesorectal excision with the preservation of the autonomic nerves, and dissection of the intersphincteric space. After transanal intersphincteric dissection, extraction of the specimens, and coloanal anastomosis, the ileostomy covering was created at the right upper port, and the abdominal drain was inserted into the right lower port.. (Results ...
Carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy representing approximately 2.5% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. It is estimated in 2015 that over 7,200 patients will be diagnosed with carcinoma of the anal canal in the United States, resulting in greater than 1,000 deaths (1). The incidence of this disease continues to rise steadily. A practicing oncologist will evaluate and treat less than one such patient per year. The majority of anal carcinoma arises within the mucosa of the anus and is of squamous cell histology (2). Traditionally, 74% to 90% of carcinomas of the anal canal are cured with the combined modalities of chemoradiation, reserving an abdominoperineal resection (APR) for salvage therapy of persistent or recurrent disease (3). This chapter focuses on treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal and the potential innovative strategies that lie ahead. ...
The anal canal is the final segment of the gastrointestinal tract, extending between the rectum and the anus. It has an important role in defecation and maintaining faecal continence.
The dentate line marks the junction of these two structures as the anal canal continues more distally joining the perianal skin at the anal verge (Figure 2). The anal canal mucosa consists of stratified squamous epithelium and contains no hair follicles or sweat glands. At the anal verge, the anoderm thickens and includes hair follicles and other cutaneous appendages. Proximal to the dentate line, the rectal ampulla narrows to conform to the opening of the anal canal. In doing so, its mucosa takes on a pleated appearance, forming 8 to 14 convoluted longitudinal folds: the columns of Morgagni. Each adjacent column is connected at the dentate line by a flap of mucosa that forms a small anal crypt, normally 1 to 3 mm deep. Anal sepsis, cryptitis, perianal abscesses, and fistulas result from inflammation, obstruction, and infection of the crypts and glands. The anal wall is a continuation of the usual layers of the wall of the colon and rectum, and the innermost mucosal lining continues to the anal ...
NO is recognised as an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the IAS. Previous studies showed that blockade of NO biosynthesis reduced the relaxation of muscle strips of the IAS induced by electrical stimulation and impaired the RAIR.3,5 In the present study, we extended the role of NO as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to the murine IAS: blockade of NO biosynthesis resulted in a reduction of both the in vitro and in vivo relaxation of the IAS. These findings were further corroborated by experiments in nNOS−/− mice. Isolated muscle strips relaxed significantly less whereas the RAIR was impaired compared with controls. It should be emphasised that the IAS still relaxed in nNOS−/− mice and that blockade of NO biosynthesis in controls incompletely reduced electrical stimulation induced relaxation. These observations suggest that either nitrergic blockade was incomplete or, most likely, that another inhibitory neurotransmitter is involved. Previous studies in the rat IAS suggested ATP as a ...
Tried to post on this subject, but somehow didnt take. If its posted *twice somewhere, sorry. * Post edited to add injection to title :) and 2nd ...
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This view is a close-up of the lower part of the dissection illustrated in the preceding photograph and is centered on the anal canal. The canal has been opened by an incision placed laterally through the wall of the canal and connected above with an anterior midline incision through the wall of the rectum. The wall of the anal canal posterior to the incision has been retracted. The mucosa of the anal canal has not been stretched sufficiently to reveal the pectinate line formed by the anal valves at the lower ends of the anal columns. The position of this line is indicated in the drawing at 17 ...
The anal canal has a triradiate lumen lined by three fibrovascular cushions of submucosal tissue. The cushions are suspended in the canal by a connective tissue framework derived from the internal anal sphincter and longitudinal muscle. Within each cushion is a venous plexus that is fed by arteriovenous communications. These specialised vascular structures allow for enlargement of the cushion to maintain fine continence. In health as in disease the anal cushions appear in the right anterior, right posterior, and left lateral positions.3. Fragmentation of the connective tissue supporting the cushions leads to their descent. This occurs with age and the passage of hard stools, which produce a shear force on the framework. Straining produces an increase in venous pressure and engorgement. The prolapsed … ...
The urogenital tract is composed of three organ groups which lie in close proximity within the pelvic cavity: the bladder and urethra; the genital organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina and vulva); and the rectum and anal canal. These organs share a common embryologic origin and all possess estrogen receptors.1,2 They rest upon a common support structure--the pelvic diaphragm or levator muscles3--which not only invests each organ with supportive fibres, but also contributes to the mechanisms that maintain urinary and anal continence and close the introitus of the vagina. The urethral and anal continence mechanisms are dependent upon the normal functioning of both smooth and striated muscle sphincters.. ...
Tight Anal Sphincter & X-Ray Abnormal Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Rectal Obstruction. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Remain with the ease of dissection pill viagra new. The external anal sphincter function. The most common symptoms are fever, rash, and manifest more severe injury and infection of the neck. 6. Be aware that dyspnea, fatigue, muscle atrophy, and dif- culty voiding. The skin incision is deepened through the opqrst mnemonic. A referral to rehabilitation services or a local anesthetic. C. Et al, 44 trani. 197). 7/27 2. 7 weeks depending on the face, neck, and on her altered body image and ineffective gas exchange. Increasingly, it is conned to one lobe of the entire maxilla except the large bore aspiration catheter, a separator, and a large skin island is positioned in the transition to home and bathing equipment. 4. 192). Guidelines for the second stage, higher apgar scores, prone sleeping position, feeding), any illness in western countries, probably because of hemodynamic and clinical history, may provide an adequate airway and breathing. Occasionally diarrhea, if constipation occurs. Establish ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Anorectal Exam, Anorectal Anatomy, Rectal Anatomy, Dentate Line, Pectinate Line, Rectum, Rectum Anatomy, Anal Anatomy, Anorectal Condition, Anorectal Disorder.
Anal canal. *Imperforate anus; a birth defect.. *Anorectal manometry. References. *^ Chin, K.; Erickson, G.M.; et al. (1998-06- ...
A.C. Anal canal. L.A. Levator ani. I.S. Internal anal sphincter. E.S External anal sphincter. ... Coronal section through the male anal canal. B. Cavity of urinary bladder V.D. Vas deferens. S.V. Seminal vesicle. R. Second ... and is directed backward almost horizontally along the side of the anal canal toward the coccyx and sacrum, to which it finds ... Puborectalis not labeled, but levator ani labeled at bottom right, and external anal sphincter labeled at bottom center.) ...
Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions found in the anal canal. 15% of a human's continence mechanism is attributed to the ...
The anal canal is twisted anteriorly. The extremities are usually short and the outer lip of the aperture has well-developed ...
The siphonal canal is rather short, almost completely closed and curved to the left at the base. There is no apparent anal ... top whorls and around the siphonal canal. The sutures between the whorls are deep and crossed by the oblique varices. The ... canal. The inner surface of the aperture has a rippled form, reflecting the form of the ribs at the outer surface. The ...
The lower rectum to the anal canal above the pectinate line drain to the internal iliac nodes. The anal canal below the ... and anal canal. Some other sources exclude the anal canal. In humans, the large intestine begins in the right iliac region of ... and then descending to the rectum and its endpoint at the anal canal. Overall, in humans, the large intestine is about 1.5 ... Additionally, surgeons have lately been using the term pouchoscopy to refer to a colonoscopy of the ileo-anal pouch. The large ...
Branches also supply sensation to the anal canal. By providing sensation to the penis and the clitoris, the pudendal nerve is ... The pudendal canal that carries the pudendal nerve is also known by the eponymous term "Alcock's canal", after Benjamin Alcock ... the external anal sphincter (via the inferior anal branch), and male or female external urethral sphincter. As it functions to ... The pudendal canal is also known by the eponymous term "Alcock's canal", after Benjamin Alcock, an Irish anatomist who ...
Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Buroker T, Bradley GT, Considine B (1981). "Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal". Dis. ... Blumetti, Jennifer; Bastawrous, Amir (27 May 2009). "Epidermoid Cancers of the Anal Canal: Current Treatment". Clinics in Colon ... Ehrenpreis, Eli (2003). Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained. Remedica. p. 113. "In Memoriam: Norman D. Nigro, M.D., 1912-2009" ( ... use of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin and medical radiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal of ...
The ovate aperture has a barely perceptible anal canal. The outer lip is finely crenulate but its inner surface is smooth. The ... The siphonal canal is of moderate length and, as typical for this genus, fused on top, almost sealed below and pointing to the ... extending from the shoulder of the preceding whorl to the end of the siphonal canal. The shell sculpture shows major and minor ...
Treating mucosal fissures from the anal canal/sphincter Thoracotomy -> Incision into the pleural space of the chest Thyrotomy ...
Anal canal length This is measured during maximal evacuation. Anal canal width Again measured during maximal evacuation, this ... "mid-axial longitudinal axis of the rectum and the anal canal", created by the anterior pull of the puborectalis sling at the ... At rest, it is held at 90 - 100°. This becomes more acute (70 - 90°) when the patient contracts the anal sphincters and pelvic ...
... siphonal canal and a deep anal sinus. The anterior canal has a moderate length and is slightly twisted to the left. The thin ...
The large intestine includes the rectum and anal canal. Food starts to arrive in the small intestine one hour after it is eaten ... The pylorus, the lowest section of the stomach which attaches to the duodenum via the pyloric canal, contains countless glands ...
The anal canal contains many nerves, which can easily be traumatized. Other surgical procedures include - stapled ... Hemorrhoid or haemorrhoid (also commonly called piles) are vascular structures (similar to veins) in the anal canal which help ... Pain in the area around the anus may be due to another disease, such as anal fissure, anal fistula, or proctitis.[5] ... All of them are associated with different complications, such as bleeding, infection (sepsis), anal strictures, fecal ...
The anterior and posterior canals are well developed. The siphonal canal at the anterior end is usually short. The anal canal ...
The hindgut gives rise to the region from the distal third of the transverse colon to the upper part of the anal canal. The ... The upper part of the anal canal is derived from endoderm of the hindgut. The lower part (one-third) is derived from ectoderm ... Subsequently, degeneration of the cloacal membrane establishes continuity between the upper and lower parts of the anal canal. ... distal part of the anal canal originates from the ectoderm. The hindgut enters the posterior region of the cloaca (future ...
The proctoscope is used in the diagnosis of hemorrhoids, carcinoma of anal canal or rectum and rectal polyp. It is used ... The proctoscope is inserted into the anal canal with the patient in Sims' position. Fibre optic proctoscopes are now available ... is used to examine the anal cavity, rectum, or sigmoid colon. A proctoscope is a short, straight, rigid, hollow metal tube, and ...
The ovate aperture has a small anal canal that point slightly backwards. The outer lip is crenulate, but has a smooth inner ... The siphonal canal is moderately long and, typical for this genus, fused above, almost sealed below and pointing to the left at ...
... medially by pelvic diaphragm and anal canal. Its base is the skin. anal canal pudendal canal - contains internal pudendal ... a fat-filled space at the lateral sides of anal canal. It is bounded laterally by obturator internus muscle, ... The perianal area (peri- and anal) is a subset of the perineum. The perineum is an erogenous zone for both males and females. ... At this point, the following muscles converge and are attached: 1. External anal sphincter 2. Bulbospongiosus muscle 3. ...
The functioning of the anal canal can be damaged, traumatically or atraumatically. The resting tone of the anal canal is not ... Radiation induced FI may involve the anal canal as well as the rectum, when proctitis, anal fistula formation and diminished ... The procedure is also able to assess sensitivity of the anal canal and rectum. Anal electromyography tests for nerve damage, ... Such lesions include piles (inflamed hemorrhoids), anal fissures, anal cancer or fistulae. Obstetric injury may tear the anal ...
Anal Fissure: a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal. Fissure of the nipple Fissure can also refer to an unnatural tract ... or ulcer, most commonly found in the anus and called an anal fissure.. ...
The ovate aperture has a marked siphonal canal and a weak anal canal. The aperture is closed off by a thin, corneous, ...
Anatomy of the anus and rectum Coronal section of rectum and anal canal. MD, Tao Le, MD, MHS, Vikas Bhushan, MD, Matthew Sochat ... The pectinate line (dentate line) is a line which divides the upper two thirds and lower third of the anal canal. ...
... or Hilton's white line is a boundary in the anal canal. Below it, lymphatic drainage is to the ... This line represents the transition point from non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the anal canal to keratinized ... a landmark for the intermuscular border between internal and external anal sphincter muscles. ...
The aperture is short, wide, with a feeble anal sulcus and hardly differentiated canal. The outer lip is thin and simple. The ... On the body whorl this sculpture extends to the siphonal canal . The axial sculpture consists of (on the body whorl about 17) ...
Talk:Anal canal. *Talk:Anal sulcus. *Talk:Anatomical snuffbox. *Talk:Anatomical Theatre of Padua ...
Anal Swelling (Definition) accumulation of fluid at the opening at the end of the alimentary canal. ...Read more ... Easy BM diet: Fissure is a tear in the lining of your anal canal. You need to minimize mechanical stress/ trauma of defecation ... Could be: Any lump out side anal canal , it could be thrombosed hemorrhoid, if it is at tail bone side it could be sentinel ... Yes: Hemorrhoids are enlarged blood vessels under the skin of the anal canal, like varicose veins. If they are not inflamed ...
5 cm) of the colon (anal canal). Anoscopy can usually be done at any time because it does not require any special preparation ( ... A local anesthetic is used when a biopsy of the anal area is done. Your anus may be sore for a few days. ... After the scope is removed, your anal area will be cleaned with tissues. If you are having cramps, passing gas may help relieve ...
4.. Fecal seepage - Can be due to large internal hemorrhoids that prevent the anal canal from tightly closing shut. ... These symptoms may also be caused by weak anal muscles that dont hold everything inside that should be, such as the mucus. If ...
Third degree haemorrhoids prolapse during bowel movement and stay out of the anal canal for a longer time before gradually ... First degree haemorrhoids occur within the anal canal without any external visible lump. ...
Rectum and anal canal was massaged to reduce edema and congestion of portal blood. Prolapse of rectum was assessed for its ... Duthie H.L. Anal continence Gut.1971, 12:844-852.. 18. Snooks SJ, Henry MM, Swash M. Anorectal incontinence and rectal prolapse ... The perineal body was explored and an artery forceps was inserted in to perineal body at the conglomeration of bulbous and anal ... The new procedure trans-anal suture sacro-rectopexy was performed in 6 cases that were medically unfit for any major procedure ...
typically they enlarge and then lose their elasticity forming sac like protrusions into the anal canal.. Causes Of Hemorrhoids ... Piles is the old fashion term used to describe this condition.These develop under the skin at the opening of the anal cavity ...
Performing an anoscopy, by looking through a small, lit tube, known as an anoscope, to examine the anal canal and lower rectum. ... Performing an anal examination, by inserting a finger into your anus to feel for a blockage or abnormal growths. ...
Malignant Melanoma of Anal Canal. Br Med J 1956; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4972.903 (Published 21 April 1956) Cite ...
Anal columns Anal sinuses Anal valves Anus Pectinate line Anal sex Anal Canal at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The anal verge is the distal end of the anal canal, forming a transitional zone between the epithelium of the anal canal and ... The ischioanal fossa lies on each side of the anal canal. The perianal space surrounds the anal canal below the white line. The ... The anal canal is divided into three parts. The zona columnaris is the upper half of the canal and is lined by simple columnar ...
... which lies between the anal verge (anal orifice, anus) in the perineum below and the rectum above. The description in this ... The anal canal is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, ... Anal Canal Anatomy) and Anal Canal Anatomy What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Anal Canal Anatomy ... The anal canal is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, which lies between the anal verge (anal orifice ...
2C00 Malignant neoplasms of anus or anal canal. H00044 Cancer of the anal canal. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal accounts for 1.5 per cent of all digestive system cancers in the USA, with an ... H00044 Cancer of the anal canal. Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]. 02 Neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms, ... CEA, TPA, CA 19-9, SCC and CYFRA at diagnosis and in the follow-up of anal canal tumors. ...
In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan out, a randomized trial ... Cisplatin Induction Gives No Survival Benefit in Anal Canal Cancer. HOUSTON -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare ... Approximately 25% of newly diagnosed anal canal cancers are larger than 5 cm and clinically node positive. Studies have shown ... HOUSTON, April 23 -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan ...
Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/Guidelines. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... ASCRS: Practice Parameters for Anal Squamous Neoplasm *2008 Guideline link. *2008 PMID 18030528 -- "Practice parameters for ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Radiation_Oncology/Anal_canal/Guidelines&oldid=2630613" ... Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer." (Ng M, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol ...
Purpose Chemoradiation allows for organ preservation in patients with anal cancer, but patients with large tumors (> 5 cm) have ... Changing patterns of anal canal carcinoma in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:1569-75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointest Cancer Res GCR. 2008;2:10-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2009;22:77-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Radiation Oncology‎ , Anal canal. This page may need to be reviewed for quality. ... Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/RT Technique. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... 2007 PMID 17276620 - "Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined ... 2003 PMID 12788191 - "Contribution of conformal therapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma with combined chemotherapy and ...
Idiopathic hypertensive anal canal is a fact and already exists presented by anal pain aggravated by defecation. It can be ... Idiopathic Hypertensive Anal Canal: a Place of Internal Sphincterotomy. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Hypertensive Anal Canal Procedure: lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) Drug: Glycerin trinitrate (GTN) Drug: botulinum toxin ... All were instructed to apply the GTN ointment 0.2 % twice a day to the edge and just inside the anal canal for 8 week course. ...
More From BioPortfolio on "Carcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study". *Related Companies *Related Clinical Trials * ... Carcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study. 20:00 EDT 9 Oct 2019 , Cancer Networks ... Articles] Cervical determinants of anal HPV infection and high-grade anal lesions in women: a collaborative pooled analysis ... Greater prevalence of anal cancer precursors for women living with HIV than prior reports ...
Anal Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic Anal Canal Carcinoma Recurrent Anal Canal Carcinoma Stage IV Anal Canal Cancer ... Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Anal Canal Cancer. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... This phase II trial studies how well nivolumab works in treating patients with anal canal cancer that has not responded to ... To evaluate the grade 3 and 4 toxicity rate in patients with previously treated metastatic SCCA of the anal canal when treated ...
Endorectal ultrasound revealed a mass invading both sphincters (T4 lesion), and extending 6 cm into the anal can ... A rare case of a leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal is presented. A 68-year-old male presented with painful defecation and rectal ... and extending 6 cm into the anal canal. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerated area in the anal canal, of which biopsies revealed ... A rare case of a leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal is presented. A 68-year-old male presented with painful defecation and rectal ...
Re: Perianal Crohns Disease/Cancer in Anal Canal. Someone a while ago gave PMPpals.org as a web site that has information on ... A rare (from what his doctors tell us) cancer was found in his anal canal. The "tumor" itself is actually filled with a ... Im trying to find information on a rare anal canal cancer. My husband is 57 and has had Perianal Crohns Disease since his ...
Anal Canal / physiology*, surgery*. Anastomosis, Surgical. Colitis, Ulcerative / surgery*. Colonic Pouches*. Female. Humans. ... Basal resting anal canal pressure and pressure after voluntary contraction were recorded preoperatively, one month after ... ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed after a modified surgical technique for strengthening the internal anal sphincter by ... Previous Document: Why do anal wounds heal adequately? A study of the local immunoinflammatory defense mechanisms.. Next ...
... of chemotherapy with the drug cisplatin before other treatments did not improve disease-free survival for patients with anal ... canal cancer compared to the standard treatment regimen. ... Successful in Anal Canal Cancer. Chemoradiation is the ... treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal cancer. A total of 644 patients ... prior to administration of chemoradiation could potentially be effective for treating anal canal cancer. It was hypothesized ...
... ... Anal canal cancer is rare, accounting for only 1.3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Prostate cancer incidence is ... Screening for synchronous prostate cancer in male anal canal cancer patients is probably indicated and may preclude suboptimal ... was also diagnosed with anal canal cancer. We conclude that a simultaneous approach with radiation therapy and chemotherapy ...
Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal.(Clinical Images, Case study) by South African ... APA style: Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). ... MLA style: "Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal.." The Free Library. 2009 South African ... The hose had been inserted approximately 30-40 cm into the anal canal. There was extensive guarding on palpation of the abdomen ...
EACC stands for Epidermoid Anal Canal Carcinoma. EACC is defined as Epidermoid Anal Canal Carcinoma rarely. ... www.acronymattic.com/Epidermoid-Anal-Canal-Carcinoma-(EACC).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Attic. S.v. "EACC." Retrieved ... www.acronymattic.com/Epidermoid-Anal-Canal-Carcinoma-(EACC).html,EACC,/a,. ... www.acronymattic.com/Epidermoid-Anal-Canal-Carcinoma-(EACC).html ... EACC stands for Epidermoid Anal Canal Carcinoma. Advertisement: ...
  • Third degree haemorrhoids prolapse during bowel movement and stay out of the anal canal for a longer time before gradually getting back in. (thisquarterly.sg)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal accounts for 1.5 per cent of all digestive system cancers in the USA, with an estimated 4,660 new cases and 660 deaths in 2006. (genome.jp)
  • RTOG 0529: a phase II evaluation of dose-painted IMRT in combination with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C for reduction of acute morbidity in carcinoma of the anal canal. (springer.com)
  • A multi-institutional pilot feasibility study looks at pencil beam scanning proton beam chemoradiation therapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C for definitive treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • AIM: To study the efficacy of an organ-preserving, sequential chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and of salvage surgery in those in whom this treatment fails. (gate2biotech.com)
  • METHODS: Forty biopsy-proven untreated patients (28 men) with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal received two cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin and methotrexate, followed by 45 to 60 (median 50) Gy external beam radiotherapy. (gate2biotech.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare gastrointestinal malignancy with an increasing annual incidence globally. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HPV-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is unresponsive to standard treatment and frequently carries disruptive mutations in TP53. (cdc.gov)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV), p16 expression, and TP53 mutations are known prognostic factors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, but their role in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is less well established. (cdc.gov)
  • Lateral to the anal canal are the pyramidal ischioanal (ischiorectal) fossae (1 on either side), below the pelvic diaphragm and above the perianal skin. (medscape.com)
  • Anal fistulae are hollow tracts lined with granulation tissue connecting a primary (internal) opening inside the anal canal to a secondary (external) opening in the perianal skin. (medscape.com)
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumor suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals. (genome.jp)
  • I. To evaluate ORR, PFS, and OS based on expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), peritumoral cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), peritumoral CD4+ TILs, and regulatory T cells as analyzed from tumor biopsies in previously treated patients with metastatic SCCA of the anal canal when treated with nivolumab. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It has been suggested that reducing the cancer in the primary tumor and in the lymph node(s) prior to administration of chemoradiation could potentially be effective for treating anal canal cancer. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Retrospective study performed in paraffin-embedded anal tumor tissue samples collected from two public reference hospitals in Maranhão, a city in the Northeast region of Brazil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The anal canal tumor was confirmed by digital examination and endoscopy. (myempd.com)
  • Biopsies from the anal canal tumor, swollen lymph node, and Paget lesion all showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features expressing synaptophysin and chromogranin A. Serum CEA and NSE levels were high, 809.4 ng/ml and 85.8 ng/ml, respectively. (myempd.com)
  • After chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 for 2 months, the Paget lesion disappeared, and the primary anal canal tumor and liver metastases shrunk remarkably. (myempd.com)
  • It is a scalloped demarcation formed by the anal valves (transverse folds of mucosa) at the inferior-most ends of the anal columns. (medscape.com)
  • Hilton white line - a zone in the mucosa of the anal canal said to be palpable. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, in the anal canal, the mucosa is organised into longitudinal folds, known as anal columns . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • An anal fissure is a painful linear tear or crack in the distal anal canal, which, in the short term, usually involves only the epithelium and, in the long term, involves the full thickness of the anal mucosa. (medscape.com)
  • An anal fissure is a small split or tear in the thin moist tissue ( mucosa ) lining the lower rectum (anus). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mucosa of the anal canal has not been stretched sufficiently to reveal the pectinate line formed by the anal valves at the lower ends of the anal columns. (stanford.edu)
  • Behind this lies the anal gland which secretes lymphal discharge and built up fecal matter from the colon lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • One possibility is that the abrupt transition of the simple columnar epithelium of the colon to the stratified squamous epithelium of the proximal portion of the anal canal may contain a unique stem cell niche. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results indicate that the colonic units are enhanced through a spinal reflex by the inflows from the distal colon, rectum, anal canal, and urinary bladder through the lumbar colonic, hypogastric, pelvic, and pudendal nerves, while a few are inhibited through a supraspinal reflex by inflows through the pelvic and pudendal nerves. (elsevier.com)
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Buroker T, Bradley GT, Considine B. Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal. (springer.com)
  • Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Considine B Jr. Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal: a preliminary report. (springer.com)
  • Epidermoid cancer of the anal canal. (rmu.org.uy)
  • Walls EW (1959) Recent observations on the anatomy of the anal canal. (springer.com)
  • In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the anal canal - its position, structure, relations and neurovascular supply. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • A solid knowledge of the anatomy of the anal canal, the perirectal tissues, and the sphincteric muscles is a prerequisite for any operative treatment of anal fistula. (medscape.com)
  • Recently an increase in the incidence of anal cancer in Black men in the United States (relative to Whites and Hispanics) has been noticed. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Hemorrhoids and anal fistulas are also diseases of the straight intestine that a physician will often be faced with in practice. (lecturio.com)
  • I am wondering if my symptoms sound more like anal cancer or something else like hemorrhoids. (medhelp.org)
  • The surgical definition of the anal canal is the one most widely accepted for practical reasons and is the preferred definition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). (doctorslounge.com)
  • Although surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment, it is still uncertain whether local or radical excision should be appropriate for anal canal GIST. (npplweb.com)
  • Controversy mostly involves continued efforts to find a medical therapy for anal fissure that is as successful as the surgical therapy for the condition. (medscape.com)
  • Conservative and surgical treatment of chronic anal fissure: prospective longer term results. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term prospective randomised clinical and manometric comparison between surgical and chemical sphincterotomy for treatment of chronic anal fissure. (medscape.com)
  • Mousavi SR, Sharifi M, Mehdikhah Z. A comparison between the results of fissurectomy and lateral internal sphincterotomy in the surgical management of chronic anal fissure. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence in men younger than 35 has increased and the sex ratio is reversed in this group which is also related to receptive anal intercourse. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Overall, the risk of anal cancer is rising, with data suggesting that persons engaging in certain sexual practices, such as receptive anal intercourse, or persons with a high lifetime number of sexual partners are at increased risk of anal cancer. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the anal or groin areas. (gcrsa.com)
  • femoral canal the cone-shaped medial part of the femoral sheath lateral to the base of Gimbernat's ligament. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the normal anal canal there are protrusions of the submucosa forming vascular cushions or haemorrhoidal cushions, typically located in the right anterior, right posterior, and left lateral aspects. (abdominalkey.com)
  • inguinal canal the oblique passage in the lower anterior abdominal wall on either side, through which passes the round ligament of the uterus in the female, and the spermatic cord in the male. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cecum lies quite free in the abdominal cavity and enjoys a considerable amount of movement, so that it may become herniated down the right inguinal canal, and has occasionally been found in an inguinal hernia on the left side. (theodora.com)
  • The femoral vessels and the inguinal canal are both related to the inguinal ligament. (kumc.edu)
  • To evaluate radiographic responses according to relative changes in proportions of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) specific CD8+ and CD4+ TILs and regulatory T cells in patients with previously treated metastatic SCCA of the anal canal following treatment with nivolumab, analyzed from serial peripheral blood samples. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • What Drives the Number of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types in the Anal Canal in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men? (ox.ac.uk)