Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Bufo bufo: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Cysteine Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-CYSTEINE to 3-sulfinoalanine (3-sulfino-L-alanine) in the CYSTEINE metabolism and TAURINE and hypotaurine metabolic pathways.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Cysteine Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Methionine SulfoximineAlginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Bulbo-Spinal Atrophy, X-Linked: An X-linked recessive form of spinal muscular atrophy. It is due to a mutation of the gene encoding the ANDROGEN RECEPTOR.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (1/4712)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the nitrite-reducing system of Staphylococcus carnosus. (2/4712)

Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme prosthetic group; and NirR, which revealed no convincing similarity to proteins with known functions. We suggest that NirR is essential for nir promoter activity. In the absence of NirR, a weak promoter upstream of sirA seems to drive transcription of sirA, nirB, nirD, and sirB in the stationary-growth phase. In primer extension experiments one predominant and several weaker transcription start sites were identified in the nir promoter region. Northern blot analyses indicated that anaerobiosis and nitrite are induction factors of the nir operon: cells grown aerobically with nitrite revealed small amounts of full-length transcript whereas cells grown anaerobically with or without nitrite showed large amounts of full-length transcript. Although a transcript is detectable, no nitrite reduction occurs in cells grown aerobically with nitrite, indicating an additional oxygen-controlled step at the level of translation, enzyme folding, assembly, or insertion of prosthetic groups. The nitrite-reducing activity expressed during anaerobiosis is switched off reversibly when the oxygen tension increases, most likely due to competition for electrons with the aerobic respiratory chain. Another gene, nirC, is located upstream of the nir operon. nirC encodes a putative integral membrane-spanning protein of unknown function. A nirC mutant showed no distinct phenotype.  (+info)

Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea. (3/4712)

The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.  (+info)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: inactivation and destabilization by oxidation of active-site cysteines. (4/4712)

The in vitro instability of the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase [DAHPS(Phe)] from Escherichia coli has been found to be due to a metal-catalyzed oxidation mechanism. DAHPS(Phe) is one of three differentially feedback-regulated isoforms of the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of aromatic biosynthesis, the formation of DAHP from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. The activity of the apoenzyme decayed exponentially, with a half-life of about 1 day at room temperature, and the heterotetramer slowly dissociated to the monomeric state. The enzyme was stabilized by the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate or EDTA, indicating that in the absence of substrate, a trace metal(s) was the inactivating agent. Cu2+ and Fe2+, but none of the other divalent metals that activate the enzyme, greatly accelerated the rate of inactivation and subunit dissociation. Both anaerobiosis and the addition of catalase significantly reduced Cu2+-catalyzed inactivation. In the spontaneously inactivated enzyme, there was a net loss of two of the seven thiols per subunit; this value increased with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+. Dithiothreitol completely restored the enzymatic activity and the two lost thiols in the spontaneously inactivated enzyme but was only partially effective in reactivation of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme. Mutant enzymes with conservative replacements at either of the two active-site cysteines, Cys61 or Cys328, were insensitive to the metal attack. Peptide mapping of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme revealed a disulfide linkage between these two cysteine residues. All results indicate that DAHPS(Phe) is a metal-catalyzed oxidation system wherein bound substrate protects active-site residues from oxidative attack catalyzed by bound redox metal cofactor. A mechanism of inactivation of DAHPS is proposed that features a metal redox cycle that requires the sequential oxidation of its two active-site cysteines.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (5/4712)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens immobilized in sterile granular sludge in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. (6/4712)

Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After several months of reactor operation, the methanogens were immobilized, either separately or together. The fastest immobilization was observed in the reactor containing M. mazeii S-6. The highest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor with only M. mazeii S-6 immobilized, while the lowest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor where both types of methanogens were immobilized together. No changes were observed in the kinetic parameters (Ks and mumax) of immobilized M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 compared with suspended cultures, indicating that immobilization does not affect the growth kinetics of these methanogens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies against either M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 showed significant variations in the two methanogenic populations in the different reactors. Polyclonal antibodies were further used to study the spatial distribution of the two methanogens. M. concilii GP-6 was immobilized only on existing support material without any specific pattern. M. mazeii S-6, however, showed a different immobilization pattern: large clumps were formed when the concentration of acetate was high, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps. The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor.  (+info)

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (7/4712)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (8/4712)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

*Alison Mary Smith

Smith, Alison Mary (1978). Effect of anaerobiosis on plant metabolism (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 500566304. ... was educated at the University of Cambridge where she was awarded a PhD in 1978 for research into the effect of anaerobiosis on ...

*Geomyces pannorum

ISBN 978-3-540-74334-7. Shcherbakova, V. (2010-12-01). "Growth of the fungus Geomyces pannorum under anaerobiosis". ...

*Gas vesicle

Hechler, Torsten; Pfeifer, Felicitas (2009-01-01). "Anaerobiosis inhibits gas vesicle formation in halophilic Archaea". ...

*Raymond Lindeman

Lindeman, RL (1942). "Experimental simulation of winter anaerobiosis in a senescent lake". Ecology. 23: 1-13. doi:10.2307/ ...

*Pichia anomala

ethanol under anaerobiosis acetate under respiratory and respirofermentative growth. ethyl acetate from glucose under oxygen ...

*Tuctoria

Keeley, Jon E. (1988). "Anaerobiosis as a stimulus to germination in two vernal pool grasses" (PDF). American Journal of Botany ...

*Lactobacillus

Smalla, Pamela LC; Watermanb, Scott R (June 1998). "Acid stress, anaerobiosis and gadCB: lessons from Lactococcus lactis and ...

*Ventilatory threshold

One's threshold is said to reflect levels of anaerobiosis and lactate accumulation. As the intensity level of the activity ...

*Methanogen

2014). "Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis" ScientificWorldJournal. 3852369 (1). doi: ...

*FNR regulon

In anaerobiosis an additional completely Fnr-dependent transcript starting at Pa, is present. Both of these genes then ... Active FNR protein activates and represses target genes in response to anaerobiosis. It also represses the aerobic genes, ...

*Pseudomonas aeruginosa

This important link between QS and anaerobiosis has a significant impact on production of virulence factors of this organism. ... Recent studies have discovered anaerobiosis can significantly impact the major regulatory circuit of QS. ...

*McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar

This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes). ... A growth free culture plate at the end of the process indicates a successful anaerobiosis. However, P. aeruginosa possesses a ...

*Microbial cooperation

This important link between quorum sensing and anaerobiosis has a significant impact on production of virulence factors of this ... Recent studies have discovered that anaerobiosis can significantly impact the major regulatory circuit of quorum sensing. ...

*Fumarate reductase

2007). "Role in anaerobiosis of the isoenzymes for Saccharomyces cerevisiae fumarate reductase encoded by OSM1 and FRDS1". ...

*Non-fermenter

This does not necissarily exclude that species can catabolize other sugars or have anaerobiosis like fermenting bacteria. The ...

*Berteroa incana

... dry heat and anaerobiosis conditions. Plant Ecophysiology 2, 121-26. Mucina, L. and D. Brandes. (1985). Communities of Berteroa ...

*Hypoxia in fish

... during anaerobiosis". Thermochimica Acta. 373: 23-30. doi:10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00463-4. Regan, MD; Gill, IS; Richards, JG ( ... during anaerobiosis". Thermochimica Acta. 373: 23-30. doi:10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00463-4. Regan, MD; Gill, IS; Richards, JG ( ...

*Halomonas nitroreducens

... that is able to respire on nitrate and nitrite in anaerobiosis. Halomonas nitroreducens's closest relatives are Halomonas ...

*Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation

Non-methylotrophic methanogegenesis is carried out by methanogenic archaebacteria, which use CO2 and H2 in anaerobiosis to give ...

*Cysteine transaminase

... and pyridoxal phosphate in the enzymatic formation of hydrogen sulfide from cysteine by the rat liver under anaerobiosis.]". ...

*Warburg hypothesis

In this speech, Warburg presented additional evidence supporting his theory that the elevated anaerobiosis seen in cancer cells ...

*Granada medium

... better results are obtained in anaerobiosis (culturing in an anaerobic environment). Granada agar is used for the primary ...

*Scenedesmus

... causing anaerobiosis, and switching to hydrogen production. Ultrasonication pretreatment has been effective in increasing ...

*Waterlogging (agriculture)

In extreme cases of prolonged waterlogging, anaerobiosis occurs, the roots of mesophytes suffer, and the subsurface reducing ...

*Fed-batch culture

... anaerobiosis). The simplest fed-batch culture is the one in which the feed rate of a growth-limiting substrate is constant, i.e ...
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. In contrast, an anaerobic organism (anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. Obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow. In a process known as cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) and generate energy. Facultative anaerobes use oxygen if it is available, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production. Microaerophiles require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (21% O2). Aerotolerant anaerobes do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it. When an organism is able to survive in both oxygen and anaerobic environments, the use of the Pasteur effect can distinguish between facultative anaerobes and aerotolerant organisms. If the organism is using fermentation in an anaerobic environment, the addition of ...
Now, when we think of weight lifting we think of the anaerobic system working, and when we think of "cardio" or aerobics we think of the aerobic system being the primary energy-production system. But this is in fact not the case. Both systems are working all the time. The difference between high intensity training and typical "cardio" training is the degree to which each system is stressed. During bouts of "cardio" the anaerobic system is not being greatly stressed and there is always enough oxygen to allow for the aerobic metabolism to take place. However, during high intensity training where a lot of energy needs to be produced in a short period of time, the anaerobic system is running so fast that it produces more end product (pyruvate) than the aerobic system can cycle. Pyruvate builds up in the cells and converts into lactic acid and this creates that muscle burn. Because the aerobic system (which produces 34 ATP) cannot work any faster, and the anaerobic system (which can only produce 4 ...
Now, when we think of weight lifting we think of the anaerobic system working, and when we think of "cardio" or aerobics we think of the aerobic system being the primary energy-production system. But this is in fact not the case. Both systems are working all the time. The difference between high intensity training and typical "cardio" training is the degree to which each system is stressed. During bouts of "cardio" the anaerobic system is not being greatly stressed and there is always enough oxygen to allow for the aerobic metabolism to take place. However, during high intensity training where a lot of energy needs to be produced in a short period of time, the anaerobic system is running so fast that it produces more end product (pyruvate) than the aerobic system can cycle. Pyruvate builds up in the cells and converts into lactic acid and this creates that muscle burn. Because the aerobic system (which produces 34 ATP) cannot work any faster, and the anaerobic system (which can only produce 4 ...
The contribution of protein induction and repression to the adaptation of cells to changes in oxygen supply is only poorly understood. We assessed this contribution by measuring the levels of 170 individual polypeptides produced by Escherichia coli K-12 in cells growing aerobically or anaerobically with and without nitrate. Eighteen reached their highest levels during anaerobic growth. These 18 polypeptides include at least 4 glycolytic enzymes and pyruvate formate-lyase (beta-subunit). Most of these proteins were found at significant levels during aerobic growth and appeared to undergo metabolic regulation by stimuli other than anaerobiosis. Anaerobic induction ratios ranged from 1.8- to 11-fold, and nitrate antagonized the anaerobic induction of all of the proteins except one. The time course of synthesis of the proteins after shifts in oxygen supply revealed at least three distinct temporal patterns. These results are discussed in light of known physiological alterations associated with ...
I have a question about anaerobic cultures. I am biochem/biophys grad student at the University of Pennsylvania. I need to grow up wild type ecoli anaerobically. What constitutes an anaerobic culture? How much media should I put into Fernbach flasks to make it an anaerobic culture and is it necessary to degas any flasks or bottles that I choose to grow my bacteria in? Any help in this matter would be appreciated. my email address is ehopper at mail.med.upenn.edu. Thank you Elizabeth Hopper ...
I know there is alot of technical stuff in there, so now im going to give practical examples of how this works and how to improve. One last complicated thing before I start though; thresholds. There are alot of complicated and differently names thresholds like lactic threshold or aerobic threshold. Basically however they mostly mean the same thing. before the threshold you can work for a long time, above it you get tired quickly. This is due to how much the anaerobic system is being relied on. practically this very complicated thing is actually very simple. When you are moving around the ring you will mostly be using your aerobic system. When you are moving quickly like stepping back to avoid a kick, dodging to the side or attacking you will be using the anaerobic system, because your body will need more energy than just the aerobic system can provide. By increasing the aerobic systems capability you can take more work off of your anaerobic system leaving you with more energy. More importantly ...
This post was most recently updated on October 17th, 2018. Specimens for anaerobic culture should be properly collected and transported. Indigenous anaerobes are often present in large numbers as normal flora on mucosal surfaces (e.g. mouth). So the sample from sites known to have anaerobes as part of the normal flora is unacceptable for anaerobic culture. ...
Ive become a SysMO DB PAL for MOSES project in 2007 being a post-doc in lab of Prof. Matthias Reuss at University of Stuttgart. In the MOSES project, our major efforts were in the experimental data acquisition for dynamic model of primary carbon and anaerobic energy metabolism in yeast. The model implements prediction of perturbations of two types: glucose pulse and temperature jump. We implement "stimulus-response" methodology for the unraveling the dynamic structure of the network and to parameterize the model. Currently I am a member of FAIRDOM PALs team and PAL for ExtremoPharm project ...
Ive become a SysMO DB PAL for MOSES project in 2007 being a post-doc in lab of Prof. Matthias Reuss at University of Stuttgart. In the MOSES project, our major efforts were in the experimental data acquisition for dynamic model of primary carbon and anaerobic energy metabolism in yeast. The model implements prediction of perturbations of two types: glucose pulse and temperature jump. We implement "stimulus-response" methodology for the unraveling the dynamic structure of the network and to ...
Ive become a SysMO DB PAL for MOSES project in 2007 being a post-doc in lab of Prof. Matthias Reuss at University of Stuttgart. In the MOSES project, our major efforts were in the experimental data acquisition for dynamic model of primary carbon and anaerobic energy metabolism in yeast. The model implements prediction of perturbations of two types: glucose pulse and temperature jump. We implement "stimulus-response" methodology for the unraveling the dynamic structure of the network and to ...
Ive become a SysMO DB PAL for MOSES project in 2007 being a post-doc in lab of Prof. Matthias Reuss at University of Stuttgart. In the MOSES project, our major efforts were in the experimental data acquisition for dynamic model of primary carbon and anaerobic energy metabolism in yeast. The model implements prediction of perturbations of two types: glucose pulse and temperature jump. We implement "stimulus-response" methodology for the unraveling the dynamic structure of the network and to ...
What is the difference between Obligate and Facultative Anaerobe? Obligate anaerobe cannot survive in oxygen while facultative anaerobe can survive in oxygen...
Now, if you stopped the equation at the production of pyruvate, then for every glucose molecule you metabolize you would also increase intramuscular acidity by 2 H+ ions. On the surface, this makes it seem like carbohydrates-and eventually lactate-cause a more rapid increase in acidity. Thats only half the equation, however, because in an anaerobic environment all of that pyruvate will be reduced to lactate, a process which resorbs two H+ ions (in an aerobic environment, the pyruvate will be run through the citric acid cycle, getting rid of another 30+ H+ ions) and thus results in a total net change of nada H+ ion-wise.. In fact, not only does the conversion of pyruvate to lactate not increase the net acidity of the muscle, it actually buffers against rising acidity because lactate can be transported out of the working muscle in a way that H+ ions cannot by themselves. This allows the body to effectively shuttle acidity-inducing molecules out of the cell, which is even better than just ...
Abattoirs are well suited targets to low-rate, anaerobic process because of the usually low COD and high O&G levels. It may be also possible to design as competitive, higher rate systems. As with most every anaerobic approach, process temperature is key. One will want to avoid seeing an anaerobic treatment plant for wastewaters that contain grease, such as meat processing, milk, cheese, etc., operate at less than 32C. If client or engineers insist, they have to deal with the consequences of designing and operating at lower temperatures. First , a larger reactors. Second, most of the grease will float to the top and form a scum layer that in some cases with meat slaughtering operations has approached six ft (2 m) in depth. This scum layer is very difficult to breakup especially if the reactor is covered with a membrane type material. These problems may occur at 32C, but to a much lesser extent. Therefore stick to and maintain the higher temperature range. Below 20°C removals are simply settling, ...
Anaerobic respiration is a type of respiration that takes place in the absence of oxygen and aerobic respiration. The steps of anaerobic respiration have some similarities to aerobic respiration....
In two strains of fibroblasts originating from fragments of myocardium from a 5 day old rat of the Slonaker-Addis strain, a strain known to develop tumors but rarely, abnormal morphologic alterations took place which eventuated in neoplastic changes. This happened only after repeated exposure of the cultures to an atmosphere of nitrogen (anaerobiosis) and did not occur in the control cultures of fibroblasts originating from the same rat heart, and grown continuously throughout the same period (2 ½ years) without exposure to nitrogen.. ...
Well, I suppose there are a couple of different ways. There are so-called dissimilatory processes, by which the toxic metals, for example, would be sequestered into by-products of the bacteriums natural metabolism, that are not incorporated into the cell. An example of that would be an anoxic environment - bacteria that have adapted to breathing sulphate in the way that we breathe oxygen produce a metabolic waste product called sulphide, which is actually extremely reactive with heavy metals, a number of metals, and the sulphide can precipitate those metals from waste streams or groundwater. Precipitation is the process whereby metals that are in solution are removed from solution - by solution, I mean natural waters, groundwater, surface waters - by the process of forming a new mineral. So, something that is dissolved becomes something that is solid, and the density of those solids, in many cases, tends to cause them to sink or precipitate out from that fluid. So, the sulphide can precipitate ...
In Anaerobic respiration/fermentation glucose is broken down through investment of ATP into several intermediates eventually creating pyruvate and 2 net ATP. Because of the lack of oxygen this reaction does not proceed to normal aerobic respiration in the mitochondria but instead continues to transform into other intermediates outside the mitochondria and produce the fermentation by-product. The main reason for this is to regenerate NAD+ from NADH and allow ATP production to continue without an electron acceptor required by the Electron Transport Chain. Two common by-products are lactic acid in muscles and ethanol (alcohol) in yeast ...
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The two-component signal transduction system (TCS) BarA/UvrY activates transcription of CsrB and CsrC noncoding RNAs, which act by sequestering the RNA-binding global regulatory protein CsrA. Here, we show that the metabolic end products formate and acetate provide a physiological stimulus for this TCS and thus link posttranscriptional regulation by the Csr system to the metabolic state of the cell. ...
Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration both are involve chemical reactions which take place in the cell to produce energy, which is needed for
3. Replace the standard Petri dish lid with a sterile Brewer anaerobic Petri dish cover. The cover should not rest on the Petri dish bottom. The inner glass ridge should seal against the uninoculated periphery of the agar. It is essential that the sealing ring inside the cover is in contact with the medium. This seal must not be broken before the end of the incubation period. A small amount of air is caught over the surface of the medium; however, the oxygen in this space reacts with reducing agents in the medium to form an anaerobic environment ...
... - This means that the monosaccharide glucose requires only zymase to be broken down into ethanol and CO2 whilst the disaccharide maltose requires both
View Notes - Monera6 from BIOLOGY BSC1005 at Broward College. the cell membrane and move in a back and forth motion. Facultative anaerobes - Organisms that do not require oxygen to carry out
To get faster, youll need to work the aerobic and anaerobic systems. Heres how you can incorporate a variety of workouts so you can avoid a performance pla...
Lactic acid is transported to the liver so that it can be converted into a compund used to produce ATP.. You can continue to breathe heavily after exercise as the additional oxygen is needed to oxidise the lactic acid formed.. ATP was on credit and the oxygen is needed to pay back the debt. ...
Eventually, I do at 4°C when I dont want to stay late in the lab, and continue the experiment the day after. but there is no additional benefit for this kind of incubation. At 4°C you have less dissociation, but its no more true when you incubate then the next steps at RT.. ...
Iron, Proteins, Biogenesis, Sulfur, Escherichia, Escherichia Coli, Gene, Eukaryotes, Bacteria, Growth, Superoxide, Oxygen, Anaerobiosis, DNA, Photosynthesis, Role, Enzymes, Cells, Genes, Regulation
Production of ethanol by a process in which a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus or other thermophilic, facultatively anaerrobic bacterium is selected for the characteristics of fermenting sugars both aerobically and anaerobically and of being active in anaerobic fermentation at 70 C. or above and (i) anaerobic fermentation is carried out with continuing removal of ethanol at 70 C. or above; (ii) the fermentative activity of the bacterium is maintained by withdrawing a proportion of the anaerobic fermentation medium on a continuing basis preferably with removal of ethanol and allowing the bacteria therein to multiply aerobically, using residual sugars or metabolites thereof present in the medium, before being returned to the anaerobic fermentation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stepwise metabolic adaption from pure metabolization to balanced anaerobic growth on xylose explored for recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Klimacek, Mario. AU - Kirl, Elisabeth. AU - Krahulec, Stefan. AU - Longus, Karin. AU - Novy, Vera. AU - Nidetzky, Bernd. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. UR - http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/13/1/37/abstract. U2 - 10.1186/1475-2859-13-37. DO - 10.1186/1475-2859-13-37. M3 - Article. VL - 13. SP - 1. EP - 12. JO - Microbial cell factories JF - Microbial cell factories SN - 1475-2859. IS - 37. ER - ...
Background. Under hypoxic conditions, plant mitochondria preserve the capacity to oxidize external NADH, NADPH and tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates. Nitrite serves as an alternative electron acceptor at the level of cytochrome oxidase, with possibly complex III and the alternative oxidase also being involved. Nitric oxide is a significant product of the reaction, which has a high affinity for cytochrome c oxidase, inhibiting it. The excess NO is scavenged by hypoxically induced class 1 haemoglobin in the reaction involving ascorbate.. Scope. By using nitrite, mitochondria retain a limited capacity for ATP synthesis. NADH, produced from glycolysis during anaerobiosis and oxidized in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, should shift the composition of metabolites formed during anaerobiosis with increased conversion of pyruvate to alanine and greater involvement of other transamination reactions, such as those involving γ-aminobutyric acid formation.. Conclusions. Anaerobic mitochondrial ...
Anabaena cylindrica was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and was placed in a batch reactor in the presence of a glutamine synthetase inhibitor (methionine sulfoximide). Ammonia was released in the medium during two days with a rate of 0.35 μ moles h−1mgChl−1. Addition of nitrite to the medium increased the ammonia production as cells used the nitrite reductase pathway to form ammonia. When reactors were placed in anaerobiosis by N2 bubbling, ammonia production was sustained several days and the total ammonia formed was about two fold higher than in aerobiosis. Long term effects of MSX, nitrite and anaerobiosis are discussed.
Abstract: The article deals with the analysis of results of verification of a one-stage anaerobic digestion at mesophile and thermophile conditions in two series differing in retention time (26 and 37 days). Substrates consisting of various proportions of poultry crushed bones, pork ligaments, and slurry of beef-cattle and pigs (1:1) were used. Stabilized non-drained remainder of an anaerobic digestion was used as inoculum. Results of verification showed effectiveness of slaughter waste processing in biogas stations. However, slaughter waste processing requires installation of equipment for a thermal modification of the feed-in substrate (warming up to 70°C for the duration of 1 hour)
McIntosh and Fildes anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes). The jar, about 20″×12.5″ is made up of a metal. Its parts are as follows: The body made up of metal (airtight) The lid, also metal can be placed in an airtight fashion A screw going through a curved metal strip to secure and hold the lid in place A thermometer to measuring the internal temperature A pressure gauge to measuring the internal pressure (or a side tube is attached to a manometer) Another side tube for evacuation and introduction of gases (to a gas cylinder or a vacuum pump) A wire cage hanging from the lid to hold a catalyst that makes hydrogen react to oxygen without the need of any ignition source First: The culture: The culture media are placed inside the jar, stacked up one on the other, and Indicator system: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inoculated on ...
Hydrated encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana have the ability to withstand years in anaerobic sea water using metabolic strategies that enable them to inactivate all cell metabolic activities and then to resume development when placed in aerobic sea water. However, this unique characteristic of Artemia franciscana embryos is lost during a very short period, at the embryonic­larval transition period of development, coincident with the appearance of prenauplius larvae. Thus, while encysted embryos show complete inhibition of proteolysis over at least 4 years under anoxia, control of this activity, together with resistance to anoxia, is lost in newly hatched nauplius larvae after only a few days in anaerobic sea water. In contrast to encysted embryos, young larvae in anaerobic sea water produce large amounts of lactic acid, which reaches a concentration of nearly 50 mmol l-1 within 12 h of incubation. The accumulated lactic acid is believed to reduce the intracellular pH ...
Three metabolic engineering strategies were successfully designed and applied in this work, including: activation of E. coli native cryptic pathway, multi enzymes to enhance efficiency of one reaction in a pathway, and construction of a novel anaerobic pathway with balanced ox-reduction status and adequate energy production.. All biological systems are capable of short term response to environmental changes and, on longer time scales, to evolutionary adaptation. It was suggested that cryptic or latent pathways are consequences of such adaption. By inactivate once active pathways, microbes are able to save materials and energy associated with expression of the genes, and to change metabolic network for adaption of new environment [36, 37]. Cryptic or latent pathway activation is a classic subject in metabolic engineering, mainly for production of therapeutic natural products in microorganisms such as Aspergillus, Streptomyces, or Pseudomonas [38]. However, only a few examples can be found with ...
Hlavním cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení se se zpracováním odpadů v České republice a jeho následným využitím v bioplynových stanicích. V následujících kapitolách je postupně popsáno zpracování a procentuální ...
Inoculate Actinomyces cultures into tubes containing broth, semisolid or solid media. The semisolid medium should be stabinoculated and the slanted medium should be inoculated over its entire surface. Incubate cultures at 35 ± 2°C in an anaerobic atmosphere (BD GasPak™ EZ anaerobic system, or alternative system for the cultivation of anaerobic microorganisms).. ...
As a clarification of the above, molecular oxygen, as I understand it, is necessary for the post-transcriptional hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyproline - ie the oxygen in the hydroxyproline does not come from water, but is added from an O2 molecule by an oxygenase enzyme.. The hydroxyprolines are critical for collagen strength. Thus in the complete absence of O2, animals bodies simply would not be able to hold together beyond a certain size (hence my first question about whether or not the small size gets around the problem).. The level of O2 needed is actually much lower than current atmospheric O2 in aerobic environments, and may be low enough that it could be found even in environments that would be considered to be hypoxic. But the post seemed to suggest that these animals lived in a completely anoxic environment - there is no O2 at all? If which case, how do these animals synthesize collagen?. ...
Of the creatures Thauer has analyzed from the bottom of the Black Sea, perhaps the most fascinating are the archaea that metabolize methane to harness its energy. For their metabolic process, these microbes must oxidize-or remove electrons from-methane under anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions. Scientists previously thought biological systems werent capable of oxidizing methane in anaerobic environments because of the strength of the CH bond in methane-cleaving it requires 440 kilojoules per mole of energy-and usually oxygen would be required as a terminal electron acceptor in the metabolic process.. Thauers Black Sea super-microbes manage this feat by using a nickel (Ni(III))-containing protein to catalyze the dehydrogenation of methane to create a one-carbon unit at the same oxidation level as methanol. Since oxygen is not available, the Black Sea microbes typically use sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor to grab the extra electron that is expelled during this reaction. The resulting ...
In many microbiology labs, the specificity of Metronidazole is used to identify the presence of obligate anaerobes. When the plated sample is incubated in an anaerobic environment, a disc of Metronidazole is added. After growth, if there is a zone of inhibition around the Metronidazole this is taken to signify the presence of obligate anaerobes (as Metronidazole can only inhibit the growth of anaerobes). Organisms that are not inhibited by the Metronidazole are assumed to be facilitative anaerobes (which have reduced susceptibility) and are not investigated further. But what if theres a resistant obligate anaerobe ...
Anaerobic respiration is the formation of ATP without the presence of oxygen. This method uses the electron transport chain without the presence of oxygen as the electron acceptor. Although oxygen is highly oxidizing, it is only used during aerobic processes. In anaerobic repiration, less oxidizing molecules such as sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), or sulfur (S) are used as electron acceptors. Thus, less energy is formed per molecule of glucose during anaerobic respiration. Most prokaryotes that live under environmental conditions that lack oxygen uses aerobic respiration, although humans too, use it sometimes as well (Lactic Acid Fermentation).. In this process, specifically with the absence of Oxygen during respiration process, organisms have evolved with mechanisms to recycle Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) for glycolysis to continue in order to synthesize Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) molecules, known as "energy currency" of cells. This process evolves into two different mechanisms, ...
Anaerobic bacteria can live with out oxygen, while animals and humans cant. Anaerobic bacteria can sustain itself without the presence of oxygen. Almost all animals and humans are obligate aerobes that require oxygen for respiration, whereas anaerobic yeast is an example of facilitative anaerobe bacteria. Individual human cells are also facilitative anaerobes: They switch to lactic acid fermentation if oxygen is not available.
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When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our...
Fermentation vs Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration and fermentation are two different processes with marked distinctions between the two. However
Dr. Todd Manini of the National Institute on Aging reports that older active people who walk, climb stairs, do household chores, or even wash windows are 69 percent less likely to die in a year, compared to people who are far less active (JAMA, June 2006). This study was far more dependable than previous studies because, instead of using a questionnaire, researchers measured how active a person was by measuring the metabolic end products of activity. They used a doubly-labeled water method that directly measures carbon dioxide production over an extended period, the most accurate estimate of energy expenditure.
Before we go one step further, I want to point out that its important to get your reactivity under control in order to bring down inflammation before ramping up liver detoxification. Removing foods, chemicals, biotoxin exposures, and other stressors, can help a lot to dampen down the immune response. Its important to do this first. We dont want to start moving toxins when the body is already on high alert. It could make matters worse. OK, with that precaution out of the way, lets begin with the understanding that the basic function of the liver and kidneys is to filter blood. Theyre responsible for removing a wide range of toxins from the body. In terms of the three Phases of liver detoxification, these include metabolic end products, micro organisms, pollutants, insecticides, pesticides, food additives, drugs, alcohol, hormones, some vitamins, steroids, and so on. Furthermore, the toxins the liver removes are sequestered in bile that then is dumped into the small intestines whenever you ...
E. coli growth and anaerobic expression of heterologous active [FeFe] hydrogenases.All data are for cultures of E. coli strain BL21(DE3) ΔiscR, and both iron a
For anaerobic specimens, tissue and /or body fluids ( in syringe without needle attached ) are the ideal specimen of choice. These samples should be received in Micro lab within 2 hours of collection. Specimens physicians collect using needle aspiration should be transferred to a sterile tube or anaerobic transport vial prior to transport of the specimen to the laboratory. If the amount is small, a small amount of non-bacteriostatic 0.85% NaCl or broth may be drawn into the syringe prior to removal of the needle. A protective device should be used while removing the needle to avoid injury and should cap the syringe with a sterile cap prior to transporting it to the lab ...
GCSE Biology - Aerobic & Anaerobic Respiration Try our On line GCSE Revision Nowadays for £19.ninety nine: Aerobic Respiration This style of respiration only takes spot when there is a regular and plentiful stream of oxygen to the residing cells within just the physique. As all cells in the physique have to have oxygen
Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Does not require oxygen. Can grow with or without it. Able to detoxify toxic by products of oxygen. E. Coli Microaerophile Growth throughout
Anaerobic respiration: The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2. Yields less energy than aerobic respiration because only part of the Krebs cycles operates under anaerobic conditions ...
predict the outcome of mixing aqueous solutions of the following reactions. write the ionic equations of each. mercury (ll) nitrate + ammonium iodide manganese (ll) chloride + sodium sulfide lead (ll) nitrate + sodium sulfate barium ...
collections, groups of modules structured into books or course notes, or for other uses. Our open license allows for free use and reuse of all our content. ...
During strenuous exercise, muscles may consume oxygen faster than it can be supplied. Under these conditions, some muscles may switch to anaerobic respiration ...
Euglena gracilis is a eukaryotic, unicellular phytoflagellate that has been widely studied in basic science and applied science. Under dark, anaerobic conditions, the cells of E. gracilis produce a wax ester that can be converted into biofuel. Here, we demonstrate that under dark, anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis excretes organic acids, such as succinate and lactate, which are bulk chemicals used in the production of bioplastics. The levels of succinate were altered by changes in the medium and temperature during dark, anaerobic incubation. Succinate production was enhanced when cells were incubated in CM medium in the presence of NaHCO3. Excretion of lactate was minimal in the absence of external carbon sources, but lactate was produced in the presence of glucose during dark, anaerobic incubation. E. gracilis predominantly produced L-lactate; however, the percentage of D-lactate increased to 28.4% in CM medium at 30°C. Finally, we used a commercial strain of E. gracilis for succinate production and
0065] For the biodegradation of synthetic polymers, particular interest attaches to the "ecological systems", which find use in the context of biological waste treatment. As well as composting and the biological treatment of wastewater, particular mention should also be made of biogas-forming degradation under anaerobic conditions in biogas plants. In this context, as well as the metabolic end products of aerobic digestion (H2O and CO2), methane is additionally formed, and this can be utilized later for generation of electrical power or be fed into the natural gas grid as biomethane. The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is a complex multistage microbial reaction cascade (hydrolysis→acidogenesis→acetogenesis→methanogenesis- ), which combines the conversion of the polymers to monomers and the subsequent metabolic reactions of the intermediates extending as far as H2O, CO2 and CH4. It is important here to mention that this process is conducted not by an individual, independent ...
Anaerobic digestion can be a very attractive alternative for waste management at animal feeding operations as it contains waste and the byproduct is methane, which can be utilized as a source of energy. Careful consideration of the feasibility for anaerobic digestion at a given facility is critical. This website is intended to provide an unbiased assessment of the technical feasibility of anaerobic digestion and appropriate technology recommendations. In addition, appropriate technologies for anaerobic digestion are provided based on management practices employed at the animal feeding operation. This website is intended to provide a unbiased assessment of the feasibility of anaerobic digestion and appropriate technology recommendations.. ...
In this work, 80% lime-treated rice straw and 20% lime-treated chicken manure were used as substrates in rotary fermentors. Countercurrent fermentation was performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). The highest acid productivity of 1.69 g/(Là ·d) was at a total acid concentration of 32.4 g/L. The highest conversion and yield were 0.692 g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.29 g total acids/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to predict product concentrations at various VSLR and LRT. CPDM predicted the experimental total acid concentration and conversion at an average error of 6.41% and 6.55%, respectively. A fixed-bed fermentation system was designed to perform pretreatment and fermentation in the same unit. High product concentrations (~48 g/L) as well as high conversions (0.741 g VS digested/g VS fed, F4, Train B) were obtained from the same fermentor. CPDM was extended to predict product concentrations in ...
Scientists at Diamond V began developing the IAMM nearly a decade ago, based on the companys successful Rumen Activity Modifier Model (RAMM). The goal of both models is to mimic anaerobic fermentation and other microbiological activity in vitro - in the lab, not in animals - and thereby control for critical variables that affect the gut environment.. The IAMM is a great advantage in isolating and studying the effects of existing Diamond V products as well as new prototypes. For example, Original XPC™ has well-proven beneficial effects in chickens and pigs. Yet gut microbial populations are complex and dynamic. They include hundreds of species of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in proportions that change with an animals age and many other factors. What, exactly, is happening with these diverse microbial populations?. Today we use IAMM in many iterations to accurately simulate anaerobic fermentation in the hindgut - cecum plus large intestine - and control most variables affecting the ...
The anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic waste is a mature and increasingly used process for biomethane production. However, the efficient use of different fractions of waste is a big concern in anaerobic digestion plants. This study proposes the use of a new process configuration that couples the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste with the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic or green waste. The biochar obtained from pyrolysis was added to a digester as an adsorbent to increase the biomethane content and to support the development of a stable microbial community. In addition, the bio-oil and syngas produced by the pyrolysis process were reformed into syngas and then converted to biomethane via methanation. Modelling and simulations were performed for the proposed novel process. The results showed an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the biomethane volume produced. An overall efficiency of 67% was achieved, whereas the stand-alone anaerobic digestion system had an efficiency of only ...
Methanogens are prokaryotic microorganisms that produce methane as an end-product of a complex biochemical pathway. They are strictly anaerobic archaea and occupy a wide variety of anoxic environments. Methanogens also thrive in the cytoplasm of anaerobic unicellular eukaryotes and in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. The symbiotic methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other methanogenic mammals contribute significantly to the global methane budget. This monograph deals with methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic protists, in particular ciliates and termite flagellates, and with methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of vertebrates and arthropods. Further reviews discuss the genomic consequences of living together in symbiotic associations, the role of methanogens in syntrophic degradation, and the function and evolution of hydrogenosomes, hydrogen-producing organelles of certain anaerobic protists.
Current Research: As Pseudomonas aeruginosa transitions between aerobic (Entner-Duodoroff) and anaerobic respiration, denitrification may serve as an energy-efficient metabolic pathway for population growth and maintenance. During this transition, formation of biofilms by high density bacterial populations may create microaerobic to anaerobic environments that promote the selection of nitrate (NO3-) or nitrite (NO2-) for electron sequestration. This study continues to examine the influence that inoculum population density has on the rate of nitrate reduction and residual nitrite accumulation as an indirect measure of metabolic denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA102 (ATCC™ 27853). Results from pilot studies suggest that even though the onset of denitrification may be influenced by inoculum population density, the rate of nitrate reduction and residual nitrite accumulation appears to be constant, respective of population density in the early periods of population exponential growth ...
Chlorinated organic compounds are extensively employed in industry and agriculture. These chemicals are considered among the most severe public health issues, due to their widespread and uncontrolled release in the environment combined to the recalcitrance to degradation and tendency to bio-accumulate. 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is one of the most widespread chlorinated pollutants. This solvent is a key intermediate in the production of PVC. The public health concern and environmental safety issues related to 1,2-DCA, have fueled the scientific interested on the application of feasible and effective bioremediation strategies, on the identification of microorganisms able to efficiently and rapidly degrade it. 1,2-DCA can undergo microbial-mediated degradation through several aerobic or anaerobic metabolic processes. Due to the typical presence of this pollutant in anoxic environments research has been focused on the anaerobic dehalogenation process based on reductive dechlorination in which ...
Taking advantage of further development of the front-end platform and metabolic labeling quantitative strategy, top-down proteomics was employed to investigate the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards anaerobiosis. Approximately 150 protein pairs were measured with 4 differential expressions determined including an aerobic and anaerobic isoform. Direct comparison of PTM patterns between two cell states was also accomplished through top-down proteomics ...
PoultryStar® is a well-defined, multi-strain Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) for poultry, and contains live, viable, naturally occurring microorganism (probiotics) which are categorized and classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). PoultryStar® was developed in the course of a multinational reseach project partially funded by the European Union. In the course of the project numerous intestinal bacteria were isolated out of the gut of several healthy chickens and thoroughly characterized combining morphological, physiological and genotypic methods. The most promising strains were evaluated for important probiotic criteria such as adhesion capability to intestinal cell lines, inhibition of pathogens, (e.g. S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, S. choleraesuis, C. jejuni, E. coli and Cl. perfringens), immunological activity, range of metabolic end products like Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), fermentation performance, stability against acids and bile salts, storage stability and safety status. Based on ...
Anaerobic respiration definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Before we go one step further, I want to point out that its important to get your reactivity under control in order to bring down inflammation before ramping up liver detoxification. Removing foods, chemicals, biotoxin exposures, and other stressors, can help a lot to dampen down the immune response. Its important to do this first. We dont want to start moving toxins when the body is already on high alert. It could make matters worse. OK, with that precaution out of the way, lets begin with the understanding that the basic function of the liver and kidneys is to filter blood. Theyre responsible for removing a wide range of toxins from the body. In terms of the three Phases of liver detoxification, these include metabolic end products, micro organisms, pollutants, insecticides, pesticides, food additives, drugs, alcohol, hormones, some vitamins, steroids, and so on. Furthermore, the toxins the liver removes are sequestered in bile that then is dumped into the small intestines whenever you ...
in Animal (in press). Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by ... [more ▼]. Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models. Protein (soybean proteins, casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch, cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by bacteria isolated from fresh feces obtained ...
Your body can use all of these systems simultaneously depending on the situation, but racquetball uses anaerobic energy almost exclusively.. Understanding when you (or your opponent) might need time to replenish these stores gives you an advantage in that situation! For example, if your opponent has had one or two very hard points in which they had to be explosive, their anaerobic system is struggling. Do not give them time to recover, and continue play as soon as possible. They will be a little slower around the court because their body needs time to recharge that fast system. Conversely, if you find yourself on the opposite side of that same situation, use your timeouts and breaks between points to provide you with the time you need to recover.. In a long match, you do not want to rely on your aerobic system for energy, as it takes longer to convert this energy into a useable source and you will be slower as a result. Therefore, do not forget to consume carbohydrates during the match so that ...
For decades its been the common wisdom that runners need to build their aerobic "base." That is, to run long, slow distances.. As a coach, Dr. Phil Maffetone has had great success with this. He advises distance runners to wear a heart rate monitor and keep their heart rate below the Maximum Aerobic Factor.. He defines MAF as 180 minus your age.. If youre over 65, though, just stick with 65. Thats 180 minus 65, so you aim for a MAF of 115.. He also adds that if youre an experienced athlete whos gone over two years without injury and youre still progressing, you can add 5.. If youve been exercising but your performance is going downhill, subtract 5.. If youre recovering from major illness or surgery or youre just starting out, substract 10.. If youre 66 years and just had knee replacement surgery and/or you havent exercised since college, your MAF is 180 - 65 = 115 - 10 = 105.. Keep your heart rate below 105.. Remember, that figure is your maximum heart beat. If youre cycling and your ...
Instead of accumulating inside the muscle cells, lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation is taken up by the liver. This initiates the other half of the Cori cycle. In the liver, gluconeogenesis occurs. From an intuitive perspective, gluconeogenesis reverses both glycolysis and fermentation by converting lactate first into pyruvate, and finally back to glucose. The glucose is then supplied to the muscles through the bloodstream; it is ready to be fed into further glycolysis reactions. If muscle activity has stopped, the glucose is used to replenish the supplies of glycogen through glycogenesis.[2 ...
Catalase mediates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 into oxygen and water. To find out if a particular bacterial isolate is able to produce catalase enzyme, small inoculum of bacterial isolate is mixed into hydrogen peroxide solution (3%) and is observed for the rapid elaboration of oxygen bubbles occurs. The lack of catalase is evident by a lack of or weak bubble production.. Catalase-positive bacteria include strict aerobes as well as facultative anaerobes. They all have the ability to respire using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor.. Catalase-negative bacteria may be anaerobes, or they may be facultative anaerobes that only ferment and do not respire using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor (ie. Streptococci).. Percentage of H2O2 used on catalase test:. ...
In animal cells, the formation of plasmalogens requires molecular oxygen. But among bacteria only anaerobic species contain plasmalogens, so an oxygen-requiring reaction is not possible. Clearly another pathway is used, which evolved long before these lipids were made by animal cells. The early earth had an anaerobic atmosphere; hence the first living things were anaerobes, presumably the ancestors of present day anaerobes. Indeed, all reactions essential for making bacterial cells including amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases, lipids and the essential cofactors, are still anaerobic, in line with their anaerobic ancestry. Therefore, it is no surprise that an anaerobic mechanism for making plasmalogens arose first. Present evidence suggests that plasmalogen synthesis in bacteria follows the same pathway used for the formation of diacyl phospholipids starting with glycerol-P and ending with conversion of diacylphospholipids to the corresponding plasmalogens by an unknown mechanism ...
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Huckabee (1) has appraised anaerobic metabolism in whole animals and in intact organs by determining the ratio of lactate to pyruvate concentrations in plasma, and by calculating "excess lactate." Such "excess lactate has been used as an index of tissue hypoxia. That this approach has been popular is shown by the large number of papers currently appearing in the medical literature. Three papers in this issue of the ANNALS are examples of this trend.. A review of the evolution of this idea and the assumptions on which it is based, has suggested to me that some caution should be exercised ...
Abattoirs are well suited targets to low-rate, anaerobic process because of the usually low COD and high O&G levels. It may be also possible to design as competitive, higher rate systems. As with most every anaerobic approach, process temperature is key. One will want to avoid seeing an anaerobic treatment plant for wastewaters that contain grease, such as meat processing, milk, cheese, etc., operate at less than 32C. If client or engineers insist, they have to deal with the consequences of designing and operating at lower temperatures. First , a larger reactors. Second, most of the grease will float to the top and form a scum layer that in some cases with meat slaughtering operations has approached six ft (2 m) in depth. This scum layer is very difficult to breakup especially if the reactor is covered with a membrane type material. These problems may occur at 32C, but to a much lesser extent. Therefore stick to and maintain the higher temperature range. Below 20°C removals are simply settling, ...
Rhodopseudomonas palustris ATCC ® BAA-98D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain CGA009 TypeStrain=False Application:
Baled and precision-chop silages were examined on a sample of farms in the Irish midlands to determine microbiological and chemical composition at feedout. Silage making practices and chemical composition were similar to those in national surveys. Wilting was an integral part of baled silage production and was reflected in a more restricted fermentation (higher pH and water-soluble carbohydrates, with lower fermentation acids and buffering capacity) compared to precision-chop silage. Yeast numbers were higher in baled silage, suggesting a more aerobic environment within the bale. Although the fermentation appeared similar in the outer and inner horizons of baled silage, yeast, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteria numbers were higher in the outer horizon suggesting less exacting anaerobiosis adjacent to the surface of the bale ...
Rhodopseudomonas palustris ATCC ® BAA-1122D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain HaA2 TypeStrain=False Application:
Results for anaerobic digester monitoring equipment from AccuBubble, AppliTek AnaSense, BIODOS and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you
Bio-Terre Systems inc is an low temperature anaerobic digestion treatment with a high performance developped by Canadian for North American Farmers
This week, MassDEP announced that it had finalized regulatory revisions intended to encourage anaerobic digestion projects in the Commonwealth. 
A novel process for producing homopolymers and copolymers of ethylene which involves contacting ethylene and/or ethylene and at least one or more other olefin(s) under polymerization conditions with a Ziegler-Natta type catalyst, at least one halogenated hydrocarbon, at least one compound of the formula XnER3-n as a co-catalyst and at least one compound containing at least one carbon-oxygen-carbon linkage (C-O-C) of the formula R1-O(-R2-O)n-R3 as an external electron donor. Also provided are films and articles produced therefrom.
It also depends on the type of anaerobe- Faculative, obligate or aerotolerant. Not all anaerobic bacteria are obligates(will die when exposed to oxygen). They can be faculative(can use oxygen if present) or aerotolerant(name says it, dont use oxygen at all but can survive in it ...
The funny thing is that tumor cells are known for increased glucose metabolism, not only increased glucose consumption but anaerobic glucose metabolism, which is much less efficient. So wouldnt these cells just starve to death? I guess they would, if the increase in the metabolic flux where in the ATP consuming steps, what would lead to accumulation of metabolites and energy deprivation. But if the increase is in the ATP generating steps (after glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) then it would yield to energy surplus ...
Respiration The Human Transport System Objectives Define And. Powerpoint respiration respiration and gas exchange ppt video online download respiration and gas exchange ppt video online download powerpoint respiration how to answer respiration questions gcse biology exam hints ...
Introduction. The effect of concentration in the rate of enzyme catalysed reaction Aim: To investigate how altering the concentration of the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, affects the rate of a catalytic reaction. Hydrogen peroxide (H202) is a toxin, which is a by-product of metabolism, namely anaerobic respiration. Hydrogen peroxide (H202) is a colorless and transparent liquid, which is relatively stable and so requires the presence of catalase in order to decompose during anaerobic respiration. It is a poisonous toxin and must be broken down into harmless by-products in order to be removed from the organisms body. Catalase is one of the fastest acting enzymes in an organisms body. It catalyses hydrogen peroxide, producing water and oxygen. A single molecule of the globular protein decomposes 40,000 molecules of H202 per second. The catalase is responsible for producing 1012 molecules of oxygen per second. For this experiment, I am going to use yeast as the catalase. The reaction between ...
Urinalysis Urinalysis is definitely one of the oldest sciences in the world. It is used, on the one hand, to establish anomalies in the metabolic or hormonal balance where, although the kidneys are fully functional, abnormal volumes of metabolic end ...
Researchers from University of Cambridge have identified how an antibiotic-resistant superbug exploits oxygen-limited conditions in the lungs of patients with severe respiratory disease to thrive.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Chakrit Tachaapaikoon, Somboon Tanasupawat, Patthra Pason, Somphit Sornyotha, Rattiya Waeonukul, Khin Lay Kyu, Khanok Ratanakhanokchai].
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Get an answer for Why Anaerobic bacteria dominates the microbial population in the benthic zone? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Aerobic respiration lesson plans and worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to help you inspire students learning.
The end product of glycolysis is pyruvate, which can be used in aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Gycolyissis is the process by which glucose is broken down with two molecules of...
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Title: Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):R. Schaumann and A. C. Rodloff. Affiliation:Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig,Liebigstr. 24, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.. Keywords:Quinolones, naphthyridones, anaerobes, aerobe/anaerobe mixed infections. Abstract: Quinolones are of clinical and scientific interest since their discovery based on the nalidixic acid in the early 1960s. They are based on two types of ring structures, the quinolone nucleus and the naphthyridone nucleus. Nalidixic acid as the first discovered agent is a naphthyridone and has only a moderate activity against Gram-negative rods. The modification of the quinolone and naphthyridone structures resulted in increasing activities of the quinolones against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, atypical and obligately anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. The quinolones are now divided into four groups due to their different ...
The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Continuous reduction of tellurite to recoverable tellurium nanoparticles using an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. AU - Ramos-Ruiz,Adriana. AU - Sesma-Martin,Juan. AU - Sierra-Alvarez,Reyes. AU - Field,Jim A.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - According to the U.S. Department of Energy and the European Union, tellurium is a critical element needed for energy and defense technology. Thus methods are needed to recover tellurium from waste streams. The objectives of this study was to determine the feasibility of utilizing upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors to convert toxic tellurite (TeIV) oxyanions to non-toxic insoluble elemental tellurium (Te0) nanoparticles (NP) that are amendable to separation from aqueous effluents. The reactors were supplied with ethanol as the electron donating substrate to promote the biological reduction of TeIV. One reactor was additionally amended with the redox mediating flavonoid compound, riboflavin (RF), with the goal of ...
In the preceding paper the mechanism of catalysis of the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from Bacillus stearothermophilus was shown to involve a fast cycle and a slow cycle [McAdam, Fox, Lavelle & Fielden, 1977 (Biochem. J. 165, 71-79)]. Further properties of the enzyme was considered in the present paper. Pulse-radiolysis studies, under conditions of low substrate concentration to (i.e. when the fast cycle predominates), showed that enzyme activity decreases as pH increases (6.5-10.2). Activity was unaffected by the addition of H2O2 or NaN3 but slightly decreased by KCN. Both H2O2 and the reducing radical anion CO2- caused a decrease in A480 of the native enzyme. The rate of the fast catalytic cycle was independent of temperature (5-55 degrees C), and as temperature increases the slow cycle becomes relatively more important. Arrhenius parameters of the rate contants were estimated. The possible identity of the various forms of the enzyme is considered. ...
A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin) on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage.As initial inocula for anaerobic digestion of maize silage the samples from: (i) an agricultural biogas plant (ABP) which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii) cattle slurry (CS), which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii) raw sewage sludge (RSS) with low content of plant origin materials were used. The adaptation of methanogenic consortia was monitored during a series of passages, and the functionality of the adapted consortia was verified through start-up operation of anaerobic digestion in two-stage reactors. During the first stages of the adaptation phase,
article{745bf828-876c-4b08-8b49-acb2caf25f0e, abstract = {Calcium precipitation can have a number of effects on the performance of high-rate anaerobic performance including cementing of the sludge bed, limiting diffusion, and diluting the active biomass. The aim of this study was to observe the influence of precipitation in a stable full-scale system fed with high-calcium paper factory wastewater. Granules were examined from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (volume 1,805 m(3)) at a recycled paper mill with a loading rate of 5.7-6.6 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1) and influent calcium concentration of 400-700 gCa(.)m(-3). The granules were relatively small (1 mm), with a 200-400 mum core of calcium precipitate as observed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Compared to other granules, Methanomicrobiales not Methanobacteriales were the dominant hydrogen or formate utilisers, and putative acidogens were filamentous. The strength of the paper mill fed granules was very high when compared to ...
Two novel anaerobes, strains GB4-38T and SB9-1, were isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treating bean-curd farm wastewater and lotus field mud, respectively. The strains degraded straight-chain fatty acids with 4-8 carbon atoms in syntrophic association with methanogens and converted 1 mol butyrate into about 2 mol acetate and presumably 2 mol H2. None of the branched-chain fatty acids tested could be degraded. Benzoate was not degraded. Fumarate, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur and nitrate did not serve as electron acceptors for butyrate degradation. In the absence of a methanogen partner, strain GB4-38T grew on crotonate in pure culture; the generation time was about 5 h at 37 °C. However, strain SB9-1 grew on butyrate plus pentenoate, but not crotonate, in pure culture and the generation time was 18 h at 37 °C. Cells of GB4-38T and SB9-1 were straight rods and stained Gram-negative. The major cellular fatty acids of GB4-38T were C14 : 0 (29·74 %), C16 : 0 (17·00 %), C16 : 1

Anaerobiosis in the segmenting eggs of Bufo arenarum | DevelopmentAnaerobiosis in the segmenting eggs of Bufo arenarum | Development

In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum Hensel which, like some other amphibian eggs, can cleave at a normal rate in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of cyanide (Barbieri & Legname, 1957). Under anaerobic conditions a rapid accumulation of lactic acid gives evidence of an intense glycolytic activity, which is inhibited when the eggs are returned to oxygen (Pasteur effect) (Barbieri & Salomón, 1963). Furthermore, an increase in oxygen uptake during the first 2 h of recovery has been observed (payment of the oxygen debt) (Legname, 1966). Taking into account the low value of the respiratory quotient (r.q. = 0·5-0·7) during this period it can be assumed that most of the oxygen is not involved in the oxidation of lactate (Legname, 1966).. ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/15/1/61

Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in | Journal of Experimental...Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in | Journal of Experimental...

Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in ... Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in ... Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in ... Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/200/5/897

Proteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli. | Journal of BacteriologyProteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli. | Journal of Bacteriology

Proteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Proteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli.. M W Smith, F C Neidhardt ... at significant levels during aerobic growth and appeared to undergo metabolic regulation by stimuli other than anaerobiosis. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/154/1/336?ijkey=d4745acc78cfef65567033ff4ae039811db23f16&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

9780128005408: Anaerobiosis and Stemness: An Evolutionary Paradigm for Therapeutic Applications - AbeBooks - Zoran Ivanovic;...9780128005408: Anaerobiosis and Stemness: An Evolutionary Paradigm for Therapeutic Applications - AbeBooks - Zoran Ivanovic;...

Anaerobiosis and Stemness: An Evolutionary Paradigm for Therapeutic Applications (9780128005408) by Zoran Ivanovic; Marija ... Anaerobiosis and Stemness: An evolutionary paradigm provides a context for understanding the many complexities and evolutionary ... Anaerobiosis and Stemness is an important resource for stem cell and developmental biologists alike, as well as oncologists, ... 1. Anaerobiosis and Stemness: An Evolutionary Paradigm for Therapeutic Applications (Hardback) Zoran Ivanovic, Marija Vlaski- ...
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Plant mitochondrial function during anaerobiosis : Annals of Botany - oiPlant mitochondrial function during anaerobiosis : Annals of Botany - oi

NADH, produced from glycolysis during anaerobiosis and oxidized in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, should shift the ... composition of metabolites formed during anaerobiosis with increased conversion of pyruvate to alanine and greater involvement ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/aob/mcn100

Glycogen Degradation and the Accumulation of Compounds During Anaerobiosis in the Fresh Water Snail Lymnaea Stagnalis in:...Glycogen Degradation and the Accumulation of Compounds During Anaerobiosis in the Fresh Water Snail Lymnaea Stagnalis in:...

Glycogen Degradation and the Accumulation of Compounds During Anaerobiosis in the Fresh Water Snail Lymnaea Stagnalis. in ... Glycogen Degradation and the Accumulation of Compounds During Anaerobiosis in the Fresh Water Snail Lymnaea Stagnalis. in ...
more infohttps://brill.com/abstract/journals/njz/26/4/article-p549_4.xml

International Society for Plant AnaerobiosisInternational Society for Plant Anaerobiosis

The International Society for Plant Anaerobiosis welcomes members with an interest in low oxygen responses in plants as caused ...
more infohttp://is-pa.org/new-member-or-renew-membership

HKU Scholars Hub: Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis...HKU Scholars Hub: Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis...

Article: Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early ... Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early ... Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/260859

International Society for Plant AnaerobiosisInternational Society for Plant Anaerobiosis

The International Society for Plant Anaerobiosis welcomes members with an interest in low oxygen responses in plants as caused ...
more infohttp://is-pa.org/past-ispa-conferences

Photoproduction of ammonia by immobilized heterocystic cyanobacteria. Effect of nitrite and anaerobiosis - Semantic ScholarPhotoproduction of ammonia by immobilized heterocystic cyanobacteria. Effect of nitrite and anaerobiosis - Semantic Scholar

When reactors were placed in anaerobiosis by N2 bubbling, ammonia production was sustained several days and the total ammonia ... Long term effects of MSX, nitrite and anaerobiosis are discussed. ... When reactors were placed in anaerobiosis by N2 bubbling, ... Effect of nitrite and anaerobiosis}, author={Joseph Jeanfils and Roland Loudeche}, journal={Biotechnology Letters}, year={2005 ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Photoproduction-of-ammonia-by-immobilized-heterocy-Jeanfils-Loudeche/60f24165183a78e0265087b7aaa0d6a14f9a6ac6

MacOdrum Library - Carletons Institutional Repository:
  Metabolic rate depression and biochemical adaptation in anaerobiosis,...MacOdrum Library - Carleton's Institutional Repository: Metabolic rate depression and biochemical adaptation in anaerobiosis,...

Metabolic rate depression and biochemical adaptation in anaerobiosis, hibernation and estivation. Publication. Publication. ... Facultative metabolic rate depression is the common adaptive strategy of anaerobiosis, hibernation, and estivation, as well as ... Storey, K, & Storey, J. (1990). Metabolic rate depression and biochemical adaptation in anaerobiosis, hibernation and ...
more infohttps://ir.library.carleton.ca/pub/1004

Light-induced photosynthetic electron transfer upon anaerobiosis in Chlamydomonas : kinetics, electron sinks and setup of a...Light-induced photosynthetic electron transfer upon anaerobiosis in Chlamydomonas : kinetics, electron sinks and setup of a...

In this work, light-induced photosynthetic electron transfer after a prolonged dark-anaerobiosis period was studied by ... Light-induced photosynthetic electron transfer upon anaerobiosis in Chlamydomonas : kinetics, electron sinks and setup of a ... In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, prolonged anaerobiosis leads to the expression of various fermentative pathways. Among them, ... on the basis of the fluorescence induction kinetics upon a shift from dark-anaerobiosis to light. Five mutants display the ...
more infohttps://orbi.uliege.be/handle/2268/151470

MacOdrum Library - Carletons Institutional Repository:
  Anaerobiosis and the regulation of glycolytic enzymes in the sea...MacOdrum Library - Carleton's Institutional Repository: Anaerobiosis and the regulation of glycolytic enzymes in the sea...

Anaerobiosis and the regulation of glycolytic enzymes in the sea anemone Metridium senile. Publication. Publication. Journal of ... Michaelidis, B., & Storey, K. (1990). Anaerobiosis and the regulation of glycolytic enzymes in the sea anemone Metridium senile ...
more infohttps://ir.library.carleton.ca/pub/990

1,227 English Words  From Letters ANAEROBIOSIS - Page 3 :: FindTheWord.info -- Crossword Help - Crossword Solver - Scrabble...1,227 English Words From Letters ANAEROBIOSIS - Page 3 :: FindTheWord.info -- Crossword Help - Crossword Solver - Scrabble...

A List with 1,227 English Words From Letters ANAEROBIOSIS - Page 3 -- FindTheWord.info is a search engine for English words. ... 1,227 English Words From Letters ANAEROBIOSIS. Displaying words 51 - 75 of totally 1,227 found words.. Page:. Prev.12345678910 ...
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Frontiers | Transcriptional Control of Dual Transporters Involved in α-Ketoglutarate Utilization Reveals Their Distinct Roles...Frontiers | Transcriptional Control of Dual Transporters Involved in α-Ketoglutarate Utilization Reveals Their Distinct Roles...

Global anaerobic transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA induced c5038 expression in anaerobiosis, and C5038 played a major ... Global anaerobic transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA induced c5038 expression in anaerobiosis, and C5038 played a major ... FIGURE 2. c5038 transcription was induced whereas kgtP repressed in anaerobiosis. (A) Promoter region of kgtP. (B) Promoter ... Anaerobiosis Induced c5038 but Repressed kgtP Expression. Given that kgtP and c5038 contributed differentially to growth on KG ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00275/full

A new approach for sustained and efficient H 2 photoproduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   - Energy & Environmental Science ...A new approach for sustained and efficient H 2 photoproduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - Energy & Environmental Science ...

3 H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures requires anaerobiosis. (A) Accumulation of H2 under a train of light pulses ... In a low O2 environment, such pulse-illuminated algae can spontaneously establish anaerobiosis and produce H2 for up to three ... H2ase activation, however, requires strong anaerobiosis, which contradicts the suggestion of Liran and co-authors28 about the ... 3) occur only after the establishment of anaerobiosis in the culture. As shown in Fig. 3A, the photoautotrophic C. reinhardtii ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2018/ee/c8ee00054a

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Costs of life - Dynamics of the protein inventory of Staphylococcus aureus during anaerobiosis *Daniela Zühlke ... during anaerobiosis . Opens in a new window. ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22D%C3%B6rte%20Becher%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=97889571-7536-489a-9c57-e15629e3367b

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Costs of life - Dynamics of the protein inventory of Staphylococcus aureus during anaerobiosis *Daniela Zühlke ... during anaerobiosis . Opens in a new window. ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Michael%20Hecker%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=e4d0b238-222d-4f7f-a8de-678f78ac4221

Succinate synthesis and excretion by Penicillium simplicissimum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.Succinate synthesis and excretion by Penicillium simplicissimum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

Anaerobiosis. Cell Respiration. Citric Acid / metabolism. Citric Acid Cycle. Fumarates / metabolism. Gene Expression. Glucose ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Succinate-synthesis-excretion-by-Penicillium/12044678.html

Trichothecium roseum | Viticulture and EnologyTrichothecium roseum | Viticulture and Enology

Anaerobiosis:. *Heat:. References:. *Schwenk, S. "Significance of toxic metabolites of the fungus Trichothecium roseum Link ex ...
more infohttps://wineserver.ucdavis.edu/industry-info/enology/wine-microbiology/yeast-mold/trichothecium-roseum

Lactobacillus plantarum | Viticulture and EnologyLactobacillus plantarum | Viticulture and Enology

Genus/species (aliases): Lactobacillus plantarum Gram Stain: Positive Morphology: Cell: small (0.5 - 1.2 x 1.0 - 10μm), elongated rod-like bacilli assembled in pairs or in chains of variable length Colony: punctiform, convex, entire margin Liquid Growth: dispersed
more infohttps://wineserver.ucdavis.edu/industry-info/enology/wine-microbiology/bacteria/lactobacillus-plantarum

Inter Research » MEPS » v3Inter Research » MEPS » v3

Effects of Anaerobiosis MEPS 3:341-346 , Full text in pdf format. Santos, S. L., Simon, J. L. Response of Soft-Bottom Benthos ...
more infohttp://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v3/
  • NADH, produced from glycolysis during anaerobiosis and oxidized in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, should shift the composition of metabolites formed during anaerobiosis with increased conversion of pyruvate to alanine and greater involvement of other transamination reactions, such as those involving γ-aminobutyric acid formation. (oup.com)
  • Most of these proteins were found at significant levels during aerobic growth and appeared to undergo metabolic regulation by stimuli other than anaerobiosis. (asm.org)
  • In a next step, we screen an insertional mutant library (~3000 clones) on the basis of the fluorescence induction kinetics upon a shift from dark-anaerobiosis to light. (uliege.be)
  • Facultative metabolic rate depression is the common adaptive strategy of anaerobiosis, hibernation, and estivation, as well as a number of other arrested states. (carleton.ca)
  • In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, prolonged anaerobiosis leads to the expression of various fermentative pathways. (uliege.be)