These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A non-steroidal estrogen analog.
A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.
An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.

Alterations in diaphragm contractility after nandrolone administration: an analysis of potential mechanisms. (1/470)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mechanisms underlying the improved contractility of the diaphragm (Dia) in adult intact male hamsters after nandrolone (Nan) administration, given subcutaneously over 4 wk via a controlled-release capsule (initial dose: 4.5 mg. kg-1. day-1; with weight gain, final dose: 2.7 mg. kg-1. day-1). Control (Ctl) animals received blank capsules. Isometric contractile properties of the Dia were determined in vitro after 4 wk. The maximum velocity of unloaded shortening (Vo) was determined in vitro by means of the slack test. Dia fibers were classified histochemically on the basis of myofibrillar ATPase staining and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and the relative interstitial space was quantitated. Ca2+-activated myosin ATPase activity was determined by quantitative histochemistry in individual diaphragm fibers. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms were identified electrophoretically, and their proportions were determined by using scanning densitometry. Peak twitch and tetanic forces, as well as Vo, were significantly greater in Nan animals compared with Ctl. The proportion of type IIa Dia fibers was significantly increased in Nan animals. Nan increased the CSA of all fiber types (26-47%), whereas the relative interstitial space decreased. The relative contribution of fiber types to total costal Dia area was preserved between the groups. Proportions of MHC isoforms were similar between the groups. There was a tendency for increased expression of MHC2B with Nan. Ca2+-activated myosin ATPase activity was increased 35-39% in all fiber types in Nan animals. We conclude that, after Nan administration, the increase in Dia specific force results from the relatively greater Dia CSA occupied by hypertrophied muscle fibers, whereas the increased ATPase activity promotes a higher rate of cross-bridge turnover and thus increased Vo. We speculate that Nan in supraphysiological doses have the potential to offset or ameliorate conditions associated with enhanced proteolysis and disordered protein turnover.  (+info)

Effects of implants on daily gains of steers wintered on dormant native tallgrass prairie, subsequent performance, and carcass characteristics. (2/470)

Fall-weaned crossbred steer calves (n = 300; 184 +/- 2.9 kg) received either no implant (Control) or were implanted with Synovex-C (SC = 10 mg estradiol benzoate + 100 mg progesterone), Synovex-S (SS = 20 mg estradiol benzoate + 200 mg progesterone), or Revalor-G (RG = 8 mg estradiol-17beta + 40 mg trenbolone acetate) to determine the effects of implants on weight gain during winter grazing on dormant tallgrass prairie, subsequent grazing and finishing performance, and carcass characteristics. Steers grazed two dormant tallgrass prairie pastures from October 16, 1996, until March 29, 1997 (164 d), and received 1.36 kg/d of a 25% CP supplement that supplied 100 mg of monensin/steer. Following winter grazing, all steers were implanted with Ralgro (36 mg zeranol) and grazed a common tallgrass prairie pasture until July 17 (110 d). After summer grazing, all steers were implanted with Revalor-S (24 mg estradiol-17beta + 120 mg trenbolone acetate), and winter implant treatment groups were equally allotted to four feedlot pens. Steers were harvested November 17, 1997, after a 123-d finishing period. Daily gains during the winter grazing phase averaged .28, .32, .32, or .35 kg/d, respectively, for Control, SC, SS, or RG steers and were greater (P < .01) for implanted steers than for Controls. Summer daily gains were similar (1.05 +/- .016 kg/d; P > or = .61) for all treatment groups. Feedlot daily gains were also similar (1.67 +/- .034 kg/d; P > or = .21), with implanted steers weighing 14 kg more than Control steers (P = .05) at harvest, despite similar management during summer grazing and feedlot phases. Control steers tended (P = .06) to have lower yield grades. There were no differences (P = .99) in marbling between implanted and nonimplanted steers. Steers implanted during the wintering phase had increased skeletal and overall (P < .01) carcass maturities compared with nonimplanted steers, which resulted in more "B" and "C" maturity carcasses. Because carcass maturity score affects quality grade, the increased maturities of implanted steers resulted in a $9.04 decrease in carcass value/100 kg (P < .01) compared with Controls. The results of this study indicate that growth-promoting implants are efficacious for cattle wintered on dormant native range despite low daily gains. This increased weight is maintained through the summer grazing and feedlot phases; however, the benefit of the increased weight may be offset by decreased carcass quality grade and value due to increased carcass maturity.  (+info)

Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids. (3/470)

1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems.  (+info)

Reversal of weightlessness-induced musculoskeletal losses with androgens: quantification by MRI. (4/470)

Microgravity causes rapid decrement in musculoskeletal mass is associated with a marked decrease in circulatory testosterone levels, as we reported in hindlimb-suspended (HLS) rats. In this model which simulates microgravity, we hypothesized that testosterone supplementation should prevent these losses, and we tested this in two studies. Muscle volumes and bone masses were quantitated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 12. In the first study, 12-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats that were HLS for 12 days lost 28.5% of muscle volume (53.3 +/- 4.8 vs. 74.5 +/- 3.6 cm3 in the ground control rats; P < 0.001) and had a 5% decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) (P < 0.05). In the second study, 30 male 12-wk-old Wistar rats were HLS and were administered either a vehicle (control), testosterone, or nandrolone decanoate (ND). An additional 20 rats were used as ground controls, one-half of which received testosterone. HLS rats had a significant reduction in muscle volume (42.9 +/- 3.0 vs. 56 +/- 1.8 cm3 in ground control rats; P < 0.01). Both testosterone and ND treatments prevented this muscle loss (51.5 +/- 2 and 51.6 +/- 1.2 cm3, respectively; a 63% improvement; P < 0. 05). There were no statistical differences between the two active treatment groups nor with the ground controls. Similarly, there was an 85% improvement in BMD in the testosterone group (1.15 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.04 density units in vehicle controls; P < 0.05) and a 76% improvement in the ND group (1.13 +/- 0.07 density units), whereas ground control rats had a BMD of 1.17 +/- 0.03 density units. Because serum testosterone levels are markedly reduced in this model of simulated microgravity, androgen replacement seems to be a rational countermeasure to prevent microgravity-induced musculoskeletal losses.  (+info)

Effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use or gonadal testosterone suppression on serum leptin concentration in men. (5/470)

OBJECTIVE: Serum leptin concentration shows a sexual dimorphism that is not accounted for by gender differences in adiposity. A strong inverse association exists between serum leptin and testosterone concentrations in men, pointing to a likely influence of gonadal sex steroids on serum leptin concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether manipulation of sex steroid hormones in men would alter serum leptin concentration independently of changes in fat mass. DESIGN AND METHODS: The effects of sex steroid suppression on serum leptin concentration were investigated in nine healthy men in whom testosterone had been reversibly suppressed for 5 weeks after treatment with intramuscular triptorelin. The effects of sex steroid supplementation were investigated in nine male bodybuilders who self-administered anabolic--androgenic steroids (AAS) for a mean period of 6.5 weeks. A control group received no hormonal treatment. RESULTS: Testosterone concentration was significantly reduced by triptorelin administration (7.32+/- 1.92ng/ml at baseline compared with 1.15+/-0.57ng/ml at 5 weeks, P=0.002). High-dose AAS use was confirmed by urine analysis. Body fat percentage was unaffected by the AAS or triptorelin intervention (P>0.19). Leptin concentration was significantly reduced after one cycle of AAS use (2.40+/-0. 98ng/ml off cycle compared with 1.63+/-0.37ng/ml on cycle, P=0.012), and was significantly increased by triptorelin administration (2. 96+/-1.50ng/ml at baseline compared with 6.63+/-4.67ng/ml at five weeks, P=0.004). No significant change occurred in the control group. CONCLUSION: Androgenic sex hormone supplementation decreases serum leptin concentration, whereas suppression increases serum leptin concentration, independently of changes in body fat mass in healthy men. The sexual dimorphism evident in serum leptin concentration is likely to be due to a suppressive effect of testosterone on serum leptin concentration in males.  (+info)

Effects of anabolic steroids on diaphragm impairment induced by methylprednisolone in emphysematous hamsters. (6/470)

This study was designed to investigate whether the administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate is able to antagonize the loss in diaphragm function induced by long-term administration of a low-dose of methylprednisolone in emphysematous hamsters. Normal and emphysematous male hamsters were randomized to receive either saline or methylprednisolone 0.2 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) for 9 months, with or without nandrolone decanoate 1 mg x kg(-1) x week(-1) i.m. during the final 3 months. Diaphragm contractile properties and myosin heavy chain composition were determined. Compared to control hamsters, the force generating capacity of isolated diaphragm strips decreased by approximately 12% in the emphysema group and by approximately 22% in the emphysema plus methylprednisolone group. Addition of nandrolone decanoate to the emphysema plus methylprednisolone hamsters significantly improved force generation. The atrophy of type IIa and IIx diaphragm fibres in the emphysema plus methylprednisolone group was completely reversed to the level of control hamsters by the addition of nandrolone decanoate. In conclusion, nandrolone decanoate in part reversed the loss in diaphragm force-generating capacity in emphysematous hamsters treated with methylprednisolone, and reversed type IIa and IIx fibre atrophy completely.  (+info)

Effects of anabolic steroid (19-nortestosterone) on the secretion of testicular hormones in the stallion. (7/470)

The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of anabolic steroids on the testicular endocrine function of mature stallions. Mature thoroughbred stallions were treated with 800 mg nandrolone decanoate every 3 weeks for 3 months. After the first treatment, plasma concentrations of LH, immunoreactive inhibin and testosterone decreased rapidly to the nadir. These hormones were maintained at significantly lower concentrations compared with concentrations in intact stallions. Histology of the testicular tissue indicated the arrest of advanced spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules and a severe depletion of the number of Leydig cells in the interstitial compartment as a result of treatment. Most of the immunopositive cells for the inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes in the interstitial compartment decreased below detectable amounts, whereas immunopositive reactions of inhibin alpha-subunit in the seminiferous tubules were clearly observed. In conclusion, the treatment of mature stallions with nandrolone decanoate caused a decrease in the secretion of ir-inhibin and testosterone from the testis, the depletion of the number of Leydig cells and a decrease below detectable amounts of inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes. The concentration of ir-inhibin in the peripheral blood may be a useful marker for the examination of testicular activity in stallions being treated with anabolic steroids.  (+info)

Over-the-counter anabolic steroids 4-androsten-3,17-dione; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol; and 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione: excretion studies in men. (8/470)

Since the appearance of 4-androsten-3,17-dione (I) as a nutritional supplement in early 1997, we have frequently observed a characteristic deterioration of endogenous steroid profiles in athletes' urine in routine anabolic steroid testing in which concentrations of major endogenous urinary steroids and testosterone exceed normal. Human excretion studies are performed with I and newer, over-the-counter "supplements" 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol (II) and 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione (III). Endogenous urinary steroids affected by I and II are androsterone, etiocholanolone, their hydroxylated derivatives 5alpha- and 5beta-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diols, testosterone, and epitestosterone. Their concentrations briefly increase by one to two orders of magnitude and return to normal 24 h after oral administration of I and II. The average male may test positive for testosterone because testosterone concentration rises faster than that of epitestosterone, causing the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio to rise above the positive cutoff of 6:1. A remarkable distinction in excretion patterns was observed in eastern Asian men, for whom I and II did not affect urinary concentrations of testosterone and did not increase the T/E ratio. First-pass metabolism deactivates most of the orally administered drugs I and II, rapidly converting them into inactive androsterone and etiocholanolone. Drug II is a more effective testosterone booster because of its different metabolic pathway. After the use of III, a precursor of the potent anabolic nandrolone, high concentrations of norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone appear in urine, similar to nandrolone. These are detectable in urine for 7-10 days after a single oral dose of III (50 mg).  (+info)

Anabolic agents are a class of drugs that promote anabolism, the building up of body tissues. These agents are often used medically to help people with certain medical conditions such as muscle wasting diseases, osteoporosis, and delayed puberty. Anabolic steroids are one type of anabolic agent. They mimic the effects of testosterone, the male sex hormone, leading to increased muscle mass and strength. However, anabolic steroids also have significant side effects and can be addictive. Therefore, their use is regulated and they are only available by prescription in many countries. Abuse of anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes, such as to improve athletic performance or appearance, is illegal and can lead to serious health consequences.

Zeranol is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Zeranol is a non-steroidal estrogenic growth promoter, which means it is used to promote growth in animals, particularly cattle. It belongs to the class of compounds known as zearalenones, which are mycotoxins produced by certain types of fungi.

Zeranol works by binding to estrogen receptors in the animal's body, mimicking the effects of natural estrogens and promoting growth. It is important to note that zeranol is not approved for use in humans, and its potential health effects on humans are not well understood. However, residues of zeranol have been found in meat products derived from cattle treated with the compound, leading to concerns about its potential impact on human health.

Hexestrol is a synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen that was previously used in various medical treatments, including hormone replacement therapy and the treatment of certain types of cancer. It is no longer commonly used in clinical medicine due to its associated side effects and the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. Hexestrol is classified as a carcinogen and may increase the risk of certain cancers, particularly endometrial and breast cancer. It is important to note that the use of hexestrol and other synthetic estrogens should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it is not recommended for self-medication.

Trenbolone Acetate is an esterified form of the synthetic steroid hormone Trenbolone. It is a potent anabolic and androgenic steroid, which is used in veterinary medicine for promoting muscle growth and appetite stimulation in cattle. In human medicine, it is not approved for use but is sometimes misused for its anabolic effects, such as increasing muscle mass, strength, and reducing body fat. It is important to note that the use of Trenbolone Acetate in humans is considered off-label and can lead to serious health consequences, including liver toxicity, cardiovascular issues, and hormonal imbalances.

Oxandrolone is an anabolic steroid medication, which is a synthetic version of the hormone testosterone. Medically, it's used to help people gain weight after certain illnesses or injuries, and to treat conditions like HIV-related wasting, major burns, and some types of osteoporosis. It works by promoting muscle growth and increasing appetite.

It's important to note that oxandrolone is a controlled substance and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to the potential for serious side effects and abuse.

Teriparatide is a synthetic form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is a natural hormone produced by the parathyroid glands in the body. The medication contains the active fragment of PTH, known as 1-34 PTH, and it is used in medical treatment to stimulate new bone formation and increase bone density.

Teriparatide is primarily prescribed for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men with a high risk of fractures who have not responded well to other osteoporosis therapies, such as bisphosphonates. It is administered via subcutaneous injection, typically once daily.

By increasing bone formation and reducing bone resorption, teriparatide helps improve bone strength and structure, ultimately decreasing the risk of fractures in treated individuals. The medication's effects on bone metabolism can lead to improvements in bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture, making it an essential tool for managing severe osteoporosis and reducing fracture risk.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Bone density conservation agents, also known as anti-resorptive agents or bone-sparing drugs, are a class of medications that help to prevent the loss of bone mass and reduce the risk of fractures. They work by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue during the natural remodeling process.

Examples of bone density conservation agents include:

1. Bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronic acid) - These are the most commonly prescribed class of bone density conservation agents. They bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue and inhibit osteoclast activity, thereby reducing bone resorption.
2. Denosumab (Prolia) - This is a monoclonal antibody that targets RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand), a key signaling molecule involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. By inhibiting RANKL, denosumab reduces osteoclast activity and bone resorption.
3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (e.g., raloxifene) - These medications act as estrogen agonists or antagonists in different tissues. In bone tissue, SERMs mimic the bone-preserving effects of estrogen by inhibiting osteoclast activity and reducing bone resorption.
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - Estrogen hormone replacement therapy has been shown to preserve bone density in postmenopausal women; however, its use is limited due to increased risks of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and thromboembolic events.
5. Calcitonin - This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption. However, it has largely been replaced by other more effective bone density conservation agents.

These medications are often prescribed for individuals at high risk of fractures due to conditions such as osteoporosis or metabolic disorders that affect bone health. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines to maximize their benefits while minimizing potential side effects. Regular monitoring of bone density, blood calcium levels, and other relevant parameters is also necessary during treatment with these medications.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women from the 1940s until the early 1970s to prevent miscarriage, premature labor, and other complications of pregnancy. However, it was later discovered that DES could cause serious health problems in both the mothers who took it and their offspring.

DES is a non-selective estrogen agonist, meaning that it binds to and activates both estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) in the body. It has a higher binding affinity for ERα than for ERβ, which can lead to disruptions in normal hormonal signaling pathways.

In addition to its use as a pregnancy aid, DES has also been used in the treatment of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. However, due to its potential health risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, DES is no longer widely used in clinical practice.

Some of the known health effects of DES exposure include:

* In women who were exposed to DES in utero (i.e., their mothers took DES during pregnancy):
+ A rare form of vaginal or cervical cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma
+ Abnormalities of the reproductive system, such as structural changes in the cervix and vagina, and an increased risk of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and preterm delivery
+ An increased risk of breast cancer later in life
* In men who were exposed to DES in utero:
+ Undescended testicles
+ Abnormalities of the penis and scrotum
+ A higher risk of testicular cancer
* In both men and women who were exposed to DES in utero or who took DES themselves:
+ An increased risk of certain types of breast cancer
+ A possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including high blood pressure and stroke.

It is important for individuals who have been exposed to DES to inform their healthcare providers of this fact, as it may have implications for their medical care and monitoring.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

... anabolic agents; diuretics and other masking agents; "street drugs" (the NCAA gives as examples heroin, marijuana, ...
Anabolic Agents , List of Prohibited Substances and Methods". Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. ... Testosterone is classified as an anabolic agent and is on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) List of Prohibited Substances and ... and this is primarily responsible for the dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effects with these agents. In addition to DHT ... Taylor WN (2002). Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete (2nd ed.). McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-1128-3. Archived from the ...
Anabolic Agents". Drugs in Sport: Anti-Doping Prohibited List - via Llewellyn W (2009). Anabolics. Molecular ... The drug was originally thought to be a potent anabolic agent, but subsequent research showed that it actually has relatively ... mestanolone is described as a very poor anabolic agent, similarly to androstanolone and mesterolone. As mestanolone is 5α- ... weak anabolic effects and is mostly an androgen. Mestanolone was used as a doping agent in athletes competing in the Olympics ...
Llewellyn W (2011). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 517-. ISBN 978-0-9828280-1-4. "Anabolic Agents". Kicman ... The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological ... 377-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. Morton IK, Hall JM (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties ... March 2017). "Hepatotoxicity associated with illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids in doping". European Review for ...
von Deutsch DA, Abukhalaf IK, Lapu-Bula R (2012). "Anabolic Doping Agents". In Mozayani A, Raymon L (eds.). Handbook of Drug ... DHT has been reported to be a very poor anabolic agent when administered exogenously as a medication. In addition to normal ... Llewellyn W (2009). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 19, 163. ISBN 978-0967930473. Chang C (2002). Androgens and ... 12-. ISBN 978-1-4832-6504-9. Taylor WN (2002). Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete (2d ed.). McFarland. pp. 178-. ISBN 978-0-7864 ...
However, androstanolone is nonetheless described as a very poor anabolic agent. This is attributed to its high affinity as a ... von Deutsch DA, Abukhalaf IK, Lapu-Bula R (15 October 2003). "Anabolic Doping Agents". In Mozayani A, Raymon L (eds.). Handbook ... Llewellyn W (2011). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 8, 23-25, 353-359. ISBN 978-0-9828280-1-4. Coutts SB, Kicman AT, ... The medication is a naturally occurring androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), ...
Parr MK, Botrè F, Naß A, Hengevoss J, Diel P, Wolber G (June 2015). "Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?". Biology ... It has been found to increase hypertrophy in rats at a similar level to some anabolic androgenic steroids and SARM S 1. This is ... Phytoecdysteroids also appear in many plants mostly as a protection agents (toxins or antifeedants) against herbivore insects. ...
Julius A. Vida (1969). Androgens and Anabolic Agents: Chemistry and Pharmacology. New York: Academic Press. pp. 23 & 168. Amy ... assays to determine methasterone's anabolic and androgenic activity were published in Vida's Androgens and Anabolic Agents, a ... "potent orally active anabolic agent exhibiting only weak androgenic activity." The results of subsequent ... as anabolic and 20% as androgenic, yielding a Q-ratio (anabolic to androgenic ratio) of 20, which is considered very high. It ...
Poole KE, Reeve J (Dec 2005). "Parathyroid hormone - a bone anabolic and catabolic agent". Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 5 ( ... Martin TJ (Mar 2004). "Does bone reabsorption inhibition affect the anabolic response to parathyroid hormone?". Trends in ...
Poole KE, Reeve J (December 2005). "Parathyroid hormone - a bone anabolic and catabolic agent". Current Opinion in Pharmacology ...
She tested positive for Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (S1.1 Anabolic agents). In November 2016, she was stripped of her 2012 ...
It is an anabolic (i.e., bone growing) agent. The most common side effects include hypercalciuria (high calcium levels in the ... It works as an anabolic agent for the bone, through selective activation of the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R), a G ... The anabolic effects of abaloparatide on bone were demonstrated in two preclinical studies conducted in ovariectomized rats. ... "FDA Approves Radius Health's Tymlos (abaloparatide), a Bone Building Agent for the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women with ...
Metzler M (April 1989). "Metabolism of some anabolic agents: toxicological and analytical aspects". J. Chromatogr. 489 (1): 11- ... Trendione is listed in the United States Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2014. List of androgens/anabolic steroids ... A potent anabolic steroid with reduced androgenic and estrogenic activity". Steroids. 75 (6): 377-89. doi:10.1016/j.steroids. ... exhibits tissue selective anabolic activity: effects on muscle, bone, adiposity, hemoglobin, and prostate". Am. J. Physiol. ...
NADPH is used as a reducing agent in many anabolic reactions. Proton translocating NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase is one of the main ...
Potential causative agents include oral contraceptive pills, spironolactone, and anabolic steroids. High levels of prolactin in ... anabolic steroids, alcohol, opioids, efavirenz, alkylating agents, and omeprazole. Certain components of personal skin care ... Androgens/anabolic steroids may be effective for gynecomastia. Testosterone itself may not be suitable to treat gynecomastia as ... The use of anabolic steroids and exposure to chemicals that mimic estrogen in cosmetic products, organochlorine pesticides, and ...
For diuretic or masking agent-two regular and/or postseason games. For stimulants or anabolic agent-four regular and/or ... The father of anabolic steroids in the United States was John Ziegler (1917-1983), a physician for the U.S. weightlifting team ... At the conclusion of the survey, researchers found that out of 2552 ex-NFL players, 9.1% self reported using anabolic steroids ... For a prohibited substance plus a diuretic or masking agent/attempt to substitute, dilute or adulterate a specimen/attempt to ...
Anabolic agents: include the use of anabolic steroids that increase testosterone levels in players. The drug is prohibited as ... A full list of itemised anabolic agents is listed on the ITF website. Peptide hormones: include the use of drugs with amino ... Due to the change on hormones, the use of these agents can also effect athletes metabolism. Diuretics and masking agents: ... These substances can also dilute certain doping agents in the urine, and so are used by athletes to pass drug tests. In ...
On February 11, 2020, news surfaced that Prazeres tested positive for anabolic agents in two out-of-competition samples on ... "Michel Prazeres accepts two-year USADA sanction after testing positive for anabolic agent". Staff (2021-04-02 ...
The IOC said both samples indicated the presence of the anabolic agent metenolone. New Zealand's Valerie Adams was subsequently ...
July 2019). "Ecdysteroids as non-conventional anabolic agent: performance enhancement by ecdysterone supplementation in humans ... July 2019). "Ecdysteroids as non-conventional anabolic agent: performance enhancement by ecdysterone supplementation in humans ... The study was funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and demonstrated a significant dose-responsive anabolic effect of ... However, a number of earlier studies supported the anabolic effects of 20-Hydroxyecdysone. A more recent study conducted in ...
The World Anti-Doping Agency lists 7-keto-DHEA as a prohibited anabolic agent. The FDA has proposed that it be banned from use ... 7-Keto-DHEA is reported to be an anabolic androgenic steroid that may be subject to abuse in sport. "The World Anti-Doping Code ...
He claims it was in an anti-baldness treatment; however, the drug is banned as it is a masking agent for anabolic steroids. On ...
Anabolic agents, or Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS), are any of a group of synthetic or natural steroid hormones that builds ... Anabolic agents are abused by athletes in training to increase the size and strength of their muscles. However, the muscle ... Side effects with anabolic agents are very serious and are not to be ignored. Side effects include: acne, nervous tension, ... Examples of anabolic agents are boldenone, clenbuterol, dehydrocholormethyl-testosterone (DHEA), nandrolone, stanozolol, ...
Anabolic agents may have some efficacy but are not often used due to side effects. There are multiple treatments and ...
The compound is listed as a banned anabolic agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Chlorodehydromethylandrostenediol ... orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and designer steroid that has been sold on the Internet as a "dietary ... Androgens and anabolic steroids, Androstanes, Designer drugs, Organochlorides). ...
The World Anti-Doping Agency lists it as S1 Anabolic agent substance "prohibited at all times". In general, androgens such as ... List of androgens/anabolic steroids List of human hormones Haynes WM, ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ... The Annual NY Academy of Sciences has also found anabolic steroid use (which increases testosterone) to be higher in teenagers ... Rats who were given anabolic steroids that increase testosterone were also more physically aggressive to provocation as a ...
The substance was probenecid, a medicine for the kidney and also a masking agent for anabolic steroids. In 1988, every sport ... Delgado tested positive for the known masking agent Probenecid during the 1988 tour. The drug, which had been placed on the ...
Zhou tested positive to clenbuterol, a Class 1 Anabolic Agent on the WADA Prohibited List of substances. On 27 October 2011, ...
The most everyday use of prohormones is as supplements for muscle growth via ergogenic and anabolic agents. Prohormone ... used as ergogenic or anabolic agents for muscle growth. A commonly consumed example of said precursors are androstenedione and ... Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004. Many prohormone supplements that were claimed to impart anabolic or ergogenic effects in ... Pitts, Joseph R. (2014-12-18). "Text - H.R.4771 - 113th Congress (2013-2014): Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2014". ...
... clenbuterol and other β2 adrenergic agents remain banned not as a beta-agonist, but rather an anabolic agent. These effects are ... Consequently, such agents are monitored for and generally banned by WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) with limited permissible ... The comprehensive anabolic, lipolytic, and ergogenic effects of long-acting β2 agonists such as clenbuterol render them ... Choo JJ, Horan MA, Little RA, Rothwell NJ (July 1992). "Anabolic effects of clenbuterol on skeletal muscle are mediated by beta ...
In contrast, anabolic androgenic steroids are recognised PEDs that improve athletic performance, increase muscle growth and ... Anabolic Androgenic Steroids as a Performance Enhancing Agent. Anabolic androgenic steroids first gained popularity in the 1954 ... Increased premature mortality of competitive powerlifters suspected to have used anabolic agents. Int. J. Sports. Med. 2000, 21 ... Figure 3. (A,B). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images of a 38-year old bodybuilder with anabolic androgenic steroid use-(A ...
Anabolic agents. Teriparatide showed promising efficacy in glucocorticoid-induced bone loss, [132] which is a major contributor ... Romosozumab is a new agent exerting dual effects-anabolic and antiresorptive-by blocking sclerostin. Considering the elevated ... If an antiresorptive agent such as a bisphosphonate is used, significant increases in spine BMD may be observed within 1 year. ... 37, 38] Of note, only a very few patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy received an effective antiresorptive agent ...
... has long been known to act as a bone anabolic agent when administered intermittently, the exact underlying mechanisms remain ... Although parathyroid hormone (PTH) has long been known to act as a bone anabolic agent when administered intermittently, the ... Amphiregulin lacks an essential role for the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015 Dec 5:417: ... To examine the bone anabolic effects of PTH in the absence and presence of AREG, we injected 3-month-old AREG-KO females and ...
Understanding Halotestin: The Anabolic Agent. Hi-Techs Halotestin is a prohormone that is known for its exceptional strength- ... Halotestin by Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals is a powerful anabolic agent that can provide endurance athletes with significant ... Proprietary Anabolic Blend: 250mg* *. 17beta{3ketoethyl}-androstane-3-one, 17a-ol 10mg *. 4-androsten-3B-ol-17-one 50mg *. 3B- ...
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Anabolic agents in animal production : FAO/WHO Symposium, Rome, March 1975 / guest editors, Frank C. Lu and Jan Rendel ; ... Anabolic agents -- pharmacology -- congresses , Food additives -- congressesNLM classification: SF 95 Tags from this library: ... FAO/WHO Symposium on Anabolic Agents in Animal Production (1975 : Rome, Italy)Material type: TextSeries: Environmental quality ...
... anabolic agents; diuretics and other masking agents; "street drugs" (the NCAA gives as examples heroin, marijuana, ...
Clenbuterol is an anabolic agent that is prohibited at all times (i.e., both in- and out-of-competition). There is no threshold ... EPO-mimetic agents and their constructs (e.g. CNTO-530, peginesatide). S2.1.2 HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR (HIF) ACTIVATING AGENTS ... ERYTHROPOIETINS (EPO) AND AGENTS AFFECTING ERYTHROPOIESIS, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO:. S2.1.1 ERYTHROPOIETIN-RECEPTOR ... agents.. ***** Pseudoephedrine: Prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 micrograms per millilitre. ...
Thrailkill, K. M., Lumpkin, K., Clay Bunn, R., Kemp, S., and Fowlkes, J. L. (2005). Is insulin an anabolic agent in bone? ... Such difference can be explained by the anabolic effects of insulin on bone that may have protected IGT individuals from ... Therefore, intermittent administration of GIP seems to have an anabolic effect and to prevent bone loss, similarly to PTH ( ... In insulin resistant and in type 2 diabetic rats, the occurrence of an insulin- and PTH-independent bone anabolic action ...
"Anabolic agents and other banned substances put not only the users of those agents at risk, but their opponents as well. The ... Stanazolol is the anabolic agent that sprinter Ben Johnson tested positive for in the 1988 Olympics. It is used in weight-class ... The baddest woman on the planet tested positive for anabolic steroids the day before her most devastating career win, according ... tested positive for the anabolic steroid Stanazolol, also known as Winstrol. The test took place on Dec. 16, the day before she ...
Therefore, it is not an anabolic agent; which means it wont deplete your testosterone levels, and can be stacked with ... Teaming it up with anabolic SARMs to channel all that into faster and larger muscle development is gold dust. ...
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C. Anabolic Agents Prohibited substances in class C include the following examples. 1 Anabolic androgenic steroids. A. ... c) Anabolic Agents. d) Diuretics. e) Peptide hormones, mimetics and analogues. All substances belonging to the prohibited ... Anabolic Agents. Diuretics. Peptide hormones, mimetics and analogues. Prohibited methods. Blood doping. Pharmacological, ... Vasoconstrictor agents (e.g. adrenaline) may be used in conjunction with local anaesthetics.. b) Only local or intra-articular ...
In the U.S., agents seized 56 labs that manufactured anabolic steroids and human growth hormone, the DEA said. Agents seized ... Germanys Federal Criminal office said its agents closed five illicit labs and confiscated tens of thousands of illicit tablets ... In the state of Connecticut, four men were charged with purchasing raw steroid powder from China, manufacturing anabolic ...
Thacker leverages the TBS to help patients obtain effective therapy, typically an anabolic agent followed by antiresorptive ...
... formation in different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis with and without treatment with TNF-α blocker agents. ... blocker agents in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have prompted an intensive discussion about the link between ... Biomarkers in the serum of patients have been increasingly used to get a better idea about bone-destructive and bone-anabolic ... studies analysing biomarkers during treatment with TNF-α-blocking agents also observed a switch from degradation to anabolic ...
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The term anabolic refers tissue building and these anabolic agents are the major promoters of the protein synthesis and they ... Anabolic steroids can be detected easily, though the masking agents have been employed with some success. ... In combination with the use of steroid, the other anabolic supplements and agents are used, frequently by men who are ... Dianabol is such a strong anabolic compound, which when injected into body, boosts the protein synthesis and helps the body to ...
A fantastic anabolic agent in its own right, Loganin is being studied currently as a treatment for skeletal muscle atrophy. In ... Further anabolic potential lies in its suppression of SMAD2/3 and increased expression of SMAD7†. In animal studies, Loganin ... Efflux, as in the opposite of Influx, actually pumps out and away from foreign agents from the cells, even when they are ... Increasing these anabolic and performance-enhancing signals can lead to powerful increases in muscle mass, athletic performance ...
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Tipton KD, Ferrando AA: Improving muscle mass: response of muscle metabolism to exercise, nutrition and anabolic agents. Essays ... Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ: Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013, 10 ... investigators found no difference in the anabolic response whether the drink was consumed 1 hour or 3 hours post exercise [39 ... Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol ...
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Two antibody-based drugs with anabolic action on bone: anti-sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone formation in the Wnt ... Anabolic therapy with growth hormone to ameliorate short stature in OI is successful for type I and about half of type IV OI ... since the trials of rGH in pediatric OI were encouraging for effectiveness of anabolic agents. The novel drugs under study are ... Anabolic therapy with growth hormone to ameliorate short stature in OI is successful for type I and about half of type IV OI ...
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  • The baddest woman on the planet tested positive for anabolic steroids the day before her most devastating career win, according to a release sent out Friday by the California State Athletic Commission. (
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  • The recreational and indiscriminate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) may be associated with clinical conditions involving body-image changes, or may simply be responding to the desire of achieving a sculpted body in a short period of time. (
  • However, the bigger, and less well-known, public health problem today is the increasing use of anabolic steroids among nonathletes, and the challenges in identifying and treating this form of drug abuse . (
  • In the early 1980s, with the publication of underground guides on how to use anabolic steroids, the use of these agents spilled over into main street. (
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  • Today, the vast majority of anabolic steroid users are male weight lifters who use anabolic steroids to look more lean and muscular. (
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  • Anabolic Steroid Use in Nonathletes: Why? (
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  • Anabolic Steroid Use: Who and Why? (
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  • Medscape: When you encounter an androgenic anabolic steroid user, do you encourage immediate discontinuation, or should more gradual discontinuation be recommended? (
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  • While not included under the Controlled Substances Act, athletes should know that DHEA is considered a prohibited anabolic agent in sport. (
  • Anabolic agents and other banned substances put not only the users of those agents at risk, but their opponents as well. (
  • Although parathyroid hormone (PTH) has long been known to act as a bone anabolic agent when administered intermittently, the exact underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. (
  • Here, we used female global AREG knockout (AREG-KO) mice to explore the role of AREG in mediating the bone anabolic effects of PTH. (
  • To examine the bone anabolic effects of PTH in the absence and presence of AREG, we injected 3-month-old AREG-KO females and wildtype control littermates with 80 μg/kg PTH or vehicle 5 times per week over 4 weeks. (
  • In conclusion, our data indicate that the bone anabolic effects of PTH do not require AREG, at least in 3-month-old female mice. (
  • GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) is expected to exert potentially beneficial effects on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1, that can be either direct or indirect through the involvement of thyroid C cells. (
  • Of note, in the light of physiological actions of incretin hormones, such drugs are expected to exert potentially beneficial effects beyond glycemia, including on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1 that can be either direct or indirect, through the involvement of thyroid C cells. (
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  • Germany's Federal Criminal office said its agents closed five illicit labs and confiscated tens of thousands of illicit tablets and capsules as part of searches carried out in five of the nation's 16 states. (
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  • Thacker leverages the TBS to help patients obtain effective therapy, typically an anabolic agent followed by antiresorptive medication, she said. (
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  • 17. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public. (
  • When stacked with another anabolic androgenic steroid, clear androgenic effects can be seen. (
  • Oral Anabolic Androgenic Steroid. (
  • Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone. (
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids , often shortened to "anabolic steroids," "steroids," or "androgens," 2,3 are the most widely misused APED. (
  • However, hepatic tumors associated with androgens or anabolic steroids are much more vascular than other hepatic tumors and may be silent until life-threatening intra-abdominal hemorrhage develops. (
  • Blood lipid changes that are known to be associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis are seen in patients treated with androgens and anabolic steroids. (
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  • Androgens and anabolic steroids include the endogenous male sex. (
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  • To date therapeutic agents have been restricted to compounds which alter mineral content and/or molecular structure of bone (e.g., bisphosphonates) or alter hormonal balances (e.g., estrogen replacement therapy, calcitonin, vitamin D). Unintended or undesired side effects limit effectiveness of such agents. (
  • Less is known about the side effects of steroid precursors, but if large quantities of these compounds substantially increase testosterone levels in the body, then they also are likely to produce the same side effects as anabolic steroids themselves. (
  • The use of compounds exhibiting sex hormone-like activities as anabolic agents was introduced into agricultural practice about 35 years ago. (
  • Appear superficial against reported being dependent on anabolic steroids generally took higher doses and is generally one of the most anabolic compounds on the planet, the results that most users are going to get will be absolutely insane. (
  • Clinical applications of anabolic steroids and their mechanism of action--effect on liver function, especially on the BSP test]. (
  • The workshop identified several key issues essential to the development of agents with potential anabolic effects on bone, including: efficacy, mechanism of action, specificity, ease of use, and long-term benefit. (
  • 11. Use of growth hormone, IGF-I, and insulin for anabolic purpose: Pharmacological basis, methods of detection, and adverse effects. (
  • these include anabolic agents such as recombinant human growth hormone, insulin, and oxandrolone and also beta blockade using propranolol. (
  • Oxandrolone (OXA) (5 alpha-androstan-2-oxa-17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-ol-3-one) is a clinically useful, synthetic, anabolic androgen steroid hormone. (
  • Synthetic Anabolic Steroidal Agent. (
  • Turkesterone has been compared in its efficacy to anabolic steroids but have none of the androgenic side effects. (
  • Turkesterone is believed to act as an anabolic agent by activating genes involved in muscle growth and reducing protein breakdown. (
  • NATURAL ANABOLIC AGENT: Turkesterone is derived from the plant Ajuga Turkestanica and is mainly known for its ability to help natural lifters improve lean muscle mass, strength, and performance. (
  • The Mayo Clinic reports "the main anabolic steroid hormone produced by the body is testosterone" and that it "has anabolic effects promoting muscle building. (
  • Doping and sports endocrinology: anabolic-androgenic steroids. (
  • 2. Doping with growth hormone/IGF-1, anabolic steroids or erythropoietin: is there a cancer risk? (
  • 8. [Growth hormone and IGF-1 as doping agents in competitive sport]. (
  • 13. [Anabolic androgenic steroids: a nightmare for control of doping or a drug? (
  • Teriparatide, a PTH fragment, is the only FDA-approved anabolic therapy for the musculoskeletal system - it is intended to prevent osteoporosis associated fractures. (
  • Anabolic agents like teriparatide potentially have a beneficial on fracture healing, since it enhances osteoblastic bone formation, according to the report. (
  • Determination of anabolic agents in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. (
  • This Prohormone also has moderate anabolic properties thus allowing it to help enhance lean muscle gains. (
  • HIV/AIDS-related Muscle Wasting: Anabolic steroids assist in preserving lean muscle mass in individuals with HIV/AIDS, contributing to better physical function and immune response. (
  • The Androgen Receptor Recruits Nuclear anabolic agent in cases of cachexia (lean the treatment anonymous survey on what drugs they use and why. (
  • While the primary focus is on basic research, the long-term emphasis is on identifying mechanisms or processes related to hormone action with potential applicability as targets for therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases which adversely affect bone, including osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism. (
  • When considering treatment, similar to post-menopausal women with osteoporosis where anti-resorptive agents/anabolic agents are usual treatments, in men with osteoporosis the same agents are indicated and show similar efficacy. (
  • Anabolic steroids are administered in controlled doses to replace deficient testosterone and maintain proper hormonal balance. (
  • Oral contraceptive steroids have been used at excessively high doses as growth-promoting agents by some poultry growers in Egypt. (
  • These synthetic versions are called anabolic testosterone replacement, novel adjuncts use unsafe doses of the and organs, such as testicles. (
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with anabolic steroids helps restore normal hormonal levels and alleviate associated symptoms. (
  • 9. Growth hormone and anabolic steroids: athletes are the tip of the iceberg. (
  • There are now several hormone and hormone-like agents that can improve the rate of growth and efficiency of feed use of farm animals. (
  • Anabolic steroids interact with androgen receptors in cells, influencing gene expression and cellular signaling pathways. (
  • What are the most promising anabolic targets (cells, ligands/receptors, intracellular signaling pathways) for diseases and disorders of bone, cartilage, and muscle at this time? (
  • What common pathways affecting multiple tissues of the musculoskeletal system could be explored to develop anabolic therapies? (
  • The participants agreed that strategies for activating anabolic pathways in bone, cartilage, and muscle hold considerable potential to yield new therapeutic approaches for diseases relating to individual tissues and for the musculoskeletal system as a whole. (
  • The mechanistic details of many pathways targeted by current or potential anabolic therapies are not well understood. (
  • In the prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial, the physiologic effects of nutritional therapy alone (n = 71) or in combination with anabolic steroid treatment (n = 67) after 8 wk was studied in patients with COPD prestratified into a depleted group and a nondepleted group. (
  • Peliosis hepatitis, a condition in which liver and sometimes splenic tissue is replaced with blood-filled cysts, has been reported in patients receiving androgenic anabolic steroid therapy. (
  • In patients with breast cancer, anabolic steroid therapy may cause hypercalcemia by stimulating osteolysis. (
  • We provide powerful anabolic products without a prescription buy Clenbuterol online with mastercard. (
  • In 2008, USA Swimming chief Chuck Wielgus was asked to comment on a "culture of fair play" regarding a female swimmer who had tested positive for a banned anabolic agent called Clenbuterol. (
  • According to the USADA website, Clenbuterol is prohibited in sport because it "promotes muscle growth through anabolic properties. (
  • Clentrimix : Alternative anabolic to Clenbuterol Ephedrine Fat Burning Agent. (
  • Irrespective of whether amino acids are being gained within muscle due to an increase in the influx of amino acids and enhanced protein synthesis, or due to the conservation of amino acids already within muscle, or both, the resulting intramuscular environment is anabolic. (
  • Il existe aujourd'hui plusieurs hormones et agents de type hormonal qui peuvent améliorer le taux de croissance des animaux d'élevage ainsi que l'efficacité de l'apport alimentaire pour ces animaux. (
  • Anabolic steroids exert their effects by mimicking the natural androgenic hormones in the body, which regulate various physiological processes. (
  • However, over time, researchers and medical professionals recognized the potential therapeutic benefits of anabolic steroids beyond their performance-enhancing effects. (
  • Anabolic steroids exert both anabolic (muscle-building) and androgenic (masculinizing) effects. (
  • Anabolic effects involve promoting protein synthesis, leading to increased muscle mass and strength. (
  • This molecular interaction forms the basis for the anabolic effects of these steroids. (
  • The workshop focused on hormones, growth factors, and cytokines which express positive, anabolic effects on bone mass, either directly or indirectly. (
  • What anabolic therapies for one musculoskeletal tissue may have the potential for synergistic effects on the musculoskeletal system as a whole? (
  • What are the concerns and potential side effects or off-target effects of candidate anabolic therapies? (
  • Researchers have identified several potential treatment targets with anabolic effects. (
  • Although anabolic steroids and other APEDs may directly and indirectly have effects on a person's mood, they do not typically produce a euphoric high. (
  • They promote the growth of skeletal muscle (anabolic effects) and the development of male sexual characteristics (androgenic effects) in both males and females. (
  • Complete dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effects has not been achieved. (
  • However, scientists have questioned the anabolic effects of testosterone. (
  • SARMs can be made to target muscle growth only for example, while not causing the extensive androgenic side effects of many anabolic steroids. (
  • Anadrol ® -50 (oxymetholone) Tablets for oral administration each contain 50 mg of the steroid oxymetholone, a potent anabolic and androgenic drug. (
  • If you're going to help with fitness, the drug is taken as part of a steroid stack of other anabolic steroids, usually with a potent androgen. (
  • This PA, Anabolic Hormones in Bone: Basic Research and Therapeutic Potential, is related to the priority area of chronic disabling conditions. (
  • This initiative stems from an NIDDK Workshop entitled: "Anabolic Hormones in Bone: Basic Research and Therapeutic Potential" which was held May 1-2, 1995 (see Margolis et al. (
  • Plasmid DNA-coding p62 as a bone effective anti-inflammatory/anabolic agent. (
  • They reviewed what is known about anabolic processes of bone, cartilage, and muscle, and progress toward developing anabolic therapies for related disorders. (
  • The pharmaceutical industry has devoted considerable resources toward anabolic therapies for bone. (
  • 5 Anabolic androgenic steroids can also improve feelings of well-being and increase bone strength, but are not approved for these purposes. (
  • Musculoskeletal diseases and disorders, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis (OA), and muscle atrophy, arise in part from inadequate anabolic tissue regeneration or repair. (
  • This roundtable focused on basic and translational research needs related to the development of anabolic therapies (i.e., treatments that build or increase the size and function of a tissue) and strategies to regenerate the musculoskeletal system. (
  • What are the gaps in our knowledge of the biology of the musculoskeletal system that limit progress in the development of effective anabolic therapies? (
  • What innovative research strategies are likely to advance the development of anabolic therapies? (
  • androgenic anabolic steroids may stimulate osteolytic resorption of bones. (
  • BMD decreases or they fracture while on medications), anabolic agents can be effective for reducing vertebral and nonvertebral fracture. (
  • Additional discussion addressed the influence of the central nervous system, physical activity, energy metabolism, and inflammation on anabolic processes. (
  • Order powerful anabolic products for low prices. (
  • The actions of anabolic steroids are therefore similar to those of male sex hormones with the possibility of causing serious disturbances of growth and sexual development if given to young children. (
  • Anabolic steroids are used to treat hypogonadism , a condition where the body fails to produce sufficient amounts of testosterone. (
  • For example, it remains unclear why intermittent, but not continuous, PTH administration is anabolic, or why the effectiveness of intermittent PTH wanes over time. (
  • Initially, anabolic steroids were developed and popularized for their performance-enhancing properties, mainly within the realm of competitive sports. (
  • IRMS is a powerful tool that unequivocally differentiates between anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) naturally produced by the body and AAS of synthetic origin. (
  • This makes it a convenient and hassle-free way to get the benefits of this powerful anabolic compound. (
  • However, it is paramount to appreciate that these powerful agents come with specific protocols for use. (
  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids are the best-studied class of appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APEDs). (
  • The effect of a long-acting anabolic steroid on body cell mass changes following cholecystectomy in females. (
  • Anabolic steroids find application in managing catabolic conditions, where the body breaks down muscle tissue faster than it can rebuild it. (
  • What research infrastructure, resources, or methodologies would facilitate the rapid development of anabolic agents for the musculoskeletal system? (