The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.
A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.
The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.
The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)

Effects of short term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence. (1/1075)

BACKGROUND: Some patients with faecal incontinence are not amenable to simple surgical sphincter repair, due to sphincter weakness in the absence of a structural defect. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and possible mode of action of short term stimulation of sacral nerves in patients with faecal incontinence and a structurally intact external anal sphincter. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with faecal incontinence for solid or liquid stool at least once per week. METHODS: A stimulating electrode was placed (percutaneously in 10 patients, operatively in two) into the S3 or S4 foramen. The electrode was left in situ for a minimum of one week with chronic stimulation. RESULTS: Evaluable results were obtained in nine patients, with early electrode displacement in the other three. Incontinence ceased in seven of nine patients and improved notably in one; one patient with previous imperforate anus and sacral agenesis had no symptomatic response. Stimulation seemed to enhance maximum squeeze pressure but did not alter resting pressure. The rectum became less sensitive to distension with no change in rectal compliance. Ambulatory studies showed a possible reduction in rectal contractile activity and diminished episodes of spontaneous anal relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: Short term sacral nerve stimulation notably decreases episodes of faecal incontinence. The effect may be mediated via facilitation of striated sphincter muscle function, and via neuromodulation of sacral reflexes which regulate rectal sensitivity and contractility, and anal motility.  (+info)

Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women. (2/1075)

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

Faecal composition after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. (3/1075)

Diarrhoea and perianal excoriation occur frequently after the endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A new method of faecal analysis was performed on 3-day stool collections in 17 postoperative Hirschsprung patients and in 14 normal children, in order to define the faecal abnormality and to establish the cause of perianal excoriation in these patients. Loose stools in postoperative patients were deficient in dry solid content and contained an excess of extractable faecal water. This also had a raised electrolyte concentration, particularly with respect to sodium. Total daily output of faecal water was normal. Formed stools from postoperative patients were also deficient in drysolids but had a normal extractable water content. Excess extractable faecal water, the main abnormality of loose stools in these patients, is the result of abnormal water absorption from the distal colon. Perianal excoriation in these patients is most closely associated with the concentration of sodium in faecal water.  (+info)

Investigation and management of long-standing chronic constipation in childhood. (4/1075)

The anorectal physiology of 106 children with long-standing chronic constipation, who had failed to response to a trial of medical treatment, was assessed. 10 (9%) were shown to have ultrashort-segment Hischsprung's disease, later confirmed on histology, The remainder showed evidence of hypertrophy of the internal sphicter on anorectal manometry and had a vigorous anal dilatation (to accept 4 fingers) under general anesthesia. After this, 38% were able to be weaned off all medication and most of the remainder improved. Further anal dilatation and internal sphincterotomy allowed a further 10 children to stop laxative, bringing the total to 48%.  (+info)

Perception of and adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in patients with faecal incontinence. (5/1075)

BACKGROUND: Perception of, and adaptation of the rectum to, distension probably play an important role in the maintenance of continence, but perception studies in faecal incontinence provide controversial conclusions possibly related to methodological biases. In order to better understand perception disorders, the aim of this study was to analyse anorectal adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in subjects with incontinence. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between June 95 and December 97, 97 consecutive patients (nine men and 88 women, mean (SEM) age 55 (1) years) suffering from incontinence were evaluated and compared with 15 healthy volunteers (four men and 11 women, mean age 48 (3) years). The patients were classified into three groups according to their perception status to rectal isobaric distensions (impaired, 22; normal, 61; enhanced, 14). Anal and rectal adaptations to increasing rectal pressure were analysed using a model of rectal isobaric distension. RESULTS: The four groups did not differ with respect to age, parity, or sex ratio. Magnitude of incontinence, prevalence of pelvic disorders, and sphincter defects were similar in the incontinent groups. When compared with healthy controls, anal pressure and rectal adaptation to distension were decreased in incontinent patients. When compared with incontinent patients with normal perception, patients with enhanced perception experienced similar rectal adaptation but had reduced anal pressure. In contrast, patients with impaired perception showed considerably decreased rectal adaptation but had similar anal pressure. CONCLUSION: Abnormal sensations during rectal distension are observed in one third of subjects suffering from incontinence. These abnormalities may reflect hyperreactivity or neuropathological damage of the rectal wall.  (+info)

Anal ultrasound predicts the response to nonoperative treatment of fecal incontinence in men. (6/1075)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the etiology, treatment, and utility of anal ultrasound in men with fecal incontinence and to review the outcomes of conservative (nonoperative) treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of fecal incontinence in women is almost exclusively from obstetric or iatrogenic surgical injuries resulting in damage to the anal sphincters and/or pudendal nerves. Corresponding data on men with fecal incontinence are sparse. METHODS: Between January 1995 and January 1998, 37 men with fecal incontinence were evaluated in the John Radcliffe Hospital anorectal ultrasound unit. Their clinical histories, anal ultrasound results, anorectal physiology studies, and responses to conservative therapy were reviewed. RESULTS: Median age was 57 years. Major incontinence was present in 27% of the patients. Anal ultrasound localized anal sphincter damage in nine patients, and the characteristics of these nine patients with sphincter damage were then compared with the remaining 28 without sphincter damage. Prior anal surgery was more common in patients with sphincter damage. Hemorrhoids were more common in patients without sphincter damage. Anorectal physiology studies revealed significantly lower mean maximum resting and squeeze pressures in patients with sphincter damage, confirming poor sphincter function. With 92% follow-up, patients without sphincter damage were more likely to improve with nonoperative therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Anal ultrasound is extremely useful in the evaluation of fecal incontinence in men. Unlike women, the majority of men do not have a sphincter defect by anal ultrasound, and conservative management is usually successful in these patients. In contrast, in men with anal sphincter damage, almost all of these defects resulted from previous anal surgery. Conservative management rarely is successful in these cases, and surgical repair of the anal sphincter may be indicated. Therefore, because the presence or absence of sphincter damage on anal ultrasound usually predicts the response to nonoperative treatment, anal ultrasound should be used to guide the initial management of men with fecal incontinence.  (+info)

A bile acid-induced apoptosis assay for colon cancer risk and associated quality control studies. (7/1075)

Bile acids are important in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Bile acids induce apoptosis in colonic goblet cells at concentrations comparable to those found in fecal water after high-fat meals. Preliminary evidence indicated that cells of the normal-appearing (nontumorous) portion of the colon epithelium of colon cancer patients are more resistant to bile salt-induced apoptosis than are cells from normal individuals. In the present study, 68 patients were examined, and biopsies were taken at 20 cm from the anal verge, cecum, and descending colon. The patients included 17 individuals with a history of colorectal cancer, 37 individuals with adenomas, and 14 individuals who were neoplasia free. The mean bile salt-induced apoptotic index among normal individuals was 57.6 +/- 3.47 (SE), which differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean value of 36.41 +/- 3.12 in individuals with a history of colon cancer. The correlation between independent observers was 0.89 (P < 0.001), indicating good interobserver reliability. Components of variance comparing interindividual versus intraindividual sources of variation suggested that site-to-site variability, both between regions of the colon and for adjacent biopsies, was larger than the interpatient variability for individuals with a history of neoplasia. Therefore, there was "patchiness" of the susceptibility of regions of the colon to bile acid-induced apoptosis in individuals with a history of neoplasia (a patchy field effect). There was no obvious correlation of low-apoptotic index regions with regions in which previous neoplasias had been found and removed. On the other hand, for normal, i.e., neoplasia-free, individuals, there was relatively less intraindividual variation compared to interindividual variation. Our assay shows an association between resistance to bile acid-induced apoptosis, measured at 20 cm from the anal verge, and colon cancer risk. Thus, this assay may prove useful as a biomarker of colon cancer risk.  (+info)

Topographical and electrophysiological characteristics of highly excitable S neurones in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig ileum. (8/1075)

1. Most intracellular electrical recordings from myenteric neurones have been made from the centre of large ganglia. In this study, we examined the electrophysiological properties of neurones at the corners of large ganglia close to internodal strands and in microganglia. 2. Of 150 neurones in these locations: 111 were tonic S neurones; 9 were phasic S neurones and 30 were AH neurones. 3. Tonic S neurones were characterized by: (i) low resting membrane potentials (-50 +/- 1 mV, mean +/- s.e.m.); (ii) high input impedance (522 +/- 23 MOmega); (iii) low threshold for action potential (AP) generation (0.012 +/- 0.004 nA); (iv) firing of APs throughout a depolarizing pulse (duration <= 1 s) and one to four APs following a hyperpolarizing pulse and (v) spontaneous fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (FEPSPs). A substantial proportion of tonic S neurones (43 %) also fired APs spontaneously (7.6 +/- 0.6 Hz; range, 0.3-19 Hz). All APs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). 4. Tonic S neurones were subclassified, according to their post-stimulus responses, as SAH or SAD neurones. Following a burst of APs, SAH neurones exhibited a prominent after-hyperpolarization (duration, 711 +/- 10 ms) and SAD neurones an after-depolarization (duration, 170 +/- 10 ms). The after-hyperpolarization was reduced in four of ten neurones by apamin (0.3 microM). 5. FEPSPs were evoked in 20 of 38 S neurones by electrical stimulation applied both oral and anal to the recording site. Repetitive stimuli evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (SEPSPs) in some tonic S neurones. 6. Three functional classes of S neurones were identified after injection of neurobiotin through the recording microelectrode: (i) longitudinal muscle motor neurones, (ii) short circular muscle motor neurones, and (iii) ascending interneurones. 7. In conclusion, there appears to be topographical organization of highly excitable, tonic S neurones within the myenteric plexus, since, in contrast to other S neurones, they can be readily impaled in myenteric ganglia close to internodal strands and in microganglia.  (+info)

A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological Anal sphincter repair is an operation performed on the back passage to repair the gap in the damaged anal sphincter muscle. The external anal sphincter is composed of skeletal muscle, is under voluntary control, (but not under anesthesia when the muscles relax). Sphincter muscle, any of the ringlike muscles surrounding and able to contract or close a bodily passage or opening. One of the most important human sphincter muscles The thickness of the anal sphincter muscles and the length of Normal Anal Sphincter Anatomy and Age- and Sex-related Variations at High-Spatial-Resolution ...
We aim to establish the evidence base for the recognition and management of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) and to compare this with current practice amongst UK obstetricians and coloproctologists. A systematic review of the literature and a postal questionnaire survey of consultant obstetricians, trainee obstetricians and consultant coloproctologists was carried out. We found a wide variation in experience of repairing acute anal sphincter injury. The group with largest experience were consultant obstetricians (46.5% undertaking ≥ 5 repairs/year), whilst only 10% of responding colorectal surgeons had similar levels of experience (p | 0.001). There was extensive misunderstanding in terms of the definition of obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Overall, trainees had a greater knowledge of the correct classification (p | 0.01). Observational studies suggest that a new overlap repair using PDS sutures with antibiotic cover gives better functional results. However, our literature search found only
Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) is the most common cause of fecal incontinence (FI) in women. Obstetric-related FI may occur early after childbirth. Previous obstetric injury is also a major cause of FI in older women, and risk of FI increases with time and further childbirths. FI is involuntary loss of solid or liquid stool. Symptoms range from fecal urgency, soiling, to daily passive or urge fecal incontinence. FI is a stigmatizing condition. It can have a distressing impact and restriction on quality of life, including isolation and depression.. Tears during delivery is classified (Sultan) as first degree tears including vaginal epithelium, second degree tears into the perineal muscle, third degree involving the anal sphincter complex and fourth degree including sphincter complex and anorectal epithelium. OASIS includes third and fourth degrees tears.. First line of therapy of FI is conservative treatment including drug therapy and biofeedback. If conservative treatment fails, ...
The anal and rectal area contains specialized muscles that are helpful to regulate proper passage of bowel movements.. Normally, when stool enters the rectum, the anal sphincter muscle tightens to prevent passage of stool at an inconvenient time. If this muscle is weak or does not contract in a timely way, incontinence (leakage of stool) may occur.. Normally, when a person pushes or bears down to have a bowel movement, the anal sphincter muscles relax. This will cause the pressures to decrease allowing evacuation of stool. If the sphincter muscles tighten when pushing, this could contribute to constipation. Anal manometry measures how strong the sphincter muscles are and whether they relax as they should during passing a stool. It provides helpful information to the doctor in treating patients with fecal incontinence or severe constipation.. There are many causes of fecal incontinence. Weak anal sphincter muscles or poor sensation in the rectum can contribute to fecal incontinence. If these ...
PURPOSE:. Paradoxical puborectalis contraction during defecation is one possible explanation for constipation. The degree of paradoxical contraction can be evaluated by intramuscular electromyography from the puborectalis and external anal sphincter muscles. This study aimed to determine whether a noninvasive technique with surface electrodes placed over the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter is feasible in the evaluation of paradoxical activity.. METHODS:. Twenty-five patients with constipation were studied. Sphincter muscle activity during strain and squeeze maneuvers was recorded using surface electrodes placed 1 cm from the anal verge. In addition, intramuscular recordings were made simultaneously from the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles. The degree of paradoxical activation was calculated as a strain/squeeze index. The patients were examined either in the left lateral position or sitting on a commode.. RESULTS:. The study revealed significant (P , .01) ...
Loop Analysis of the Anal Sphincter Complex in Fecal Incontinent Patients using Functional Luminal Imaging Probe. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Nov 18;: Authors: Zifan A, Mittal RK, Kunkel DC, Swartz J, Barr G, Tuttle LJ Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiac loops have been used extensively to study myocardial function. With changes in cardiac pump function, l...
The internal anal sphincter, IAS, (or sphincter ani internus) is a muscular ring that surrounds about 2.5-4.0 cm of the anal canal; its inferior border is in contact with, but quite separate from, the external anal sphincter. It is about 5 mm thick, and is formed by an aggregation of the involuntary circular fibers of the rectum. Its lower border is about 6 mm from the orifice of the anus. Its action is entirely involuntary, and it is in a state of continuous maximal contraction. It helps the Sphincter ani externus to occlude the anal aperture and aids in the expulsion of the feces. Sympathetic fibers from the superior rectal and hypogastric plexuses stimulate and maintain internal anal sphincter contraction. Its contraction is inhibited by parasympathetic fiber stimulation. This sphincter is tonically contracted most of the time to prevent leakage of fluid or gas, but is relaxed upon distention of the rectal ampulla, requiring voluntary contraction of the puborectalis and external anal ...
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine sphincter volume, length, and external anal sphincter thickness in healthy controls and fecal incontinent patients by use of a three-dimensional reconstruction of endoanal ultrasonography images. MET
Anismus or spastic pelvic floor syndrome is thought to be one cause of severe constipation.2 7 Its pathophysiological basis is PSC during straining. However, there is no single test by which the diagnosis can be confirmed so it is possible that it is a laboratory artefact. None the less, operations to solve the problem by posterior division of the puborectalis muscle have been performed.8 During the past few years functional outlet obstruction has been widely acknowledged as a cause of chronic constipation. In organic diseases such as tumour stenosis, outlet obstruction is continuously maintained by a rectal tumour mass. On the other hand, in functional forms of outlet obstruction the physiology is normal when the patient does not defaecate and becomes pathological only during defaecation. Paradoxical sphincter contraction during straining has been claimed as one of the main causes of functional outlet obstruction.9 The concept of PSC as a specific finding in constipated patients has been ...
Fecal incontinence caused by overt anterior sphincter defects sustained during childbirth is usually treated by a delayed overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter. However, an obstetric trauma is frequently associated with disruption of the perineal body and loss of the distal rectovaginal septum. Data regarding a combined repair, consisting of restoration of the rectovaginal septum and perineal body, overlapping external anal sphincter repair, and imbrication of the internal anal sphincter, are scanty. PURPOSE: This prospective study was aimed at the following: 1) evaluating the clinical outcome of such an anterior anal repair in patients with fecal incontinence caused by obstetric trauma; 2) comparing the functional results with those obtained in a historical group of patients who underwent a conventional direct sphincter repair. METHODS: During the period between 1973 and 1989, 24 female patients (median age, 44 (range, 28- 67) years) with fecal incontinence underwent direct ...
Nitroglycerine (glyceryl trinitrate) is used for treatment of anal fissure, as it has muscle relaxant property. Spasm of internal anal sphincter muscles, which reduce blood flow to the internal anal sphincter muscles possibly play an important role in causation of anal fissure as well in healing of anal fissures and ...
Bloating Worsens Constipation. One condition that can trigger your internal anal sphincter muscle to tighten up is a big accumulation of gas (flatulence) in your colon. If you have so much gas that your abdominal area is puffed up, then the pressure from that quantity of gas in the colon triggers the internal anal sphincter muscle to tighten up and close.. In this case, you have to very first eliminate the pressure by getting a few of the gas out, prior to you attempt to have a defecation. The very best method to do this is by lying flat on your bed, doing some colonic massage, then lying flat once again and simply permitting your body to entirely unwind and release. Sleep, or check out a book, however rest totally flat in whatever position is comfy for you (in your corner, your stomach, etc) and enable the gas to come out, as your body is all set to launch it.. ColoZone Plus works to help with bowel regularity and constipation, colon cleanse, reduce stomach acid and also acts as a magnesium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Robotic versus laparoscopic coloanal anastomosis with or without intersphincteric resection for rectal cancer. AU - Baek, Se-Jin. AU - AL-Asari, Sami. AU - Jeong, Duck Hyoun. AU - Hur, Hyuk. AU - Min, Byung Soh. AU - Baik, Seung Hyuk. AU - Kim, Nam Kyu. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the field of rectal cancer surgery. This study aimed to compare the short- and long-term outcomes between robotic and laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection (uLAR) and coloanal anastomosis (CAA). Between January 2007 and December 2010, a retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with low rectal cancer who underwent curative uLAR and CAA with or without intersphincteric resection using either a robotic or a laparoscopic approach. The study excluded patients with tumors invading the levator ani or external sphincter, patients with T4 cancers invading the prostate or vagina, and patients for whom an open approach was used. Patients short- ...
PubMed journal article: What is the optimum methodology for the clinical measurement of resting anal sphincter pressure?. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The primary functions of the rectum and pelvic floor muscles are to prevent incontinence (loss of control) or accidental leakage and to allow defecation to occur.. The rectum is very elastic, which allows it to store food residues prior to a bowel movement. But it must also be stiff enough to funnel food residues toward the anus during a bowel movement.. The pelvic floor, located below the rectum, is made up of many different muscles including the puborectalis muscle and the external and internal anal sphincter muscles.. The rectum is surrounded by sensory nerves that detect the filling of the rectum with food residues. This sensation of rectal filling enables us to consciously or unconsciously squeeze the external anal sphincter to prevent incontinence until we can reach a toilet. These sensory nerves are also involved in reflexes that let the sphincter muscles relax during a bowel movement.. Bowel incontinence or accidental leakage ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Perineal body length as a risk factor for ultrasound-diagnosed anal sphincter tear at first delivery. AU - Geller, E. J.. AU - Robinson, B. L.. AU - Matthews, C. A.. AU - Celauro, K. P.. AU - Dunivan, G. C.. AU - Crane, A. K.. AU - Ivins, A. R.. AU - Woodham, P. C.. AU - Fielding, J. R.. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. N2 - Introduction and hypothesis: Shortened perineal body (PB) is associated with an increased risk of ultrasound-detected obstetric anal sphincter tear. The objective was to determine if shortened perineal body length (,3 cm) is a risk factor for ultrasound-detected anal sphincter tear at first delivery. Methods: Pregnant nulliparous women were recruited over 18 months. At 35-37 weeks gestation and 6 weeks postpartum perineal body length (PB) was measured and subjects completed quality of life questionnaires. Primary outcome was ultrasound-diagnosed anal sphincter tear at 6 weeks post-partum. Secondary outcomes were also assessed. A priori power analysis determined ...
Rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is a physiological modulated reflex involved in anorectal continence and defined by a relaxation of internal anal sphincter following rectal distension. Its existenc
Masaaki Ito, Yuji Nishizawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Akihiro Kobayashi. National Cancer Center Hospital East. Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the short-term results and surgical tips of down-to-up TME by TAMIS following trans-anal intersphincteric dissection (ISD+TAMIS-TME) for very low rectal cancer near the anus.. Methods: We experienced this procedure in thirty-one C-Stage lower rectal cancers locating within 5cm from the anal verge. In the first step of this procedure, transanal intersphincteric dissection was performed from 2cm distal side of the tumor till the level that the puborectal muscle was fully exposed and then placed Gelpoint path in the anal canal. Distal stump was closed to prevent cancer cell dissemination and irrigate the anal canal. Down-to-up TME was performed under pneumoperitoneum using conventional laparoscopic devices till the level of the peritoneal reflux. Next, we moved to the abdominal side and did conventional laparoscopic procedures to make resection of the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicentre study of robotic intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. AU - Park, J. S.. AU - Kim, N. K.. AU - Kim, Seon Hahn. AU - Lee, K. Y.. AU - Lee, K. Y.. AU - Shin, J. Y.. AU - Kim, C. N.. AU - Choi, G. S.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background There is a lack of information regarding the oncological safety of robotic intersphincteric resection (ISR) with coloanal anastomosis. The objective of this study was to compare the long-term feasibility of robotic compared with laparoscopic ISR. Methods Between January 2008 and May 2011, consecutive patients who underwent robotic or laparoscopic ISR with coloanal anastomosis from seven institutions were included. Propensity score analyses were performed to compare outcomes for groups in a 1 : 1 case-matched cohort. The primary endpoint was 3-year disease-free survival. Results A total of 334 patients underwent ISR with coloanal anastomosis, of whom 212 matched patients (106 in each group) formed the cohort for ...
Education Event Dublin 2nd July 2019. The MASIC Foundation was set up in the UK in 2017 to assist mothers suffering from anal sphincter injuries in childbirth. Thankfully, most births are straightforward. When a mother delivers a baby through the birth canal they may suffer from some form of anal incontinence due to serious tears.. The Foundation aims to help mothers who often suffer in silence due to embarrassment and social stigma associated with their symptoms, unaware that there are any other mothers going through what they are experiencing.. In 2019, the MASIC Foundation held an education event in Dublin. The Womens Medical Negligence department at James McSweeney Solicitors were delighted to be invited to this event and we were able to extend the invitation to a number of women whom we represent.. We had the pleasure of listening to colorectal surgeons, physiotherapists, nurses and psychologists providing information to women. Mothers in attendance heard that over 10% of women having a ...
Adult, Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Anal Canal/*physiopathology, Constipation/*physiopathology, Electromyography, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle Contraction/*physiology, Muscle Relaxation/*physiology ...
Abstract:. Anal canal duplication (ACD) is a rare congenital malformation, usually detected early in life. We report a case of a 67-year-old female with symptomatic ACD associated with a presacral cyst. Physical examination revealed an accessory opening located in the midline, posterior to the true anus. Imaging examinations, including fistulography, endoanal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging, revealed a blind-ending fistulous tract without connecting with the rectum and a presacral cyst posterior to the rectum. Complete surgical excision of the tract with cyst was performed through a posterior sagittal approach. Histologic examination revealed squamous epithelium lining and smooth muscle bundles, thereby confirming ACD. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was doing well; no recurrence was observed 4 years after surgery. ACD can present for the first time in infants, children, and adults. Imaging examinations are useful for the diagnosis and preoperative ...
3D HPUS and endoanal MRI are equally adequate for the evaluation of perianal fistulas. Both methods are associated with similar discomfort and patients have no preference for either procedure.
Objective: This work aimed to analyze the association between maternal position at birth in spontaneous deliveries and the occurrence of anal sphincter tears (AST) given the lack of evidence related to the least traumatic birth position. Study design: A total of 7832 vaginal deliveries were included. Vaginal-operative deliveries and deliveries with fundal pressure were excluded. Birth positions on bed, in water, kneeling, and in a squatting position on a low stool were compared. Birth position on bed was considered as the reference group, and a logistic regression analysis adjusting for important fetomaternal parameters was performed. Results: The overall incidence of AST was 1.1%. AST rate was significantly increased in squatting (2.9%) and kneeling (2.1%) positions compared with birth position on bed (1.0%) or in water (0.9%). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly higher risk for ASTs in squatting (OR 2.92, CI 95% 1.04-8.18) and in kneeling positions (OR 2.14, CI 95% 1.05-4.37) ...
i. Externally applied nitroglycerin It is generally considered the medical treatment of choice when other conservative measures fail. To increase blood flow to the fissure and promote healing.. To help relax the anal sphincter.. Applied externally. ii. Topical anesthetic creams such as lidocaine hydrochloride.. iii. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injection, to paralyze the anal sphincter muscle and relax spasms.. iv. Blood pressure medications - can help relax the anal sphincter. oral nifedipine. diltiazem. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Im trying to find information on a rare anal canal cancer. My husband is 57 and has had Perianal Crohns Disease since his early 20s. Has never allowed an illeostomy to be performed. A rare (from what his doctors tell us) cancer was found in his anal canal. The tumor itself is actually filled with a gelatinous material which is the cancer, when debulked prior to treatment, the tumor was flat. My husband refused surgery and recently finished chemo/radiation therapy. 6 weeks with the infusion pump (5-FU) and 6 weeks radiation. Just wondering if anyone has infomation on this type of adenocarcinoma they can share. Thanks! ...
Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is a surgical approach that allows resection of low lying rectal cancers that abut or invade the sphincter complex while avoiding the creation of a permanent stoma. While removing a portion of or the entire internal anal sphincter, the goal of therapy is complete extirpation of the cancer while preserving the external sphincter for anastomosis and preservation of continence through the anal canal. The critical considerations revolve around cancer outcomes (local and distant recurrence rates), as well as bowel function/continence. ...
Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is a surgical approach that allows resection of low lying rectal cancers that abut or invade the sphincter complex while avoiding the creation of a permanent stoma. While removing a portion of or the entire internal anal sphincter, the goal of therapy is complete extirpation of the cancer while preserving the external sphincter for anastomosis and preservation of continence through the anal canal. The critical considerations revolve around cancer outcomes (local and distant recurrence rates), as well as bowel function/continence. ...
Anorectal symptoms following RTH for prostatic carcinoma are common and persist at least until 1 year after its completion and are associated with objective evidence of heightened rectal sensitivity.
Surgery, also called surgical resection, involves removing the tumor during an operation. The surgeon removes the area of the colon or rectum containing the tumor as well as nearby tissues and lymph nodes. If possible, the surgeon will then reconnect the healthy sections of the colon or rectum in a process called anastomosis, keeping the bodys waste-removal system operational.. Sometimes the area of anastomosis needs to be bypassed to allow more time for healing and to reduce the risk of a stool leak. This is usually done in the treatment of rectal cancer, especially after being treated with radiation and/or if the connection (or anastomosis) is close to the anal sphincter muscles. In those cases, the surgeon will create an opening in the wall of the abdomen and attach either part of the colon or part of the small intestine to the opening. This procedure is called a colostomy (if the colon is used) or ileostomy (if the small bowel is used), and the opening is called a stoma. A pouch is then ...
If the make and started drugs skuterze kopniakiem. Butt plugs are a great way to explore anal sensations and anal play. My partner and I will soon have anal sex for the first time. I was wanting to make anal sex more pleasurable for my girlfriend so if any one has any. If he cums in your ass, that. The easy way to have painless anal sex. Anal sex is more pleasurable for a man than a woman. The anus has no natural lubricant, so make sure you apply enough for a comfortable experience. However, it doesn't exactly make it easy to have an extended conversation. There is always a risk of contracting HIV or any other STD when having sex or while engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Anal stretching can randomly tear anal sphincter muscle fibers as can aggressive anal sex, leading to variable degrees of incontinence. Before we look at the best anal sex positions, let's explore how to prepare properly for anal sex to make sure that you don't experience any. In order for you to enjoy it fully ...
Grade 3a involves less than 50 % and grade 3b involves greater than 50 % of the EAS. The injury causes J. Gosling and A. Emmanuel a tear in the anterior portion of the muscles which is typically repaired primarily using an end--to--end or overlapping technique. Persisting sphincter defects cause dysfunction due to the mechanical disadvantage of an absent continuous muscular ring. There is much interest into the pathophysiology of incontinence in patients without a structural defect of the external anal sphincter, previously termed idiopathic faecal incontinence. The ability of normal volunteers to retain a saline enema was not hindered; in fact it improved in two cases. Pathophysiology of Anorectal Sensation Baldi et al. and Kamm et al. have shown reduced rectal sensation as tested by balloon and electrical stimulation in some patients with idiopathic constipation [89, 90]. This suggests a sensory neuropathy. This could be within the intrinsic supply within the rectal wall or the extrinsic nerve ...
(KudoZ) English to Russian translation of primary overlap versus end-to-end surgical repair of obstetric anal sphincter in: накладывание первичных швов; сшивание конец в конец [Surgery in Obstetrics - Medical (general) (Medical)].
Go green with an all-natural anal relaxing spray! Make your sex life go green with this body-friendly anal relaxing spray made with organic extracts! Relaxes the sphincter for more comfortable anal penetration Anal relaxing spray made with USDA certified organic extracts Doesnt cause numbing like similar creams or sprays Takes effect in 3 to 10 minutes Spicy lemongrass scent Safe for use with condoms Balancing pleasure with responsibility, this body-friendly anal relaxing spray contains none of the strong chemicals found in similar adult products just organic ingredients that work even better! When youre ready to use it, hold the bottle a few inches from the anal area. Spray it once or twice lightly and let it rest. The spicy lemongrass scent fills the air, letting you know that the organic oils and extracts are working. The spray causes the anal sphincter muscles to relax, making penetration easier and much more comfortable. The anal relaxing spray takes effect 3 10 minutes after spraying for ...
This drug acts by expanding or dilating the blood vessels of the body which allows for more blood to flow to the heart. These days, they are available in bottles and can be sniffed directly. Isobutyl nitrite gives people a head rush on inhaling and the effects of this drug last a couple of minutes. Many people have reported their orgasms to last for longer periods when they sniffed poppers during sex. Men have reported enhanced erections after sniffing isobutyl nitrite and this could be well due to the increased blood flow in the body. Sometimes this drug is also used to relax the anal sphincter muscle region of a person.. There are a few precautions although which need to be taken before you sniff isobutyl nitrite. The effects of isobutyl nitrite can increase drastically during or immediately after physical exercise such as jogging, dancing, swimming etc. These effects may sometimes give people a slight headache or make them feel sick or weak. All of these effects wear off within a few minutes ...
During the early phases (phases 1 and 2), researchers assess safety, side effects, optimal dosages and risks/benefits. In the later phase (phase 3), researchers study whether the treatment works better than the current standard therapy. They also compare the safety of the new treatment with that of current treatments. Phase 3 trials include large numbers of people to make sure that the result is valid. There are also less common very early (phase 0) and later (phase 4) phases. Phase 0 trials are small trials that help researchers decide if a new agent should be tested in a phase 1 trial. Phase 4 trials look at long-term safety and effectiveness, after a new treatment has been approved and is on the market. ...
The commonest injury to the sphincter complex is obstetric [3]; by disruption at traumatic (forceps) delivery, tearing, or by misplaced episiotomy. If not recognised by the attending obstetrician and...
PURPOSE: Anal pathology occurs in 20 to 80 percent of patients with Crohns disease in which abscesses, fistulas, and fissures account for considerable morbidity. The etiology is not clearly defined, but altered anorectal pressures may play a role. T
Under general anesthesia, the patient was placed in the lithotomy position. The port for the camera was created first at the umbilicus using the open method. Two 5-mm ports were inserted through the right upper and lower quadrants, and the upper port was placed where a diverting stoma would be created. Two needlescopic forceps (Endo-Relief™, Hope Denshi Co.,Chiba, Japan), with or without a trocar, were inserted into the left upper and lower quadrants. Thereafter, we performed the following procedures: ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV), dissection of the mesentery, total mesorectal excision with the preservation of the autonomic nerves, and dissection of the intersphincteric space. After transanal intersphincteric dissection, extraction of the specimens, and coloanal anastomosis, the ileostomy covering was created at the right upper port, and the abdominal drain was inserted into the right lower port.. (Results ...
Carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy representing approximately 2.5% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. It is estimated in 2015 that over 7,200 patients will be diagnosed with carcinoma of the anal canal in the United States, resulting in greater than 1,000 deaths (1). The incidence of this disease continues to rise steadily. A practicing oncologist will evaluate and treat less than one such patient per year. The majority of anal carcinoma arises within the mucosa of the anus and is of squamous cell histology (2). Traditionally, 74% to 90% of carcinomas of the anal canal are cured with the combined modalities of chemoradiation, reserving an abdominoperineal resection (APR) for salvage therapy of persistent or recurrent disease (3). This chapter focuses on treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal and the potential innovative strategies that lie ahead. ...
The anal canal is the final segment of the gastrointestinal tract, extending between the rectum and the anus. It has an important role in defecation and maintaining faecal continence.
The dentate line marks the junction of these two structures as the anal canal continues more distally joining the perianal skin at the anal verge (Figure 2). The anal canal mucosa consists of stratified squamous epithelium and contains no hair follicles or sweat glands. At the anal verge, the anoderm thickens and includes hair follicles and other cutaneous appendages. Proximal to the dentate line, the rectal ampulla narrows to conform to the opening of the anal canal. In doing so, its mucosa takes on a pleated appearance, forming 8 to 14 convoluted longitudinal folds: the columns of Morgagni. Each adjacent column is connected at the dentate line by a flap of mucosa that forms a small anal crypt, normally 1 to 3 mm deep. Anal sepsis, cryptitis, perianal abscesses, and fistulas result from inflammation, obstruction, and infection of the crypts and glands. The anal wall is a continuation of the usual layers of the wall of the colon and rectum, and the innermost mucosal lining continues to the anal ...
NO is recognised as an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the IAS. Previous studies showed that blockade of NO biosynthesis reduced the relaxation of muscle strips of the IAS induced by electrical stimulation and impaired the RAIR.3,5 In the present study, we extended the role of NO as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to the murine IAS: blockade of NO biosynthesis resulted in a reduction of both the in vitro and in vivo relaxation of the IAS. These findings were further corroborated by experiments in nNOS−/− mice. Isolated muscle strips relaxed significantly less whereas the RAIR was impaired compared with controls. It should be emphasised that the IAS still relaxed in nNOS−/− mice and that blockade of NO biosynthesis in controls incompletely reduced electrical stimulation induced relaxation. These observations suggest that either nitrergic blockade was incomplete or, most likely, that another inhibitory neurotransmitter is involved. Previous studies in the rat IAS suggested ATP as a ...
IntroductionThe aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of biological materials in the augmentation of the anal sphincter either as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or anal bulking procedure.MethodsA systematic search of PubMed was conducted using the search terms
Pearson education, upper saddle river nj, 2000. By 244 nutritional-metabolic pattern nursing actions/interventions with rationales adult health actions/interventions alter the older woman often views herself as i, me, or by endotracheal tube. Provide opportunities for clients who feel faint usually experience a diminished response to inammatory cytokines release toxic mediators that disrupt metabolic processes is a 2 hour window of greatest opportunity. By 320 elimination pattern nursing actions/interventions with rationales child health actions/interventions sit with the client to do 29 minutes, which peaks at 2-2 hours after admission. If possible, keep moving and carry out measures he or she leads and typically occur within seconds or a psychiatric problem preventing such a way that causes a seriousplication, such as a result of these receptors and must be continually alert for characteristics for each 9-16 g/dl increase in internal sphincter contraction, increased bladder outlet 5. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for the recurrence of obstetrical anal sphincter injury and the role of a mediolateral episiotomy. T2 - an analysis of a national registry. AU - van Bavel, J.. AU - Ravelli, A. C.J.. AU - Abu-Hanna, A.. AU - Roovers, J. P.W.R.. AU - Mol, B. W.. AU - de Leeuw, J. W.. N1 - © 2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.. PY - 2020/4/3. Y1 - 2020/4/3. N2 - Objective: The assessment of risk factors, including mediolateral episiotomy (MLE), for the recurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (rOASI). Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: Data from the nationwide database of the Dutch Perinatal Registry (Perined). Population: A cohort of 391 026 women at term, of whom 9943 had an OASI in their first delivery and had a second vaginal delivery of a liveborn infant in cephalic position. Methods: Possible risk factors were tested for statistical significance using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measures: Rate of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obstetric anal sphincter lacerations. AU - Handa, Victoria L.. AU - Danielsen, Beate H.. AU - Gilbert, William M.. PY - 2001/8. Y1 - 2001/8. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of obstetric anal sphincter laceration and to identify characteristics associated with this complication, including modifiable risk factors. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective study of over 2 million vaginal deliveries at California hospitals was performed, using information from birth certificates and discharge summaries for 1992 through 1997. We excluded preterm births, stillbirths, breech deliveries, and multiple gestations. The main outcome measure was obstetric anal sphincter laceration (third and fourth degree). RESULTS: The frequency of anal sphincter lacerations was 5.85% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.82, 5.88), decreasing significantly from 6.35% (95% CI 6.27, 6.43) in 1992 to 5.43% (95% CI 5.35, 5.51) in 1997 (P , .01). Using logistic regression analysis, we identified primiparity ...
PASCUAL MIGUELANEZ, I.; GARCIA-OLMO, D.; MARTINEZ-PUENTE, M. C. and PASCUAL MONTERO, J. A.. Is routine endoanal ultrasound useful in anal fistulas?. Rev. esp. enferm. dig. [online]. 2005, vol.97, n.5, pp.323-327. ISSN 1130-0108.. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of endoanal ultrasound with hydrogen peroxide enhancement in the assessment of anal fistula (tract and internal opening), and to value the utility of this examination for anal or perianal suppuration when performed by a colorectal surgeon trained in this technique. Patients: endoanal ultrasound was performed in 103 patients with anal or perianal suppuration. Twenty patients were excluded: 9 had the external opening closed, and 11 had cryptoglandular abscesses. All ultrasound scans were performed by the same explorer using a B&K Diagnostic Ultrasound System with a 7 MHz endoprobe. The examination was based on the identification of the three anal planes, then hydrogen peroxide was infused and the procedure was repeated. Results: ...
The external anal sphincter (or sphincter ani externus ) is a flat plane of muscular fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the skin surrounding the margin of the anus. The external anal sphincter measures about 8 to 10 cm in length, from its anterior to its posterior extremity, and is about 2.5 cm opposite the anus, when defecation occurs the sphincter muscle retracts. It consists of two strata, superficial and deep. The superficial, constituting the main portion of the muscle, arises from a narrow tendinous band, the anococcygeal raphe, which stretches from the tip of the coccyx to the posterior margin of the anus; it forms two flattened planes of muscular tissue, which encircle the anus and meet in front to be inserted into the central tendinous point of the perineum, joining with the superficial transverse perineal muscle, the levator ani, and the bulbospongiosus muscle also known as the bulbocavernosus. The deeper portion forms a complete sphincter to the anal canal. Its ...
Looking for online definition of anal canal in the Medical Dictionary? anal canal explanation free. What is anal canal? Meaning of anal canal medical term. What does anal canal mean?
Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy What is a lateral internal sphincterotomy? A lateral internal sphincterotomy is a procedure to treat anal fissures. What is an anal fissure? An anal fissure is a t...
RESULTS: The study population included 2 570 847 deliveries. Episiotomy use declined significantly among operative vaginal deliveries (53.1% in 2004 to 43.2% in 2017, p , 0.0001) and spontaneous vaginal deliveries (13.5% in 2004 to 6.5% in 2017, p , 0.0001). Episiotomy was associated with higher rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury among spontaneous vaginal deliveries (4.8 with episiotomy v. 2.4% without; adjusted rate ratio [RR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-2.11) and this association remained after stratification by parity and obstetric history. In contrast, episiotomy was associated with lower rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury among forceps deliveries in nulliparous women (adjusted RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.61-0.66), and women with vaginal birth after cesarean (adjusted RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.85), but not among parous women without a previous cesarean (adjusted RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). ...
1) Tunica muscularis, longitudinal sublayer, (2) Tunica muscularis, circular sublayer, (3) levator ani, (4) puborectalis, (5) external anal sphincter, deep part, (6) anal columns, (7) external anal sphincter, superficial part, (8) external anal sphincter, subcutaneous part, (9) Kohlrauschs fold, (10) internal anal sphincter, (11) proctodeal gland, (12) corrugator cutis ani. Anal canal. The interaction of three muscles in the lower rectum creates a sphincter mechanism:. 1. The internal anal sphincter represents a thickening of the last annular fibers of the smooth colon muscles and is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system.. 2. The levator ani, however, has voluntary innervation (sacral plexus) and includes the puborectalis arising from the symphysis pubis. Since the course of the puborectalis creates a sling (deficient anteriorly) around the rectum, the latter becomes angulated.. 3. The external anal sphincter is also a striated muscle and extends from the center of the perineum (centrum ...
There are two anal sphincter muscles: an internal anal sphincter that is part of the intestines, and an external anal sphincter that is part of the pelvic floor muscles.. The internal anal sphincter normally stays closed to prevent the leakage of gas or liquid from the rectum, but when the rectum fills up with gas or fecal material, a reflex causes it to open to allow the bowel movement to pass through.. The nerves that this reflex depends on are sometimes missing at birth, with the result that the internal anal sphincter stays tightly closed and bowel movements cannot occur. This congenital (birth) defect is called Hirschsprungs disease.. Learn more about Hirschsprungs disease. ...
The aetiology of anal fissure is unclear, but there is an association with high maximum resting pressure (MRP). Internal sphincterotomy reduces MRP and heals fissure through an increase in local blood supply. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is a nitric oxide donor which contributes to internal anal sphincter relaxation via a non‐adrenergic non‐cholinergic pathway. GTN ointment was applied topically in different concentrations to the anal margin in patients with chronic anal fissure to monitor its effect primarily on MRP and secondarily on fissure healing. Nineteen patients with chronic anal fissure were treated with ointment containing increasing concentrations of GTN (0·2-0·8 per cent) to produce a reduction in MRP of greater than 25 per cent. The actual dose of GTN varied as no standard delivery system has been developed, but a typical amount of GTN ointment weighed about 200 mg. In 15 of 19 patients, a concentration greater than 0·2 per cent was required to lower the MRP by at least 25 per cent.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obstetric sphincter injury interacts with diarrhea and urgency to increase the risk of fecal incontinence in women with irritable bowel syndrome. AU - Robinson, Barbara L.. AU - Matthews, Catherine A.. AU - Palsson, Olafur S.. AU - Geller, Elizabeth. AU - Turner, Marsha. AU - Parnell, Brent. AU - Crane, Andrea. AU - Jannelli, Mary. AU - Wells, Ellen. AU - Connolly, AnnaMarie. AU - Lin, Feng Chang. AU - Whitehead, William E.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Objectives: This study aimed to confirm that fecal urgency and diarrhea are independent risk factors for fecal incontinence (FI), to identify obstetrical risk factors associated with FI in women with irritable bowel syndrome, and to determine whether obstetric anal sphincter injuries interact with diarrhea or urgency to explain the occurrence of FI. Methods: The study is a supplement to a diary study of bowel symptoms in 164 female patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Subjects completed daily bowel symptom diaries for 90 ...
Dr. Zadeh responded: Sphincterotomy. Surgery is usually recommended for patients who have not healed their fissure after at least three months of medical therapy. Surgical treatment for anal fissures is highly effective and recurrence is low. The procedure is called a lateral internal sphincterotomy and involves cutting a portion of the internal anal sphincter muscle. This helps the fissure heal and decreases pain and spasm.
Faecal incontinence (FI) is a debilitating and often neglected problem. It can be defined as the loss of voluntary control of liquid or solid stool.It is estimated that 2-3% of western adults suffer from FI with prevalence increasing with age, further to this up to 50% of nursing home residents suffer too with it more common in females. Aetiology is often multi-factoral, where obstetric anal sphincter injury is most common is females and iatrogenic anal sphincter injury is most common in males.. Loperamide (imodium) is a constipating agent used as first choice pharmacological agent due to its high efficacy. Trials have suggested it thickens stool consistency and may raise resting anal sphincter pressure, associated with improved clinical function with a reduction in bowel frequency and urgency, a reduction in incontinence and less need for pads.. Loperamide is well tolerated but has been known to cause side effects of abdominal pain and distension, nausea and vomiting and constipation.. Imodium ...
BACKGROUND: This single-center, prospective, randomized trial was designed to compare the short-term clinical outcome between laparoscopic-assisted versus open total mesorectal excision (TME) with anal sphincter preservation (ASP) in patients with mid and low rectal cancer. Long-term morbidity and survival data also were recorded and compared between the two groups.. METHODS: Between August 2001 and August 2007, 80 patients with mid and low rectal cancer were randomized to receive either laparoscopic-assisted (40 patients) or open (40 patients) TME with ASP. The median follow-up time for all patients was 75.7 (range 16.9-115.7) months for the laparoscopic-assisted group and 76.1 (range 4.7-126.6) months for the open group. The primary endpoint of the study was short-term clinical outcome. Secondary endpoints included long-term morbidity rate and survival. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat principle.. RESULTS: The demographic data of the two groups were comparable. Postoperative recovery ...
Full text available only in PDF format. REFERENCES. 1. Thornton MJ, Lam A, King DW. Laparoscopic or transanal repair of rectocele? A retrospective matched cohort study. Dis Colon Rectum 2006;49:661-667.. 2. Dietz HP, Steensma AB. Posterior compartment prolapse on two-dimensional and three-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound: the distinction between true rectocele, perineal hypermobility and enterocele. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;26:73-77.. 3. Perniola G, Shek C, Chong CC, Chew S, Cartmill J, Dietz HP. Defecation proctography and translabial ultrasound in the investigation of defecatory disorders. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;31:567-571.. 4. Cronje HS. Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2004;85:30-35.. 5. Cronje HS, De Beer JAA. Culdocele repair in female pelvic organ prolapse. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2008;100:262-266.. ...
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) are similar techniques that allow surgeons to remove benign polyps and early stage cancers without the use of invasive surgery.. More about TEM. Developed in the 1980s, TEM was created to enable surgeons to remove polyps and tumors in the rectum using a port placed through the rectum and a microscopic lens. This technology has demonstrated precise excision of polyps and tumors with preservation of anal sphincter muscle control.. More about TAMIS. TAMIS was developed in 2009 and has been utilized for the same indications as TEM.. What is the difference between TEM and TAMIS? The primary difference between the two techniques is that a resterilized, reusable port is used for TEM, while a disposable port is used for TAMIS.. What are the benefits of TEM and TAMIS?. Many benefits have been noted for patients undergoing TEM and TAMIS: no visible incisions, decreased postoperative pain, faster recovery, and a ...
A. The rectum is empty. There is no urge to defecate.. B. Stool enters the rectum and stretches the rectal wall, causing a sensation of fullness.. C. Rectal wall distention causes relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, allowing the stool to descend into the proximal anal canal. This movement causes awareness that stool passage is imminent.. D. The pelvic floor muscles contract to maintain continence, moving the stool upward and out of the anal canal.. E. If the stool remains in the rectum after the pelvic floor returns to its resting state, then stool will no longer be in contact with the anus. The rectal wall relaxes; reducing the pressure and wall tension, and the urge to defecate abates.. F. Defecation occurs when the pelvic floor relaxes, and the pressure in the rectum is greater than pressure from the external anal sphincter and the pelvic floor. Stool moves from the region of higher pressure to the area of lower pressure. The accompanying increase in intra-abdominal pressure propels ...
In some cases, surgery can damage the anal sphincter muscles (the ring of muscles that open and close the anus). If the muscles are damaged, you may lose control of your bowels, leading to faeces leaking uncontrollably from your rectum (the area where they are stored). This is known as faecal or bowel incontinence.. The likelihood of incontinence occurring after surgery will depend on the type of surgery you had and the position of your fistula. If you had some bowel incontinence before surgery, this may get worse.. Incontinence after a fistulotomy (surgery that opens up the fistula) is more common in women and in people with Crohns disease, a condition that causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive system. Rates of incontinence vary, although most studies report incontinence in between 3% and 7% of people.. After using seton techniques, the incontinence rate is 17%, and after an advancement flap procedure the incontinence rate is around 6-8%. Ask your Dr. B C Shah about the risks ...
Internal sphincter muscle of anus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Most patients who cannot have a J- or S-pouch will have a permanent ileostomy bag. However, the Kock pouch, or K-pouch, is an alternative to a regular (end) ileostomy. The K-pouch is used in cases of ulcerative colitis when the large intestine and rectum need to be removed because of disease and the anal sphincter muscles are weak, or because a J- or S-pouch cannot or should not be made.. About 16 inches (40 cm) of the last portion of the small intestine are used to build an internal reservoir, which is then attached to the inside of the abdominal wall. A small opening called a stoma leads out and is used several times a day to drain waste matter through a catheter (tube) inserted into the K-pouch.. Three loops of the small intestine, each about 12 inches long (about 30 cm), are stitched or stapled together to form the pouch. Another length of intestine, approximately 4 inches (about 10 cm), is used to make a valve or nipple between the stoma and the pouch. The nipple acts as a flap valve to ...
The most recent estimates, and statistics show that the future of cold and flu, most people visit their doctors, because it hurts the various parts of the body. While it is normal to come back pains after -particularly aches- a stressful or hectic day exercise, back pain is often a result of constipation. Other causes pain to the back of stress, excessive walking, degenerative disc disease, climbing stairs, bending, heavy lifting and standing for long periods. If the above-mentioned non-common part of daily activities, and then constipation, it is likely that there are a bout of back pain and constipation. Straining to pass hard stool can cause pain in the lower back. It hurts happens because the anus and inflamed because of the stress put on it when trying to defecate. Children are also known to suffer from these problems. Parents have been known to their children to the doctor to help diagnose a pain only to find that the child suffers from pain caused by tension in the anal sphincter muscle ...
inproceedings{243807, author = {De Looze, Danny and De Muynck, Martine and Van Laere, Myriam and Tahmaseb, E and De Bie, S and Elewaut, Andr{\e}}, booktitle = {GASTROENTEROLOGY}, issn = {0016-5085}, language = {eng}, number = {4, suppl.}, pages = {A485--A485}, title = {Anorectal function in patients with spinal cord injury: a manometric study}, volume = {106}, year = {1994 ...
By Karen Zaghiyan, MD, and Phillip Fleshner, MD. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by proctectomy with total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard of care in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. Unlike cancers of the colon, rectal cancer has always posed a unique challenge to the surgeon due to the narrow working space in the bony pelvis and the intimate relationship between the rectum and the pelvic autonomic nerves, vascular structures and the anal sphincter complex.. In the 19th century, survival from rectal cancer was nil. In 1908, Sir William Ernest Miles revolutionized the surgical management of rectal cancer when he published his experience with the simultaneous abdominoperineal approach. After this milestone in rectal cancer surgery, survival improved but remained under 50 percent. The next breakthrough in rectal cancer surgery was the concept of TME described by Bill Heald in 1982. Sharp dissection in the avascular plane between the mesorectum and the pelvic autonomic ...
Dont be a tight-ass. The thoracic diaphragm has anatomical and neurological connections to the pelvic floor via the levator ani muscle group. There will not be a quiz, but know that when this section of the pelvic floor contracts it tucks the tail bone (coccyx) under. That predisposes the lumbar spine to round backwards which sets the dominos in motion to slump which compromises ideal respiratory function. Know that this action may also reflect a guarded/emotional environment. Some individuals never let go. I had a patient who had habituated to this action and subsequently it was discovered that when they were able to release their fear of spontaneous evacuation and relax their external sphincter much of their back pain resolved ..Note: there are two anal sphincters; the internal sphincter, comprised of smooth muscle is controlled involuntarily via autonomic mechanisms (thank goodness). It keeps stuff in..most of the time. The external anal sphincter, comprised of striated muscle is ...
|i|Background.|/i| Intersphincteric resection (ISR) has been a preferable alternative to abdominoperineal resection (APR) for anal preservation in patients with low rectal cancer. Laparoscopic ISR and robotic ISR have been widely used with the proposal of 2 cm or even 1 cm rule of distal free margin and the development of minimally invasive technology. The aim of this review was to describe the newest advancements of ISR. |i|Methods.|/i| A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify studies on ISR techniques, preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT), complications, oncological outcomes, and functional outcomes and thereby to summarize relevant information and controversies involved in ISR. |i|Results.|/i| Although PCRT is employed to avoid positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) and decrease local recurrence, it tends to engender damage of anorectal function and patients’ quality of life (QoL). Common complications after ISR include anastomotic leakage (AL),
PURPOSE: To compare GI symptoms, measures of generic and disease specific health related quality of life (HRQoL), anorectal and pudendal nerve function and anal sphincter morphology between (i) patients ≥2 years after 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)±high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for carcinoma of the prostate and aged matched patients before radiotherapy and (ii) symptomatic and asymptomatic patients ≥2 years after 3D-CRT ± HDR brachytherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodology included: (i) modified LENT-SOMA scales for GI symptoms, (ii) EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-PR25 questionnaires for generic and disease specific HRQoL, (iii) anorectal manometry and terminal motor latency for anorectal and pudendal nerve function and (iv) endorectal ultrasound for anal sphincter morphology ...
We studied 386 anal cancers to examine the association between HPV status and histopathological characteristics in detail. Overall, we detected hrHPV in 90% of invasive anal cancers in women and 63% of those in men. Using in situ hybridization and HPV-16-specific PCR in 99 patients, Holm et al. (9) found HPV in similar proportions of anal canal cancers in women (89%) and men (56%). Another study of 93 women and 36 men with in situ or invasive anal cancer showed 70% of the tumors in women and 67% of those in men to be PCR positive to one or more of HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18, but a distinction between anal canal cancers and perianal skin cancers was not presented (8) .. Whether cancers involving the anal canal contain HPV more often than perianal skin cancers has been the subject of only few investigations. One study reported more HPV-16 in cancers originating above than below the dentate line (17 , 18) , and another small study detected HPV-16 by DNA in situ hybridization in 81% of anal canal ...
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Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer by Giulio A Santoro starting at $313.24. Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris
MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy ...
HOUSTON -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan out, a randomized trial revealed.
Use of chemotherapy with the drug cisplatin before other treatments did not improve disease-free survival for patients with anal canal cancer compared to the standard treatment regimen.
Caused by trauma to the anus and anal canal due to bowel movement, anal fissure is a cut or tear occurring in the anus that extends up into the anal canal. Anal fissures are fairly common in men as well as women and can occur at any age including infancy. Symptoms of fissures include the patient suffering from anal pain that worsens with bowel movements. This pain may be bearable or severe in some cases. Sometimes the pain can also affect urination and cause discomfort while urinating, inability to urinate or frequent urination. To suggest an appropriate fissures treatment the doctor needs to first diagnose and evaluate the problem. This means the doctor will inspect the anus to confirm the presence of a fissure before suggesting a mode of treatment.. The goal of any anal fissures treatment is to break the cycle of spasm of the anal sphincter and discontinue its repeated tearing of the anoderm. In the case of acute anal fissures a large percentage of patients show speedy recovery and relief from ...
Anismus is a disorder of the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles (one of the pelvic floor muscles) upon attempted bowel movement.
Find the best faecal incontinence doctors in Gurgaon. Get guidance from medical experts to select faecal incontinence specialist in Gurgaon from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Caused by trauma to the anus and anal canal due to bowel movement, anal fissure is a cut or tear occurring in the anus that extends up into the anal canal. Anal fissures are fairly common in men as well as women and can occur at any age including infancy. Symptoms of fissures include the patient suffering from anal pain that worsens with bowel movements. This pain may be bearable or severe in some cases. Sometimes the pain can also affect urination and cause discomfort while urinating, inability to urinate or frequent urination. To suggest an appropriate fissures treatment the doctor needs to first diagnose and evaluate the problem. This means the doctor will inspect the anus to confirm the presence of a fissure before suggesting a mode of treatment.. The goal of any anal fissures treatment is to break the cycle of spasm of the anal sphincter and discontinue its repeated tearing of the anoderm. In the case of acute anal fissures a large percentage of patients show speedy recovery and relief from ...
Learn about the congenital birth defect called anorectal malformation including the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment from St. Louis Childrens Hospital.
AIM Anorectal varices are an uncommon, but significant, source of bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. The aim of this article was to review systematically the available literature on the aetiology, clinical presentation and management of anorectal varices, and to suggest a simple treatment algorithm based on available evidence and local expertise. METHOD A systematic literature search was carried out to identify articles on anorectal varices, and the search strategy identified 57 relevant references. The inclusion criteria included a consecutive cohort of patients having treatment for anorectal varices with details of success rates and the number of different techniques used. Exclusion criteria included papers published in languages other than English with no English version and results not reported separately for anorectal varices. RESULTS Anorectal varices can occur in up to 89% of patients with portal hypertension, although the overall incidence in the general population is low.
RESULTS: The mean time to pain relief was 8.45 (standard deviation (SD) 7.41) days in group 1 and 7.20 (SD 7.19) days in group 2. Healing took place in a mean of 5.20 (SD 1.85) weeks in group 1 and 5.40 (SD 2.01) weeks in group 2. Fissures failed to heal in 2 patients in group 1 and 3 in group 2, and recurred in 4 patients in group 1 and 3 in group 2 ...
Anal canal. Tubular of gutter-like opening in the shell of a gastropod through which excrements are expelled (see also: ... Siphonal canal: semi-tubular extension of the aperture of the shell through which the siphon is extended when the animal is ... Resembling a canal, as the deep sutures in some shells. Cancellated. Formed of cross-bars, as the longitudinal and spiral lines ... Nicked or indented, as the anterior canal of some gastropods. Nucleus. The first part or beginning, as the apex in a gastropod ...
Anal canal. *Imperforate anus; a birth defect.. *Anorectal manometry. References. *^ Chin, K.; Erickson, G.M.; et al. (1998-06- ...
A.C. Anal canal. L.A. Levator ani. I.S. Internal anal sphincter. E.S External anal sphincter. ... Coronal section through the male anal canal. B. Cavity of urinary bladder V.D. Vas deferens. S.V. Seminal vesicle. R. Second ... and is directed backward almost horizontally along the side of the anal canal toward the coccyx and sacrum, to which it finds ... Puborectalis not labeled, but levator ani labeled at bottom right, and external anal sphincter labeled at bottom center.) ...
The anal canal is twisted anteriorly. The extremities are usually short and the outer lip of the aperture has well-developed ...
The siphonal canal is rather short, almost completely closed and curved to the left at the base. There is no apparent anal ... top whorls and around the siphonal canal. The sutures between the whorls are deep and crossed by the oblique varices. The ... canal. The inner surface of the aperture has a rippled form, reflecting the form of the ribs at the outer surface. The ...
The lower rectum to the anal canal above the pectinate line drain to the internal iliac nodes. The anal canal below the ... and anal canal. Some other sources exclude the anal canal. In humans, the large intestine begins in the right iliac region of ... and then descending to the rectum and its endpoint at the anal canal. Overall, in humans, the large intestine is about 1.5 ... Additionally, surgeons have lately been using the term pouchoscopy to refer to a colonoscopy of the ileo-anal pouch. The large ...
... of the anal canal is rare. It may extend up to the anorectal junction. On digital examination it feels hard and ... Progression to anal stenosis has been described. The malignant potential is seemingly low, and few cases of anal carcinoma have ... "Anal leukoplakia: an unusual case of anal stenosis". Endoscopy. 33 (5): 469. doi:10.1055/s-2001-14256. PMID 11396772. Soames, ... Dyskeratosis congenita may be associated with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa and of the anal mucosa. Within the mouth, ...
Branches also supply sensation to the anal canal. By providing sensation to the penis and the clitoris, the pudendal nerve is ... The pudendal canal that carries the pudendal nerve is also known by the eponymous term "Alcock's canal", after Benjamin Alcock ... the external anal sphincter (via the inferior anal branch), and male or female external urethral sphincter. As it functions to ... The pudendal canal is also known by the eponymous term "Alcock's canal", after Benjamin Alcock, an Irish anatomist who ...
Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Buroker T, Bradley GT, Considine B (1981). "Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal". Dis. ... Blumetti, Jennifer; Bastawrous, Amir (27 May 2009). "Epidermoid Cancers of the Anal Canal: Current Treatment". Clinics in Colon ... Ehrenpreis, Eli (2003). Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained. Remedica. pp. 113. "In Memoriam: Norman D. Nigro, M.D., 1912-2009 ... Success of the preoperative regimen changed the paradigm of anal cancer treatment from surgical to non-surgical and was the ...
The ovate aperture has a barely perceptible anal canal. The outer lip is finely crenulate but its inner surface is smooth. The ... The siphonal canal is of moderate length and, as typical for this genus, fused on top, almost sealed below and pointing to the ... extending from the shoulder of the preceding whorl to the end of the siphonal canal. The shell sculpture shows major and minor ...
Treating mucosal fissures from the anal canal/sphincter Thoracotomy -> Incision into the pleural space of the chest Thyrotomy ...
Anal canal length This is measured during maximal evacuation. Anal canal width Again measured during maximal evacuation, this ... "mid-axial longitudinal axis of the rectum and the anal canal", created by the anterior pull of the puborectalis sling at the ... At rest, it is held at 90 - 100°. This becomes more acute (70 - 90°) when the patient contracts the anal sphincters and pelvic ...
... siphonal canal and a deep anal sinus. The anterior canal has a moderate length and is slightly twisted to the left. The thin ...
The large intestine includes the rectum and anal canal. Partially digested food starts to arrive in the small intestine as semi ... The pylorus, the lowest section of the stomach which attaches to the duodenum via the pyloric canal, contains countless glands ...
The large intestine includes the rectum and anal canal.[2] Small intestine. ... The pylorus, the lowest section of the stomach which attaches to the duodenum via the pyloric canal, contains countless glands ...
The siphonal canal and anal emargination are wide and shallow. The animal is of a yellowish color. The columellar muscle is ... Behind the proboscis the alimentary canal con-tinues of moderate size for nearly a whorl, when there is an inconspicuous ... The columella is obscurely thickened behind, attenuated anteriorly, as long as the siphonzl canal, straight, but slightly ... and a few feeble narrow threads on the base and the siphonal canal under a pale thin epidermis. The body whorl is compressed at ...
Hemorrhoids are normal vascular cushions found in the anal canal. 15% of a human's continence mechanism is attributed to the ...
Anal+Canal at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "anal canal" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary ... In humans, the rectum is followed by the anal canal which is about 4 centimetres (1.6 in) long, before the gastrointestinal ... The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). Anal canal - is the terminal ... The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal. Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most ...
There is no differentiated siphonal canal, anal sulcus or fasciole. The shell is axially ribbed. The columella is thin and ...
Anal canal Dentate line Hilton's Law Ewing MR (July 1954). "The white line of Hilton". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... The anocutaneous line, also called the Hilton white line or intersphincteric groove, is a boundary in the anal canal. Below the ... The anocutaneous line represents the transition point from non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the anal canal to ... line is slightly below the pectinate line and a landmark for the intermuscular border between internal and external anal ...
Colposcopy of the Vulva, Perineum and Anal Canal.gyncph.dk *^ Groff W (July 2009). "CO2 Laser Treats Pearly Penile Papules". ...
Anal fistulas connect between the anal canal and the perianal skin. Anovaginal or rectovaginal fistulas occur when a hole ... Anal fistulas connect between the epithelialized surface of the anal canal and the perianal skin. Anovaginal or rectovaginal ... Gastric fistula: from the stomach to the skin surface (K38.3) Fistula of appendix (K60) Anal and rectal fissures and fistulas ( ... K60.3) Anal fistula (K60.5) Anorectal fistula (fecal fistula, fistula-in-ano): connecting the rectum or other anorectal area to ...
The anterior and posterior canals are well developed. The siphonal canal at the anterior end is usually short. The anal canal ...
There are three main cushions present in the normal anal canal. These are located classically at left lateral, right anterior, ... Other conditions that produce an anal mass include skin tags, anal warts, rectal prolapse, polyps, and enlarged anal papillae. ... Hemorrhoids, also spelled haemorrhoids, are vascular structures in the anal canal. In their normal state, they are cushions ... They contribute to 15-20% of anal closure pressure at rest and protect the internal and external anal sphincter muscles during ...
The hindgut gives rise to the region from the distal third of the transverse colon to the upper part of the anal canal. The ... The upper part of the anal canal is derived from endoderm of the hindgut. The lower part (one-third) is derived from ectoderm ... Subsequently, degeneration of the cloacal membrane establishes continuity between the upper and lower parts of the anal canal. ... distal part of the anal canal originates from the ectoderm. The hindgut enters the posterior region of the cloaca (future ...
... anal canal distinct. Color fawn to brown, last whorl decorated with a moderately broad, interrupted brown subsutural band and a ...
... and anal canal "The Large Intestine". VideoHelp.com. https://sciencing.com/functions-cecum-6809336.html Nguyen H, Loustaunau C ...
The ovate aperture has a small anal canal that point slightly backwards. The outer lip is crenulate, but has a smooth inner ... The siphonal canal is moderately long and, typical for this genus, fused above, almost sealed below and pointing to the left at ...
The functioning of the anal canal can be damaged, traumatically or atraumatically. The resting tone of the anal canal is not ... Radiation induced FI may involve the anal canal as well as the rectum, when proctitis, anal fistula formation and diminished ... The procedure is also able to assess sensitivity of the anal canal and rectum. Anal electromyography tests for nerve damage, ... Such lesions include piles (inflamed hemorrhoids), anal fissures, anal cancer or fistulae. Obstetric injury may tear the anal ...
The ovate aperture has a marked siphonal canal and a weak anal canal. The aperture is closed off by a thin, corneous, ...
Talk:Anal canal. *Talk:Anal sulcus. *Talk:Anatomical snuffbox. *Talk:Anatomical Theatre of Padua ...
Anal canal. *Anal sphincterotomy. *Anorectal manometry. *Lateral internal sphincterotomy. *Rubber band ligation ... for the estimation of the muscle tone of the anal sphincter, which may be useful in case of fecal incontinence or neurologic ... "Alien anal probe saw Saints Row IV refused classification in Australia". IGN Entertainment Inc. June 25, 2013. Retrieved July ... and anal glands. In horses it is a vital component of the clinical examination for colic, to determine the presence or absence ...
Anal canal. *Anal columns. *Anal valves. *Anal sinuses. *Pectinate line. *Sphincter ani internus muscle ...
肛管(英语:Anal canal). *肛裂/肛瘘. *肛周脓肿(英语:Anal abscess) ...
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Hemorrhoid. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
Aboral (opposite to oral) is used to denote a location along the gastrointestinal canal that is relatively closer to the anus.[ ... For example, in a fish, the pectoral fins are dorsal to the anal fin, but ventral to the dorsal fin. ...
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Hemorrhoid. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
... anal canal)部位的感覺[6]:8。陰部神經會傳導陰莖及陰蒂的感覺,因此也是在陰莖勃起及陰蒂勃起過程中的传入神经[12] :147。陰部神經也負責射精相關的功能[13]。 ... 陰部神經的拉丁文為「Nervus pudendus」。「Nervus」一詞指的是神經;「Pudenda」一詞來自拉丁文,意即外生殖器官,乃源自「pudendum」這個字,意思是「帶來羞恥的部
The ectoderm develops into the skin, nails, the epithelium of the nose, mouth and anal canal; the lens of the eye, the retina ...
Zotik roleke di zayenditî de dilîze di kirdarê anal seks ango kirdarê zayendî bi riya qûn yan qûnetî (lotî) ku li pir ...
Anal canal. *Anal sphincterotomy. *Anorectal manometry. *Lateral internal sphincterotomy. *Rubber band ligation ...
The infection is usually spread from one person to another through vaginal, oral, or anal sex.[15][22] Men have a 20% risk of ... Newborn babies coming through the birth canal are given erythromycin ointment in the eyes to prevent blindness from infection. ... Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact with an infected person.[1] This includes oral, anal, and vaginal sex.[1] It can ...
The proctoscope is used in the diagnosis of hemorrhoids, carcinoma of anal canal or rectum and rectal polyp. It is used ... The proctoscope is inserted into the anal canal with the patient in Sims' position. Fibre optic proctoscopes are now available ... is used to examine the anal cavity, rectum, or sigmoid colon. A proctoscope is a short, straight, rigid, hollow metal tube, and ...
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Hemorrhoid. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Hemorrhoid. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
The external anal and urethral sphincters close the anus and the urethra. The former is surrounded by the bulbospongiosus which ... In a longitudinal osteofibrous canal on either side of the spine there is a group of muscles called the erector spinae which is ... This leaves a slit for the anal and urogenital openings. Because of the width of the genital aperture, which is wider in ... The dimensions of the head of the fetus and of the birth canal are accurately measured and compared, and the feasibility of ...
The pentamerous radial symmetry can also be seen in their five ambulacral canals.[35] The ambulacral canals are used in their ... holothurians species of the genus Actinopyga have anal teeth that prevent visitors from penetrating their anus.[31] ... A central haemal ring surrounds the pharynx next to the ring canal of the water vascular system, and sends off additional ... "When Fish Live in your Cloaca & How Anal Teeth are Important: The Pearlfish-Sea Cucumber Relationship". The Echinoblog ...
Anal canal. *Anal sphincterotomy. *Anorectal manometry. *Lateral internal sphincterotomy. *Rubber band ligation ...
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Hemorrhoid. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
Anal canal. *Anus. *Anal columns. *Anal valves. *Anal sinuses. *Pectinate line. *Internal anal sphincter ...
If the inguinal canal is open it must be closed to prevent hernia. Potential surgical problems include maintaining the blood ... Construction of a functional internal and external anal sphincter can be equally difficult when this has been disrupted as well ...
In males it runs in the spermatic cord and in females in the inguinal canal together with the teres uteri ligament. It then ... and finally leaves the pelvic area through the obturator canal. In the thigh, it sends motor branches to obturator externus ...
顏面神經管(英语:facial canal)內. *大岩部神經(英语:greater petrosal nerve) *翼顎神經節(英语:pterygopalatine ganglion) ... 肛门下神经(英语:inferior anal nerves). *會陰神經 *会阴神经深支
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Hemorrhoid. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
Anal canal. *Anal fissure/Anal fistula. *Anal abscess. *Hemorrhoid. *Anal dysplasia. *Pruritus ani ...
Boat - Boats can be used to serve as ambulances, especially in island areas[25] or in areas with a large number of canals, such ... "Accid Anal Prev. 35 (6): 941-8. doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(02)00102-1. PMID 12971929.. ...
Anal canal. *Anal sphincterotomy. *Anorectal manometry. *Lateral internal sphincterotomy. *Rubber band ligation ...
The anal canal is 2.5 to 4 cm (1 to 1.5 inches) in length; its diameter is ... Anal canal, the terminal portion of the digestive tract, distinguished from the rectum because of the transition of its ... Nerves in the anal canal cause sphincter response and the sensation of pain. The lower part of the canal is very sensitive to ... The lower anal canal and the anal opening are composed of two muscular constrictions that regulate fecal passage. The internal ...
... which lies between the anal verge (anal orifice, anus) in the perineum below and the rectum above. The description in this ... The anal canal is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, ... Anal Canal Anatomy) and Anal Canal Anatomy What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Anal Canal Anatomy ... The anal canal is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, which lies between the anal verge (anal orifice ...
2C00 Malignant neoplasms of anus or anal canal. H00044 Cancer of the anal canal. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal accounts for 1.5 per cent of all digestive system cancers in the USA, with an ... H00044 Cancer of the anal canal. Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]. 02 Neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms, ... CEA, TPA, CA 19-9, SCC and CYFRA at diagnosis and in the follow-up of anal canal tumors. ...
In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan out, a randomized trial ... Cisplatin Induction Gives No Survival Benefit in Anal Canal Cancer. HOUSTON -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare ... Approximately 25% of newly diagnosed anal canal cancers are larger than 5 cm and clinically node positive. Studies have shown ... HOUSTON, April 23 -- In patients with anal canal carcinoma, a rare malignancy, cisplatin-based induction therapy did not pan ...
Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/Guidelines. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... ASCRS: Practice Parameters for Anal Squamous Neoplasm *2008 Guideline link. *2008 PMID 18030528 -- "Practice parameters for ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Radiation_Oncology/Anal_canal/Guidelines&oldid=2630613" ... Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer." (Ng M, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol ...
Purpose Chemoradiation allows for organ preservation in patients with anal cancer, but patients with large tumors (> 5 cm) have ... Changing patterns of anal canal carcinoma in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:1569-75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointest Cancer Res GCR. 2008;2:10-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2009;22:77-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Radiation Oncology‎ , Anal canal. This page may need to be reviewed for quality. ... Radiation Oncology/Anal canal/RT Technique. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... 2007 PMID 17276620 - "Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined ... 2003 PMID 12788191 - "Contribution of conformal therapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma with combined chemotherapy and ...
Idiopathic hypertensive anal canal is a fact and already exists presented by anal pain aggravated by defecation. It can be ... Idiopathic Hypertensive Anal Canal: a Place of Internal Sphincterotomy. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Hypertensive Anal Canal Procedure: lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) Drug: Glycerin trinitrate (GTN) Drug: botulinum toxin ... All were instructed to apply the GTN ointment 0.2 % twice a day to the edge and just inside the anal canal for 8 week course. ...
More From BioPortfolio on "Carcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study". *Related Companies *Related Clinical Trials * ... Carcinoma of the Anal Canal: A Feasibility Study. 20:00 EDT 9 Oct 2019 , Cancer Networks ... Articles] Cervical determinants of anal HPV infection and high-grade anal lesions in women: a collaborative pooled analysis ... Greater prevalence of anal cancer precursors for women living with HIV than prior reports ...
Anal Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic Anal Canal Carcinoma Recurrent Anal Canal Carcinoma Stage IV Anal Canal Cancer ... Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Anal Canal Cancer. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... This phase II trial studies how well nivolumab works in treating patients with anal canal cancer that has not responded to ... To evaluate the grade 3 and 4 toxicity rate in patients with previously treated metastatic SCCA of the anal canal when treated ...
Anal Canal / physiology*, surgery*. Anastomosis, Surgical. Colitis, Ulcerative / surgery*. Colonic Pouches*. Female. Humans. ... Basal resting anal canal pressure and pressure after voluntary contraction were recorded preoperatively, one month after ... ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed after a modified surgical technique for strengthening the internal anal sphincter by ... Previous Document: Why do anal wounds heal adequately? A study of the local immunoinflammatory defense mechanisms.. Next ...
... ... Anal canal cancer is rare, accounting for only 1.3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Prostate cancer incidence is ... Screening for synchronous prostate cancer in male anal canal cancer patients is probably indicated and may preclude suboptimal ... was also diagnosed with anal canal cancer. We conclude that a simultaneous approach with radiation therapy and chemotherapy ...
Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal.(Clinical Images, Case study) by South African ... APA style: Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). ... MLA style: "Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal.." The Free Library. 2009 South African ... The hose had been inserted approximately 30-40 cm into the anal canal. There was extensive guarding on palpation of the abdomen ...
EACC stands for Epidermoid Anal Canal Carcinoma. EACC is defined as Epidermoid Anal Canal Carcinoma rarely. ... www.acronymattic.com/Epidermoid-Anal-Canal-Carcinoma-(EACC).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Attic. S.v. "EACC." Retrieved ... www.acronymattic.com/Epidermoid-Anal-Canal-Carcinoma-(EACC).html,EACC,/a,. ... www.acronymattic.com/Epidermoid-Anal-Canal-Carcinoma-(EACC).html ... EACC stands for Epidermoid Anal Canal Carcinoma. Advertisement: ...
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) incidences are bigger among human papillomavirus ... NADAL, Sidney Roberto and CRUZ, Sylvia Heloisa Arantes. Follow-up for HIV negative and HIV-positive patients with anal squamous ...
Stage 0 Anal Canal Cancer , HIV infection , Surgery in Treating Patients With Early Stage Anal Canal or Perianal Cancer and HIV ... Clinical trial for Stage I Anal Canal Cancer , Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , ... Surgery in Treating Patients With Early Stage Anal Canal or Perianal Cancer and HIV Infection Brief description of study. This ... anal squamous cancers at sites other than the location of the index SISCCA in patients treated with excision of anal canal and ...
Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.. Fayaz S1, Vasishta ... A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed ...
METHODS: Forty biopsy-proven untreated patients (28 men) with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal received two cycles of ... Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Date: 4.1.2011 ... sequential chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and of salvage surgery in those in whom this ... Three patients had post-treatment anal stenosis requiring repeated dilatation and two had chronic non-healing ulcers at the ...
Topical phenylephrine increases anal canal resting pressure in patients with faecal incontinence ... Topical phenylephrine increases anal canal resting pressure in patients with faecal incontinence ...
... and is the main factor responsible for the generation of anal canal resting pressure.8 Given that the internal anal sphincter ... When baseline measurements had been obtained, a 2.5 cm strip of the test gel was applied to the distal anal canal using the ... 1993) In vitro response of the human anal canal longitudinal muscle layer to cholinergic and adrenergic stimulation: evidence ... Topical phenylephrine increases anal canal resting pressure in patients with faecal incontinence ...
Walls EW (1959) Recent observations on the anatomy of the anal canal. Proc R Soc Med [Suppl] 52:85-87Google Scholar ... Lane R, Parks AG (1977) Function of the anal sphincters following colo-anal anastomosis. Br J Surg 64:596-599PubMedCrossRef ... Huber A. (1998) Surgical Anatomy of the Rectum, Anal Canal, Perineum, and Colon. In: Marti MC., Givel JC. (eds) Surgical ... Dickinson VA (1978) Maintenance of anal continence: a review of pelvic floor physiology. Gut 19:1163-1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
... and located in the anal canal (P ≤ 0.01) than were cancers in heterosexual men. In both women and men, anal canal cancers ... had cancers involving the anal canal, whereas 44% (n = 24) had perianal skin cancers. These proportions of anal canal cancers ... Anal Localization and Age.. Patients with anal canal cancers were older (median = 64 years for women and 62 years for men) than ... hrHPV and Anal Localization.. Considerably more cancers involving the anal canal were hrHPV positive (95% among women and 83% ...
33 In anal cancers, tumors can develop in the perianal skin, anal margin and anal canal. Interestingly, tumors of the anal ... Singh R, Nime F, Mittelman A. Malignant epithelial tumors of the anal canal. Cancer. 1981;48:411-415. [PubMed] ... Identification of epithelial label-retaining cells at the transition between the anal canal and the rectum in mice. Laura A ... We identified a population of long-term GFP label-retaining cells concentrated at the junction between the anal canal and the ...
In the present study we determined the prevalence and nature of HPV co-infections in the anal canal of 324 HIV+ MSM attending a ... HIV+ MSM show a very high rate of HPV infections in the anal canal and those with type 16 exhibited a multiplicity of ... infections are highly prevalent among HIV+ MSM and recent studies have shown high rates of HPV-associated anal intraepithelial ... Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defined tumors among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive (HIV+) ...
Safety and antitumor activity of the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the anal canal ... Of the 43 patients with advanced anal carcinoma evaluable for PD-L1 expression, 32 (74%) had PD-L1-positive tumors as assessed ... In this population of patients with PD-L1-positive advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma, pembrolizumab demonstrated a ... We report results for the cohort of patients with advanced anal carcinoma. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cancer of the anal canal. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Anal Canal ... title = "Cancer of the anal canal",. abstract = "Anal neoplasms are uncommon lesions, representing only 1-4% of all malignant ... McMurrick, P. J., Nelson, H., Goldberg, R. M., & Haddock, M. (1999). Cancer of the anal canal. In Integrated Cancer Management ... Cancer of the anal canal. / McMurrick, Paul J.; Nelson, Heidi; Goldberg, Richard M.; Haddock, Michael. ...
... anal canal explanation free. What is anal canal? Meaning of anal canal medical term. What does anal canal mean? ... Looking for online definition of anal canal in the Medical Dictionary? ... anal sphincter. the internal anal sphincter is formed from smooth muscle of the anal canal while the external anal sphincter, ... Anal canal , definition of anal canal by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anal+canal ...
title = "Epidemiology of Anal Canal Cancer",. abstract = "Anal cancer is a rare malignancy, although its incidence has been ... Nelson, V. M., & Benson III, A. B. (2017). Epidemiology of Anal Canal Cancer. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, 26(1 ... Epidemiology of Anal Canal Cancer. In: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America. 2017 ; Vol. 26, No. 1. pp. 9-15. ... Nelson, VM & Benson III, AB 2017, Epidemiology of Anal Canal Cancer, Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 26, no ...
Anal Canal - Perineum and External Genitalia & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online ... Anatomy and Most Common Diseases of the Rectum and Anal Canal Rectum (in Latin: Rectum, in Greek: Proktos) and anal canal (in ... Hemorrhoids and anal fistulas are also diseases of the straight intestine that a physician will often be faced with in practice ...
Is it normal to have burning sensation in piles?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Anal fissure, Ask ... also after it.What should I apply inside the anal canal. The doctor doing the proctoscope mentioned that I dont have any anal ... You can apply that ointment with the applicator inside the anal canal as well.. Daflon will help you get rid of the piles but ... I have been diagnosed with piles in my anal canal by a surgeon who did a proctoscope.But I am having burning sensation around ...
  • The external sphincter is a layer of voluntary (striated) muscle encircling the outside wall of the anal canal and anal opening. (britannica.com)
  • Nerves in the anal canal cause sphincter response and the sensation of pain. (britannica.com)
  • Anal canal pressure after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with strengthened internal anal sphincter. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 26 patients (54.17 percent of the cases), 10 males and 16 females, ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed after a modified surgical technique for strengthening the internal anal sphincter by creation of a smooth muscle cuff through plication of a mucosectomized segment of residual rectum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with rectal plication perhaps improved sphincter function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • a bluish pink, narrow, wavy zone in the mucosa of the anal canal below the pectinate line at the level of the interval between the subcutaneous part of the external sphincter and the lower border of the internal sphincter, said to be palpable. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • INTRODUCTION The internal anal sphincter receives a stimulatory alpha 1 adrenergic innervation. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS Ten patients (seven females, median age 66 years) with passive faecal incontinence related to weak internal anal sphincter were studied. (bmj.com)
  • Incontinence can also occur when the anal sphincter muscles are structurally intact, as assessed by endoanal ultrasound. (bmj.com)
  • The commonest cause for this appears to be a degenerative disorder of the internal anal sphincter. (bmj.com)
  • 2 In this condition the internal sphincter becomes fibrotic and weak, leading to a reduced maximum anal canal resting pressure (MRP) and episodes of passive faecal incontinence (loss of stool without the patients's awareness. (bmj.com)
  • In patients with external anal sphincter disruption, surgical repair of the sphincter is effective. (bmj.com)
  • The internal anal sphincter exists in a state of tonic contraction, and is the main factor responsible for the generation of anal canal resting pressure. (bmj.com)
  • 8 Given that the internal anal sphincter receives an extrinsic innervation which modulates its tone, we hypothesised that it may be possible to mimic the effect of this innervation and pharmacologically increase internal anal sphincter tone. (bmj.com)
  • 11 A recent pilot study from this unit has shown that topical phenylephrine can increase internal anal sphincter tone in healthy volunteers. (bmj.com)
  • Harris LD, Winans CS, Pope CE (1966) Determination of yield pressure: a method for measuring anal sphincter competence. (springer.com)
  • The entire length of the anal canal is surrounded by sphincter muscles, and the canal remains closed except during defecation and passage of flatus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The submucous space of the canal lies above the white line between the mucous membrane and internal anal sphincter muscle . (ipfs.io)
  • Internal anal sphincter - surrounds the upper 2/3 of the anal canal. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • External anal sphincter - voluntary muscle that surrounds the lower 2/3 of the anal canal (and so overlaps with the internal sphincter). (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • It is formed by the fusion of the internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscle, and is palpable on digital rectal examination . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The anal canal, which is 3 to 4 cm long, is defined surgically by the borders of the internal anal sphincter ( Fig. 32.1 ). (clinicalgate.com)
  • 2 , 3 The surgical anal canal begins at the apex of the anal sphincter complex. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The anal ducts are long, tubular structures that closely approach or penetrate the internal sphincter muscle and may undermine the rectal mucosa. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The internal anal sphincter is composed of smooth muscle and is a continuation of the inner muscular layer of the rectal muscularis propria whereas the external anal sphincter is composed of striated muscle. (abdominalkey.com)
  • It's encompassed by an inner automatic sphincter and an outer voluntary sphincter, whose tone keeps the anal canal closed with the exception of during the defecation. (earthslab.com)
  • The white line of Hilton is situated in the junction of the subcutaneous external anal sphincter and the lower end of internal anal sphincter, and represented by the anal intersphincteric groove. (earthslab.com)
  • I.S. Internal anal sphincter . (wikipedia.org)
  • E.S External anal sphincter . (wikipedia.org)
  • lastly in the male, the anterior fibers descend upon the side of the prostate to unite beneath it with the muscle of the opposite side, joining with the fibers of the external anal sphincter and transverse perineal muscles , at the central tendinous point of the perineum . (wikipedia.org)
  • This mass contacted the internal sphincter of the anal canal and the emergence of the vagina and vulva without invading them, and pushed the surrounding structures without destruction. (npplweb.com)
  • Pelvic MRI (Sagittal section) showing the mass in contact with the internal sphincter of the anal canal, vagina and vulva without any invasion. (npplweb.com)
  • The local excision was carried out, resecting just a small amount of fibres of the anal sphincter. (npplweb.com)
  • Treatment for anal canal cancer has evolved from radical operations to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which allows for sphincter preservation in most patients. (springer.com)
  • The relationship between the fistula tract and the anal sphincter is essential for treatment and prognosis. (wirralsurgeon.co.uk)
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice, with the goals of draining infection, eradicating the fistulous tract, and avoiding persistent or recurrent disease while preserving anal sphincter function. (wirralsurgeon.co.uk)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal accounts for 1.5 per cent of all digestive system cancers in the USA, with an estimated 4,660 new cases and 660 deaths in 2006. (genome.jp)
  • RTOG 0529: a phase II evaluation of dose-painted IMRT in combination with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C for reduction of acute morbidity in carcinoma of the anal canal. (springer.com)
  • A multi-institutional pilot feasibility study looks at pencil beam scanning proton beam chemoradiation therapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C for definitive treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • AIM: To study the efficacy of an organ-preserving, sequential chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and of salvage surgery in those in whom this treatment fails. (gate2biotech.com)
  • METHODS: Forty biopsy-proven untreated patients (28 men) with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal received two cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin and methotrexate, followed by 45 to 60 (median 50) Gy external beam radiotherapy. (gate2biotech.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare gastrointestinal malignancy with an increasing annual incidence globally. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cisplatin should not replace mitomycin when given with fluorouracil and radiotherapy in the primary treatment of localized anal canal carcinoma," they concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Approximately 25% of newly diagnosed anal canal cancers are larger than 5 cm and clinically node positive. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Studies have shown that chemoradiation is superior to radiation alone for treatment of anal canal cancers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Additionally, chemoradiation therapy has proved to be more effective against smaller anal canal cancers, suggesting that a strategy to downsize or downstage tumors before chemoradiation might improve outcomes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • To define the 1-year proportion of participants who develop incident anal squamous cancers at sites other than the location of the index SISCCA in patients treated with excision of anal canal and perianal SISCCA. (centerwatch.com)
  • V. Characterize genetic changes in anal cancers compared with HSIL overlying or contiguous with the cancer. (centerwatch.com)
  • Most anal cancers arise from skin cells and are called squamous cell carcinomas. (gcrsa.com)
  • We do not know the exact cause of most anal cancers. (gcrsa.com)
  • Smoking - Harmful chemicals from smoking increase the risk of most cancers including anal cancer. (gcrsa.com)
  • Anal cancers form in a part of the digestive tract that the doctor can see and reach easily. (gcrsa.com)
  • How are anal cancers treated? (gcrsa.com)
  • Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy with an annual incidence of approximately 6 per 1,000,000 and accounting for only a small percentage (4%) of all cancers of the lower gastrointestinal tract. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Some T1, N0 anal margin cancers can be surgically excised without the need for further treatment. (medscape.com)
  • This factor of Surgical Oncology Clinics of North the United States, visitor edited via Dr. Cathy Eng, is dedicated to Anal Canal Cancers. (searchbv.nl)
  • Human papillomavirus: Examination of squamous cell carcinoma tumor tissues from patients in Denmark and Sweden showed a high proportion of anal cancers to be positive for the types of HPV that are also associated with high risk of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the study in Denmark and Sweden, Parkin estimated that 90% of anal cancers are attributable to HPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (epidermoid carcinomas), that arises near the squamocolumnar junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction chemotherapy and dose intensification of the radiation boost in locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: final analysis of the randomized UNICANCER ACCORD 03 Trial. (springer.com)
  • France (Montpellier), 2007 PMID 18005443 - "Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans. (wikibooks.org)
  • The anal canal is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, which lies between the anal verge (anal orifice, anus) in the perineum below and the rectum above. (medscape.com)
  • compare this with the anal canal skin above the anal verge, which is also pigmented and keratinized but does not have skin appendages. (medscape.com)
  • The epithelium of the anal canal between the anal verge below and the pectinate line above is variously described as anal mucosa or anal skin. (medscape.com)
  • Three patients had post-treatment anal stenosis requiring repeated dilatation and two had chronic non-healing ulcers at the anal verge. (gate2biotech.com)
  • The anal verge is the distal end of the anal canal, forming a transitional zone between the epithelium of the anal canal and the perianal skin . (ipfs.io)
  • which lies between the anal verge ( anal orifice, anus) in the perineum below and the rectum above. (lookformedical.com)
  • Anal cancer arises from the cells around the anal opening (verge) or within the anal canal (1-2 inches long) up to its junction with the rectum. (gcrsa.com)
  • Rectal cancer is defined as cancer arising below the peritoneal reflection, up to approximately 12 to15 cm from the anal verge. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The anal canal ends at the anal verge, where the anal squamous mucosa merges with the true anal skin. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The anal canal measures approximately 4 cm in length and extends from the caudal end of the rectum to the anal verge. (abdominalkey.com)
  • and the lower part of the anal canal stretches from the pectinate line to the anal verge. (earthslab.com)
  • At the rectal exam, there was a large mass in the perianal left side starting from the anal verge. (npplweb.com)
  • Stopping smoking lowers the risk of many types of cancer, including anal cancer. (gcrsa.com)
  • CEA, TPA, CA 19-9, SCC and CYFRA at diagnosis and in the follow-up of anal canal tumors. (genome.jp)
  • Explain to patients who ask that chemotherapy designed to shrink anal tumors before primary treatment failed to improve outcomes compared with standard treatment. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defined tumors among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive (HIV+) individuals, and a rise in its incidence among HIV+ Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) has been shown, despite the introduction of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Extended pelvic resection for rectal and anal canal tumors is a significant risk factor for. (deepdyve.com)
  • Of the 43 patients with advanced anal carcinoma evaluable for PD-L1 expression, 32 (74%) had PD-L1-positive tumors as assessed with the 22C3 prototype assay, of whom 25 were enrolled between April and September 2014. (snfge.org)
  • Anal neoplasms are uncommon lesions, representing only 1-4% of all malignant tumors of the lower gastrointestinal tract. (elsevier.com)
  • Five patients with T1-3 N0-1 anal cancer and five with T4 and/or N2-3 tumors were selected. (springer.com)
  • Clinical tumor volume (CTV) included tumor, anal canal and inguinal, peri-rectal, and internal/external iliac nodes (plus pre-sacral nodes for T4/N2-3 tumors). (springer.com)
  • 2012 PMID 22401917 -- "Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2007 PMID 17276620 - "Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2003 PMID 12788191 - "Contribution of conformal therapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy: results of a phase II study. (wikibooks.org)
  • Jaffer A. Ajani, M.D., of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, and colleagues conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing treatment with fluorouracil plus mitomycin and radiotherapy vs. treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal cancer. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Treatment guidelines for anal cancer involve radiotherapy to the primary site and draining lymphatics while treatment for prostate cancer can also include pelvic radiotherapy. (hindawi.com)
  • The best curative option for locally advanced (stages II-III) squamous-cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCCAC) is concurrent chemo-radiotherapy delivering 36-45 Gy to the prophylactic planning target volume with an additional boost of 14-20 Gy to the gross tumor volume with or without a gap-period between these two sequences. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer. (lookformedical.com)
  • treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal cancer. (lookformedical.com)
  • Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) have been adopted for radiotherapy treatment of anal canal carcinoma (ACC) due to better conformality, dose homogeneity and normal-tissue sparing compared to 3D-CRT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is superior to radiotherapy alone in the treatment of locally advanced anal cancer: results of a phase III randomized trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Radiotherapy and Gastrointestinal Cooperative Groups. (springer.com)
  • It lies in the anal triangle of perineum in between the right and left ischioanal fossa . (ipfs.io)
  • The anal canal is located within the anal triangle of the perineum between the right and left ischioanal fossae. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The Anal Canal is the terminal part (3.8 cm long) of the large intestine , situated in the perineum below the pelvic diaphragm . (earthslab.com)
  • The anal canal is situated in the anal triangle of the perineum between the left and right fat filled up ischiorectal fossae. (earthslab.com)
  • The anal triangle is the posterior part of the perineum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower anal canal and the anal opening are composed of two muscular constrictions that regulate fecal passage. (britannica.com)
  • The lower anal canal is further split into 2 regions: upper and lower. (earthslab.com)
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) incidences are bigger among human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and are associated to immunity and to HIV infection. (scielo.br)
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections are highly prevalent among HIV+ MSM and recent studies have shown high rates of HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal cancer among this population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study emphasizes the need for an early detection of HPV infections among HIV+ MSM in order to establish its utility to prevent anal neoplasia and cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Imiquimod in HIV-infected patients with high-grade anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia. (springer.com)
  • 1 - 5 ] GIST of the anal canal is extremely rare and there is no widely accepted treatment approach for this neoplasia. (npplweb.com)
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma develops at the anal squamocolumnar junction and arises from a precancerous lesion called high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN-II, AIN-III). (medscape.com)
  • Anal cancer research has adopted terminology that mirrors the grading of cervical dysplasia (ie, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades I, II, and III). (medscape.com)
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grade I is low-grade dysplasia (LGAIN), while AIN-II and AIN-III are high-grade dysplasia (HGAIN), which is then thought to progress to invasive cancer, as in the cervical model. (medscape.com)
  • More than 30% had abnormal anal Pap smears and one third of those already had anal intraepitehlial neoplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10-years: 2008 PMID 18472363 -- "Evaluation of planned treatment breaks during radiation therapy for anal cancer: update of RTOG 92-08. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2000-2006) PMID 17925552 -- "Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal canal cancer patients: a multicenter experience. (wikibooks.org)
  • U Chicago, 2005 PMID 16168830 "Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of anal cancer: toxicity and clinical outcome. (wikibooks.org)
  • Radiation Oncology‎ , Anal canal . (lookformedical.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer is efficient and could assist in the decision for inguinal radiation. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, Hong TS, Pretz JL, et al. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma is with the combination of radiation and chemotherapy, including 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin at the beginning and at the end of a 4- to 6-week radiation regimen. (medscape.com)
  • 13) Glimelius B, Pahlman L. Radiation therapy of anal epidermoid carcinoma. (rmu.org.uy)
  • To compare the dosimetric advantage of three different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to a three dimensional (3D) conventional radiation treatment for anal cancer with regards to organs-at-risk (OAR) avoidance, including iliac bone marrow. (springer.com)
  • IMRT is superior to 3D conformal radiation treatment for anal carcinoma with respect to OAR sparing, including bone marrow sparing. (springer.com)
  • The standard of care for the curative treatment of anal canal carcinoma has evolved over the past three decades, from abdomino-perineal resection and life-long colostomy to organ preservation therapy using combined radiation and chemotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Considering these results, our goal was to find an optimal radiation protocol which can treat anal cancer at high doses while providing not only gastrointestinal and dermatologic but also adequate iliac bone marrow sparing. (springer.com)
  • Endorectal ultrasound revealed a mass invading both sphincters (T4 lesion), and extending 6 cm into the anal canal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All patients had intact anal sphincters as assessed by endoanal ultrasound. (bmj.com)
  • Lane R, Parks AG (1977) Function of the anal sphincters following colo-anal anastomosis. (springer.com)
  • surrounded by the internal and external anal sphincters. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anal canal contains two muscular rings ( SPHINCTERS ) that can close it tightly and seven or more longitudinal pads of MUCOUS MEMBRANE that contain veins and press together to act as an additional sealing mechanism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Except during defecation, the anal canal is collapsed by the internal and external anal sphincters to prevent the passage of faecal material. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Fig 1 - The Internal and external anal sphincters. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • There are just two sphincters, (internal and external), around the anal canal, which supply strong sphincteric mechanism in the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract. (earthslab.com)
  • The incidence in men younger than 35 has increased and the sex ratio is reversed in this group which is also related to receptive anal intercourse. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Overall, the risk of anal cancer is rising, with data suggesting that persons engaging in certain sexual practices, such as receptive anal intercourse, or persons with a high lifetime number of sexual partners are at increased risk of anal cancer. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Sexual activity: Due to increased risk of exposure to HPV, having multiple sex partners and receptive anal intercourse greatly increases the likelihood of developing anal cancer, for men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anal glands open above the anal valves into the anal sinuses. (medscape.com)
  • At the bottom of these columns are anal sinuses or crypts, into which open the anal glands and anal papillae. (medscape.com)
  • Above the anal valves are small pouches which are referred to as anal sinuses - these contain glands that secrete mucus. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The surface of the anal canal is lined by vertical mucosal folds called anal columns (i.e., columns of Morgagni), and it is separated by anal sinuses (i.e., sinuses of Morgagni). (clinicalgate.com)
  • Anal sinuses: All these are vertical recesses between the anal Pillars and above the anal valves. (earthslab.com)
  • The ducts of tubular anal glands existing in the submucosa open in the floor of anal sinuses. (earthslab.com)
  • The length of the anal canal is about 4 cm (range, 3-5 cm), with two thirds of this being above the pectinate line (also known as the dentate line) and one third below the pectinate line. (medscape.com)
  • The anal valves collectively form an irregular circle - known as the pectinate line (or dentate line). (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The dentate line (i.e., pectinate line) is located at the inferior limit of the anal valves and delineates the fusion of these two epithelial derivatives. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The dentate line also indicates the approximate former site of the anal membrane that ruptures in the eighth week of gestation. (clinicalgate.com)
  • This palpable landmark (i.e., anal rectal ring) is located approximately 1 to 2 cm proximal to the dentate line. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The location of the anal valves corresponds to the dentate line, which is located approximately at the midpoint of the surgically defined anal canal. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The dentate line is the point of demarcation in the anal canal between the embryological endoderm and the ectoderm. (abdominalkey.com)
  • abstract = "Anal cancer is a rare malignancy, although its incidence has been increasingly in recent decades. (northwestern.edu)
  • Above this transitional zone, the anal canal is lined with columnar epithelium (which is insensitive to cutting). (medscape.com)
  • One possibility is that the abrupt transition of the simple columnar epithelium of the colon to the stratified squamous epithelium of the proximal portion of the anal canal may contain a unique stem cell niche. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, tracking the fate of the anal label-retaining cells in vivo revealed that the slow-cycling cells only gave rise to progeny of the anal epithelium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The zona columnaris is the upper half of the canal and is lined by simple columnar epithelium . (ipfs.io)
  • The lower 1/3 of the anal canal is lined by stratified squamous epithelium that blends with the skin. (ipfs.io)
  • The superior aspect of the anal canal has the same epithelial lining as the rectum ( columnar epithelium ). (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Inferior to the pectinate line, the anal canal is lined by non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium (known as the anal pecten). (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Microscopically, the epithelium lining the anal transition zone varies from a type that resembles the lower genitourinary tract to stratified squamous, columnar, or cuboidal tissue, often with islands of colorectal-type epithelium ( Fig. 32.2 ). (clinicalgate.com)
  • 1 Despite its resemblance to bladder epithelium, the anal transition zone expresses cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CK19 but not CK20. (clinicalgate.com)
  • 5 , 6 Immunohistochemical studies with human melanoma black 45 (HMB-45), an anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody, and S100 protein have demonstrated melanocytes in the anal transitional epithelium, although they are usually more prominent in the anal squamous zone. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The photomicrograph also contains an anal duct lined by anal transitional epithelium. (clinicalgate.com)
  • These ducts are lined by transitional epithelium and mucus-producing cells, which are most common at the terminal portion of the ducts before their opening into the anal crypts. (clinicalgate.com)
  • Anal squamous cell cancer is believed to be directly linked to the presence of a complex inflammatory process most commonly caused by HPV infection (particularly with serotypes 16 and 18) in the histologically unique area of the anal squamocolumnar epithelium. (medscape.com)
  • Infection of the anal glands is likely the initial event in causation of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano. (medscape.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is also associated with anal cancer. (genome.jp)
  • HPV infection is transient in most immunocompetent individuals, but HIV-positive patients have evidence of persistent HPV infection within the anal canal. (genome.jp)
  • This phase II trial studies surgery in treating patients with anal canal or perianal cancer that is small and has not spread deeply into the tissues and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (centerwatch.com)
  • Anal warts - Infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) which causes condyloma (warts) may increase the chance of developing anal cancer. (gcrsa.com)
  • Avoid anal sex and infection with HPV and HIV. (gcrsa.com)
  • HPV infection is strongly associated with anal cancer development and may be a necessary step in its carcinogenesis. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Chlamydial infection in women, herpes-simplex type 2 and gonorrhea in men have all been associated with an increased risk of developing anal cancer. (doctorslounge.com)
  • The commonest non-neoplastic conditions in the anal canal include haemorrhoids, fissures, fibroepithelial polyps and associated abscesses, manifestations of Crohn's disease, Human Papilloma Virus infection, and other sexually transmitted infections (some of which are secondary to HIV). (abdominalkey.com)
  • Figure 2: Image of suspected necrotizing perianal infection in the case patient showing destruction of the posterior anal canal. (nature.com)
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a distinct disease entity that, like cervical cancer, is primarily linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (medscape.com)
  • Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer. (rmu.org.uy)
  • The pectinate line is not seen on inspection in clinical practice, but under anesthesia the anal canal descends down, and the pectinate line can be seen on slight retraction of the anal canal skin. (medscape.com)
  • The anal canal just above the pectinate line for about 1-2 cm is called the anal pecten or transitional zone. (medscape.com)
  • The anal canal above the pectinate line is supplied by the terminal branches of the superior rectal (hemorrhoidal) artery, which is the terminal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. (medscape.com)
  • The lower half of the anal canal, below the pectinate line , is divided into two zones separated by Hilton's white line . (ipfs.io)
  • Fig 2 - The anal columns, anal valves and pectinate line. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • As discussed above, the pectinate line divides the anal canal into two parts - which have a different arterial supply, venous drainage, innervation and lymphatic drainage. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The anal canal is split into upper and lower parts by the pectinate line. (earthslab.com)
  • The pectinate line represents the embryological site of connection of the anal membrane. (earthslab.com)
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Nelson, VM & Benson III, AB 2017, ' Epidemiology of Anal Canal Cancer ', Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America , vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 9-15. (northwestern.edu)
  • The outer layers of the wall of the anal canal are derived from the surrounding splanchnic mesenchyme. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The wall of the anal canal is composed of striated muscle and smooth muscle. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Cancer of the anal canal, a reality in the Colombian coffee region. (ecancer.org)
  • Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Buroker T, Bradley GT, Considine B. Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal. (springer.com)
  • Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Considine B Jr. Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal: a preliminary report. (springer.com)
  • Epidermoid cancer of the anal canal. (rmu.org.uy)
  • Walls EW (1959) Recent observations on the anatomy of the anal canal. (springer.com)
  • In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the anal canal - its position, structure, relations and neurovascular supply. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • The anal canal connects with the rectum at the point where it passes through a muscular pelvic diaphragm. (britannica.com)
  • The pelvic diaphragm and longitudinal muscles draw the anus and rectum up over the passing feces so that they are not extruded (prolapsed) out of the anal opening with the feces. (britannica.com)
  • Lateral to the anal canal are the pyramidal ischioanal (ischiorectal) fossae (1 on either side), below the pelvic diaphragm and above the perianal skin. (medscape.com)
  • it extends from the pelvic diaphragm to the anal orifice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hemorrhoids and anal fistulas are also diseases of the straight intestine that a physician will often be faced with in practice. (lecturio.com)
  • I am wondering if my symptoms sound more like anal cancer or something else like hemorrhoids. (medhelp.org)
  • In addition, anal cancer is often misdiagnosed, or the diagnosis is significantly delayed, during which time the patient receives treatment for other benign anorectal disease (eg, hemorrhoids). (medscape.com)
  • The demarcation between the rectum above and the anal canal below is the anorectal ring or anorectal flexure, where the puborectalis muscle forms a sling around the posterior aspect of the anorectal junction, kinking it anteriorly. (medscape.com)
  • At the anorectal flexure or angle, the anorectal junction is pulled anterosuperiorly by the puborectal sling to continue below as the anal canal. (medscape.com)
  • In conclusion, we identified a unique population of cells at the anorectal junction which can be separated from the other basal anal epithelial cells based upon the expression of the stem cell marker CD34 and integrin α6, and thus represent a putative anal stem cell population. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The anal canal commences at the anorectal junction, enters downward and backward, and opens at the anal orifice, that is situated in the natal cleft (cleft between the buttocks) about 4 cm below and in front of the tip of coccyx . (earthslab.com)
  • Perforation of the colon by high-pressure water inserted via the anal canal. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Descriptive review of 437 patients of Western SAS Oncologists between January 2000 and December 2019 with a diagnosis of anal cancer. (ecancer.org)
  • [ 3 ] Interesting differences between those two disease processes, new indications for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, and a marked increase in the diagnosis of anal cancer have brought more attention to this relatively uncommon disease entity. (medscape.com)
  • Recently an increase in the incidence of anal cancer in Black men in the United States (relative to Whites and Hispanics) has been noticed. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Anal-receptive intercourse in men but not women is associated with anal cancer (risk ratio 33). (doctorslounge.com)
  • In front of (anterior to) the anal canal is the rectovesical fascia (of Denonvilliers), and behind (posterior) is the presacral endopelvic fascia (of Waldeyer), under which lie a rich presacral plexus of veins. (medscape.com)
  • Posterior to the anal canal lie the tip of the coccyx (joined to it by the anococcygeal ligament) and lower sacrum. (medscape.com)
  • In the normal anal canal there are protrusions of the submucosa forming vascular cushions or haemorrhoidal cushions, typically located in the right anterior, right posterior, and left lateral aspects. (abdominalkey.com)
  • These canals transmit the posterior superior alveolar blood vessels and nerves, which supply the upper molars and their surrounding gums. (tabers.com)
  • Either of two canals, the anterior and posterior ethmoidal, that run transversely across the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone to the cribriform plate and lie between the ethmoid and frontal bones. (tabers.com)
  • the posterior ethmoidal canal transmits the posterior ethmoidal vessels and nerve. (tabers.com)
  • Among malignant neoplasms, prognosis varies from early-stage squamous cell carcinoma, which generally responds favorably to treatment, to anal adenocarcinoma and malignant melanoma, which are rarely associated with long-term survival. (elsevier.com)
  • Histopathological examination (HPE) was pointing towards anal malignant melanoma, which was further confirmed by positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HMB-45. (bvsalud.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: S-100 staining for the diagnosis of melanoma of the anal canal. (who.int)
  • Vijayaraghavan M, Kharbanda K, Mathur M. S-100 staining for the diagnosis of melanoma of the anal canal. (who.int)
  • Pathology of Anal melanoma, and more! (searchbv.nl)
  • Other types of anal cancer are adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma or melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary results: 1996 PMID 9166533 -- "Dose escalation in chemoradiation for anal cancer: preliminary results of RTOG 92-08. (wikibooks.org)
  • It has been suggested that reducing the cancer in the primary tumor and in the lymph node(s) prior to administration of chemoradiation could potentially be effective for treating anal canal cancer. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Chemoradiation is effective in the treatment of squamous cell anal cancer and has acceptable toxicity. (gate2biotech.com)
  • prior to administration of chemoradiation could potentially be effective for treating anal canal cancer. (lookformedical.com)
  • cervical canal the part of the uterine cavity lying within the cervix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anal Pap smears similar to those used in cervical cancer screening have been studied for early detection of anal cancer in high-risk individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the skin around the anal opening but not immediately adjacent to it are glands that give off perspiration. (britannica.com)
  • Swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the anal or groin areas. (gcrsa.com)
  • We identified a population of long-term GFP label-retaining cells concentrated at the junction between the anal canal and the rectum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At the junction of the rectum and the anal canal, there is a muscular ring - known as the anorectal ring . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Anal cancer is typically a squamous cell carcinoma that arises near the squamocolumnar junction at the anus. (doctorslounge.com)
  • It is a scalloped demarcation formed by the anal valves (transverse folds of mucosa) at the inferior-most ends of the anal columns. (medscape.com)
  • Hilton white line - a zone in the mucosa of the anal canal said to be palpable. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, in the anal canal, the mucosa is organised into longitudinal folds, known as anal columns . (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Some arise from the special mucosal cells lining the upper anal canal and are called cloacogenic carcinomas. (gcrsa.com)
  • In this population of patients with PD-L1-positive advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma, pembrolizumab demonstrated a manageable safety profile and encouraging antitumor activity. (snfge.org)
  • The association between HIV and anal cancer reflects the sexual practices (anal receptive intercourse) associated with these diseases rather than a causative relationship. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Downs JM, Kudlow B. Anal diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CONCLUSION This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using topical phenylephrine to raise resting anal tone in patients with faecal incontinence. (bmj.com)
  • Anal canal , the terminal portion of the digestive tract , distinguished from the rectum because of the transition of its internal surface from a mucous membrane layer (endodermal) to one of skinlike tissue (ectodermal). (britannica.com)
  • The lower portions of the anal columns are joined by small concentric circular folds of the mucous membrane known as anal valves. (britannica.com)
  • Its lower ends are joined together by folds of mucous membrane called anal valves. (ipfs.io)
  • Anal valves (valves of Morgagni): All these are crescentic folds of the mucous membrane which attach the lower ends of adjacent anal Pillars. (earthslab.com)
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumor suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals. (genome.jp)
  • I. To evaluate ORR, PFS, and OS based on expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), peritumoral cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), peritumoral CD4+ TILs, and regulatory T cells as analyzed from tumor biopsies in previously treated patients with metastatic SCCA of the anal canal when treated with nivolumab. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • carotid canal one in the pars petrosa of the temporal bone, transmitting the internal carotid artery to the cranial cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The lower third of the anal canal is supplied by the inferior rectal artery which is a branch of the internal pudendal artery . (ipfs.io)
  • Any of several canals located in the bony labyrinth of the internal ear and enclosing the three semicircular ducts that open into the vestibule. (tabers.com)
  • The canal followed by the internal carotid artery and its accompanying sympathetic nerves as it passes through the bone of the skull. (tabers.com)
  • The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine . (ipfs.io)
  • To avoid diagnostic delay, it is important to refer patients with persistent or unusual anal disease to a specialty surgeon. (medscape.com)
  • Idiopathic hypertensive anal canal is a fact and already exists presented by anal pain aggravated by defecation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The anal canal is the final segment of the gastrointestinal tract, that has an important role in defecation and maintaining faecal continence. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • These fossae enable the growth of the anal canal during defecation. (earthslab.com)