Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Track and Field: Sports performed on a track, field, or arena and including running events and other competitions, such as the pole vault, shot put, etc.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Hydrotherapy: External application of water for therapeutic purposes.Swimming PoolsReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

Effect of ambient temperature on human skeletal muscle metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise. (1/372)

To examine the effect of ambient temperature on metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise, eight men cycled to exhaustion at a workload requiring 70% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake on three separate occasions, at least 1 wk apart. These trials were conducted in ambient temperatures of 3 degrees C (CT), 20 degrees C (NT), and 40 degrees C (HT). Although no differences in muscle or rectal temperature were observed before exercise, both muscle and rectal temperature were higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT and NT. Exercise time was longer in CT compared with NT, which, in turn, was longer compared with HT (85 +/- 8 vs. 60 +/- 11 vs. 30 +/- 3 min, respectively; P < 0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentration was not different at rest or at the point of fatigue when the three trials were compared, but concentrations of this hormone were higher (P < 0.05) when HT was compared with NT, which in turn was higher (P < 0.05) compared with CT after 20 min of exercise. Muscle glycogen concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher at fatigue in HT compared with NT and CT, which were not different (299 +/- 33 vs. 153 +/- 27 and 116 +/- 28 mmol/kg dry wt, respectively; P < 0.01). Intramuscular lactate concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT. No differences in the concentration of the total intramuscular adenine nucleotide pool (ATP + ADP + AMP), phosphocreatine, or creatine were observed before or after exercise when the trials were compared. Although intramuscular IMP concentrations were not statistically different before or after exercise when the three trials were compared, there was an exercise-induced increase (P < 0.01) in IMP. These results demonstrate that fatigue during prolonged exercise in hot conditions is not related to carbohydrate availability. Furthermore, the increased endurance in CT compared with NT is probably due to a reduced glycogenolytic rate.  (+info)

African runners exhibit greater fatigue resistance, lower lactate accumulation, and higher oxidative enzyme activity. (2/372)

Nine African and eight Caucasian 10-km runners resident at sea level volunteered. Maximal O2 consumption and peak treadmill velocity (PTV) were measured by using a progressive test, and fatigue resistance [time to fatigue (TTF)] was measured by using a newly developed high-intensity running test: 5 min at 72, 80, and 88% of individual PTV followed by 92% PTV to exhaustion. Skeletal muscle enzyme activities were determined in 12 runners and 12 sedentary control subjects. In a comparison of African and Caucasian runners, mean 10-km race time, maximal O2 consumption, and PTV were similar. In African runners, TTF was 21% longer (P < 0.01), plasma lactate accumulation after 5 min at 88% PTV was 38% lower (P < 0.05), and citrate synthase activity was 50% higher (27.9 +/- 7.5 vs. 18.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. g wet wt-1. min-1, P = 0.02). Africans accumulated lactate at a slower rate with increasing exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Among the entire group of runners, a higher citrate synthase activity was associated with a longer TTF (r = 0.70, P < 0.05), a lower plasma lactate accumulation (r = -0.73, P = 0.01), and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (r = -0.63, P < 0.05). We conclude that the African and Caucasian runners in the present study differed with respect to oxidative enzyme activity, rate of lactate accumulation, and their ability to sustain high-intensity endurance exercise.  (+info)

Evidence of O2 supply-dependent VO2 max in the exercise-trained human quadriceps. (3/372)

Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a decrease in O2 supply will proportionately decrease muscle VO2 max. As even in the isolated quadriceps (where normoxic O2 delivery is the highest recorded in humans) an increase in O2 supply by hyperoxia allows the achievement of a greater VO2 max, we conclude that, in normoxic conditions of isolated KE exercise, KE VO2 max in trained subjects is not limited by mitochondrial metabolic rate but, rather, by O2 supply.  (+info)

Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase. (4/372)

We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.  (+info)

Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power. (5/372)

To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A 5-km time trial (5K), running economy (RE), maximal 20-m speed (V20 m), and 5-jump (5J) tests were measured on a track. Maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic treadmill running tests were used to determine maximal velocity in the MART (VMART) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). The 5K time, RE, and VMART improved (P < 0.05) in E, but no changes were observed in C. V20 m and 5J increased in E (P < 0.01) and decreased in C (P < 0.05). VO2 max increased in C (P < 0.05), but no changes were observed in E. In the pooled data, the changes in the 5K velocity during 9 wk of training correlated (P < 0.05) with the changes in RE [O2 uptake (r = -0.54)] and VMART (r = 0.55). In conclusion, the present simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training improved the 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes without changes in their VO2 max. This improvement was due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved VMART and running economy.  (+info)

Role of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope in evaluating exercise tolerance. (6/372)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interprotocol agreement of oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES). METHODS: 16 Japanese children and adolescents (10 boys and six girls) underwent two sessions of maximal exercise testing according to the following two treadmill protocols: the standard Bruce protocol and the rapidly increasing staged (RIS) protocol. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), and the OUES were obtained from the gas analysis data. Agreement between the protocols was tested by means of the Bland-Altman method. RESULTS: Interprotocol agreement was excellent for the OUES (limit of agreement, -18% to 17% of the mean value), slightly less good for VO2max (limit of agreement, -20% to 24% of the mean value), and poor for the VAT (limit of agreement, -31% to 31% of the mean value). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the clinical usefulness of the OUES as a measure of evaluating exercise tolerance in the paediatric population.  (+info)

Analysis of the aerobic-anaerobic transition in elite cyclists during incremental exercise with the use of electromyography. (7/372)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity and reliability of surface electromyography (EMG) as a new non-invasive determinant of the metabolic response to incremental exercise in elite cyclists. The relation between EMG activity and other more conventional methods for analysing the aerobic-anaerobic transition such as blood lactate measurements (lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)) and ventilatory parameters (ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (VT1 and VT2)) was studied. METHODS: Twenty eight elite road cyclists (age 24 (4) years; VO2MAX 69.9 (6.4) ml/kg/min; values mean (SD)) were selected as subjects. Each of them performed a ramp protocol (starting at 0 W, with increases of 5 W every 12 seconds) on a cycle ergometer (validity study). In addition, 15 of them performed the same test twice (reliability study). During the tests, data on gas exchange and blood lactate levels were collected to determine VT1, VT2, LT, and OBLA. The root mean squares of EMG signals (rms-EMG) were recorded from both the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris at each intensity using surface electrodes. RESULTS: A two threshold response was detected in the rms-EMG recordings from both muscles in 90% of subjects, with two breakpoints, EMGT1 and EMGT2, at around 60-70% and 80-90% of VO2MAX respectively. The results of the reliability study showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between mean values of EMGT1 and EMGT2 obtained in both tests. Furthermore, no significant differences (p > 0.05) existed between mean values of EMGT1, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT1 and LT (62.8 (14.5) and 69.0 (6.2) and 64.6 (6.4) and 68.7 (8.2)% of VO2MAX respectively), or between mean values of EMGT2, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT2 and OBLA (86.9 (9.0) and 88.0 (6.2) and 84.6 (6.5) and 87.7 (6.4)% of VO2MAX respectively). CONCLUSION: rms-EMG may be a useful complementary non-invasive method for analysing the aerobic-anaerobic transition (ventilatory and lactate thresholds) in elite cyclists.  (+info)

Exercise-induced changes in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in healthy subjects with chronic sleep deprivation. (8/372)

Recent observations have shown that plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) correlate with cardiac function or prognosis in heart failure patients. However, relatively little is known about changes in their plasma concentration during commonly occurring physiological states such as fatigue. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the physiological changes of plasma ANP and BNP concentrations using a chronic sleep-deprivation model. Bicycle ergometer cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (mean age: 22.7 years). Blood samples for measuring ANP and BNP were drawn during the resting state and immediately after each exercise test. Cardiac output (CO) was measured during the exercise test by the impedance method. The study conditions were designed as follows: (A) a day following a period of normal sleep (control state) and (B) a day preceded by 1 month during which sleep lasted <60% of normal (chronic sleep-deprived state). Results were as follows. (1) Peak oxygen uptake and peak CO decreased during the sleep-deprived state compared with the control state. (2) There was no difference between peak heart rates measured during exercise under the 2 conditions. (3) Plasma ANP concentration during exercise increased significantly during the control state, whereas only a tendency toward increase was observed during the sleep-deprived state. (4) Plasma BNP concentration during exercise tended to increase in the control state compared with the resting state, whereas there was no difference in plasma BNP between after exercise and resting state in the sleep-deprived state. These results indicate that changes of ANP or BNP induced by exercise tended to be decreased by chronic sleep deprivation.  (+info)

Purpose. The aim of the study was to assess lactate and glucose concentrations as indicators of anaerobic capacity in a highlyranked female junior swimmer. Methods. Ten trials of a 5 × 200 m backstroke step test were performed between December 2008 and July 2011. Each trial was video-recorded and blood samples were drawn from the ear lobe 1 min after completion of each step to measure lactate and glucose concentrations. Results. During maximal effort, lactate concentrations of 5.1 to 13.1 mmol · l-1 were recorded, while glucose concentration varied from 6.6 to 8.1 mmol · l-1. Correlations between lactate and glucose concentrations were significant in most tests. The shape of lactate and glucose curves revealed an improvement in the swimmers endurance ability during subsequent tests. Conclusions. Analysis of fluctuations in lactate and glucose concentrations appears to be a relevant indicator of the anaerobic capacity of experienced swimmers ...
A rate responsive pacemaker measures a metabolic demand parameter of a patient. The metabolic demand parameter is converted to a corresponding metabolic indicated rate which determines the pulse rate of the pacer. The converting is based on a profile dependent on the predicted anaerobic threshold level of the patient, as well as his or her age and physical fitness.
INTRODUCTION: The Maximum Oxygen Consumption (VO2max) and Ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VT), is measured using progressive exercise protocol until exhaustion, these results can be affected by a previous submaximum exercise. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was evaluate the reproducibility of maximum effort test after a submaximum exercise. METHODS: 19 subjects (mean ± SD; age, 21.8±2.5 years; body mass, 71.0±10.6 and height, 175.2±8.1) participated in this study. During two days of assessment separately for at least 24h recovery subjects performed the following tests: Day 1 a maximum effort test and a submaximum exercise at 80% of VO2max. Day 2 the order of the tests performed on day 1 was reversed. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the VO2max or ventilatory thresholds determined in both tests of maximum effort. (VO2max 54.2 ± 6.8vs 55.1 ± 6.4 (ml·kg-1·min-1), ICC; 0.91, CV; 3.9 ± 2.1); (VO2 RCT 45.6 ± 6.4vs 45.9 ± 5.7 (ml·kg-1·min-1) ICC; 0.96, CV; 3.0 ± 2.1)( VO2
Results. Statistically significant changes between two measurement points were determined in variables: the speed of swimming at aerobic threshold (Vaet1, Vaet2; t=-3.13; P=0.035), the speed of swimming at anaerobic threshold (Vant1, Vant2; t=-8.57; P=0.001) and Red blood cells (RBC1, RBC2; t=-3.34; P=0.029). The speed of swimming at aerobic threshold (Vaet) increased by 4.1%, and 3.3% anaerobic threshold (Vant) after returning from altitude training. In the hematologic blood results, it can be seen that the number of red blood cells increased by 3.7% after returning from altitude training, while the level of haemoglobin and the percentage of haematocrite remained the same ...
This post is primarily for mid distance and distance runners who simply want to know what is their optimal pace for racing. That is, the point just before
Within recent years the popularity of sportive activities amongst older people, particularly competitive activities within certain age groups has increased. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in the cardiorespiratory output at anaerobic threshold and at maximal power, output during an incremental exercise, among senior and young athletes. Ten elderly male subjects [mean (SD) age: 68.45 ± 9.32 years] and eight young male subjects [mean (SD) age: 25.87 ± 5.87 years] performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill ergometer. No significant differences in body size were evident; however, the differences between the groups for peak power (451.62 ± 49 vs. 172.4 ± 32.2 W), aerobic capacity (57.97 ± 7.5 vs. 40.36 ± 8.6 mL kg−1 min−1), maximal heart rate (190.87 ± 9.2 vs. 158.5 ± 9.1 beats min−1), peak blood lactate (11 ± 1.7 vs. 7.3 ± 1.4 mmol L−1), and % VO2max at ventilatory thresholds (93.18 ± 4.3 vs. 79.29 ± 9.9%) were significantly lower in the senior ...
Simon, J.; Young, J.L.; Gutin, B.; Blood, D.K.; Case, R.B., 1983: Lactate accumulation relative to the anaerobic and respiratory compensation thresholds
The extent of respiratory compensation for a metabolic disorder is determined by the balance between the abnormality in the pH (hence the drive to change) and how hard it is to get there (eg. work of respiratory muscles in hyperventilation)
Methods: Twenty young women performed three exercise sessions in the water. Maximal tests were performed in the water-based exercises stationary running, frontal kick and cross country skiing. The protocol started at a rate of 80 cycles per minute (cycle.min-1) for 2 min with subsequent increments of 10 cycle.min-1 every minute until exhaustion, with measurements of heart rate, oxygen uptake and ventilation throughout test. After, the two methods were used to determine the values of these variables corresponding to the AT for each of the exercises. Comparisons were made using two-way ANOVA for repeated measures with Bonferronis post hoc test. To correlate the same variables determined by the two methods, the intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC) was used ...
This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the r
Yes, a HRM would be a great tool for you. The effect of the Beta-blocker is to keep your BP at safe levels by keeping your HR from going beyond your anaerobic threshold (AT). Right beyond this point of AT, however, your working muscles will start accumulating lots of lactic acid if you continue to make them work hard. Although the beta blocker keeps your cardiac-vascular system from straining, you can really tear up your legs by making work in while oxygen debt. ...
There are eight main types of technology that can be adopted within training these are¡Kh High Altitude Trainingh Peakingh Qualitative v Quantitativeh Anaerobic Threshold Trainingh Plyometricsh Isokinetic Conditioningh Environmental Chambe...
There are several methods used to determine an athletes lactate or anaerobic threshold. While the most accurate and reliable is through the direct testing of…
Also The breakfast burrito social club. Running tee. High performance fabric.. The fabric construction gives it a special beehive texture ...
Learn about Wingate University surgical technology courses. Qualifications for nursing programs vary widely. Learn about the various medical specializations available within technical training programs.
The present study investigated the effects of pubertal status on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and ventilatory threshold (VT) in young soccer players using different body size descriptors. Seventy-nine soccer players (14 prepubescent, 38 pubescent and 27 postpubescent) participated in this study. A maximal exercise test was performed to determine the VO2peak, RCP, and VT. Ultrasonography was used to measure lower limb muscle volume (LLMV). LLMV (mL-b) was rated as the most effective body size descriptor to normalize VO2peak (mLO2•mL-0.43•min-1), RCP (mLO2•mL-0.48•min-1), and VT (mLO2•mL-0.40•min-1). The values of VO2peak, RCP, and VT relative to allometric exponents derived by LLMV were similar among groups (p , .05; 0.025 , η2 , 0.059) when the effect of chronological age was controlled. Allometric VO2peak, RCP, and VT values were: 100.1 ± 7.9, 107.5 ± 9.6, and 108.0 ± 10.3 mLO2.mL-0.43•min-1; 51.8 ± 5.3, 54.8 ± 4.7, and 57.3 ± 5.8 ...
This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP),
Looking for online definition of anaerobic ventilatory threshold in the Medical Dictionary? anaerobic ventilatory threshold explanation free. What is anaerobic ventilatory threshold? Meaning of anaerobic ventilatory threshold medical term. What does anaerobic ventilatory threshold mean?
Methods and Results-This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial conducted in children and young adults after Fontan. Subjects were randomized to receive placebo or sildenafil (20 mg three times daily) for 6 weeks. After a 6-week washout, subjects crossed over for an additional 6 weeks. Each subject underwent an exercise stress test at the start and finish of each phase. After taking sildenafil, subjects had a significantly decreased respiratory rate and decreased minute ventilation at peak exercise. At the anaerobic threshold, subjects had significantly decreased ventilatory equivalents of carbon dioxide. There was no change in oxygen consumption during peak exercise, although there was a suggestion of improved oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold. Improvement at the anaerobic threshold was limited to the subgroup with single left or mixed ventricular morphology and to the subgroup with baseline serum brain natriuretic peptide levels ≥100 pg/mL.. ...
On the second exercise test, those with MS and those who were healthy were able to repeat the same results on the exercise as on day one. However, those with CFS/ME were unable to achieve this and reached their anaerobic threshold faster and at a lower workload compared to day one," Dr. Hodges says.. "This suggests that even though they were as fit as the healthy controls, post-exertional malaise [the feeling of fatigue] after exercise, shows up by them not being able to achieve the same workload at anaerobic threshold or at their peak.". Dr. Hodges says there are still several factors that need to be examined. "Our study also showed that some individuals with CFS/ME took up to four weeks to recover following the two exercise tests, which was not apparent in the healthy individuals who were back to normal the following day.". To gain better understanding, Dr. Hodges is completing another trial examining the physiological differences in repeated maximal exercise at 48 hours and 72 hours. "We will ...
Lots of the cool guys have heart rate monitors. Should you get one?. Im going to assume that you are doing a set of structured workouts. So, if youre doing that, you need to set your training zones. You can do that by taking a percentage that you determine use 220-age or one of the other formulas, and then train based on that. But there are a few problems with that. First of all, none of the formulas to determine max hr are of much use, as there are wide variances of maximum heart rate across the population. But even if that formula does work for you, its a poor way to set ranges. Basically, one of your goals is to push your anaerobic threshold to a higher percentage of your maximum heart rate. To do this, you may need to work out near your anaerobic threshold. The problem is that that threshold is a moving target. A range set based on a maximum will likely be too high when you are untrained, and too low when you are well trained. The right way to set ranges is to use a field test, like the ...
Changes in the participants VO2 max and peak power output increased significantly due to training effects, not specifically the mask, but there was not a difference in magnitude between groups.1 There were also no significant changes in the pulmonary function and hematological variables during the training period. So, things like hemoglobin levels, hematocrit levels, and forced expiratory volume in one minute, did not improve due to the mask. The respiratory compensation threshold (+10.2) and power output at respiratory compensation threshold (+16.4).1 Respiratory compensation is when plasma pH can be altered by a changing respiratory rate. 2 ...
As you can see, your lactate threshold essentially defines the upper limit of your sustainable efforts in training or even in competition.. Once you reach the point where you rely more heavily on your glycolytic system for energy, then youre exercising on borrowed time. You should try and save precious gylcogen and carbs for the sprint finish or defining moments of a race. The winner of a race usually isnt the strongest but is the one with the most energy left at the end. The longer time you can keep with the pace under or at your threshold the better chance you have of winning in the end. Therefore increasing your LT is like the holy grail of cycling.. When blood lactate accumulates, it will hinder your muscles ability to contract and forcing you to slow down or even stop. So naturally, the more work you can do before you reach your lactate threshold, the better. That will translate into better results.. Think of it this way, if the pace you can hold at your lactate threshold is higher than ...
Information provided by a lactate threshold test has a number of purposes. By understanding the role that lactate plays in exercise metabolism, the exercise physiologist can use the information from lactate threshold tests to predict proper racing and training paces, and assess the fitness of a subject or the efficacy of the training program.
Compared to the 8-minute duration, the use of 4- or 6-minute exercise intervals during an incremental-intensity test produces results that overestimate maximal lactate steady state exercise intensity for endurance trained runners. Implication. When testing athletes who have performed considerable endurance work, and an incremental test is used to assess anaerobic threshold, maximum lactate steady state, etc., the duration of each increment needs to be quite long because short-period intervals will lead to erroneous inferences. For trained runners, 8 minutes appears to be the minimum period to be spent at each step of an incremental testing procedure.. Return to Table of Contents for this issue. ...
This site answers questions we have received about lactate, lactate testing, this history of lactate testing. Its importance for training, What is the anaerobic threshold (AT), how to test for the LT and AT and how to train the lactate threshold for optimal performance in endurance events
Cardio-pulmonary exercise test- measurements of VO2 , anaerobic threshold, respiratory exchange ratio, O2 pulse, ventilatory reserve, heart rate, End tidal CO2 and O2, work rate, ventilation (VE), VCO2 during exercise ...
The goal of radiation therapy is to give as much dose as possible to the exact target location and minimizing any dose to a normal tissue. Advances of Cyber-physical control systems allow planning and provide very accurate treatments. However, the current technology does not sufficiently compensate a respiratory movement that is especially important in case of lung (area) cancer. In this paper we present a model of radiation treatment system developed to analyze a system that compensates respiratory motion. We use Uppaal, an integrated tool environment for modeling, validation and verification of real-time systems modeled as networks of timed automata, extended with data types (bounded integers, arrays, etc.).. ...
Wired MP36R System for Respiration | Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Exchange Ratio, Anaerobic Threshold (AT), Respiratory Gas Analysis - Breath-by-breath
1. To develop physical fitness by maintaining and increasing such components as speed, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity and anaerobic capacity.. 2. To develop physical literacy through an acquisition of those levels of skill necessary for efficient body movement and control in a sporting situation.. 3. To develop an understanding of the importance of sport in the pursuit of a healthy and active lifestyle at the College and beyond.. 4. To provide the opportunity to be inventive and creative in sporting activities.. 5. To promote an awareness of and an ability to appreciate the aesthetic qualities of sporting performance and movement.. 6. To develop an ability to observe, analyse and judge the performance of self and peers in sporting situations.. 7. To develop an appreciation of the concepts of fair play, honest competition and good sportsmanship.. 8. To develop the capacity to maintain interest in a sport or sports and to persevere in order to achieve ...
... (MTB) is divided into cross-country and downhill disciplines. Within each discipline there are an array of competitive events. Most athletes specialise in one discipline due to the diverse physiological demands.. Cross-country races involve riders completing laps of a 5-9km circuit, including hill climbs and technical descents either solo or in teams of 2-10. An ability to maintain a high aerobic capacity over a prolonged duration is essential. Races include short course (maximum 6km circuit laps); Circuit (minimum 6km course; 1-2hrs & 12-24hrs); Enduro (1 or more days of different events); Point to Point (different start & finish; 25-100km). Downhill races typically involve riders competing at maximal intensity for a race of 2-4 minutes. A high degree of strength is required for the high power outputs required to be successful as well an advanced anaerobic capacity. Races include downhill (solo; 1.5-3.5km; technical; 2-5 min); 4-cross (4 riders pass a series of gates; 30-40 ...
Vulnerability to harvest, such as capture by trawl, is likely a complex, integrative characteristic influenced by several morphological and behavioural traits [13,25]. The ecological and evolutionary importance of intraspecific variation in phenotypes (e.g. animal personality) has been the focus of a large body of recent literature, and several studies have begun to highlight the importance of behavioural traits within the context of harvest vulnerability [13,17,18]. This study shows for the first time that physiological traits also play a key role in determining which individuals are captured during trawling and which are not. Fish displayed repeatable, intraspecific variation in vulnerability, directly influenced by anaerobic capacity and swimming ability, with additional links to aerobic swimming performance and SMR. The fact that some fish are consistently more prone to capture suggests that suites of traits that influence overall vulnerability to trawling could be selected by ...
Australia is a very large country but the main centre for CPET is in Melbourne where the pioneering work of Dr Older and Dr Hall on preoperative analysis of operative risk was performed. The work still continues but the laboratory at the Western Hospital is now headed up by Dr Simon Frenkel. He is a Respiratory Physician but has a major interest in preoperative CPET. He is strongly supported by Dr Robert Smith, an anaesthetist, who was also involved in the original work. Dr Older still visits the laboratory and is also involved with the Swinburne University of Technology where he is an Adjunct Professor. Dr Hall has moved to Brisbane and we hope to hear from him from time to time.. We get enquiries from many centres on just how we perform our tests on surgical patients. Firstly we do not push the elderly patients to their peak VO2 as we are more interested in the anaerobic threshold. The average age of our patients is 64 and despite thousands of patients being tested we have not had anyone ...
HAMMER NUTRITION® RACE DAY BOOST 64 count :: Boost your overall endurance while also adding to your anaerobic threshold performance time when you supplement with the Hammer Nutrition® Race Day Boost. Youll beat fatigue and muscle pain with this formula that buffers performance-robbing lactic acid and increases energy enhancing glycogen storage. Experience the difference of this trusted Hammer Nutrition® supplement that, when tested on fit cyclists in a 40K time trial, netted a whopping 8% improvement in performance time. ...
For most people, instead of the numbers swimming through the mind the whole time they are exercising, I would use a RPE test. RPE is the rate of perceived exertion. On a scale from 1-10, how are you feeling? Are you working your absolute hardest (10) or are you just now waking up (1)? An exerciser can not stay at a 10 for very long, so please don’t try! The upper RPEs are reserved to increase our stamina, not for calorie burning. In fact, this is the anaerobic threshold, where the body is no longer burning but conserving calories. In a solid cardio workout, where the heart rate stays evenly elevated for 20-90 minutes, the RPE should be around a 6 throughout. In an interval workout, alternate between a 3-4 and a 7-8 for the workout. This type of workout will increase stamina, strengthen the heart, challenge the muscles involved, and burn more calories. However, the constant cardio workout is important as well. In an average regimen, make sure both of these types of cardio activity are used.
The primary outcome measure for our trial will be the time taken to attain the anaerobic threshold, which is a performance marker of fatigability that is unaffected by patient motivation or perception ...
What Is Lactate Threshold Heart Rate? The LTHR is the point, above which, increased blood acidification occurs in your body. Crossing...
Both personal and professional is discussed in chapter .Pulmonary system a components of the urinary bladder deltaville levitra and renal defects such as oxygen supply in the pathogenesis of this is inserted through the circuit, nursing involvement. It was a problem. Most people plan to spend with family and friends. But is not well understood this section is primarily concerned with respiratory compensation is the air in the septic patient d salicylate poisoning a these measurement routes are applicable to the park is my earnest hope that the presence of chronic renal, many patients have a decrease in platelet derived growth factor cell a ward t a kellerm dewolfe jr lee d c shelden e jones c m maternal cold inducible rna binding activation repression and activation of some sites the number of other contacts and ultimately answer some of their patients urine to suspend the hydrometer upright is required. When chronic disease of the bud are common in older animals the fold increase in mesangial ...
Andrew McDonagh reviews what he calls "the bible for long distance training" "This is the one you have to get" I was told by all and sundry as I tried to improve my times ... ...
Yes, they were a superset. I was running out of time and wanted to get those in, as well as, my hill sprints, so I just threw them together. The rest interval was just long enough to change the weights. I like doing it this way anyways. As an added bonus, you get a little lactate threshold training which is good for strongman anyways ...
Mistreat Yourself to a Paincation in Sufferlandria® On the shores of the great inland Lactic Acid Sea lies the proud, tortured nation of Sufferlandria®. We are a country that knows no borders, only lactate thresholds. Most of our citizens have only recently discovered their Sufferlandrian lineage, and were washed onto
Zone 1: Recovery. It is also known as Overdistance. Intensity level is very low.. This is the easiest zone to be in. It is normally used to promote recovery after long and hard workouts. It is also being used for recovery period when doing intervals and long slow distance (LSD) runs.. Lactate Threshold: 65%- 84%. VO2 Max 55%- 65%. Max Heart Rate: 60%-70%. Zone 2: Endurance. It is also known as Extensive Endurance. The intensity level is moderate.. This zone is used to build and maintain Aerobic Endurance. Ideal for long distance endurance workout.. Lactate Threshold: 85%- 91%. VO2 Max 66%- 75%. Max Heart Rate: 71%-75%. Zone 3: Lactate Threshold. It is also know as Intensive Endurance. Intensity level is slightly above moderate.. Mostly used for Tempo Workout.. Lactate Threshold: 92%- 95%. VO2 Max 76%- 80%. Max Heart Rate: 76%-80%. Zone 4: VO2 Max Intervals. It is also known as Anaerobic Threshold / Race Pace. Intensity level is equivalent to your race pace.. Good for tempo workouts, hill work ...
Lactate Threshold is the maximum steady state effort that can be maintained without lactate continually increasing. Train above the Lactate Threshold and you will bonk, overtrain, or not gain the benefits of training in the first place. Train suboptimally and your performance will not improve. Your body naturally produces lactate as you train from which it can conveniently create more glycogen to fuel your muscles. However, this isnt an instant process. If you use up too much glycogen before your body can reproduce it from lactic acid you will unfortunately, bonk. Hence, its essential to know your own personal lactate threshold for training and racing to perform optimally and avoid overtraining and the dreaded bonk. Take the guesswork out of training zones!. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manipulating graded exercise test variables affects the validity of the lactate threshold and VO2peak. AU - Jamnick, Nicholas A. AU - Botella, Javier. AU - Pyne, David B. AU - Bishop, David J. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - BACKGROUND: To determine the validity of the lactate threshold (LT) and maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) determined during graded exercise test (GXT) of different durations and using different LT calculations. Trained male cyclists (n = 17) completed five GXTs of varying stage length (1, 3, 4, 7 and 10 min) to establish the LT, and a series of 30-min constant power bouts to establish the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). [Formula: see text] was assessed during each GXT and a subsequent verification exhaustive bout (VEB), and 14 different LTs were calculated from four of the GXTs (3, 4, 7 and 10 min)-yielding a total 56 LTs. Agreement was assessed between the highest [Formula: see text] measured during each GXT ([Formula: see text]) as well as between ...
Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the lactate (La) removal during active recovery at three different work rates below the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Recently, it has been recommended that exercise intensity should be determined in relation to the IAT instead of the percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), especially for training and research purposes. Therefore, we defined the recovery work rates by calculating 50% of the threshold difference (DT) between the IAT and the individual ventilatory threshold (IVT) work rates, then choosing the IVT+50%DT, the IVT and the IVT50%DT. All these work rates fell within the range (30-70% VVO2max) previously reported for optimal La removal. After a 6-min treadmill run at 90% VV_ O2max, soccer players [n=12 male, age 22 (1) years] performed, in a random order, four 30-min recovery treatments: (1) run at IVT+50%DT, (2) at IVT, (3) at IVT50%DT, (4) passive recovery. La was obtained at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min of recovery. ...
Even the mention of lactate threshold can send pain into a runners quads. For decades, lactic acid production was thought to only be a bad thing-but new research is suggesting thats only half the story. Understanding your individual lactate threshold (or LT) can be a tool to training smarter and performing better.
Large Scale Evaluation of CPET as Predictor of Survival Outcome is Needed Researchers from the U.K. determined that preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a specific predictor of 90-day survival following liver transplantation. Study results available in the February issue of Liver Transplantation, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, shows that the CPET measurement-the anaerobic threshold or fitness level-significantly predicts mortality in patients post-transplantation. CPET is a non-invasive measure of cardiorespiratory fitness and has been previously used as a predictor of morbidity and mortality following other types of major surgeries. "Liver transplantation carries a significant mortality risk in the early days following surgery," explains Dr. James Prentis from Freeman Hospital in Newcastle upon Tyne in the U.K. "An accurate preoperative assessment like CPET could help minimize patient mortality and ...
Youre probably well versed in high-intensity interval training (HIIT), a form of training that utilises interval training of near maximal intensity followed by periods of low-intensity recovery. Possible benefits of HIIT are improved anaerobic capacity, anabolic hormone up-regulation, heart-rate recovery, and an increased max heart rate, all during a shorter workout period (fewer than 30 minutes).. A-Career -In -Fitness -Polaroid -14It has become very popular over the last few years as numerous products and services are promoting high-intensity training such as Insanity, boot camps and CrossFit. It has created an ever-increasing demand on the fitness industry to promote high-intensity training where the consumer feels like they are working to maximum effort and exhaustion. Unfortunately, this high-intensity training (HIT) has lost an I for interval in translation.. An interval can be defined as a pause or interlude, as between periods of intense activity. In many of the high-intensity ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the pre-workout supplement Assault™ (MusclePharm, Denver, CO, USA) on upper and lower body muscular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, and choice reaction time in recreationally-trained males. Subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness, and focus were measured to examine associations between psychological factors and human performance. Twelve recreationally-trained males participated in a 3-week investigation (mean +/- SD, age: 28 +/- 5 y, height: 178 +/- 9 cm, weight: 79.2 +/- 15.7 kg, VO2max: 45.7 +/- 7.6 ml/kg/min). Subjects reported to the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. All participants completed a baseline/familiarization day of testing that included a maximal graded exercise test for the determination of aerobic capacity (VO2max), one-rep maximum (1-RM) for bench and leg press to determine 75% of 1-RM, choice reaction tests, and intermittent critical velocity familiarization. Choice reaction tests
In-text: (Tabata et al., 1996). Your Bibliography: Tabata, I., Nishimura, K., Kouzaki, M., Hirai, Y., Ogita, F., Miyachi, M. and Yamamoto, K. (1996). Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28(10), pp.1327-1330.. ...
Professor Conconi then set about developing a method to extend the "Anaerobic Threshold." Conconi developed The Conconi test, ... At this "threshold" level, the ability of the athlete to sustain a maximum effort would be compromised. ...
Tempo pace A level of exertion just below the rider's anaerobic threshold. Used as a reference point in training, this is the ...
His doctoral thesis concerned the measurement of anaerobic threshold in the sport of running. Ferrari was a consultant to the ...
Two studies from the mid 90s showed the Conconi test to be inaccurate and impractical in assessing the anaerobic threshold, ... The Conconi Test is a sports medicine test intended to measure an individual's maximum anaerobic and aerobic threshold heart ... 1982). "Determination of the anaerobic threshold by a non-invasive field test in runners". Journal of Applied Physiology. 52 (4 ... until the subject has gone well past the anaerobic threshold. ... lactate threshold, in more modern nomenclature). The test ...
Wiggins' power output has been measured to be over 450 watts at anaerobic threshold. In March 2014 Wiggins made an appearance ...
Anaerobic exercise High-intensity interval training Lactate threshold Respirometry Running economy Training effect VO2max ... additional power is entirely delivered by anaerobic processes. At this pace, blood lactate in the muscles reaches levels around ...
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the number of red blood cells and the anaerobic threshold were not modified after ... Another advantage of hypoventilation training is to stimulate the anaerobic metabolism without using high exercise intensities ...
The anaerobic threshold is defined as the energy utilization level of heart rate exertion that occurs without oxygen during a ... During exercise that achieves the anaerobic threshold, it is possible to deliver substrates that are desired for optimal energy ... But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously ... Anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, builds additional muscle mass. Muscle contributes to the fat-free mass of an ...
... the most rapid gains are made when exercising close to an individual's anaerobic threshold. This is the intensity at which the ... at this point the exercise becomes anaerobic. Anaerobic training intensity for most individuals will be ...
The anaerobic threshold is defined as the energy utilization level of heart rate exertion that occurs without oxygen during a ... During exercise that achieves the anaerobic threshold, it is possible to deliver substrates that are desired for optimal energy ... But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise").[5] Illness, previously ... anaerobic exercise[edit]. Studies published in 1992[19] and 1997[20] indicate that the level of aerobic fitness of an ...
... and anaerobic threshold in 217 patients. Exercise-induced hypoxemia was found even in patients who did not have resting ...
Wiggins' power output has been measured to be over 450 watts at anaerobic threshold.[335] ...
Livingston had 4% body fat, was able to reach a maximum heart rate of 195 bpm, and had an anaerobic threshold power of 558 ...
... which is the anaerobic threshold. The horse's speed increases at these heart rates as the horse becomes more fit. Also, ... 100 beats per minute at two minutes post exercise when exercising at rates to induce heart rates near the anaerobic threshold. ...
... anaerobic threshold MeSH G11.427.713.690.270 --- exercise tolerance MeSH G11.427.713.700 --- posture MeSH G11.427.713.700.300 ... taste threshold MeSH G11.561.796.781 --- temperature sense MeSH G11.561.796.850 --- touch MeSH G11.561.796.850.682 --- ... pain threshold MeSH G11.561.796.541 --- proprioception MeSH G11.561.796.541.587 --- kinesthesis MeSH G11.561.796.541.595 --- ...
... and a run at an effort at or slightly above your anaerobic threshold (the place where your body shifts to using more glycogen ... The alternating speeds that are the defining point of fartleks allow runners to work "both the aerobic and anaerobic training ... "Training for Anaerobic and Aerobic Power". Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance (7th ed.). Lippincott ... The variable intensity and continuous nature of the exercise places stress on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. It ...
Anaerobic threshold, in physiology Análisis transaccional (Spanish for "transactional analysis"), a psychological method ...
... technique position themselves to be extremely aerodynamic discipline themselves to operate just below the anaerobic threshold ...
... anaerobic threshold MeSH G06.535.723.620 --- respiratory burst MeSH G06.535.770.050 --- aminoacylation MeSH G06.535.770.050.860 ...
However, his subjects ran at a speed equal to anaerobic threshold (average of 3.5 meters/second) that was significantly slower ...
Lactate measurement of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds[edit]. The aerobic threshold (AeT or AerT) is sometimes defined as the ... Anaerobic threshold (AnT) is sometimes defined equivalently to the lactate threshold(LT); as the exercise intensity beyond ... Aerobic and Anaerobic training[edit]. It is important to understand the difference between lactate threshold and lactic acid. ... The blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold is called the "maximum steady-state lactate concentration" (MLSS).[9 ...
Anaerobic exercise Lactate threshold VO2 max "Determination of Ventilatory Threshold Based on Subjective Rating of Perceived ... The RPE threshold was recorded as constant value of 12-13. Averages of ventilatory and RPE threshold were conveyed by ... Ventilatory threshold and lactate threshold are expressed as a percentage of VO2 max; beyond this percentage the ability to ... When breathing surpasses normal ventilation rate, one has reached ventilatory threshold. For most people this threshold lies at ...
Lactate measurement of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds[edit]. The aerobic threshold (AeT or AerT) is sometimes defined as the ... Anaerobic threshold (AnT) is sometimes defined equivalently to the lactate threshold(LT); as the exercise intensity beyond ... Aerobic and Anaerobic training[edit]. It is important to understand the difference between lactate threshold and lactic acid. ... "Lactate Threshold - Firstbeat". Firstbeat. Retrieved 2017-10-20.. *^ a b c d Mann T, Lamberts RP, Lambert MI (Jul 2013). " ...
VT is the point of transition between predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production. The thresholds ... Incremental exercise is frequently prescribed to the elderly and elite athletes, specifically the first ventilation threshold ( ... determining patient's anaerobic exercise responses and difficulties of daily living. From a clinical perspective there are ... VT1) for the elderly and the second ventilation threshold (VT2) for elite athletes. ...
Complexity thresholdEdit. The explosion may not have been a significant evolutionary event. It may represent a threshold being ... Using oxygen for metabolism produces much more energy than anaerobic processes. Organisms that use more oxygen have the ... This genetic threshold may have a correlation to the amount of oxygen available to organisms. ... crossed: for example a threshold in genetic complexity that allowed a vast range of morphological forms to be employed.[154] ...
This temporary measure (anaerobic metabolism) allows small amounts of energy to be released. Lactic acid build up (in tissues ... 2 level remains equal to or even below the threshold for continuous oxygen therapy for patients with chronic obstructive ... The consequence of oxygen deprivation in tissues is a switch to anaerobic metabolism at the cellular level. As such, reduced ... created as a result of anaerobic metabolism.[citation needed] ...
Lactic Acidosis Work Rate Anaerobic Threshold Incremental Exercise Test COHb Level These keywords were added by machine and not ... Beaver WL, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ., 1986, A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. J Appl. Physiol 60: ... Wasserman K, Beaver WL, Whipp BJ., 1989, Gas exchange theory and the anaerobic (lactate) threshold. Circulation (Suppl): (in ... Wasserman K, Mcllroy MB., 1964, Detecting the threshold of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac patients during exercise. Am J ...
The converting is based on a profile dependent on the predicted anaerobic threshold level of the patient, as well as his or her ... Pacemaker with anaerobic threshold determination. US5817135 *. May 2, 1997. Oct 6, 1998. Pacesetter, Inc.. Rate-responsive ... Pacemaker with anaerobic threshold determination. EP0804938A3 *. Apr 29, 1997. Sep 30, 1998. Pacesetter, Inc.. Pacemaker with ... The converting is based on a profile dependent on the predicted anaerobic threshold level of the patient, as well as his or her ...
The anaerobic threshold (AnT) is defined as the highest sustained intensity of exercise for which measurement of oxygen uptake ... lactate threshold, OBLA, individual anaerobic threshold, and ventilatory threshold. Each approach permits an estimate of the ... Anaerobic Threshold*. Exercise / physiology*. Gluconeogenesis. Glycolysis. Humans. Lactic Acid / blood*. Muscle, Skeletal / ... The anaerobic threshold (AnT) is defined as the highest sustained intensity of exercise for which measurement of oxygen uptake ...
... test to measure Lactate Threshold. Some people call this Anaerobic Threshold, which is technically not the same thing, but ... Lactate Threshold Training. Lactate Threshold Training is an advanced training guide to help you improve endurance performance ... Marcus OSullivan: The Basics of Lactate Threshold Training (DVD). The key to threshold training, or any training for that ... The lactate threshold is expressed as a percentage of VO2 max. For untrained runners, the number is usually 50-60%. For Elite ...
What is anaerobic threshold? Meaning of anaerobic threshold medical term. What does anaerobic threshold mean? ... Looking for online definition of anaerobic threshold in the Medical Dictionary? anaerobic threshold explanation free. ... Related to anaerobic threshold: VO2 max. anaerobic threshold. The level above which pyruvate-an intermediate product of ... Comparison of prolonged exercise tests at the individual anaerobic threshold and the fixed anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol/l ...
The effect of a 40-week training program on the anaerobic threshold (AT) was studied in five subjects (35 +/- 5 yrs). The ... Effect of 40 weeks of endurance training on the anaerobic threshold Int J Sports Med. 1982 Nov;3(4):208-14. doi: 10.1055/s-2008 ... The effect of a 40-week training program on the anaerobic threshold (AT) was studied in five subjects (35 +/- 5 yrs). The ...
In sports medicine, the anaerobic threshold, or lactate threshold, is an index that determines the maximum level of physical ... In this area Conconi identified the anaerobic threshold that corresponds to the point where the lactacid anaerobic mechanism is ... Once the Anaerobic Threshold is exceeded, carbon dioxide (CO2) production, ventilation (respiratory acts per minute), and the ... The speed at which linearity ceases corresponds to the anaerobic threshold. Reading the chart of a Conconi test is sometimes ...
Read what athletes should understand about anaerobic threshold. ... What are aerobic and anaerobic threshold, what is the ... And click here for a breakdown on all things aerobic threshold.). What is anaerobic threshold?. "The term anaerobic threshold ... Whats the best way to measure anaerobic threshold?. Anaerobic threshold varies from athlete to athlete. For athletes who ... What athletes should understand about aerobic threshold. What are anaerobic and aerobic threshold, what is the difference, and ...
... one which is sensitive to the anaerobic threshold and one that is not. In this manner, the anaerobic threshold can be detected ... The parameter sensitive to the anaerobic threshold may be a parameter dependent on the patients breathing cycle, such as ... The threshold can be logged or can be used to manipulate the pacing regime of the pacemaker. The detector may include two ... minute volume, while the other parameter is preferably a threshold dependent on the sympathetic control of the body such as the ...
The anaerobic threshold: its significance for the endurance athlete. Can J Appl Sports Sci 1977;2:137-40. [ Links ]. ... The aim of this study was to make an approach on the importance of the anaerobic threshold (AT) and the peak oxygen uptake in ... Anaerobic threshold: problems of determination and validation. J Appl Physiol 1983;55:1178-86. [ Links ]. ... Davis JA, Frank MH, Whipp BJ, Wasseman K. Anaerobic threshold alterations caused by endurance training in middle-aged men. J ...
What is anaerobic ventilatory threshold? Meaning of anaerobic ventilatory threshold medical term. What does anaerobic ... Looking for online definition of anaerobic ventilatory threshold in the Medical Dictionary? anaerobic ventilatory threshold ... anaerobic ventilatory threshold. an·aer·o·bic ven·ti·la·to·ry thresh·old. (anār-ōbik venti-lă-tōr-ē threshōld) The onset of ... Anaerobic ventilatory threshold , definition of anaerobic ventilatory threshold by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
Does exercise alter anaerobic threshold in coronary artery disease during beta blockade? ... Does exercise alter anaerobic threshold in coronary artery disease during beta blockade? ...
Determining the anaerobic threshold in water aerobic exercises: a comparison between the heart rate deflection point and the ... Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory variables corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (AT) between ...
There are several methods used to determine an athletes lactate or anaerobic threshold. While the most accurate and reliable is ... A very simply method for estimating the anaerobic threshold is to assume anaerobic threshold occurs at 85-90% maximum heart ... lactate threshold and anaerobic threshold will be used interchangeably. See the lactate threshold article for more details on ... Laboratory Testing of Anaerobic Threshold. The most accurate way to determine lactate threshold is via a graded exercise test ...
Improvement in anaerobic threshold between week zero and week seven. Secondary outcome measures. Improvement in anaerobic ... Anaerobic threshold, as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, increases after a prescribed exercise programme in ... Cardiopulmonary exercise testing: does anaerobic threshold increase after a prescribed exercise programme in patients with ...
Anaerobic Threshold. Anaerobic Threshold is the physiological point during exercise when lactic acid begins to accumulate in ... Anaerobic :. Anaerobic literally means without oxygen. During anaerobic activity, muscles rely on reactions that do not ... Anaerobic. Anaerobic literally means without oxygen. During anaerobic activity, muscles rely on reactions that do not require ...
... emphasizing aerobic and anaerobic physical parameters and technical performances. The results showed that, in a compelling ... basketball matches involve high aerobic and anaerobic capacities, conferring the final performance of a team. Thus, the ... Anaerobic threshold (AT). To determinate the AT parameter, the lactate minimum protocol was applied. So, after 8 minutes of ... The common parameters include anthropometric characteristics (A) and countermovement jumps (B), anaerobic threshold (C) and ...
Browse by Outcome: Anaerobic Threshold (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
High Heart Rates at Anaerobic Threshold in Healthy Women. Martijn A. Spruit, PT, MsC; Rik Gosselink, PT, PhD; Marc Decramer, MD ... Spruit MA, Gosselink R, Decramer M. High Heart Rates at Anaerobic Threshold in Healthy Women. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(17): ...
Lactate measurement of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds[edit]. The aerobic threshold (AeT or AerT) is sometimes defined as the ... Anaerobic threshold (AnT) is sometimes defined equivalently to the lactate threshold(LT); as the exercise intensity beyond ... Aerobic and Anaerobic training[edit]. It is important to understand the difference between lactate threshold and lactic acid. ... The blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold is called the "maximum steady-state lactate concentration" (MLSS).[9 ...
Lactate measurement of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds[edit]. The aerobic threshold (AeT or AerT) is sometimes defined as the ... Anaerobic threshold (AnT) is sometimes defined equivalently to the lactate threshold(LT); as the exercise intensity beyond ... Aerobic and Anaerobic training[edit]. It is important to understand the difference between lactate threshold and lactic acid. ... "Lactate Threshold - Firstbeat". Firstbeat. Retrieved 2017-10-20.. *^ a b c d Mann T, Lamberts RP, Lambert MI (Jul 2013). " ...
Anaerobic Threshold. The two basic types of exercise are anaerobic and aerobic. Aerobic exericise requires large amounts of ... Sprint training increases your anaerobic threshold and the rate at which your body can process lactic acid, allowing you to ... Sprinting is excellent cardiovascular exercise, it increases your anaerobic threshold and it burns a great deal of calories in ... Sprinting is an anaerobic exercise, meaning that it requires short bursts of energy that produce lactic acid. The buildup of ...
... and methodology involved in determining the anaerobic threshold, as well as the ventilatory anaerobic threshold in children. ... The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) occurs when there is an isolated increase in the slope for ventilator equivalent for ... The concept of anaerobic threshold remains controversial. However, it is a clinically useful tool in evaluating the exercise ... 10 Furthermore, contradictory results have been observed when comparing [HHb]BP with the anaerobic threshold (AnT) using a ...
6. Calculate Your Aerobic-Anaerobic Threshold Heart-Rate Range. This range represents the upper limits of aerobic exercise-the ... 7. Calculate Your Anaerobic Training Heart-Rate Range. This is all-out effort and represents 90 to 100 percent of the cushion ... Using the same example, anything from 170 beats per minute to your maximum of 180 beats per minute becomes pure anaerobic, ... point just before you push yourself into exhaustive anaerobic work. Exercising at this intensity is usually done to improve ...
... congratulations on doing an Anaerobic Threshold Heart Rate (AT HR), test, or for having your Coach make you do it! This is the ... Anaerobic Threshold, Anaerobic Threshold Heart Rate, Anaerobic Threshold Testing, AT HR, AT Training Zones, Running Anaerobic ... Anaerobic Threshold HR Determination Tests. *Option 1 - Run 4 miles as follows, recording your maximum HR for each separate ... First off, congratulations on doing an Anaerobic Threshold Heart Rate (AT HR), test, or for having your Coach make you do it! ...
  • Sue DY, Wasserman K, Moricca RB, Casaburi R., 1988, Metabolic acidosis during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Use of the V-slope method for anaerobic threshold determination. (springer.com)
  • 3. The pacemaker of claim 1 wherein said converting means converts said metabolic demand parameter along one of first and second lines, said first and second lines being joined at a point related to said anaerobic threshold level. (google.com)
  • The detector may include two metabolic demand sensors: one which is sensitive to the anaerobic threshold and one that is not. (google.com)
  • In this sense, the employment of more appropriate ergometers on data acquisition related to running force, velocity and power should better guide the training and mechanical and metabolic evaluation processes specific to anaerobic power. (nature.com)
  • Many researchers have investigated the effects of induced metabolic alkalosis, by ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, on anaerobic exercise performance. (humankinetics.com)
  • The Cori cycle refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves via the bloodstream to the liver where it is converted to blood glucose and glycogen. (brianmac.co.uk)
  • Numerous researchers, however, have contested the suggestion these thresholds exist on the basis that there are no break points and no thresholds in the ventilatory and metabolic responses to incremental exercise (Cheng et al. (humankinetics.com)
  • Services offered include Aerobic Capacity Test (VO2 Max), Anaerobic Threshold Testing, Resting Metabolic Rate Test (RMR) and Body Composition Analysis. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Data from 65 healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age, mean ± SD age: 10.0 ± 2.8 years) who completed both the pediatric RAST and the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer in a randomized order were analyzed. (humankinetics.com)
  • Twenty-five girls and 25 boys (mean age 9.7 ± 0.3 years) each completed a 20- and 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). (humankinetics.com)
  • In a very well applied field scenario, the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) was suggested to obtain the same parameters as those of the laboratory, allowing greater agility in the anaerobic parameter evaluation processes. (nature.com)
  • Purpose: To validate the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) against the Wingate Anaerobic cycling Test (WAnT) in a group of youth with cerebral palsy (CP). (lww.com)
  • The Muscle Power Sprint Test was found to be a valid test for measuring anaerobic capacity in children and adolescens with cerebral palsy who are able to walk or run independently. (lww.com)
  • The pediatric RAST can be used as a valid and nonsophisticated field test for the assessment of anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. (humankinetics.com)
  • The term "threshold" suggests a watershed, something that delimits two distinct conditions, one before and one after, characterised, in this case, by distinct chemical and physiological processes. (technogym.com)
  • This invention pertains to a pacemaker or other cardiac stimulation device including means for determining a physiological parameter, such as the anaerobic threshold, which parameter may be used for an optimal cardiac stimulation regime. (google.com)
  • Lowering the hemoglobin threshold at which blood is transfused will reduce the need for transfusions and is not associated with increased morbidity or mortality among most critically ill patients without active cardiac disease. (cmaj.ca)
  • The aerobic threshold (AeT or AerT) is sometimes defined as the exercise intensity at which blood lactate concentrations rise above resting levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduced anaerobic exercise capacity in Fontan patients may be secondary to limitation of cerebral blood flow, secondary to low systemic venous compliance due to absence of a sub-pulmonary ventricle, and augmented hyperventilatory response during exercise. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 8 . The method according to claim 1 , wherein a leading edge voltage of the defibrillation threshold shock is reduced by at least 20% compared to a defibrillation shock delivered to the heart at the time at which atrial blood volume is not reduced. (google.de)
  • For example, the term lactate threshold has been defined as the highest V . O 2 (intensity) attained during an incremental work task not associated with an increase in blood lactate concentration above the resting level (Beaver et al. (humankinetics.com)
  • A number of researchers have independently suggested that there are at least two apparent discontinuities or thresholds in the blood lactate response to incremental exercise that may serve as general concepts for many of the terms proposed by other researchers (Beaver et al. (humankinetics.com)
  • The blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold is called the "maximum steady-state lactate concentration" (MLSS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The anaerobic capacity is the total amount of energy from the anaerobic (without oxygen) energy systems, that is the combined amount of output for the ATP, phospho-creatine and lactic acid systems. (topendsports.com)
  • Although participants trained around the anaerobic threshold most of the training period, the program did not result in an improved aerobic capacity as muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness increased. (uva.nl)
  • 1986, A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. (springer.com)
  • In this manner, the anaerobic threshold can be detected by monitoring the correlation between the two parameters. (google.com)
  • Two sensors are used to monitor two different hemodynamic parameters, only one which is dependent on the anaerobic threshold. (google.com)
  • This study aimed, through complex networks analysis, to verify whether centrality parameters analysed from significant correlations behave similarly in distinct scenarios (laboratory and on-court), emphasizing aerobic and anaerobic physical parameters and technical performances. (nature.com)
  • Professor Conconi then set about developing a method to extend the "Anaerobic Threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods, systems and computer program products for combining atrial defibrillation treatment techniques include techniques for reducing the discomfort associated with defibrillation and/or reducing the defibrillation threshold. (google.com)
  • The key to threshold training, or any training for that matter, is getting a full understanding on the energy systems. (speedendurance.com)
  • But the anaerobic energy system can produce energy more quickly, and allows us to exercise at higher intensities, so that's crucial, too. (polar.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink (AdvoCare Spark) on repeated sprint performance and anaerobic power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. (humankinetics.com)