Anacardiaceae: The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. The sap of many of the species is irritating to the skin.Anacardium: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE. This is the source of the familiar cashew nuts, which are heat treated to remove the irritant toxin. Cashew nut shell liquid (frequently abbreviated as CNSL) is a major source of alkenyl phenolic compounds, especially ANACARDIC ACIDS, cardol, and cardanol.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Rhus: A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.Toxicodendron: A genus (formerly part of Rhus genus) of shrubs, vines, or trees that yields a highly allergenic oleoresin which causes a severe contact dermatitis (DERMATITIS, TOXICODENDRON). The most toxic species are Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac), T. diversilobum (poison oak), and T. radicans (poison ivy). T. vernicifera yields a useful varnish from which certain enzymes (laccases) are obtained.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)BrazilDissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.New MexicoCharcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Noma: A severe gangrenous process occurring predominantly in debilitated and malnourished children, especially in underdeveloped countries. It typically begins as a small vesicle or ulcer on the gingiva that rapidly becomes necrotic and spreads to produce extensive destruction of the buccal and labial mucosa and tissues of the face, which may result in severe disfigurement and even death. Various bacteria have been implicated in the etiology. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lippia: A plant genus of the family VERBENACEAE. Lippsidoquinone; TRITERPENES; SESQUITERPENES; and THYMOL have been found in this genus. Plant extracts have cytotoxic activity. It is sometimes called Mexican oregano but that confuses it with real oregano (ORIGANUM).Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)Guadeloupe: The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Xanthomonas: A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Carya: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that bears edible nuts.Anacardic Acids: A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.Pistacia: A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.IdahoWyomingNevadaForensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)MontanaDermatitis, Toxicodendron: An allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to plants of the genus Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus). These include poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac, all plants that contain the substance urushiol, a potent skin sensitizing agent. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Plant Dormancy: The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.

Route of tracer administration does not affect ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery measured with the 15N-isotope dilution technique in pigs fed rapidly digestible diets. (1/47)

The (15)N-isotope dilution technique ((15)N-IDT), with either pulse-dose oral administration or continuous i.v. administration of [(15)N]-l-leucine (carotid artery), both at 5 mg/(kg body weight . d), was used to measure ileal (postvalve T-cecum cannula) endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 +/- 0.6 kg). Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content of quebracho extract (Schinopsis spp.) rich in condensed tannins. Blood was sampled from a catheter in the external jugular vein. Mean plasma (15)N-enrichment at d 8-10 was higher (P = 0.0009) after i.v. than after oral administration [0.0356 vs. 0.0379 atom% excess (APE)]. Plasma (15)N-enrichment for i.v. infused pigs was 0.01117 APE higher (P < 0.0001) and for orally dosed pigs 0.0081 APE lower (P < 0.0001) at 11 h postprandial compared with 1 h postprandial. Apparent ileal N digestibility was higher (P < 0.0001) for the control (85.5%) than for the quebracho diet (69.5%). ENR was calculated from the ratio of (15)N-enrichment of plasma and digesta. The ENR for the quebracho diet was approximately 300% higher than for the control diet (6.03 vs. 1.94 g/kg dry matter intake, P < 0.001). The real N digestibility (92.2 +/- 0.4%) was equal for both diets (P = 0.1030) and both tracer methods (P = 0.9730). We concluded that oral administration of [(15)N]leucine provides reasonable estimates of ENR in pigs fed semipurified diets with high or low content of tannins; however, one must be careful in extrapolating this conclusion to studies with other protein sources or feeding frequencies.  (+info)

Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery is increased and its amino acid pattern is altered in pigs fed quebracho extract. (2/47)

Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 +/- 0.6 kg body weight) was estimated simultaneously using the (15)N-isotope dilution technique ((15)N-IDT) and the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration (UF) method. Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content of quebracho extract (Schinopsis spp.) rich in condensed tannins. The amino acid (AA) pattern of the ENR was also determined. The ENR of pigs fed the quebracho diet was higher (P = 0.0001) than that of pigs fed the control diet [6.00 vs. 1.95 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) for the (15)N-IDT and 5.18 vs. 1.49 g/kg DMI for the UF method, respectively]. With the (15)N-IDT, ENR values were 0.44-0.79 g/kg DMI (24%) higher (control P = 0.0032, quebracho P = 0.0002) than for the UF method. Apparent nitrogen digestibility depended on diet (69.0% quebracho vs. 86.0% control, P = 0.0001). Real nitrogen digestibility (RD-N) determined by the UF method was higher (P = 0.0001) for the control than for the quebracho diet (91.4 vs. 88.2%). Corresponding values for the (15)N-IDT did not differ (P = 0.0569) between diets (92.8 vs. 91.4%). The (15)N-IDT gave higher values for RD-N of both diets (control P = 0.0030, quebracho P = 0.0002) compared with the UF method. Endogenous AA recoveries (g/kg DMI) were increased 300% (P = 0.0001) and the AA-pattern of ENR was changed (P from 0.0001 to 0.7530 for different AA) by the quebracho diet. A constant AA-pattern of ENR cannot be assumed. Despite limitations of both techniques, the (15)N-IDT and the UF method gave similar results with respect to ENR.  (+info)

Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea. (3/47)

Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.  (+info)

Polyphenols purified from the Brazilian aroeira plant (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death of DU145 cells. (4/47)

Polyphenols extracted from many plants have shown antiproliferative and antitumor activities in a wide range of carcinogenesis models. The antiproliferative effects of polyphenols purified from the Brazilian aroeira plant (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) were investigated on the androgen-insensitive DU145 human prostatic carcinoma cell line. A F3 fraction purified from leaf extract inhibited the DU145 cell proliferation more than 30-fold compared to the crude extract. By flow cytometric analysis, the polyphenol fraction was demonstrated to induce G0/G1 cell growth arrest and cell apoptosis. This apoptosis was evidenced by caspase 3 stimulation in F3-treated cells as compared to crude extract treated cells. The acid phosphatase activity of lysosomes was strongly activated in the lysosomal fraction of the F3-treated DU145 cells. This lysosomal activation, together with the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, suggests that "type 2 physiological cell death" was also involved in this antiproliferative effect. HPLC analysis of this F3 fraction showed 18 different subfractions. Among these subfractions, F3-3, F3-7 and F3-13 strongly inhibited DU145 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the nature of these polyphenols remains unknown since only one (Isoquercitrin) of the tested pure polyphenols co-migrated with F3-13. Since lysosomotropic drugs are considered as possible regulators of lysosome activity, aroeira polyphenols could target lysosomes of prostatic cancer cells to induce autophagic cell death.  (+info)

General synthesis for chiral 4-alkyl-4-hydroxycyclohexenones. (5/47)

[reaction: see text] Some selective transformations of resorcinol-derived cyclohexadienone are reported. Efforts led to a structure reported to display anticancer properties. On the basis of the results, the structures for natural products reported to contain a 4,6-dihydroxy-4-alkyl-cyclohexenone nucleus are corrected.  (+info)

Vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of Sclerocarya birrea (A Rich) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) stem bark aqueous extract in rats. (6/47)

The vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of Sclerocarya birrea stem bark aqueous extract have been examined in rat experimental paradigms. Cumulative additions of S birrea stem bark aqueous extract (SBE 12.5-200 mg/ml) to the bath fluid induced concentration-dependent relaxations of endothelium- containing normotensive Wistar rat isolated aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA). The vasorelaxant effect of SBE on endothelium-containing isolated aortic rings was annulled by removal of the functional endothelium (in endothelium-denuded normotensive Wistar rat isolated aortic rings), or by pretreatment of the endothelium-containing isolated aortic rings with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Bolus intravenous administrations of the plant extract (SBE 25-400 mg/kg iv) caused transient, dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) reductions in systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of anaesthetised normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. The findings of this experimental animal study suggest that S birrea stem bark aqueous extract relaxes normotensive Wistar rat aortic vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO); and that the hypotensive effect of the plant extract is likely to be mediated, at least in part, through nitric oxide synthase activation and subsequent nitric oxide release.  (+info)

Induction of apoptosis on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines by an alkyl resorcinol isolated from Lithraea molleoides. (7/47)

AIM: To study the mechanism of cytotoxicity of a new active 5-alkyl resorcinol [1, 3-dihydroxy-5- (tridec-4', 7'-dienyl) benzene] isolated from Lithraea molleoides leaves on liver tumor cells. METHODS: Human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) in culture were treated with inhibitory concentrations, 50% of the compound, for 24 h. The induction of apoptosis was detected in treated cells by analysis of DNA fragmentation, DNA content, and acridine orange and propidium iodide staining. RESULTS: After 24 h of 5-alkyl resorcinol treatment, both cell lines showed: (1) the typical morphological alterations of apoptosis; (2) DNA fragmentation, detected by laddering and appearance of a subG0 population by flow cytometry; and (3) condensed and fragmented nuclei by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, this compound exerts its cytotoxic effect in both hepatocellular cell lines through apoptotic cell death. For Hep3B, cells with mutated p53 and Fas, apoptosis would proceed by p53- or Fas-independent pathways.  (+info)

Colonization patterns of the invasive Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius, in Florida. (8/47)

Invasive species are believed to spread through a process of stratified dispersal consisting of short-distance diffusive spread around established foci and human mediated long-distance jumps. Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius), native to South America, was introduced twice as an ornamental plant into Florida, USA, just over 100 years ago. A previous study indicated that these two introductions were from genetically differentiated source populations in the native range. In this study, we took advantage of these contrasting genetic signatures to study the spatial spread of Brazilian peppertree across its entire range in Florida. A combination of spatial genetic and geostatistical analyses using chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers revealed evidence for both diffusive dispersal and long-distance jumps. Chloroplast DNA haplotype distributions and extensive bands of intra-specific hybridization revealed extensive dispersal by both introduced populations across the state. The strong genetic signature around the original introduction points, the presence of a general southeast to northwest genetic cline, and evidence for short-distance genetic spatial autocorrelation provided evidence of diffusive dispersal from an advancing front, probably by birds and small mammals. In the northernmost part of the range, there were patches having a high degree of ancestry from each introduction, suggesting long-distance jump dispersal, probably by the movement of humans. The evidence for extensive movement throughout the state suggests that Brazilian peppertree will be capable of rapidly recolonizing areas from which it has been eradicated. Concerted eradication efforts over large areas or the successful establishment of effective biocontrol agents over a wide area will be needed to suppress this species.  (+info)

  • the red quebracho Schinopsis lorentzii (the red quebracho), of the family Anacardiaceae Schinopsis balansae (the willow-leaf red quebracho), of the same family the white quebracho or Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco of the family Apocynaceae A fourth species, Jodina rhombifolia (syn. (
  • Anacardiaceae: Shrub or small tree to 40 ft (13 meters) tall with a multi-stemmed short trunk that is curved with grayish and often scaly bark. (
  • La media del coeficiente de fijación ( ) entre las plantas maternas fue - 0.103±0.045, mientras que la esperada fue 0.108, lo que indica que no hubo un exceso de heterocigotos en la población materna. (
  • Here we use a comprehensive sampling of the pantropical sister pair Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae to assess the relative importance of continental vicariance, long-distance dispersal and niche-conservatism in generating its distinctive pattern of diversity over time. (
  • Anacardiaceae steadily accumulated lineages starting in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene while the majority of Burseraceae diversification occurred in the Miocene. (
  • However, Anacardiaceae have shifted climatic niches frequently during this time, while Burseraceae have experienced very few shifts between dry and wet climates and only in the tropics. (
  • Thus, we conclude that both Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae move easily but that Anacardiaceae have adapted more often, either due to more varied selective pressures or greater intrinsic lability. (
  • In consequence, the biological activity of EOs from the leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) and the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenacea) were evaluated against the eggs and adults of P. humanus capitis by fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays. (
  • Anacardiaceae) / Total phenolics, antioxidant activity and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition by Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. (
  • Anacardiaceae) Extract from Libya', Egyptian Journal of Chemistry , 62(1), pp. 21-28. (
  • 2015 ). Nevertheless, few Schinopsis accessions have been included in those studies, due to the presence of tannins and oleoresins that strongly affect DNA purification, PCR amplification and sequencing, as it happens in other Anacardiaceae (Pell pers. (
  • Citation for this treatment: John M. Miller & Dieter H. Wilken 2012, Anacardiaceae , in Jepson Flora Project (eds. (
  • Plate 49 from The flora of South Africa (vol. 2, part 2) featuring Anacardiaceae. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Anacardiaceae" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Anacardiaceae" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (