The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

Effect of ambient temperature on human skeletal muscle metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise. (1/372)

To examine the effect of ambient temperature on metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise, eight men cycled to exhaustion at a workload requiring 70% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake on three separate occasions, at least 1 wk apart. These trials were conducted in ambient temperatures of 3 degrees C (CT), 20 degrees C (NT), and 40 degrees C (HT). Although no differences in muscle or rectal temperature were observed before exercise, both muscle and rectal temperature were higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT and NT. Exercise time was longer in CT compared with NT, which, in turn, was longer compared with HT (85 +/- 8 vs. 60 +/- 11 vs. 30 +/- 3 min, respectively; P < 0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentration was not different at rest or at the point of fatigue when the three trials were compared, but concentrations of this hormone were higher (P < 0.05) when HT was compared with NT, which in turn was higher (P < 0.05) compared with CT after 20 min of exercise. Muscle glycogen concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher at fatigue in HT compared with NT and CT, which were not different (299 +/- 33 vs. 153 +/- 27 and 116 +/- 28 mmol/kg dry wt, respectively; P < 0.01). Intramuscular lactate concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT. No differences in the concentration of the total intramuscular adenine nucleotide pool (ATP + ADP + AMP), phosphocreatine, or creatine were observed before or after exercise when the trials were compared. Although intramuscular IMP concentrations were not statistically different before or after exercise when the three trials were compared, there was an exercise-induced increase (P < 0.01) in IMP. These results demonstrate that fatigue during prolonged exercise in hot conditions is not related to carbohydrate availability. Furthermore, the increased endurance in CT compared with NT is probably due to a reduced glycogenolytic rate.  (+info)

African runners exhibit greater fatigue resistance, lower lactate accumulation, and higher oxidative enzyme activity. (2/372)

Nine African and eight Caucasian 10-km runners resident at sea level volunteered. Maximal O2 consumption and peak treadmill velocity (PTV) were measured by using a progressive test, and fatigue resistance [time to fatigue (TTF)] was measured by using a newly developed high-intensity running test: 5 min at 72, 80, and 88% of individual PTV followed by 92% PTV to exhaustion. Skeletal muscle enzyme activities were determined in 12 runners and 12 sedentary control subjects. In a comparison of African and Caucasian runners, mean 10-km race time, maximal O2 consumption, and PTV were similar. In African runners, TTF was 21% longer (P < 0.01), plasma lactate accumulation after 5 min at 88% PTV was 38% lower (P < 0.05), and citrate synthase activity was 50% higher (27.9 +/- 7.5 vs. 18.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. g wet wt-1. min-1, P = 0.02). Africans accumulated lactate at a slower rate with increasing exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Among the entire group of runners, a higher citrate synthase activity was associated with a longer TTF (r = 0.70, P < 0.05), a lower plasma lactate accumulation (r = -0.73, P = 0.01), and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (r = -0.63, P < 0.05). We conclude that the African and Caucasian runners in the present study differed with respect to oxidative enzyme activity, rate of lactate accumulation, and their ability to sustain high-intensity endurance exercise.  (+info)

Evidence of O2 supply-dependent VO2 max in the exercise-trained human quadriceps. (3/372)

Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a decrease in O2 supply will proportionately decrease muscle VO2 max. As even in the isolated quadriceps (where normoxic O2 delivery is the highest recorded in humans) an increase in O2 supply by hyperoxia allows the achievement of a greater VO2 max, we conclude that, in normoxic conditions of isolated KE exercise, KE VO2 max in trained subjects is not limited by mitochondrial metabolic rate but, rather, by O2 supply.  (+info)

Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase. (4/372)

We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.  (+info)

Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power. (5/372)

To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A 5-km time trial (5K), running economy (RE), maximal 20-m speed (V20 m), and 5-jump (5J) tests were measured on a track. Maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic treadmill running tests were used to determine maximal velocity in the MART (VMART) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). The 5K time, RE, and VMART improved (P < 0.05) in E, but no changes were observed in C. V20 m and 5J increased in E (P < 0.01) and decreased in C (P < 0.05). VO2 max increased in C (P < 0.05), but no changes were observed in E. In the pooled data, the changes in the 5K velocity during 9 wk of training correlated (P < 0.05) with the changes in RE [O2 uptake (r = -0.54)] and VMART (r = 0.55). In conclusion, the present simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training improved the 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes without changes in their VO2 max. This improvement was due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved VMART and running economy.  (+info)

Role of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope in evaluating exercise tolerance. (6/372)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interprotocol agreement of oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES). METHODS: 16 Japanese children and adolescents (10 boys and six girls) underwent two sessions of maximal exercise testing according to the following two treadmill protocols: the standard Bruce protocol and the rapidly increasing staged (RIS) protocol. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), and the OUES were obtained from the gas analysis data. Agreement between the protocols was tested by means of the Bland-Altman method. RESULTS: Interprotocol agreement was excellent for the OUES (limit of agreement, -18% to 17% of the mean value), slightly less good for VO2max (limit of agreement, -20% to 24% of the mean value), and poor for the VAT (limit of agreement, -31% to 31% of the mean value). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the clinical usefulness of the OUES as a measure of evaluating exercise tolerance in the paediatric population.  (+info)

Analysis of the aerobic-anaerobic transition in elite cyclists during incremental exercise with the use of electromyography. (7/372)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity and reliability of surface electromyography (EMG) as a new non-invasive determinant of the metabolic response to incremental exercise in elite cyclists. The relation between EMG activity and other more conventional methods for analysing the aerobic-anaerobic transition such as blood lactate measurements (lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)) and ventilatory parameters (ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (VT1 and VT2)) was studied. METHODS: Twenty eight elite road cyclists (age 24 (4) years; VO2MAX 69.9 (6.4) ml/kg/min; values mean (SD)) were selected as subjects. Each of them performed a ramp protocol (starting at 0 W, with increases of 5 W every 12 seconds) on a cycle ergometer (validity study). In addition, 15 of them performed the same test twice (reliability study). During the tests, data on gas exchange and blood lactate levels were collected to determine VT1, VT2, LT, and OBLA. The root mean squares of EMG signals (rms-EMG) were recorded from both the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris at each intensity using surface electrodes. RESULTS: A two threshold response was detected in the rms-EMG recordings from both muscles in 90% of subjects, with two breakpoints, EMGT1 and EMGT2, at around 60-70% and 80-90% of VO2MAX respectively. The results of the reliability study showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between mean values of EMGT1 and EMGT2 obtained in both tests. Furthermore, no significant differences (p > 0.05) existed between mean values of EMGT1, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT1 and LT (62.8 (14.5) and 69.0 (6.2) and 64.6 (6.4) and 68.7 (8.2)% of VO2MAX respectively), or between mean values of EMGT2, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT2 and OBLA (86.9 (9.0) and 88.0 (6.2) and 84.6 (6.5) and 87.7 (6.4)% of VO2MAX respectively). CONCLUSION: rms-EMG may be a useful complementary non-invasive method for analysing the aerobic-anaerobic transition (ventilatory and lactate thresholds) in elite cyclists.  (+info)

Exercise-induced changes in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in healthy subjects with chronic sleep deprivation. (8/372)

Recent observations have shown that plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) correlate with cardiac function or prognosis in heart failure patients. However, relatively little is known about changes in their plasma concentration during commonly occurring physiological states such as fatigue. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the physiological changes of plasma ANP and BNP concentrations using a chronic sleep-deprivation model. Bicycle ergometer cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (mean age: 22.7 years). Blood samples for measuring ANP and BNP were drawn during the resting state and immediately after each exercise test. Cardiac output (CO) was measured during the exercise test by the impedance method. The study conditions were designed as follows: (A) a day following a period of normal sleep (control state) and (B) a day preceded by 1 month during which sleep lasted <60% of normal (chronic sleep-deprived state). Results were as follows. (1) Peak oxygen uptake and peak CO decreased during the sleep-deprived state compared with the control state. (2) There was no difference between peak heart rates measured during exercise under the 2 conditions. (3) Plasma ANP concentration during exercise increased significantly during the control state, whereas only a tendency toward increase was observed during the sleep-deprived state. (4) Plasma BNP concentration during exercise tended to increase in the control state compared with the resting state, whereas there was no difference in plasma BNP between after exercise and resting state in the sleep-deprived state. These results indicate that changes of ANP or BNP induced by exercise tended to be decreased by chronic sleep deprivation.  (+info)

The anaerobic threshold (also known as the lactate threshold or anaerobic threshold) is a medical and exercise term that refers to the maximum intensity of exercise that can be sustained without an excessive buildup of lactic acid in the blood. It is the point at which oxygen consumption reaches a steady state and cannot increase any further, despite an increase in exercise intensity. At this point, the body begins to rely more heavily on anaerobic metabolism, which produces energy quickly but also leads to the production of lactic acid. This threshold is often used as a measure of cardiovascular fitness and can be improved through training.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Exercise tolerance is a term used to describe the ability of an individual to perform physical activity or exercise without experiencing symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or undue fatigue. It is often used as a measure of cardiovascular fitness and can be assessed through various tests, such as a stress test or a six-minute walk test. Exercise intolerance may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease, lung disease, or deconditioning.

Ergometry is a medical term that refers to the process of measuring the amount of work or energy expended by an individual during physical exercise. It is often used in clinical settings to assess cardiopulmonary function, functional capacity, and exercise tolerance in patients with various medical conditions such as heart disease, lung disease, and metabolic disorders.

Ergometry typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as a treadmill or stationary bike, which is connected to a computer that measures and records various physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production during exercise. The data collected during an ergometry test can help healthcare providers diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time.

There are several types of ergometry tests, including:

1. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET): This is a comprehensive assessment that measures an individual's cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic responses to exercise. It typically involves the use of a treadmill or stationary bike and provides detailed information about an individual's functional capacity, exercise tolerance, and overall health status.
2. Stress Echocardiography: This is a type of ergometry test that uses ultrasound imaging to assess heart function during exercise. It involves the use of a treadmill or stationary bike and provides information about blood flow to the heart, wall motion abnormalities, and valve function.
3. Nuclear Stress Test: This is a type of ergometry test that uses radioactive tracers to assess heart function during exercise. It involves the use of a treadmill or stationary bike and provides information about blood flow to the heart, myocardial perfusion, and viability.
4. Six-Minute Walk Test: This is a simple ergometry test that measures an individual's distance walked in six minutes. It is often used to assess functional capacity and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic lung disease or heart failure.

Overall, ergometry is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions and can provide valuable information about an individual's health status and response to treatment.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Physical endurance is the ability of an individual to withstand and resist physical fatigue over prolonged periods of strenuous activity, exercise, or exertion. It involves the efficient functioning of various body systems, including the cardiovascular system (heart, blood vessels, and blood), respiratory system (lungs and airways), and musculoskeletal system (muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage).

Physical endurance is often measured in terms of aerobic capacity or stamina, which refers to the body's ability to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity. It can be improved through regular exercise, such as running, swimming, cycling, or weightlifting, that challenges the body's major muscle groups and raises the heart rate for extended periods.

Factors that influence physical endurance include genetics, age, sex, fitness level, nutrition, hydration, sleep quality, stress management, and overall health status. It is essential to maintain good physical endurance to perform daily activities efficiently, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and enhance overall well-being.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "running" as an exercise or physical activity. However, in a medical or clinical context, running usually refers to the act of moving at a steady speed by lifting and setting down each foot in turn, allowing for a faster motion than walking. It is often used as a form of exercise, recreation, or transportation.

Running can be described medically in terms of its biomechanics, physiological effects, and potential health benefits or risks. For instance, running involves the repetitive movement of the lower extremities, which can lead to increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolic demand, ultimately improving cardiovascular fitness and burning calories. However, it is also associated with potential injuries such as runner's knee, shin splints, or plantar fasciitis, especially if proper precautions are not taken.

It is important to note that before starting any new exercise regimen, including running, individuals should consult their healthcare provider, particularly those with pre-existing medical conditions or concerns about their ability to engage in physical activity safely.

Physical fitness is a state of being able to perform various physical activities that require endurance, strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), physical fitness is defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity."

The AHA identifies five components of physical fitness:

1. Cardiorespiratory endurance: The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity.
2. Muscular strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert in a single effort.
3. Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions or to continue to apply force against an external resistance over time.
4. Flexibility: The range of motion possible at a joint.
5. Body composition: The proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and organs) to fat mass in the body.

Being physically fit can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. It can also improve mental health, increase energy levels, and enhance overall quality of life.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Exercise therapy is a type of medical treatment that uses physical movement and exercise to improve a patient's physical functioning, mobility, and overall health. It is often used as a component of rehabilitation programs for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have impaired their ability to move and function normally.

Exercise therapy may involve a range of activities, including stretching, strengthening, balance training, aerobic exercise, and functional training. The specific exercises used will depend on the individual's needs, goals, and medical condition.

The benefits of exercise therapy include:

* Improved strength and flexibility
* Increased endurance and stamina
* Enhanced balance and coordination
* Reduced pain and inflammation
* Improved cardiovascular health
* Increased range of motion and joint mobility
* Better overall physical functioning and quality of life.

Exercise therapy is typically prescribed and supervised by a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or exercise physiologist, who has experience working with individuals with similar medical conditions. The healthcare professional will create an individualized exercise program based on the patient's needs and goals, and will provide guidance and support to ensure that the exercises are performed safely and effectively.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Physical education and training (PE/PT) is not a term typically used in medical terminology, but it generally refers to the process of teaching and learning physical skills, knowledge, and behaviors that contribute to an individual's overall health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), physical education can be defined as:

"Education through physical activity that is planned, structured, and purposeful. It aims to develop and maintain physical competence, improve health and fitness, enhance personal and social skills, and promote enjoyment of physical activity."

Physical training, on the other hand, typically refers to a more focused and structured approach to improving physical fitness through exercise and other activities. Physical trainers or coaches may work with individuals or groups to develop specific training programs that target areas such as strength, flexibility, endurance, balance, and agility.

In medical contexts, PE/PT may be used to describe interventions aimed at improving physical function, reducing disability, or promoting overall health in patients with various medical conditions. For example, a physical therapy program might be prescribed for someone recovering from an injury or surgery, while a regular exercise routine might be recommended as part of a treatment plan for managing chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Lactates, also known as lactic acid, are compounds that are produced by muscles during intense exercise or other conditions of low oxygen supply. They are formed from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of adequate oxygen to complete the full process of cellular respiration. This results in the production of lactate and a hydrogen ion, which can lead to a decrease in pH and muscle fatigue.

In a medical context, lactates may be measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and metabolic status. Elevated levels of lactate in the blood, known as lactic acidosis, can indicate poor tissue perfusion or hypoxia, and may be seen in conditions such as sepsis, cardiac arrest, and severe shock. It is important to note that lactates are not the primary cause of acidemia (low pH) in lactic acidosis, but rather a marker of the underlying process.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Stroke volume is a term used in cardiovascular physiology and medicine. It refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction (systole). Specifically, it is the difference between the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (when the ventricle is filled with blood) and the volume at the end of systole (when the ventricle has contracted and ejected its contents into the aorta).

Stroke volume is an important measure of heart function, as it reflects the ability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. A low stroke volume may indicate that the heart is not pumping efficiently, while a high stroke volume may suggest that the heart is working too hard. Stroke volume can be affected by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and physical fitness level.

The formula for calculating stroke volume is:

Stroke Volume = End-Diastolic Volume - End-Systolic Volume

Where end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, and end-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute. It is defined as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) and heart rate (the number of contractions per minute). Normal cardiac output at rest for an average-sized adult is about 5 to 6 liters per minute. Cardiac output can be increased during exercise or other conditions that require more blood flow, such as during illness or injury. It can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as echocardiography or invasively through a catheter placed in the heart.

The Differential Threshold, also known as the Just Noticeable Difference (JND), is the minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected or perceived as different from another stimulus by an average human observer. It is a fundamental concept in psychophysics, which deals with the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

The differential threshold is typically measured using methods such as the method of limits or the method of constant stimuli, in which the intensity of a stimulus is gradually increased or decreased until the observer can reliably detect a difference. The difference between the original stimulus and the barely detectable difference is then taken as the differential threshold.

The differential threshold can vary depending on a number of factors, including the type of stimulus (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile), the intensity of the original stimulus, the observer's attention and expectations, and individual differences in sensory sensitivity. Understanding the differential threshold is important for many applications, such as designing sensory aids for people with hearing or vision impairments, optimizing the design of multimedia systems, and developing more effective methods for detecting subtle changes in physiological signals.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

The auditory threshold is the minimum sound intensity or loudness level that a person can detect 50% of the time, for a given tone frequency. It is typically measured in decibels (dB) and represents the quietest sound that a person can hear. The auditory threshold can be affected by various factors such as age, exposure to noise, and certain medical conditions. Hearing tests, such as pure-tone audiometry, are used to measure an individual's auditory thresholds for different frequencies.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Lactate threshold or anaerobic threshold is considered a good indicator of the body's ability to efficiently process and ... "Anaerobic Threshold". SportsMed Web. Retrieved 2018-04-29. Faude O, Kindermann W, Meyer T (2009). "Lactate threshold concepts: ... The lactate threshold is the cross over point between predominantly aerobic energy usage and anaerobic energy usage. This cross ... The anaerobic glycolytic energy pathway is the source of human energy after the first 30 seconds of an exercise until 3 minutes ...
Svedahl, Krista; MacIntosh, Brian R (2003). "Anaerobic Threshold: The Concept and Methods of Measurement". Canadian Journal of ... Anaerobic exercise is a type of exercise that breaks down glucose in the body without using oxygen; anaerobic means "without ... Anaerobic exercise may be used to help build endurance, muscle strength, and power. Anaerobic metabolism is a natural part of ... Anaerobic energy expenditure is difficult to accurately quantify. Some methods estimate the anaerobic component of an exercise ...
Myers, Jonathan; Ashley, Euan (1997-03-01). "Dangerous Curves: A Perspective on Exercise, Lactate, and the Anaerobic Threshold ...
Tempo pace A level of exertion just below the rider's anaerobic threshold. Used as a reference point in training, this is the ...
Conconi then set about developing a method to extend the "Anaerobic Threshold." Conconi developed The Conconi test, which is ... At this "threshold" level, the ability of the athlete to sustain a maximum effort would be compromised. ...
His doctoral thesis concerned the measurement of anaerobic threshold in the sport of running. Ferrari was a consultant to the ...
Two studies from the mid 90s showed the Conconi test to be inaccurate and impractical in assessing the anaerobic threshold, ... The Conconi Test is a sports medicine test intended to measure an individual's maximum anaerobic and aerobic threshold heart ... 1982). "Determination of the anaerobic threshold by a non-invasive field test in runners". Journal of Applied Physiology. 52 (4 ... until the subject has gone well past the anaerobic threshold. ... lactate threshold, in more modern nomenclature). The test ...
Wiggins's power output has been measured to be over 450 watts at anaerobic threshold. In March 2014 Wiggins made an appearance ...
... and a run at an effort at or slightly above your anaerobic threshold (the place where your body shifts to using more glycogen ... but very near the top of the anaerobic threshold. The recoveries are floats, rather than easy jogging. During this [period], ... During the quality [periods] of training, the recoveries can be a jog, while the efforts delve into the anaerobic realm. The ... The alternating speeds that are the defining point of fartleks allow runners to work "both the aerobic and anaerobic training ...
The anaerobic threshold is now used in diagnosis of diseases and in the training of athletes internationally. Dr. Wasserman was ... Wasserman defined the "anaerobic threshold" in 1964 as the exercise intensity beyond which the molecule, lactic acid, ... He showed that the anaerobic threshold can be used to determine a health risk due to inadequate oxygen availability. He defined ... He described how to determine the "anaerobic threshold" by using ventilatory and cardiovascular gas exchange responses during ...
In contrast, at the anaerobic threshold (AnT) the exercise is at an intensity beyond which blood lactate concentration is ... The blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold is called the "maximum steady-state lactate concentration" (MLSS). ... The aerobic threshold (AeT or AerT) is sometimes defined equivalently to the lactate threshold (LT); as the exercise intensity ... Although the lactate threshold is defined as the point when lactic acid starts to accumulate, some testers approximate this by ...
Anaerobic exercise Lactate threshold VO2 max "Determination of Ventilatory Threshold Based on Subjective Rating of Perceived ... The RPE threshold was recorded as constant value of 12-13. Averages of ventilatory and RPE threshold were conveyed by ... Ventilatory threshold and lactate threshold are expressed as a percentage of VO2 max; beyond this percentage the ability to ... When breathing surpasses normal ventilation rate, one has reached ventilatory threshold. For most people this threshold lies at ...
Aerobic, anaerobic and further thresholds are not to be mentioned within extensive endurance exercises.[why?] Training ... The term is often used in the context of aerobic or anaerobic exercise. The definition of "long" varies according to the type ... of exertion - minutes for high intensity anaerobic exercise, hours or days for low intensity aerobic exercise. Training for ...
People who experience significant fatigue before reaching the anaerobic threshold usually have a non-cardiac cause for exercise ...
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the number of red blood cells and the anaerobic threshold were not modified after ... Another advantage of hypoventilation training is to stimulate the anaerobic metabolism without using high exercise intensities ...
The anaerobic threshold is defined as the energy utilization level of heart rate exertion that occurs without oxygen during a ... During exercise that achieves the anaerobic threshold, it is possible to deliver substrates that are desired for optimal energy ... But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously ... Anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, builds additional muscle mass. Muscle contributes to the fat-free mass of an ...
... the most rapid gains are made when exercising close to an individual's anaerobic threshold. This is the intensity at which the ... at this point the exercise becomes anaerobic. Aerobic training intensity for most individuals will be ...
... and anaerobic threshold in 217 patients. Exercise-induced hypoxemia was found even in patients who did not have resting ...
The largest decrease is in anaerobic threshold, which signifies a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism at a lower level ...
... after exercise and correlated with performance parameters such as maximum oxygen uptake and anaerobic lactate threshold. ...
... while people with ME/CFS have a decrease in anaerobic threshold, peak power output, and VO2max. Potential causes include ... using a heart rate monitor to increase awareness of exertion and enable patients to stay within their aerobic threshold ...
Livingston had 4% body fat, was able to reach a maximum heart rate of 195 bpm, and had an anaerobic threshold power of 558 ...
... anaerobic threshold MeSH G11.427.713.690.270 - exercise tolerance MeSH G11.427.713.700 - posture MeSH G11.427.713.700.300 - ... taste threshold MeSH G11.561.796.781 - temperature sense MeSH G11.561.796.850 - touch MeSH G11.561.796.850.682 - stereognosis ... pain threshold MeSH G11.561.796.541 - proprioception MeSH G11.561.796.541.587 - kinesthesis MeSH G11.561.796.541.595 - ...
Anaerobic threshold, in physiology Análisis transaccional (Spanish for "transactional analysis"), a psychological method ...
introduced power equations from the literature for non-drafting and drafting positions, an approximate anaerobic threshold as a ... Ratamero then introduced a threshold energetic quantity to simulate the lactate threshold derived from Hoenigman, whereby ... The threshold between these two phases is equivalent to the coefficient of drafting (d), below which cooperative behavior ... Similarly, these thresholds in peloton formations define transitions between peloton cooperative behavior and free-riding ...
... technique position themselves to be extremely aerodynamic discipline themselves to operate just below the anaerobic threshold ...
... anaerobic threshold MeSH G06.535.723.620 - respiratory burst MeSH G06.535.770.050 - aminoacylation MeSH G06.535.770.050.860 - ...
However, his subjects ran at a speed equal to anaerobic threshold (average of 3.5 meters/second) that was significantly slower ...
VT is the point of transition between predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production. The thresholds ... Incremental exercise is frequently prescribed to the elderly and elite athletes, specifically the first ventilation threshold ( ... determining patient's anaerobic exercise responses and difficulties of daily living. In a medical setting, three incremental ... VT1) for the elderly and the second ventilation threshold (VT2) for elite athletes. ...
Aerobic threshold Anaerobic threshold Dark adaptation threshold Epidemic threshold Flicker fusion threshold Masking threshold ... Renal threshold Seizure threshold Sensory threshold Threshold expression Threshold limit value Threshold model Threshold of ... Threshold displacement energy Threshold energy Threshold graph Threshold knowledge Threshold model Threshold value Threshold ... Extinction threshold Lasing threshold Percolation threshold Polygyny threshold model Threshold cryptosystem ...
Testing for individual anaerobic threshold - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... This can be taken as the intensity for individual anaerobic threshold. Further control of the individual anaerobic threshold is ... SPORTLYZER ROWING ACADEMY Control of the individual anaerobic threshold Further control of the individual anaerobic thresholds ... Overestimation of anaerobic threshold leads to inappropriate determination of training intensity zones. If the anaerobic ...
The AT is the point during exercise when your body must switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. The AT is a useful measure ... is the exertion level between aerobic and anaerobic training. ... The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the exertion level between ... Anaerobic metabolism kicks in when exercise intensity is greatly increased, and the aerobic system can no longer keep up with ... During anaerobic metabolism, the body burns stored sugars to supply the additional energy needed, and lactic acid is produced ...
A Flux‐Based Threshold for Anaerobic Activity in the Ocean Zakem, Emily J., Lauderdale, Jonathan M., Schlitzer, Reiner and ... Zakem, E. J. , Lauderdale, J. M. , Schlitzer, R. and Follows, M. J. (2021): A Flux‐Based Threshold for Anaerobic Activity in ... However, we demonstrate that a threshold based on substrate-supply fluxes is qualitatively different from a threshold based ... Anaerobic microbial activity in the ocean causes losses of bioavailable nitrogen and emission of nitrous oxide to the ...
Creatinine and myoglobin are poor predictors of anaerobic threshold in colorectal cancer and health ... Creatinine and myoglobin are poor predictors of anaerobic threshold in colorectal cancer and health. Journal of Cachexia, ... aerobic capacity measured to anaerobic threshold (AT) by cardiopulmonary exercise testing and filled in objective ...
I read your book over 2-years ago and have had great success. I found that moving up mountains while staying in Zone 1 (after loads of Z1 training) meant I could move all day without any AMS and had good strength and endurance (again from your program). I took my family to climb Grand Teton with Exum Guides in August and we climbed at a pace that kept me within my Zone 1 but my stepson went into Zone 2 and 3 during the climb. He got AMS at the lower saddle, around 11500. We proceeded the next day without him to a satellite peak but didnt go all the way because we didnt want to leave him alone too long. I felt strong and had no AMS symptoms up to about 13k. I went back to GT to complete the climb without my family in September and in a race against a forecasted storm went to the summit of Grand Teton in 6-hours. I was nearly redlined the entire way, staying in Zone 3 for much of the climbing and although I was able to complete the climb I had symptoms of AMS at about 11500.. My question based ...
Men had a positive correlation between change in VO2 at anaerobic threshold and change in capillary density with exercise ... We hypothesized that change in a measure of submaximal performance, anaerobic threshold, might be related to change in skeletal ... "A sex-specific relationship between capillary density and anaerobic threshold," Journal of Applied Physiology 106, no. 4 (April ... A sex-specific relationship between capillary density and anaerobic threshold. Journal of Applied Physiology. April 2009; 106(4 ...
The double anaerobic threshold in heart failure.. February 11, 2022. Paul Older. Abstracts No Comments ... Among CPET parameters, a pivotal role is attributed to the anaerobic threshold (AT), normally determined by V-slope, ...
Lactate threshold or anaerobic threshold is considered a good indicator of the bodys ability to efficiently process and ... "Anaerobic Threshold". SportsMed Web. Retrieved 2018-04-29. Faude O, Kindermann W, Meyer T (2009). "Lactate threshold concepts: ... The lactate threshold is the cross over point between predominantly aerobic energy usage and anaerobic energy usage. This cross ... The anaerobic glycolytic energy pathway is the source of human energy after the first 30 seconds of an exercise until 3 minutes ...
Anaerobic threshold. The test will approximate the anaerobic threshold for running and estimate the anaerobic threshold pace ... Functional Threshold Power (FTP) test is designed to give riders an understanding of the highest average power they can ...
Anaerobic Threshold - Use the power of AcqKnowledge to establish a ratio of inspired volume and VO2 consumption and to ... Anaerobic Threshold. Use the power of AcqKnowledge to establish a ratio of inspired volume and VO2 ...
Anaerobic Threshold Ventilatory Threshold Lactate Threshold Heart Rate Deflection Points Respiratory Compensation Point ... ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE DEFLECTION POINTS TO PREDICT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD BY A COMPUTERIZED METHOD Marques-Neto, Silvio R et ... Analysis of heart rate deflection points to predict the anaerobic threshold by a computerized method. J. strength cond. res., ... because of their strong correlation with the anaerobic threshold. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the ...
Impact of last experience on affect after exercise reaching the anaerobic threshold: A laboratory investigation. Title (trans ... In this laboratory study, we manipulated progressive treadmill exercise to ventilatory threshold by using cognitive tasks ...
... lactate threshold (LT) and VO2 at LT (VO2LT) among aerobic athletes (ARA) (n=10), anaerobic athletes (ANA) (n=9) and untrained ... From a practical standpoint, training approaches may be enhanced with a greater understanding of the impact of anaerobic ... Future research should more directly examine threshold-altering mechanisms between these groups of athletes. ... anaerobic training may provide a stimulus adequate to increase LT. Elevated LT with moderate changes in VO2 max for ANA provide ...
... approach is beneficial for endurance and/or anaerobic cycling performance. Sixteen well-trained athletes completed 90 min of ... Effect of intermittent hypoxic training on 20 km time trial and 30 s anaerobic performance Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Aug;20( ... This study aimed to verify whether the "live low, train high" approach is beneficial for endurance and/or anaerobic cycling ...
The Lactate or Anaerobic Threshold. Metabolic Realities. When and What to Do with Fuel. Do You Chow Down After a Workout?. ... The "Hockey Stick": Moving the Lactate or Anaerobic Threshold. Intervals. Two Great Rules of Interval Training. A Formal ...
... on anaerobic performance measures (vertical and broad jumps, 40-yard dash, 20-yard shuttle run, and 3-cone drill), upper- and ... Anaerobic Threshold / drug effects* * Athletic Performance / physiology* * Body Composition / drug effects * Creatine / ... The subjects performed anaerobic performance measures, muscular strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM]), and endurance (80% 1RM ... The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on anaerobic performance measures and body composition J ...
The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise continued until the anaerobic threshold on balance ... The exercise protocol was terminated when the subject passed the anaerobic threshold. After the exercise protocol, balance ... A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. J Appl Physiol, 1986; 60: 2020-2027.[PubMed] ... Effects of Exercise Continued Until Anaerobic Threshold on Balance Performance in Male Basketball Players. ...
The 13 on the scale is a somewhat heavy exercise but capable of being performed at steady state (ie, anaerobic threshold). When ... based upon their metabolic response to progressive exercise if the VO2max and the anaerobic threshold (AT) or ventilatory ... Some authors have suggested that a threshold of physical activity may be necessary for maintaining optimal health and that ... 18-19 - Extremely hard (very, very hard [AN-2 anaerobic power, 25-50-m swimming pace]) ...
How to determine your aerobic and anaerobic thresholds. Determining ones aerobic and anaerobic thresholds is crucial for ...
6MWT: 6-min walking test; AT: Anaerobic threshold; LFI: Liver Frailty Index; MELD: Model for end-stage liver disease; rpb: ... Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and anaerobic threshold (AT) were assessed to evaluate the functional capacity of the participants ... Table 6 Mean values of peak oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold, 6-min walking test and, Liver Frailty Index. ... 6MWT: 6-min walking test; AT: Anaerobic threshold; LFI: Liver Frailty Index; VO2peak: Peak oxygen uptake. ...
Respiratory Gas Exchange Indices for Estimating the Anaerobic Threshold ... Key words: Anaerobic threshold, exercise test Key Points *Anaerobic threshold can reliably be estimated by respiratory gas ... and anaerobic threshold is reported to occur at slightly higher values of VO2 during treadmill running (Medelli et al., 1993. ... 2005) Respiratory Gas Exchange Indices for Estimating the Anaerobic Threshold. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (04), 29 ...
Anaerobic Threshold. 1. What is it?. 2. When are you above it?. ... Under anaerobic conditions, how many ATP molecules are formed ... What pathway is the first one to slow down under anaerobic conditions?. 1. Why?. 2. What is the result of this slowing down?. 3 ...
"Anaerobic threshold": problems of determination and validation. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1983;55(4):1178-86 ... The 95% threshold for meaningful change is 0.540 L·min−1 in peak V˙O2 and 0.520 L·min−1 in V˙O2@LT. This is reported in Table 3 ... these thresholds are provided in the online data supplement (see Tables S3, Supplemental Digital Content 5, 90% Threshold for ... The threshold for meaningful change for peak V˙O2 is 0.540 L·min−1 (18.9%); the corresponding value for V˙O2@LT is 0.520 L·min− ...
... lactate threshold (15.7 W), and submaximal HR (10.7bpm). Non-responders in VO2peak, lactate threshold, and submaximal HR were ... While a main effect of training was observed for VO2peak, lactate threshold, and submaximal heart rate (HR), considerable ... Anaerobic threshold: the concept and methods of measurement. Can J Appl Physiol. 2003;28(2):299-323. pmid:12825337 * View ... lactate threshold: r = 0.0, p = 1.0; HR: r = 0.37, p = 0.10) or SIT (lactate threshold: r = 0.29, p = 0.23; HR: r = 0.11, p = ...
Categories: Anaerobic Threshold Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
22 Gibbons E. The significance of anaerobic threshold in excercise prescription. J Sports Med physic Fitness 1987; 27: 357-361 ... High-frequency oscillations of the heart rate during ramp load reflect the human anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; ... The expired air and lnHF were analyzed for exceeding anaerobic energy expenditure (ventilatory threshold 2, VT2) and compared ... 31 Botek M, Stejskal P, Krejci J. Vagal threshold determination. Effect of age and gender. Int J Sports Med 2010; 31: 768-772 ...
Improved anaerobic capacity and threshold, improved speed 5 90-100% Sprinting pace, unsustainable for long period of time, ...
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), and the OUES were obtained from the gas analysis ...
  • The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise,resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. (
  • The 3 energy systems involved in exercise are the Phosphogenic, Anaerobic and Aerobic energy pathways. (
  • 11 Davis JA, Vodak P, Wilmore JH, Vodak J, Kurtz P. Anaerobic threshold and maximal aerobic power for three modes of exercise. (
  • The training model is identified based on your workout intensity distribution such as Polarized (most activities on low and high intensities, less in the middle), Sweet spot (training mainly between aerobic and anaerobic thresholds), and Base training (most workouts are in zones 1&2). (
  • Includes SS, tempo & threshold intervals to build your aerobic engine Midweek VO2's, anaerobic work & Tabata Intervals to sharpen the sword for race. (
  • The dynamics of the heart rate (HR) at the level of the aerobic threshold of metabolism. (
  • The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the agreement between maximal fat oxidation rate (maxFAT OXR ) vs. Lactate Threshold (LT), and cross-over point (CO P ) vs. Individual Anaerobic Threshold (IAT) in well-trained athletes. (
  • 12 Dickhuth HH, Huonker M, Münzel T, Drexler H, Berg A, Keul J. Individual anaerobic threshold for evaluation of competitive athletes and patients with left ventricular dysfunction. (
  • After 3 to 5 days, EEG was recorded at rest with eyes closed and during cycling at the individual anaerobic threshold over a 30 min period. (
  • The influence of 10 min warming-up at 40% V̇O 2 max on thermal, circulatory, and metabolic responses to an incremental exercise to exhaustion as well as on the anaerobic threshold at the blood lactate level of 4 mmol·l -1 (AT) and the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) was investigated in eight cross-country skiers. (
  • Is the ventilatory threshold coincident with maximal fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in women? (
  • 2 Amann M, Subudhi A W, Walker J, Eisenman P, Shultz B, Foster C. An evaluation of the predictive validity and reliability of ventilatory threshold. (
  • Cardio acceleration can really kick start the anaerobic burn and lactic acid threshold. (
  • The Mader Test is an incremental exercise test used to determine the Anaerobic Threshold using blood lactate measures. (
  • 1 Ahmaidi S, Hardy J M, Varray A, Collomp K, Mercier J, Prefaut C. Respiratory gas exchange indices used to detect the blood lactate accumulation threshold during an incremental exercise test in young athletes. (
  • Using short-interval training, it seems to be very difficult to elicit exclusively anaerobic metabolism. (
  • Manipulation of Step Height and Its Effect on Lactate Metabolism during a One-Minute Anaerobic Step Test. (
  • The dynamics of the treadmill speed at the level of the anaerobic threshold of metabolism. (
  • Thus, this study aimed to: (1) derive prediction models for maximal VO 2 (VO 2max ) based on submaximal exercise variables at anaerobic threshold (AT) or respiratory compensation point (RCP) or only somatic and (2) internally validate provided equations. (
  • In humans, açai supplementation indicated positive results in increasing exhaustion time to 90% of VO and increasing intensity at the anaerobic threshold. (
  • At INSCYD we consider the anaerobic threshold as the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). (
  • 5 Blain G, Meste O, Bouchard T, Bermon S. Assessment of ventilatory thresholds during graded and maximal exercise test using time varying analysis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. (
  • Blood lactate concentration increases exponentially in relation to exercise intensity, and the point of rapid accumulation is often referred to as the anaerobic threshold. (
  • Leipzig, Germany) (ML 3B), and the MasterScreen CPX (Viasys Healthcare, Höchberg, Germany) (MS CPX), as well as validate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a method to determine the anaerobic threshold (AT) and the respiratory compensation point (RCP). (
  • The ventilatory equivalent method was used to assess the ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) from respiratory components. (
  • In addition, ventilatory thresholds were assessed from the instantaneous components of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) by two different methods: 1) from the high frequency peak of HRV ( f HF), and 2) from the product of the spectral power contained within the high frequency band (0.15 Hz to f max) by f HF (HF · f HF) giving two thresholds: HFT1 and HFT2. (
  • This threshold can be determined by establishing a ratio of inspired volume and VO 2 consumption. (
  • In a traditional, unadjusted plan, an athlete who failed a threshold workout in week one would still be fed progressively harder workouts in subsequent weeks and would most likely continue failing the workouts, resulting in sub-optimal training stress and a probable dent to motivation. (
  • This change occurs near the point at which exercisers begin to feel worn out, and the study showed that 12 weeks of exercise training markedly lengthened the time it took for participants to reach the anaerobic threshold during a progressively more challenging exercise test. (
  • The anaerobic glycolytic energy pathway is the source of human energy after the first 30 seconds of an exercise until 3 minutes into that exercise. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a single dose of citrulline malate (CM) on the performance of flat barbell bench presses as an anaerobic exercise and in terms of decreasing muscle soreness after exercise. (
  • Improved detection of lactate threshold during exercise using a log-log transformation. (
  • On the day of biopsy, each CFS patient undertook a subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET). (
  • We showed previously that some CFS patients have abnormal lactate responses to exercise in the subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET). (
  • An increase in the anaerobic threshold during incremental exercise preceded by warming-up may indicate an enhancement of the endurance capacity subsequent to warming-up. (
  • The IRP team also measured changes in the participants' 'anaerobic threshold,' which indicates when the body begins to rely on different energy sources during exercise. (
  • However, a critical power or functional threshold power is not the same as the golden standard MLSS, used by INSCYD. (
  • SuuntoPlus Sports apps like the Anaerobic threshold test and the Functional threshold power test will guide you through a field test session. (
  • Raising your Functional Threshold Power is critical to cycling success. (
  • If you want to get to the next level this season now is the time for a good Functional Threshold Power (FTP) training block. (
  • A simpler method was proposed by Mader (1978), using a blood lactate level of 4 mmol/l as the general estimation point of the anaerobic threshold. (
  • The Bland-Altman plot analysis reveals that the assessment from RSA gives an accurate estimation of the VTs, with HF · f HF providing a reliable index for the ventilatory thresholds detection. (
  • This provides the basis for the estimation of the lactate threshold by non-invasive methods. (
  • The phosphogenic (ATP-PC) anaerobic energy pathway restores ATP after its breakdown via creatine phosphate stored in skeletal muscle. (
  • Effect of Acute Creatine Supplementation and Subsequent Caffeine Ingestion on Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold. (
  • Calculating Anaerobic threshold requires analysis of the lactate/intensity plot. (
  • Anaerobic threshold also known as lactate threshold (LT) or lactate inflection point (LIP) is the point when lactic acid starts to amass in the blood stream. (
  • the resultant value will be constant to the point of anaerobic threshold. (
  • 11 Cottin F, Leprêtre P M, Lopes P, Papelier Y, Médigue C, Billat V L. Assessment of ventilatory thresholds from heart rate variability in well-trained subjects during cycling. (
  • Secondary endpoints included 6-minute walk, New York Heart Association class, VO(2) at anaerobic threshold, VE per carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold, hemodynamics, quality of life, and time to clinical worsening. (
  • If you can delay the time it takes to hit this anaerobic threshold, it means you've delayed fatigue. (
  • This test assumes that the anaerobic threshold is at that level of 4.0 mmol/l blood lactate. (
  • The present study examined whether the ventilatory thresholds during an incremental exhaustive running test could be determined using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. (
  • This is a great test of your anaerobic fitness threshold, to be able to hold a relatively steady pace for each 100 yards. (
  • TrainerRoad engineers have taken each workout from its thousands-strong database and associated them with one of the seven following energy systems (typically known as training zones): Endurance, Tempo, Sweet Spot, Threshold, VO2 Max, Anaerobic and Sprint. (
  • With warming-up a significant increase was found in the threshold work load both at the AT and the IAT. (
  • Between hills it´s important to set the pace at your tempo zone to keep working on your anaerobic threshold. (
  • Most of the activities of daily living are well above the so-called anaerobic threshold of most cancer patients,' Dr. Evans said. (
  • In healthy patients the rise in PETCO2 is regarded to be closely linked with lactate and the lactate threshold. (
  • Patients don't know where this threshold is," she continues. (
  • 3 Anosov O, Patzak A, Kononovich Y, Persson P B. High-frequency oscillations of the heart rate during ramp load reflect the human anaerobic threshold. (
  • to determine the anaerobic threshold using blood lactate levels. (
  • If we look at fitness as an overall picture, your threshold power is the key. (
  • A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. (
  • The LMB is phosphorylated by the enzyme Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and is a substrate for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), anaerobic definition threshold. (
  • now, if you want to increase your ability to tolerate lactic acid (lactic threshold) run uphill all out until you think you are seriously going to die and STOP. (
  • Zone 0 _ Below 65 percent of anaerobic threshold _ Minimal calorie burn. (
  • Suunto is following a five-zone model where your anaerobic threshold is at zone 4 /5 limit. (
  • Increased muscle carnosine levels act as a natural acid buffer, extending anaerobic threshold by limiting the decrease in muscle pH from training. (
  • Studies of anaerobic interval training can be divided into 2 categories. (
  • For example, a 'Tunemah' is an over-under type threshold workout. (
  • Improving your FTP means that you can go faster without going above your threshold. (
  • Initially, our cells keep us moving by using processes that require plenty of oxygen, but sustained, vigorous physical activity eventually causes them to switch over to 'anaerobic' methods that don't need much oxygen. (
  • The relationship between ventilation and oxygen uptake becomes non-linear above the anaerobic threshold. (
  • In this scenario, Adaptive Training would slow progression until a rider is able to complete Tunemah or an alternative threshold session with a similar score. (
  • This is the start of the isocapnic buffering phase which is widely believed to fall in conjunction with the lactate threshold. (