Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Zeranol: A non-steroidal estrogen analog.Hexestrol: A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Oxandrolone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.Teriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.

Alterations in diaphragm contractility after nandrolone administration: an analysis of potential mechanisms. (1/470)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mechanisms underlying the improved contractility of the diaphragm (Dia) in adult intact male hamsters after nandrolone (Nan) administration, given subcutaneously over 4 wk via a controlled-release capsule (initial dose: 4.5 mg. kg-1. day-1; with weight gain, final dose: 2.7 mg. kg-1. day-1). Control (Ctl) animals received blank capsules. Isometric contractile properties of the Dia were determined in vitro after 4 wk. The maximum velocity of unloaded shortening (Vo) was determined in vitro by means of the slack test. Dia fibers were classified histochemically on the basis of myofibrillar ATPase staining and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and the relative interstitial space was quantitated. Ca2+-activated myosin ATPase activity was determined by quantitative histochemistry in individual diaphragm fibers. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms were identified electrophoretically, and their proportions were determined by using scanning densitometry. Peak twitch and tetanic forces, as well as Vo, were significantly greater in Nan animals compared with Ctl. The proportion of type IIa Dia fibers was significantly increased in Nan animals. Nan increased the CSA of all fiber types (26-47%), whereas the relative interstitial space decreased. The relative contribution of fiber types to total costal Dia area was preserved between the groups. Proportions of MHC isoforms were similar between the groups. There was a tendency for increased expression of MHC2B with Nan. Ca2+-activated myosin ATPase activity was increased 35-39% in all fiber types in Nan animals. We conclude that, after Nan administration, the increase in Dia specific force results from the relatively greater Dia CSA occupied by hypertrophied muscle fibers, whereas the increased ATPase activity promotes a higher rate of cross-bridge turnover and thus increased Vo. We speculate that Nan in supraphysiological doses have the potential to offset or ameliorate conditions associated with enhanced proteolysis and disordered protein turnover.  (+info)

Effects of implants on daily gains of steers wintered on dormant native tallgrass prairie, subsequent performance, and carcass characteristics. (2/470)

Fall-weaned crossbred steer calves (n = 300; 184 +/- 2.9 kg) received either no implant (Control) or were implanted with Synovex-C (SC = 10 mg estradiol benzoate + 100 mg progesterone), Synovex-S (SS = 20 mg estradiol benzoate + 200 mg progesterone), or Revalor-G (RG = 8 mg estradiol-17beta + 40 mg trenbolone acetate) to determine the effects of implants on weight gain during winter grazing on dormant tallgrass prairie, subsequent grazing and finishing performance, and carcass characteristics. Steers grazed two dormant tallgrass prairie pastures from October 16, 1996, until March 29, 1997 (164 d), and received 1.36 kg/d of a 25% CP supplement that supplied 100 mg of monensin/steer. Following winter grazing, all steers were implanted with Ralgro (36 mg zeranol) and grazed a common tallgrass prairie pasture until July 17 (110 d). After summer grazing, all steers were implanted with Revalor-S (24 mg estradiol-17beta + 120 mg trenbolone acetate), and winter implant treatment groups were equally allotted to four feedlot pens. Steers were harvested November 17, 1997, after a 123-d finishing period. Daily gains during the winter grazing phase averaged .28, .32, .32, or .35 kg/d, respectively, for Control, SC, SS, or RG steers and were greater (P < .01) for implanted steers than for Controls. Summer daily gains were similar (1.05 +/- .016 kg/d; P > or = .61) for all treatment groups. Feedlot daily gains were also similar (1.67 +/- .034 kg/d; P > or = .21), with implanted steers weighing 14 kg more than Control steers (P = .05) at harvest, despite similar management during summer grazing and feedlot phases. Control steers tended (P = .06) to have lower yield grades. There were no differences (P = .99) in marbling between implanted and nonimplanted steers. Steers implanted during the wintering phase had increased skeletal and overall (P < .01) carcass maturities compared with nonimplanted steers, which resulted in more "B" and "C" maturity carcasses. Because carcass maturity score affects quality grade, the increased maturities of implanted steers resulted in a $9.04 decrease in carcass value/100 kg (P < .01) compared with Controls. The results of this study indicate that growth-promoting implants are efficacious for cattle wintered on dormant native range despite low daily gains. This increased weight is maintained through the summer grazing and feedlot phases; however, the benefit of the increased weight may be offset by decreased carcass quality grade and value due to increased carcass maturity.  (+info)

Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids. (3/470)

1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems.  (+info)

Reversal of weightlessness-induced musculoskeletal losses with androgens: quantification by MRI. (4/470)

Microgravity causes rapid decrement in musculoskeletal mass is associated with a marked decrease in circulatory testosterone levels, as we reported in hindlimb-suspended (HLS) rats. In this model which simulates microgravity, we hypothesized that testosterone supplementation should prevent these losses, and we tested this in two studies. Muscle volumes and bone masses were quantitated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 12. In the first study, 12-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats that were HLS for 12 days lost 28.5% of muscle volume (53.3 +/- 4.8 vs. 74.5 +/- 3.6 cm3 in the ground control rats; P < 0.001) and had a 5% decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) (P < 0.05). In the second study, 30 male 12-wk-old Wistar rats were HLS and were administered either a vehicle (control), testosterone, or nandrolone decanoate (ND). An additional 20 rats were used as ground controls, one-half of which received testosterone. HLS rats had a significant reduction in muscle volume (42.9 +/- 3.0 vs. 56 +/- 1.8 cm3 in ground control rats; P < 0.01). Both testosterone and ND treatments prevented this muscle loss (51.5 +/- 2 and 51.6 +/- 1.2 cm3, respectively; a 63% improvement; P < 0. 05). There were no statistical differences between the two active treatment groups nor with the ground controls. Similarly, there was an 85% improvement in BMD in the testosterone group (1.15 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.04 density units in vehicle controls; P < 0.05) and a 76% improvement in the ND group (1.13 +/- 0.07 density units), whereas ground control rats had a BMD of 1.17 +/- 0.03 density units. Because serum testosterone levels are markedly reduced in this model of simulated microgravity, androgen replacement seems to be a rational countermeasure to prevent microgravity-induced musculoskeletal losses.  (+info)

Effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use or gonadal testosterone suppression on serum leptin concentration in men. (5/470)

OBJECTIVE: Serum leptin concentration shows a sexual dimorphism that is not accounted for by gender differences in adiposity. A strong inverse association exists between serum leptin and testosterone concentrations in men, pointing to a likely influence of gonadal sex steroids on serum leptin concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether manipulation of sex steroid hormones in men would alter serum leptin concentration independently of changes in fat mass. DESIGN AND METHODS: The effects of sex steroid suppression on serum leptin concentration were investigated in nine healthy men in whom testosterone had been reversibly suppressed for 5 weeks after treatment with intramuscular triptorelin. The effects of sex steroid supplementation were investigated in nine male bodybuilders who self-administered anabolic--androgenic steroids (AAS) for a mean period of 6.5 weeks. A control group received no hormonal treatment. RESULTS: Testosterone concentration was significantly reduced by triptorelin administration (7.32+/- 1.92ng/ml at baseline compared with 1.15+/-0.57ng/ml at 5 weeks, P=0.002). High-dose AAS use was confirmed by urine analysis. Body fat percentage was unaffected by the AAS or triptorelin intervention (P>0.19). Leptin concentration was significantly reduced after one cycle of AAS use (2.40+/-0. 98ng/ml off cycle compared with 1.63+/-0.37ng/ml on cycle, P=0.012), and was significantly increased by triptorelin administration (2. 96+/-1.50ng/ml at baseline compared with 6.63+/-4.67ng/ml at five weeks, P=0.004). No significant change occurred in the control group. CONCLUSION: Androgenic sex hormone supplementation decreases serum leptin concentration, whereas suppression increases serum leptin concentration, independently of changes in body fat mass in healthy men. The sexual dimorphism evident in serum leptin concentration is likely to be due to a suppressive effect of testosterone on serum leptin concentration in males.  (+info)

Effects of anabolic steroids on diaphragm impairment induced by methylprednisolone in emphysematous hamsters. (6/470)

This study was designed to investigate whether the administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate is able to antagonize the loss in diaphragm function induced by long-term administration of a low-dose of methylprednisolone in emphysematous hamsters. Normal and emphysematous male hamsters were randomized to receive either saline or methylprednisolone 0.2 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) for 9 months, with or without nandrolone decanoate 1 mg x kg(-1) x week(-1) i.m. during the final 3 months. Diaphragm contractile properties and myosin heavy chain composition were determined. Compared to control hamsters, the force generating capacity of isolated diaphragm strips decreased by approximately 12% in the emphysema group and by approximately 22% in the emphysema plus methylprednisolone group. Addition of nandrolone decanoate to the emphysema plus methylprednisolone hamsters significantly improved force generation. The atrophy of type IIa and IIx diaphragm fibres in the emphysema plus methylprednisolone group was completely reversed to the level of control hamsters by the addition of nandrolone decanoate. In conclusion, nandrolone decanoate in part reversed the loss in diaphragm force-generating capacity in emphysematous hamsters treated with methylprednisolone, and reversed type IIa and IIx fibre atrophy completely.  (+info)

Effects of anabolic steroid (19-nortestosterone) on the secretion of testicular hormones in the stallion. (7/470)

The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of anabolic steroids on the testicular endocrine function of mature stallions. Mature thoroughbred stallions were treated with 800 mg nandrolone decanoate every 3 weeks for 3 months. After the first treatment, plasma concentrations of LH, immunoreactive inhibin and testosterone decreased rapidly to the nadir. These hormones were maintained at significantly lower concentrations compared with concentrations in intact stallions. Histology of the testicular tissue indicated the arrest of advanced spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules and a severe depletion of the number of Leydig cells in the interstitial compartment as a result of treatment. Most of the immunopositive cells for the inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes in the interstitial compartment decreased below detectable amounts, whereas immunopositive reactions of inhibin alpha-subunit in the seminiferous tubules were clearly observed. In conclusion, the treatment of mature stallions with nandrolone decanoate caused a decrease in the secretion of ir-inhibin and testosterone from the testis, the depletion of the number of Leydig cells and a decrease below detectable amounts of inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes. The concentration of ir-inhibin in the peripheral blood may be a useful marker for the examination of testicular activity in stallions being treated with anabolic steroids.  (+info)

Over-the-counter anabolic steroids 4-androsten-3,17-dione; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol; and 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione: excretion studies in men. (8/470)

Since the appearance of 4-androsten-3,17-dione (I) as a nutritional supplement in early 1997, we have frequently observed a characteristic deterioration of endogenous steroid profiles in athletes' urine in routine anabolic steroid testing in which concentrations of major endogenous urinary steroids and testosterone exceed normal. Human excretion studies are performed with I and newer, over-the-counter "supplements" 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol (II) and 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione (III). Endogenous urinary steroids affected by I and II are androsterone, etiocholanolone, their hydroxylated derivatives 5alpha- and 5beta-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diols, testosterone, and epitestosterone. Their concentrations briefly increase by one to two orders of magnitude and return to normal 24 h after oral administration of I and II. The average male may test positive for testosterone because testosterone concentration rises faster than that of epitestosterone, causing the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio to rise above the positive cutoff of 6:1. A remarkable distinction in excretion patterns was observed in eastern Asian men, for whom I and II did not affect urinary concentrations of testosterone and did not increase the T/E ratio. First-pass metabolism deactivates most of the orally administered drugs I and II, rapidly converting them into inactive androsterone and etiocholanolone. Drug II is a more effective testosterone booster because of its different metabolic pathway. After the use of III, a precursor of the potent anabolic nandrolone, high concentrations of norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone appear in urine, similar to nandrolone. These are detectable in urine for 7-10 days after a single oral dose of III (50 mg).  (+info)

*NCAA drug testing

... anabolic agents; diuretics and other masking agents; "street drugs" (the NCAA gives as examples heroin, marijuana, ...

*Testosterone (medication)

Anabolic Agents , List of Prohibited Substances and Methods". English. Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved ... Testosterone is classified as an anabolic agent and is on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) List of Prohibited Substances and ... and this is primarily responsible for the dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effects with these agents. In addition to DHT ... Taylor WN (2002). Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete (2 ed.). McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-1128-3. Archived from the ...

*Methasterone

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Julius A. Vida (1969). Androgens and Anabolic Agents: Chemistry and Pharmacology ... assays to determine methasterone's anabolic and androgenic activity were published in Vida's Androgens and Anabolic Agents, a ... "potent orally active anabolic agent exhibiting only weak androgenic activity." The results of subsequent ... as anabolic and 20% as androgenic, yielding a Q-ratio (also known as an anabolic to androgenic ratio) of 20, which is ...

*Cristina Iovu

She tested positive for Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (S1.1 Anabolic agents). In November 2016, she was stripped of her 2012 ...

*7β-Hydroxy-DHEA

... list.wada-ama.org/list/s1-anabolic-agents/7b-hydroxy-dhea/. ...

*Androstanolone

However, androstanolone is nonetheless described as a very poor anabolic agent. This is attributed to its high affinity as a ... von Deutsch DA, Abukhalaf IK, Lapu-Bula R (15 October 2003). "Anabolic Doping Agents". In Mozayani A, Raymon L. Handbook of ... The drug is a naturally occurring androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the ... It is not typically used to improve physique and performance due to its poor anabolic properties. The drug is a controlled ...

*Doping in the United States

For diuretic or masking agent-two regular and/or postseason games. For stimulants or anabolic agent-four regular and/or ... At the conclusion of the survey, researchers found that out of 2552 ex-NFL players, 9.1% self reported using anabolic steroids ... For a prohibited substance plus a diuretic or masking agent/attempt to substitute, dilute or adulterate a specimen/attempt to ... In the U.S., anabolic steroids are currently listed as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act, ...

*NCAA banned substances

Anabolic agents, or Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS), are any of a group of synthetic or natural steroid hormones that builds ... Anabolic agents are abused by athletes in training to increase the size and strength of their muscles. However, the muscle ... Side effects with anabolic agents are very serious and are not to be ignored. Side effects include: acne, nervous tension, ... Examples of anabolic agents are boldenone, clenbuterol, dehydrocholormethyl-testosterone (DHEA), nandrolone, stanozolol, ...

*Nadzeya Ostapchuk

The IOC said both samples indicated the presence of the anabolic agent metenolone. New Zealand's Valerie Adams was subsequently ...

*7-Keto-DHEA

The World Anti-Doping Agency lists 7-keto-DHEA as a prohibited anabolic agent. 7-Keto-DHEA is under development for the ... 7-Keto-DHEA is reported to be an anabolic androgenic steroid that may be subject to abuse in sport. "The World Anti-Doping Code ... which are commonly seen with stimulant-associated thermogenic agents. Although the aging process affects all of the segments of ...

*Zhou Mi (badminton)

Zhou tested positive to clenbuterol, a Class 1 Anabolic Agent on the WADA Prohibited List of substances. On 27 October 2011, ...

*Meat

Growth hormones, particularly anabolic agents such as steroids, are used in some countries to accelerate muscle growth in ...

*Dihydrotestosterone

von Deutsch DA, Abukhalaf IK, Lapu-Bula R (15 October 2003). "Anabolic Doping Agents". In Mozayani A, Raymon L. Handbook of ... DHT has been reported to be a very poor anabolic agent when administered exogenously as a medication. In addition to normal ... DHT is available in pharmaceutical formulations for medical use as an androgen or anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS). It is used ... William Llewellyn (2009). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 19,163. ISBN 978-0967930473. Chang C (31 October 2002). ...

*7α-Hydroxy-DHEA

... list.wada-ama.org/list/s1-anabolic-agents/7a-hydroxy-dhea/ Metabocard for 7α-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (HMDB04611) - Human ...

*Metribolone

Krüskemper HL, Noell G (July 1966). "Liver toxicity of a new anabolic agent: methyltrienolone (17-alpha-methyl-4,9,11- ... Metribolone is an AAS, or an agonist of the AR, with both anabolic and androgenic activity. It is one of the most potent AAS to ... Saartok T, Dahlberg E, Gustafsson JA (1984). "Relative binding affinity of anabolic-androgenic steroids: comparison of the ... Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic- ...

*Mario Boni

The next year, after a 2 January 1994 game against Onyx Caserta, anabolic agents (nandrolone) were found in the urine sample he ... Boni only played a handful of games before a doping test revealed the presence of the anabolic steorid clostebol in his body ...

*Martha Matsa

On the 2nd June 2005, Martha Matsa tested positive to the substance Stanozolol (Class S.1 Anabolic Agents) following a doping ...

*2015 CrossFit Games

Steve Marino originally finished in second place in the 55-59 division but was later disqualified for use of an anabolic agent ...

*Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics

Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent ... runner Yuliya Zaripova will be stripped of her gold medal in the 3,000 metres steeplechase after testing positive for anabolic ...

*Doping at the Olympic Games

Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent ... all but three of whom tested positive for anabolic agents (three Chinese weightlifters were positive for growth hormones). On ... all of whom tested positive for anabolic agents. On 11 October 2016, Tatyana Lysenko of the Russian Federation was disqualified ... Those confirmed as having taken doping agents stand to lose records and medals from the 2008 games to 2016 under IOC and WADA ...

*Iurie Bulat

... after he returned a positive sample for anabolic agents. "2015 Weightlifting World Championships - Iurie Bulat". iwf.net. ...

*Artiom Pipa

... after he returned a positive sample for anabolic agents. "2015 Weightlifting World Championships - Artiom Pipa". iwf.net. ...

*Zhang Qi (shot putter)

In 2008, he was found guilty of using a banned anabolic agent and banned for four years by the Chinese athletics governing body ...

*Justin Ledet

In turn, promotional officials confirmed that Ledet was suspended for four months after testing positive for an anabolic agent ...

*Ghenadie Dudoglo

... after he returned a positive sample for anabolic agents (dehydrochlormethyltestosterone). "2015 Weightlifting World ...

*Nandrolone hydrogen succinate

ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties ... ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1. H.-L. Krüskemper (22 October 2013). Anabolic Steroids. Elsevier. pp. 200-. ISBN 978-1-4832-6504-9. Hans ... is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a nandrolone ester that is or has been marketed in Italy. List of androgen ...
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Nothing Comes for Nothing. Athletes have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (or simply "anabolic steroids") to enhance their performance in sports or to help build lean muscle mass for fifty years or more. During this time, we have learned more and more about the harm anabolic steroids cause. Steroid-related health damage includes most of the major organs, the reproductive system, the personality, the skin, and more.. In some groups, anabolic steroid use has grown recently in spite of the fact that the drugs are so horribly damaging. Once youve looked at the ugly side of steroid use, youll wonder why anyone would want to take them at all.. Take some time and check out this site on anabolic-androgenic steroids. Its packed full of information and images that can help you make informed, healthy decisions. When youre finished surfing, you can see how much youve learned by taking our interactive quiz.. You might be surprised at how well you do.. Got Questions? Get In the Know!. ...
Abstract: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely used illicitly to gain muscle and lose body fat. Here we review the accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome, often associated with adverse psychiatric and medical effects.We present an illustrative case of AAS dependence, followed by a summary of the human and animal literature on this topic, based on publications known to us or obtained by searching the PubMed database.About 30% of AAS users appear to develop a dependence syndrome, characterized by chronic AAS use despite adverse effects on physical, psychosocial or occupational functioning. AAS dependence shares many features with classical drug dependence. For example, hamsters will self-administer AAS, even to the point of death, and both humans and animals exhibit a well-documented AAS withdrawal syndrome, mediated by neuroendocrine and cortical neurotransmitter systems. AAS dependence may particularly involve opioidergic ...
A wide range of adverse effects is associated with the use or abuse of anabolic steroids. These effects depend on several factors including: Age, sex, the anabolic steroid used, amount used, and duration of use In adolescents, anabolic steroid use can stunt the ultimate height that an individual achieves. In boys, steroid use can cause early sexual development, acne, and stunted growth. In adolescent girls and women, anabolic steroid use can induce permanent physical changes, such as deepening of the voice, increased facial and body hair growth, menstrual irregularities, male pattern baldness, and lengthening of the clitoris. In men, anabolic steroid use can cause shrinkage of the testicles, reduced sperm count, enlargement of the male breast tissue, sterility, and an increased risk of prostate cancer. In both men and women, anabolic steroid use can cause high cholesterol levels, which may increase the risk of coronary artery disease, strokes, and heart attacks. Anabolic steroid use can also ...
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A variety of non-steroid drugs are commonly found within the illicit anabolic steroid market. These substances are primarily used for one or more of the following reasons: 1) to serve as an alternative to anabolic steroids; 2) to alleviate short-term adverse effects associated with anabolic steroid use; or 3) to mask anabolic steroid use. Examples of drugs serving as alternatives to anabolic steroids include clenbuterol, human growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Examples of drugs used to treat the short-term adverse effects of anabolic steroid abuse are erythropoietin, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and tamoxifen. Also, diuretics and uricosuric agents may be used to mask steroid use.. Over the last few years, a number of metabolic precursors to either testosterone or nandrolone have been marketed as dietary supplements in the U.S. These dietary supplements can be purchased in health food stores without a prescription. Some of these ...
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Illicit AAS use is widespread, but its long-term adverse effects remain poorly understood. A growing literature, largely comprised of case reports and small observational studies, suggests that AAS use may cause cardiovascular disease. We undertook the present study to examine cardiovascular health measures among long-term AAS users and otherwise similar nonusers with the following 4 key findings. First, AAS users demonstrated substantial impairment of LV systolic function as assessed by LVEF and longitudinal strain. This finding was driven almost entirely by those AAS users who were on-drug at the time of evaluation, suggesting that LV dysfunction may be a dynamically related to AAS-use patterns. Second, AAS users also showed impaired LV diastolic dysfunction, both relative to nonusers and also as defined by current diagnostic criteria.44 In contrast to systolic function, which appeared largely normal among off-drug AAS users, LV diastolic function was impaired in both on-drug and off-drug ...
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In a new study discussed at the American Physiological Society, a Swedish group found that the use of anabolic steroids produced long lasting enhancement of the muscle cells. (The Science Blog; Scientific American) A team of researchers has examined the impact of anabolic steroid use on power lifters years after the athletes had ceased to take the drugs. The researchers found that while physical traces of the drug no longer remained, changes in the shoulder and quadriceps still gave lifters an advantage years later. The research was conducted by Anders Eriksson and Lars-Eric Thornell, Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Section...
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Anabolic Steroids or anabolic androgenic steroids are a form of drugs that are used for growing muscles and increasing your strength. Your body naturally produces an anabolic steroid-like hormone, known as testosterone. Testosterone is the major male hormone that is responsible for all of your male characteristics.. But it doesnt let you have such huge muscle gains that you can get from taking anabolic steroids. Secondly, as you keep on aging, your levels of testosterone keep on decreasing, due to which you lose all of your machismo. Thats another reason people go for these.. Having androgenic properties, anabolic steroids serve as the testosterone hormone to bring back all those manly traits in you, with a much higher intensity. Testosterone is also available and widely consumed for the same purpose by many athletes. But, anabolic steroids are preferred over them because they have a lot more to offer in terms of benefits.. Anabolic steroids are basically used and acknowledged for their ...
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Even though anabolic steroids do not cause the same high as other drugs, they can lead to addiction. Studies have shown that animals will self-administer steroids when they have the chance, just as they do with other addictive drugs. People may continue
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Bodybuilders and weightlifters have used anabolic-androgenic steroids since the 1950s (Yesalis, Wright, & Bahrke, 1989). Today, competitive bodybuilders often self-administer anabolic-androgenic steroids to increase muscular size and to remain competitive (Hurley, Seals, Hagberg, Goldberg, Ostrove, Holloszy, Wiest, & Goldberg, 1984). Athletes often simultaneously use different anabolic steroids, commonly referred to as "stacking". Athletes often begin with a low dosage of a particular compound and then increase the dosage along with the number of compounds, until a peak intake is reached. After peaking, dosages and compounds are gradually reduced, or "tapered". A cycle usually lasts 6 to 16 weeks and may be repeated throughout the athletes career (Kleiner, Bazzarre, & Litchford, 1990; Balon, Horowitz, & Fitzsimmons, 1992; Kleiner, Calabrese, Fielder, Naito, Skibinski, 1989). Few studies have documented bodybuilders anabolic steroid cycles in depth. Hurley (1984) documented the pharmaceutical ...
What are the health consequences of steroid abuse, Anabolic steroid abuse has been associated with a wide range of adverse side effects ranging from some that are physically unattractive, such as acne and breast. Steroids (anabolic) , national institute on drug abuse (nida), Brief description anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male sex hormone testosterone. the proper term for these compounds is anabolic-androgenic steroids.. Steroid abuse in todays society, Over the last few years, a number of metabolic precursors to either testosterone or nandrolone have been marketed as dietary supplements in the u.s.. ...
The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as of February 27, 1991. Under this legislation, anabolic steroids are defined as any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.. The possession or sale of anabolic steroids without a valid prescription is illegal. Simple possession of illicitly obtained anabolic steroids carries a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individuals first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individuals first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and ...
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S: Anabolic Steroids. BC: THE END. FC: Anabolic Steroids By:Dylan Fulmer. 2: Have you ever wondered how far your body can get from using a drug that will cheat your way for you? Well there is a drug that was invented for your purpose, Anabolic Steroids, also known as "Juice", "Arnold", and "Hulk". However it may help you accomplish your short term goals, this drug can also affect you in the long run. Many MLB, NFL, and top Olympic athletes are being busted and accused of using anabolic steroids now more than ever.. 3: Anabolic Steroids should continue to be banned because of the illegal use, health effects and the unfair advantages it allows athletes to have.. 4: Reason 1: Steroid stacking is no good!. 5: "Users also frequently combine several different types of steroids in a process known as stacking."(Stefan). "So by using multiple forms of steroids the user believes that the drug will have a much better growth rate than using a single drug."(Stefan)." These people are actually shortening ...
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For 30 years, our experts recognized that long term use anabolic steroids for breathing problem and chronic eczema impedes development in little ones and problems adolescence. Research studies have actually presented kids also experiencing constant joint inflammation, stunted development, and also adrenal reductions. Anabolic steroids might likewise impact a little ones intellectual functionality. Floods and glaucoma have actually been actually related to dental anabolic steroids. Bone tissue thickness has actually been actually located to become lesser along with little ones the longer they remain on anabolic steroids. Also breathed in medicines for including bronchial asthma are actually located to possess damaging results on bone tissue metabolic rate and adrenal feature.. Clarithromycin. Anabolic steroids can easily lead to the break of bone tissue junctions, leading along with shared substitutes. Even with these impressive results on such devastating disorders, brand-new study reveals that ...
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Several side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) administration associated with training are reported in the biomechanical properties of the calcaneal tendon (CT) of rats. Thus, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of the detraining and discontinuation of AAS administration on the CT morphology of rats submitted to exercise in water. Animals were divided into two groups (20/group): (1) Immediately after training (IA), and (2) Six weeks of detraining and AAS discontinuation (6W). The IA group included four subgroups: Sedentary (S), Trained (T), Sedentary with AAS administration (SAAS), and trained with AAS administration (TAAS). The 6W group included four subgroups: Sedentary (6W-S), six weeks of detrained (6W-T), six weeks of sedentary with AAS discontinuation (6W-SAAS), and six weeks of detrained with AAS discontinuation (6W-TAAS). Data show significant reduction in adipose cells volume density (Vv%) in the distal CT in 6W-TAAS group, indicating that training can exert a
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Congress passed the Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act (DASCA) of 2014 (S. 2012) last night, clearing the bill to be signed into law by President Obama. Obama is expected to sign the bill that provides new authority to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to place designer anabolic steroids on the Controlled Substance Schedules more rapidly. The bill also gives DEA new enforcement tools to prosecute disreputable companies that develop and market anabolic steroids mislabeled as dietary supplements. AHPA has been advocating lawmakers to pass this legislation to help protect consumers from potentially dangerous anabolic steroids falsely marketed as dietary supplements. "AHPA thanks Congress for passing this important bill," said Michael McGuffin, president of the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA). "Just a handful of bad actors selling illegal products can tarnish the regulated supplement industry. When President Obama signs this legislation into law, it will help protect consumers ...
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Prostate-specific antigen levels were constantly low in all patients, and the authors concluded long-term anabolic steroid therapy for male hypogonadism is safe (Behre, von Eckardstein. One year after surgery he complained of poor libido and hot flushes; PSA was undetectable but serum testosterone was in the castrate range at 28ng/dl. We have provided you the most commonly used anabolic androgenic steroids, along with their respective anabolic and androgenic rating. How Are AAS Abused? Because of this, many people who want to use them need to purchase them from other countries. . In general, anabolic effects include the promotion metabolism and the building of tissues and androgenic refers to the promotion of masculine effects. . Thus, anabolic steroids have also had many effects on competitive sports. . Each steroid is listed by hormonal compound, popular trade name, anabolic and androgenic rating, with additional notes where needed. Deca Durabolin can be taken with or without meals. The ...
It is believed by some experts that men drawn to anabolic steroids could be suffering from Adonis body syndrome or Bigorexia. Bigorexia (also known as Muscle dysmorphia or Reverse anorexia) is a disorder in which an individual becomes obsessed with the illusion that he or she is not muscular enough. The use of steroids in long-term or steroid abuse (or overdosing) can be associated with the development or aggravation of side effects like hair loss, acne, and shrunken testicles. Steroid abuse can also be a reason behind problems with the liver, heart, kidney, and fertility. Use of injectable steroids through shared needles can increase the possibility of contracting HIV and Hepatitis B and C.. Tyrie remarked the trickle of people coming to the clinic has become a torrent due to the growing pressure on young men to have a good physical appearance. The health expert expressed fears that the new market for anabolic androgenic steroids may create health problems and remarked when they were ...
Disapproval of steroid use in the media has been evident for years now. But latest data indicates that 1.5-2.5% of junior high and high school teenagers use
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The Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act seeks to ensure that anabolic androgenic steroids are not misrepresented as legitimate dietary supplements. This act will make this differentiation by broadening the definition and imposing tougher penalties on firms making and selling anabolics as legal supplements. DASCA also seeks to amend the Controlled Substances Act and add more than 25 new substances to the current lists of defined anabolic androgenic steroids, and revises the process whereby new substances can be added in the future. The Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act also imposes tougher penalties (up to $2.5m and up to 10 years in prison) for the manufacture, sale, and/or distribution of substances that meet the definition.. In 2012, a bill of the same name was introduced by Senators Hatch and Whitehouse, but failed to pass into law. Introduction of DASCA was welcomed by a joint statement from the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), the Consumer Healthcare Products Association ...
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Anabolic steroids have a wide range of benefits. In addition to aiding in bodybuilding and fitness, steroids also have medical uses as they can be used to treat anemia and help HIV and cancer patients to gain a healthy weight. What some people may not know is that anabolic steroids can also cause a number of health problems. For one, long term use of large doses can lead to kidney and liver damage. It can also cause heart disease among other side effects. It is important to note that anabolic steroids can be used safely if users know the precautions to take as well as how to properly use these products. The following are some tips to help mitigate the side effects and improve the quality of the results you get:. i) Use Steroids in Cycles. The best way to mitigate the negative effects of an anabolic steroid while improving the results is to use steroids in cycles. Cycling simply means using the steroids for a month, or so, then stopping for a few weeks before starting another cycle. During the ...
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Anabolic steroids are artificially produced substances similar to the male hormone testosterone. They are used by the bodybuilders and the athletes for performance-enhancement reasons. Steroids make the muscles bigger and enhance strength. Doctors prescribe them to treat medical problems that cause low testosterone production in bodies. They can be administered either orally or through injectables. Many also people take dietary supplements that contain steroid hormones. The body can turn the dietary supplements into steroid hormones such as testosterone, cortisol, and estrogen. People take them for muscle gain and if taken in large quantities they result in the same side effects like the anabolic steroids.. In countries like Canada, you need a medical prescription to buy any anabolic steroid. The prescriptions are given by the medical practitioners only for medical reasons. Some steroids are sold over-the-counter but they are corticosteroids that are used for therapeutic purposes. You can buy ...
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Q: What are anabolic-androgenic steroids and why are they in great demand among bodybuilders and athletes? A: Anabolic-androgenic steroids, sometimes referred to as synthetic steroids , are man-made hormones designed to mimic the behavior of naturally occurring hormones, specifically testosterone. Endogenous testosterone is responsible for various and vital functions in the human body, but as far as bodybuilders and athletes are concerned the ability of testosterone to induce anabolism or muscle growth is the standout quality of testosterone. Testosterone has been experimented on for centuries. In fact, there is a study which indicates that use of steroid hormones as performance-enhancing substances had been practiced as far back as the first Olympics in Greece with sheep testicles as the prime source of synthetic testosterone. Youve got to admit that these ancient chemists had been on the right track since testosterone is produced in the testes in men. Q: How do steroids enhance the physique ...
Interpersonal violence and suicide are major health concerns, leading to premature death, extensive human suffering and staggering monetary costs. Although violent behaviour has multiple causes, it is well known that acute substance intake and abuse increase the risks of both interpersonal and self-directed violence. This association is quite well established for alcohol, while a more ambiguous literature exists for other common drugs of abuse. For example, anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic analogues to the "male" sex hormone testosterone are suggested to elicit violent and aggressive behaviour. Two studies (I and III) in the present thesis addressed the association between AAS use and being suspected or convicted of a violent crime among remand prisoners and in a general population sample, respectively. Further, using the case-crossover design to control for confounders stable within individuals, I also investigated the triggering (short-term risk) effect of alcohol and drugs such ...
As many as 175,000 high school girls use illegal anabolic steroids to build muscle and enhance athletic performance, according to a study by Charles Yesalis, a professor of health policy at Pennsylvania State University (Charles Yesalis, et al., Trends in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among Adolescents, Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, December 1997, pp. 1197-1206; Sandra G. Boodman, Illicit Steroid Use Up Among Athletic Girls, Washington Post, January 20, 1998, Health section, p. 5; Associated Press, Steroid use rising among teen-age girls, study shows, Virginian-Pilot, December 15, 1997, p. C3).. Yesalis and his colleagues analyzed data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and two other national studies. They found that self reports of steroid use among junior high and high school girls had doubled since 1991. Use of steroids by boys the same age has remained unchanged. Yesalis said the increase may reflect increased athletic opportunities for young women. He ...
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There is a link between use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and reduced mental health later in life. This is the main conclusion of a new study on elite male strength athletes that researchers from the University of Gothenburg recently published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. Twenty per cent of the subjects in the study admitted steroid use.. The study is published by CERA, which is the University of Gothenburgs centre for education and research on addiction. Together with colleagues from Sahlgrenska University Hospital, they found a connection between abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and mental health problems many years later.. The study included almost 700 former Swedish wrestlers, weightlifters, powerlifters and throwers who competed at the elite level sometime between 1960 and 1979. Twenty per cent of them admitted using steroids during their active careers. The purpose of the study was to look for links between AAS use and mental problems.. We found a clear link. ...
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The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with different adverse effects, some of which potentially lethal. Most users of AAS are male, but the prevalence of such use appears to be increasing in females. Here we present a sudden unexpected death in a female fitness athlete with a possible connection to use of doping agents.. ...
Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) may be an aetiological factor in male infertility among recreational power athletes. They try to avoid AAS-induced deterioration in spermatogenesis by combining doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug Insight. T2 - Testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging. AU - Bhasin, Shalender. AU - Calof, Olga M.. AU - Storer, Thomas W.. AU - Lee, Martin L.. AU - Mazer, Norman A.. AU - Jasuja, Ravi. AU - Montori, Victor Manuel. AU - Gao, Wenqing. AU - Dalton, James T.. PY - 2006/3. Y1 - 2006/3. N2 - Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with β-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle ...
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NEW YORK-Major League Baseball says it is "extremely disappointed" about a new report that says records from an anti-aging clinic in the Miami area link Alex Rodriguez and other players to the purchase of performance-enhancing drugs.. The Miami New Times, a popular alternative weekly, said in a story Tuesday that it had obtained files through an employee at a recently closed clinic called Biogenesis.. MLB responded with a statement that says "through our Department of Investigations, we have been actively involved in the issues in South Florida." The unsigned statement also says "we are always extremely disappointed to learn of potential links between players and the use of performance-enhancing substances.". Other players on the list include new Toronto Blue Jay outfielder Melky Cabrera, Gio Gonzalez, Bartolo Colon and Nelson Cruz. Cabrera, the all-star game MVP for the San Francisco Giants last season, was suspended 50 games in August for failing a drug test. Colon, a pitcher for the Oakland ...
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more infohttp://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/34208/

WHO HQ Library catalog › Details for: Anabolic agents in animal productionWHO HQ Library catalog › Details for: Anabolic agents in animal production

Anabolic agents in animal production : FAO/WHO Symposium, Rome, March 1975 / guest editors, Frank C. Lu and Jan Rendel ; ... Anabolic agents -- pharmacology -- congresses , Food additives -- congressesNLM classification: SF 95 Tags from this library: ... FAO/WHO Symposium on Anabolic Agents in Animal Production Rome, Italy) (1975 : Material type: BookSeries: Environmental quality ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=ccl=pb%3AThieme%2C&sort_by=relevance_dsc&limit=se:Environmental+quality+and+safety.

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    Results of search for su:{Anabolic agents}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Anabolic agents}'

Anabolic agents in animal production : FAO/WHO Symposium, Rome, March 1975 / guest editors, Frank C. Lu and Jan Rendel ; ... Regional Office for Europe , Working Group on the Health Aspects of Residues of Anabolic Agents in Meat Bilthoven, Netherlands) ... FAO/WHO Symposium on Anabolic Agents in Animal Production Rome, Italy) (1975 : ... Health aspects of residues of anabolics in meat : report on a WHO working group, Bilthoven, 10-13 November 1981. by World ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAnabolic%20agents%7D
  • Progestational and anabolic-androgenic compounds may have extensive effects upon plasma triglycerides, triglyceride clearing enzymes, and upon mechanisms of triglyceride clearing from the plasma. (springer.com)
  • Treatment with an anabolic agent is associated with improvement in respiratory function in persons with tetraplegia: a pilot study. (nih.gov)
  • This review provides an overview of agents with bone-anabolic properties, which may have utility in the treatment of breast cancer metastatic to the skeleton. (iupui.edu)
  • Recent results from the Breast cancer trials of Oral Everolimus-2 trial suggest that agents such as the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus may have efficacy against breast cancer bone metastases in part via stimulating osteoblasts as well as by inhibiting tumor growth. (iupui.edu)
  • Agents with both anti-tumor and bone-anabolic actions have been tested in the setting of multiple myeloma, a hematological malignancy that causes severe osteolytic bone loss and suppression of osteoblastic new bone formation. (iupui.edu)
  • The prevention of misuse of doping agents should include random doping analyses, medical follow-ups, pedagogic interventions, tougher legislation against possession of AAS, and longer disqualifications of athletes who use AAS. (spotidoc.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta inhibitors have little tumor antiproliferative activity but block breast cancer production of osteolytic factors and are also anabolic for bone. (iupui.edu)
  • Human growth hormone (HGH), a particularly expensive drug, is also thought to have an anabolic effect. (sports-drugs.com)
  • Health aspects of residues of anabolics in meat : report on a WHO working group, Bilthoven, 10-13 November 1981. (who.int)