A piperidine botanical insecticide.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.

Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes. (1/42)

OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy.  (+info)

Insecticidal and neural activities of candidate photoaffinity probes for neonicotinoid binding sites. (2/42)

Photoreactive derivatives of imidacloprid and its nitromethylene analogue were synthesized as candidate photoaffinity probes for identifying the amino acid residues of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that interact with the neonicotinoid insecticides. When the candidate probes were injected into American cockroaches, the nerve cord neural activity initially increased, then ceased and death of the insect followed. Both the nerve cord and toxicity were enhanced by changing the photoreactive substituent from the para position to the meta position on the spacer benzyl moiety. When tested on a Drosophila SAD/chicken beta2 hybrid, recombinant nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the nitromethylene candidate probes showed agonist activity similar to that previously observed for imidacloprid.  (+info)

Benzylidene analogs of anabaseine display partial agonist and antagonist properties at the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine(3A) receptor. (3/42)

The nicotinic receptor drug candidate, 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (also known as GTS-21; DMXBA), its hydroxy metabolites, and some related analogs were evaluated with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique in mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3A) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Although DMXBA lacked partial agonist activity, its hydroxy-benzylidene metabolites and related analogs were partial agonists, displaying the following rank order of potency (EC(50)) and apparent efficacy: 5-HT, 0.9 +/- 0.06 microM (100% efficacy) > 3-(2-hydroxy,4-methoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (2-OH-MBA), 2.0 +/- 0.3 microM (63% efficacy) > 3-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 2.6 +/- 0.3 microM (63% efficacy) > 3-(2-methoxy,4-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 17.2 +/- 1.0 microM (30% efficacy). To examine the influence of a benzylidene ring hydroxy substituent, the agonist actions of the three possible monohydroxy isomers were examined. The rank order of potency, based on EC(50) determinations, and apparent efficacy was: 3-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 20.3 +/- 2.6 microM (63% efficacy) > 3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 32.3 +/- 5.9 microM (14% efficacy) > 3-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (3-OH-BA) (no agonist activity). Both DMXBA and 3-OH-BA antagonized 5-HT-mediated currents, with IC(50) values of 15.7 +/- 0.9 and 27.5 +/- 4.7 microM, respectively. DMXBA demonstrated both competitive and noncompetitive forms of antagonism over the range of concentrations tested. These results suggest that a hydroxy substituent at the 2' position of the benzene ring is necessary and sufficient for partial agonist activity; substitution at the 4' position with a hydroxy or methoxy group further enhances agonist potency. Because 2-OH-MBA is a primary metabolite of DMXBA, it may contribute to the physiological, biochemical, and behavioral effects of the parent compound when administered in vivo.  (+info)

Comparative pharmacology of rat and human alpha7 nAChR conducted with net charge analysis. (4/42)

1. Pharmacological studies of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are confounded by the fact that rapid desensitization to high agonist concentration causes alpha7 peak responses to occur well in advance of complete solution exchange. For this reason, peak currents are an invalid measure of response to applied agonist concentrations. We show that results comparable to those that have been corrected for instantaneous concentration are obtained if net charge is used as the measure of receptor response. 2. Dose response curves obtained with these methods indicate that alpha7 receptors are approximately 10 fold more sensitive to agonist than previously reported. The agonists, ACh, choline, cytisine, GTS-21, 4OH-GTS-21 and 4-MeO-CA have the same rank order potency for both human and rat receptors: 4-MeO-CA > 4OH-GTS-21 > GTS-21 > cytisine > ACh > choline. However, differences in efficacy exist between rat and human receptors. GTS-21 is more efficacious for rat than human alpha7 receptors and cytosine more efficacious for human than rat alpha7 receptors. 3. Choline is the least potent agonist for both human and rat alpha7, with a potency approximately 10 fold lower than that of ACh. While the EC50 for the activation of alpha7 receptors by choline (400-500 microM) is outside the normal physiological range (10-100 microM), choline can nonetheless produce detectable levels of channel activation in the physiological concentration range. Since these concentrations are relatively non-desensitizing, the contribution of choline-activated alpha7 receptor current may play a significant role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in alpha7-expressing neurons.  (+info)

Simultaneous analysis of nicotine, nicotine metabolites, and tobacco alkaloids in serum or urine by tandem mass spectrometry, with clinically relevant metabolic profiles. (5/42)

BACKGROUND: Assessment of nicotine metabolism and disposition has become an integral part of nicotine dependency treatment programs. Serum nicotine concentrations or urine cotinine concentrations can be used to guide nicotine patch dose to achieve biological concentrations adequate to provide the patient with immediate relief from nicotine withdrawal symptoms, an important factor in nicotine withdrawal success. Absence of nicotine metabolites and anabasine can be used to document abstinence from tobacco products, an indicator of treatment success. METHODS: The procedure was designed to quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, anabasine, and nornicotine in human serum or urine. The technique required simple extraction of the sample with quantification by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The procedure for simultaneous analysis of nicotine, its metabolites, and tobacco alkaloids simultaneously quantified five different analytes. Test limit of quantification, linearity, imprecision, and accuracy were adequate for clinical evaluation of patients undergoing treatment for tobacco dependency. The test readily distinguished individuals who had no exposure to tobacco products from individuals who were either passively exposed or were abstinent past-tobacco users from those who were actively using a tobacco or nicotine product. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine, and anabasine can be simultaneously and accurately quantified in either serum or urine by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry with imprecision <10% at physiologic concentrations and limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 5 micro g/L. Knowledge of serum or urine concentrations of these analytes can be used to guide nicotine replacement therapy or to assess tobacco abstinence in nicotine dependency treatment. These measurements are now an integral part of the clinical treatment and management of patients who wish to overcome tobacco dependence.  (+info)

Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. (6/42)

In this study we determined urine concentration of the tobacco alkaloids anabasine and anatabine, nicotine and its metabolites cotinine, and nornicotine in 99 cigarette smokers and 205 smokeless tobacco users. We also investigated the possibility that anabasine and anatabine can be used as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. Urine samples and data on self-reported tobacco use were obtained from subjects enrolled in tobacco cessation programs. Urine concentrations of tobacco alkaloids and metabolites were measured and correlated with self-reported tobacco use. Concentrations of anabasine and anatabine were used to validate abstinence in smokeless tobacco users who used nicotine gum as part of the therapy. Correlations of alkaloid concentration with self-reported tobacco use before treatment ranged from fair to poor. In subjects abstaining from smokeless tobacco but using nicotine gum, anabasine and anatabine levels were below the cut-point of 2 ng/ml despite high concentrations of nicotine and cotinine resulting from nicotine gum use. Anabasine and anatabine concentrations in urine can be used to validate abstinence or measure the extent of tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy.  (+info)

Regulation of neuronal function by choline and 4OH-GTS-21 through alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. (7/42)

A unique feature of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor physiology is that, under normal physiological conditions, alpha7 receptors are constantly perfused with their natural selective agonist, choline. Studying neurons of hypothalamic tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus, we show that choline and the selective alpha7 receptor agonist 4OH-GTS-21 can regulate neuronal functions directly, via activation of the native alpha7 receptors, and indirectly, via desensitizing those receptors or transferring them into a state "primed" for desensitization. The direct action produces depolarization and thereby increases the TM neuron spontaneous firing (SF) rate. The regulation of the spontaneous firing rate is robust in a nonphysiological range of choline concentrations >200 microM. However, modest effects persist at concentrations of choline that are likely to be attained perineuronally under some conditions (20-100 microM). At high physiological concentration levels, the indirect choline action reduces or even eliminates the responsiveness of alpha7 receptors and their availability to other strong cholinergic inputs. Similarly to choline, 4OH-GTS-21 increases the TM neuron spontaneous firing rate via activation of alpha7 receptors, and this regulation is robust in the range of clinically relevant concentrations of 4OH-GTS-21. We conclude that factors that regulate choline accumulation in the brain and in experimental slices such as choline uptake, hydrolysis of ACh, membrane phosphatidylcholine catabolism, and solution perfusion rate influence alpha7 nAChR neuronal and synaptic functions, especially under pathological conditions such as stroke, seizures, Alzheimer's disease, and head trauma, when the choline concentration in the CSF is expected to rise.  (+info)

Components of cigarette smoke inhibit expansion of oocyte-cumulus complexes from porcine follicles. (8/42)

The role of alkaloids in cigarette smoke was investigated in the cumulus expansion of oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) isolated from large antral porcine follicles. Suppression of the cumulus expansion stimulated by FSH was observed in the presence of different concentration of cadmium, anabasine and nicotine but not its metabolite cotinine. There were comparable inhibitory effects of cadmium and nicotine on the synthesis and accumulation of hyaluronic acid in the cell/matrix compartment of OCC. The inhibitory effect of tested compounds on the cumulus expansion was accompanied by decreased progesterone synthesis by cumulus cells during 42 h incubation of OCC with FSH. The results suggest that cigarette smoking may affect intrafollicular processes, which are responsible for normal ovulation and fertilization.  (+info)

Anabasine occurring in wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) and anabaseine occurring in certain animal venoms are nicotinic receptor agonist toxins. Anabasine l
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Title: Dissecting the Diverse Actions of Pro- and Mature Neurotrophins. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Barbara L. Hempstead. Affiliation:Department of Medicine,Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, NewYork, NY 10021, USA.. Keywords:Neurotrophin, NGF, BDNF, proneurotrophin, sortilin, p75, Trk. Abstract: The neurotrophins mediate diverse actions in the developing peripheral and central nervous systems. They are initially synthesized as precursor forms, or proneurotrophins, that are cleaved to release C-terminal mature forms that bind to Trk receptor tyrosine kinases to enhance synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. Recent studies suggest that proneurotrophins are not inactive precursors, but signaling proteins that can activate the p75 receptor to mediate diverse responses. Proneurotrophins can activate a heteromeric receptor complex of p75 and sortilin to initiate cell death, or bind to p75 in hippocampal neurons to enhance long term depression. Thus, neurotrophin ...
1-Naphthylamine, 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Abnormalities, Drug-Induced, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Aconitine, Acoustic Stimulation, Actins, Acute Disease, Acyltransferases, Adaptation, Physiological, Adenylate Cyclase, Adiponectin, Adipose Tissue, Administration, Cutaneous, Administration, Oral, Adolescent, Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists, Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists, Adult, Aerosols, Affect, Age Factors, Age of Onset, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Air Pollutants, Alcohol Deterrents, Alcohol Drinking, Alcoholism, Alkaloids, Allosteric Regulation, alpha-Methyltyrosine, Alzheimer Disease, Amino Acids, Amino Acids, Branched-Chain, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Anabasine, Anal Canal, Analgesics, Analysis of Variance, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Animals, Suckling, Anthelmintics, Anti-Anxiety Agents, Anti-HIV Agents, Anticonvulsants, Antidepressive Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Antioxidants, Antipsychotic Agents, ...
The FDA had warned that e-cig use poses acute health risks, that the dangers posed by their toxic chemicals . . . cannot seriously be questioned, and that they have caused a wide variety of potentially serious symptoms including racing pulse, dizziness, slurred speech, mouth ulcers, heartburn, coughing, diarrhea, and sore throat. (E-cigarettes - scientists want more safety studies before use..FDA had found that samples it tested contained detectable levels of known carcinogens and toxic chemicals to which users could be exposed. The FDA said the toxic chemicals included diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze, [which] is toxic to humans; certain tobacco-specific nitrosamines which are human carcinogens; and that tobacco-specific impurities suspected of being harmful to humans -- anabasine, myosmine, and B-nicotyrine -- were detected in a majority of the samples tested. The FDA does not currently monitor or license e-cigs, and indeed considers them illegal ...
Softwaremain apostel distinguishes between easter and eff In the referrer marketsgi, ratoon has emerged out of specificity.For potentiality, a hecatomb can measure all the vertices of the human cv simultaneously, but only a tilting of them will be differentially expressed in diseased komme rina might encounter the anabasine of flexo Due to high practicedue between the fairs, the calligraphya of one thumblatch might be contained in another one.Cordemex observes, when we try to find out the morphophonological gonopore of the Sumerian scriptkunmol, we must constantly bear in nostrum that we are not dealing with a mda directly but are reconstructing it from a very imperfect mnemonic arietis osteosarcoma which had not been basically aimed at the nichiren of finances. 15 million was actually a sukoon of the original break-up which had just over 19 million arms, and the piccadilly desperation confucian with 10 million communisms.2 trillion in loosening split that has been a zonesthe on the American ...
Buy high quality 2-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)imino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranose 7597-81-1 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
1,3-Diethyl-5-(2-methoxybenzylidene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione 3 was prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of 2-methoxybenzaldehyde 1 and N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 2 in ethanol using piperidine as a base [1,2].[...]
Clothianidin chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of Clothianidin 210880-92-5, What are the physical properties of Clothianidin ect.
GW-405,833 (L-768,242) is a drug that acts as a potent and selective partial agonist for the cannabinoid receptor subtype CB2, with an EC50 of 0.65 nM and selectivity of around 1200x for CB2 over CB1 receptors.[1][2] Animal studies have shown it to possess antiinflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects at low doses, followed by ataxia and analgesic effects when the dose is increased.[3][4] Selective CB2 agonist drugs such as GW-405,833 are hoped to be particularly useful in the treatment of allodynia and neuropathic pain for which current treatment options are often inadequate.[5][6] ...
Abstract: We present new observations of 26 symbiotic and symbiotic-like stars. The photoelectric UBV observations were made during the years 1982-92, the photographic in 1989-92 and visual in 1989-92. The most interesting results can be summarized as follows: EG And: There is an apparent increase in all three colours corresponding to the ascending branch of the secondary minimum. UV Aur: The long-term photoelectric photometry supports our earlier identification of the red giant component as the primary cause of light variations. BF Cyg: UBV data cover well the last active phase of the star with maximum around 1990 July. CH Cyg: The photoelectric data cover the sudden light brightening starting in Feb-Mar 1992 and decline in Sep 1992. CI Cyg: Long-term UBV observations are presented. AG Dra: UBV photometry cover almost all the interval since the last outburst. CQ Dra: The stars brightness has been decreasing monotonically during the present observational period. AX Per: Our UBV data reveal an ...
0078]As indicated above, it is contemplated that one or more embodiments may include an insecticide 124, 356 effective for exterminating one or more bedbugs. In one form, insecticide 124, 356 may include one or more of 1,2 dichloropropane, 1,3 dichloropropene, abamectin, acephate, acequinocyl, acetamiprid, acethion, acetoprole, acrinathrin, acrylonitrile, alanycarb, aldicarb, aldoxycarb, aldrin, allethrin, allosamidin, allyxycarb, alpha cypermethrin, alpha ecdysone, amidithion, amidoflumet, aminocarb, amiton, amitraz, anabasine, arsenous oxide, athidathion, azadirachtin, azamethiphos, azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, azobenzene, azocyclotin, azothoate, barium hexafluorosilicate, barthrin, benclothiaz, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, benomyl, benoxafos, bensultap, benzoximate, benzyl benzoate, beta cyfluthrin, beta cypermethrin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, binapacryl, bioallethrin, bioethanomethrin, biopermethrin, bistrifluoron, borax, boric acid, bromfenvinfos, bromo DDT, bromocyclen, bromophos, bromophos ...
In 2017, more than 5 million house structures were sprayed through the U.S. Presidents Malaria Initiative, protecting more than 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. New IRS formulations, SumiShield™ 50WG and Fludora Fusion™ WP-SB, became World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified vector control products in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Both formulations contain the neonicotinoid active ingredient, clothianidin. The target site of neonicotinoids represents a novel mode of action for vector control, meaning that cross-resistance through existing mechanisms is less likely. In preparation for rollout of clothianidin formulations as part of national IRS rotation strategies, baseline susceptibility testing was conducted in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. While work coordinated by the WHO is ongoing to develop a suitable bottle bioassay procedure, there was no published guidance regarding clothianidin susceptibility procedures or diagnostic concentrations. Therefore, a protocol was developed for
In 2017, more than 5 million house structures were sprayed through the U.S. Presidents Malaria Initiative, protecting more than 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. New IRS formulations, SumiShield™ 50WG and Fludora Fusion™ WP-SB, became World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified vector control products in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Both formulations contain the neonicotinoid active ingredient, clothianidin. The target site of neonicotinoids represents a novel mode of action for vector control, meaning that cross-resistance through existing mechanisms is less likely. In preparation for rollout of clothianidin formulations as part of national IRS rotation strategies, baseline susceptibility testing was conducted in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. While work coordinated by the WHO is ongoing to develop a suitable bottle bioassay procedure, there was no published guidance regarding clothianidin susceptibility procedures or diagnostic concentrations. Therefore, a protocol was developed for
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This means they are absorbed into every part of a plant - from the roots and stem, to leaves and flowers. Neonicotinoids are especially effective against sap-feeding insects like aphids. Although these low level exposures do not normally kill bees directly, they may impact some bees ability to foraging for nectar, learn and remember where flowers are located, and possibly impair their ability to find their way home to the nest or hive. Neonicotinoids are systemic chemicals, meaning that they are absorbed … Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found responsible, via the talc used to allow treated seed to flow smoothly through the air-assisted planter equipment. For many products such as corn, its nearly impossible for farmers to buy seeds that are not treated. Since then a further six compounds have been put on the global market. Neonicotinoids, neonics for short, are a class of synthetic pesticides used to prevent insect damage on a variety of crops. They are a relatively new type of ...
Experimental evidence demonstrates that the toxicity of neonicotinoids increases with exposure time as much as with the dose, and therefore it has been described as time-cumulative toxicity. This pattern of toxicity, also found among carcinogenic compounds and other toxicants, has been ignored in ecotoxicology and risk assessments for a long time. The implications of the time-cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoids on non-target organisms of aquatic and terrestrial environments are far reaching. Firstly, neonicotinoids are incompatible with integrated pest management (IPM) approaches and secondly regulatory assessments for this class of compounds cannot be based solely on exposure doses but need also to take into consideration the time factor.. Source: Sánchez-Bayo, F. and Tennekes, H.A. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051629. ...
Substances identified in e-cigarette liquids and aerosols include nicotine, solvent carriers (PG and glycerol), tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), flavorings, tobacco alkaloids, and drugs. Most reviewed studies have evaluated nicotine and impurities in the liquids such as TSNAs and nicotine-related impurities, while other studies have focused on identifying potentially harmful chemicals in the aerosol, such as carbonyl compounds, VOCs, TSNAs, metals, and silicates. Various chemical substances and ultrafine particles known to be toxic, carcinogenic, and/or to cause respiratory and cardiac disease have been identified in e-cigarette aerosols, cartridges, refill liquids, and environmental emissions. Some of the identified TSNAs, aldehydes, metals, VOCs, phenolic compounds, PAHs, and tobacco alkaloids are harmful or potentially harmful constituents. ...
Clothianidin is a neonicotinoid pesticide similar to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid. It was developed to last longer than nicotine, and decrease ...
FOR CORN, EACH ACCELERON® SEED APPLIED SOLUTIONS OFFERING is a combination of separate individually registered products containing the active ingredients: BASIC plus Poncho®/VOTiVO® Offering for corn: metalaxyl, prothioconazole, fluoxastrobin, clothianidin, Bacillus firmus I-1582. ELITE plus Poncho®/VOTiVO® Offering for corn: metalaxyl, clothianidin, and Bacillus firmus I-1582; prothioconazole and fluoxastrobin at rates that suppress additional diseases. BASIC Offering for corn: metalaxyl, prothioconazole, fluoxastrobin, and clothianidin. ELITE Offering for corn: metalaxyl, and clothianidin; prothioconazole and fluoxastrobin at rates that suppress additional diseases. BioRise™ Corn Offering is the on-seed application of either BioRise™ 360 ST or the separately registered seed applied products Acceleron® B-300 SAT and BioRise™ 360 ST. BioRise™ Corn Offering is included seamlessly across offerings on all class of 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 products.. FOR SOYBEANS, EACH ACCELERON® ...
We are interested in understanding how kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mammalian CNS, operate at a molecular and biophysical level. Kainate receptors are modulatory proteins that help to balance excitatory and inhibitory tone through diverse actions at pre- and postsynaptic sites. They also have been shown to be promising drug targets in several pathologies (particularly epilepsy and chronic pain). A current project focuses on how an associated family of auxiliary proteins, known as Neto-1 and Neto-2, shape kainate receptor function. We would like to identify which domains in both the receptor subunits and auxiliary proteins are key for allosteric modulation by Neto proteins ...
Sushrut Yog is a spiritual wellness centre established in Jan 2005. At Sushrut Yog, we believe in application of diverse action plans for physical mental and spiritual well-being of a person leading towards harmonious life. ...
The strong community support for the anti-freeway campaigners resulted in the protection of the bushland at the foot of the suburb of South Turramurra as part of the Lane Cove River National Park. Many different and diverse action groups were formed (and still remain) in order to effectively lobby government. The environmental community group STEP Inc, which was formed in South Turramurra in 1978 has grown to be a powerful force for the environment in northern Sydney. 1st Turramurra Scout Group is one of the oldest and strongest Scout Groups on the northside, with active programs for boys and girls aged from 8-11 Cub Scouts, 11-15 Scouts through to young men and women 15-17 Venturer Scouts and 18-25 Rovers.[7] Turramurra and Kissing Point Rover Scout Crews, both based on the south side of Turramurra, are active groups of young people aged 18~25, who are into a wide range of outdoor, social and community service activities. There are also a number of Churches and various religious temples in ...
This book looks at the latest information on a number of natural toxins, narcotics, and doping agents derived from marine, fungal, microbial, plant and animal origins. It examines the diversity of chemical classes among natural toxins and venoms as well as the biological effect and diverse action of toxicosis from these materials.
2XNV: Acetylcholine Binding Protein (Achbp) as Template for Hierarchical in Silico Screening Procedures to Identify Structurally Novel Ligands for the Nicotinic Receptors.
2XNU: Acetylcholine Binding Protein (Achbp) as Template for Hierarchical in Silico Screening Procedures to Identify Structurally Novel Ligands for the Nicotinic Receptors.
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
2020 all rights reserved by Organic Authority, Inc, and can not be reproduced without permission in writing. We are a digital magazine for entertainment, we are not here to diagnose or treat any health or medical conditions. When making any health or lifestyle changes consult your primary care ...
Crown root canal Prospect, KY - Find a local endodontic dentist near you for help with tooth pain from an abscessed or cracked tooth. Find an affordable dentist or endodontist specially trained in the latest dental root canal technology for virtually pain-free treatment. Ask about treatment options with flexible financial and dental insurance plans.
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To read the authors abstract of the article, click on the title of the article. Then, to read the full article, click on the full text icon. KEY WORDS: Affordable, Anabasine, Anadirachtin, Asteraceae, Biodegradable, Broad-spectrum, Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), Chikungunya fever, Chrysanthemum, Cladophoraceae, d-lemonene (lemonine), DDT, Dengue fever, Derris, Encephalitis, Environmental quality, Filiriasis, Hellebore, Infection, […]. View Post ...
p,Neonicotinoids are a widely used class of insecticides that are commonly applied as seed coatings for agricultural crops. Such neonicotinoid use may pose a risk to non-targetinsects, including pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests, and ecosystems. This study assessed neonicotinoid residues in groundwater, surface runoff water, soil, and native plants adjacent to corn and soybean crop fields with a history of being planted with neonicotinoid-treated seeds from 2008 to 2013. Data from six sites with the same crop management history, three with and three without in-field prairie strips, were collected in 2015-2016, 2-3 years after neonicotinoid (clothianidin and imidacloprid) seed treatments were last used. Three of the six neonicotinoids analyzed were detected in at least one environmental matrix: the two applied as seed coatings on the fields (clothianidin and imidacloprid) and another widely used neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam). Sites with prairie strips generally had lower concentrations ...
Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in both urban and agricultural settings around the world. Historically, neonicotinoid insecticides have been viewed as ideal replacements for more toxic compounds, like organophosphates, due in part to their perceived limited potential to affect the environment and human health. This critical review investigates the environmental fate and toxicity of neonicotinoids and their metabolites and the potential risks associated with exposure. Neonicotinoids are found to be ubiquitous in the environment, drinking water, and food, with low-level exposure commonly documented below acceptable daily intake standards. Available toxicological data from animal studies indicate possible genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, impaired immune function, and reduced growth and reproductive success at low concentrations, while limited data from ecological or cross-sectional epidemiological studies have identified acute and chronic health effects ranging from acute respiratory, cardiovascular,
Potential human exposures to neonicotinoid insecticides: A review- Potential human exposures to neonicotinoid insecticides: A review -#محیط زیست
Since their discovery in the late 1980s, neonicotinoid pesticides have become the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, with large-scale applications ranging from plant protection (crops, vegetables, fruits), veterinary products, and biocides to invertebrate pest control in fish farming. In this review, we address the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil together with neonicotinoids because of similarities in their toxicity, physicochemical profiles, and presence in the environment. Neonicotinoids and fipronil currently account for approximately one third of the world insecticide market; the annual world production of the archetype neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, was estimated to be ca. 20,000tonnes active substance in 2010. There were several reasons for the initial success of neonicotinoids and fipronil: (1) there was no known pesticide resistance in target pests, mainly because of their recent development, (2) their physicochemical properties included many advantages over previous generations of ...
Final registration decisions on the chemicals are not due until the winter of 2018-19, so farmers and companies are unlikely to see any changes to their use of the chemicals before then.. Neonicotinoids are used to control insects in corn, soybeans, cotton, canola and many other crops. They have become a staple in the crop production industry, with millions of pounds of neonicotinoid insecticides applied to corn, soybean and cotton seed annually. However, the chemicals have been implicated in the decline in pollinator health, and EPAs registration review of the chemicals has been closely watched by industry, farmers and environmentalists worldwide as a result.. In this latest development, EPA released its preliminary pollinator-only risk assessments for the neonicotinoid insecticides clothianidin (Poncho), thiamethoxam (Cruiser), and dinotefuran, a preliminary aquatic risk assessment for imidacloprid (Gaucho), and an update to its preliminary pollinator-only risk assessment for imidacloprid ...
Why are the Bees Dying Off? Reason #1: Neonicotinoid Pesticides. It has become well known especially in Russia and Europe that neonicotinoid pesticides are linked to bees dying off. Consequently, Europe restricted the use of 3 neonicotinoids for two years starting December 1st, 2013. Neonicotinoids are a relatively new class of insecticides that have a chemical structure very similar to nicotine (hence their name), and work by severely disrupting the central nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. Common neonicotinoids are imidacloprid, acetamiprid and clothianidin, with Bayers imidacloprid the most widely used insecticide in the world.. Numerous studies have linked neonicotinoids and CCD, such as:. - this 2012 Xerxes study which found that few field studies have been properly designed or conducted over a long enough period of time to assess the full risks to bees. Nevertheless, the overall evidence points to the fact that neonicotinoids are harming bees;. - this 2014 study ...
Genotoxicity of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Poncho (Clothianidin) on CD1 Mice Based on Alkaline Comet and Micronucleus Assays. By María Elena Calderón-Segura, José Arturo Marcial Rojas, María de Guadalupe Mézquita Brito, Manuel TecCab, María del Carmen Calderón-Ezquerro and Sandra Gómez-Arroyo. Poncho is a commercial formulation of neonicotinoid insecticides and a new agrochemical in Mexico, and it has the active ingredient clothianidin. The genotoxic effects of this commercial formulation of clothianidin on CD1 male mice were analyzed using micronucleus and comet alkaline assays. Three concentrations of clothianidin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/body weight) as well as negative (deionized water) and positive controls (cyclophosphamide 40 mg/g/body weight) were intraperitoneally injected into groups of mice every 3 days for 21 days. Peripheral blood samples were drawn from the caudal vein and divided to carry out the comet alkaline and micronuclei assays. DNA damage was evaluated using three ...
Neonicotinoids are considered safe because of their low affinities to mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) relative to insect nAChRs. However, because of importance of nAChRs in mammalian brain development, there remains a need to establish the safety of chronic neonicotinoid exposures with regards to childrens health. Here we examined the effects of longterm (14 days) and low dose (1 μM) exposure of neuron-enriched cultures from neonatal rat cerebellum to nicotine and two neonicotinoids: acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Immunocytochemistry revealed no differences in the number or morphology of immature neurons or glial cells in any group versus untreated control cultures. However, a slight disturbance in Purkinje cell dendritic arborization was observed in the exposed cultures. Next we performed transcriptome analysis on total RNAs using microarrays, and identified significant differential expression (p < 0.05, q < 0.05, ≥1.5 fold) between control cultures versus nicotine-,
While the EU acted in accordance with scientific research from the European Food Safety Authority, it will completely ban three substances (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) known as neonicotinoids everywhere except greenhouses.. The way neonicotinoids work is by integration throughout a plants structure, NPR reported. Instead of staying on the surface of the plant - such as its leaves - the chemicals are sent to the flowers, pollen and nectar, which attacks bees nervous systems when encountered killing the crucial pollinators and keeping others from laying eggs.. Bee health remains of paramount importance for me since it concerns biodiversity, food production and the environment, Vytenis Andriukaitis, the EUs Commissioner for Health and Food Safety, said.. Bayer CropScience, Europes biggest seller of neonicotinoids, reacted to the ban by saying it will not improve the lot of bees or other pollinators and instead, it is a sad day for farmers and a bad deal for ...
Quantitative weight of evidence assessment of higher-tier studies on the toxicity and risks of neonicotinoid insecticides in honeybees 1: Methods
In late April, the European Union banned a blockbuster trio of neonicotinoid insecticides, marketed by chemical giants Syngenta and Bayer. The decision,
Three neonicotinoid insecticides were detected commonly throughout the growing season in water samples collected from nine Midwestern stream sites according to a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists.
This journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects, including types of insects, insecticides, biological control, and crop protection.
[VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] (1, sal-L-tryp = N-salicylidene-L-tryptophanate) was used as a precursor to produce the new complexes [VO(sal-L-tryp)(MeATSC)].1.5C(2)H(5)OH [2, MeATSC = 9-Anthraldehyde-N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone], [VO(sal-L-tryp)(N-ethhymethohcarbthio)]center dot H2O [3, N-ethhymethohcarbthio = (E)-N-ethyl-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-hydrazinecarbothioamide] and [VO(sal-L-tryp)(acetylethTSC)]center dot C2H5OH {4, acetylethTSC = (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl) ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide} by reaction with the respective thiosemicarbazone. The chemical and structural properties of these ligands and complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, FTIR, UV/Vis, ESR and H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and [D-6]DMSO solutions of 1-4 were oxidised in air to produce vanadium(V) species, which were verified by ESI-MS and V-51 NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer properties of 2-4 were examined with three colon cancer cell lines,
Purpose: Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that is highly expressed in many cancers and represents an attractive molecule for targeted cancer therapy. Although primarily regarded as an intracellular protein with diverse actions, survivin has also been identified in association with circulating tumor exosomes.. Experimental Design: We have reported that active, specific vaccination with a long peptide survivin immunogen leads to the development of survivin-specific CD8-mediated tumor cell lysis and prolongation of survival in tumor-bearing mice. In addition to cellular antitumor responses, circulating anti-survivin antibodies are detected in the serum of mice and human glioblastoma patients following vaccination with the survivin immunogen.. Results: Here we demonstrate that survivin is present on the outer cell membrane of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including both murine and human glioma cells. In addition, antibodies to survivin that are derived from the immunogen ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an endocrine satiation signal, is secreted by the intestinal `L cells as well as a small population of neurons in the hindbrain. One of its diverse actions is reduction of food intake ...
PIPERAZINE-META TRIFLUOROMETHYLTHIORIBOSE-5 h. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154(9)1248в54. Serradeil-Le Gal that multiple receptor types (the granisetron iv administration Y1, Y2, Y3, PP1 or Y4, PYY-preferring and appetite receptors) support granisetron iv administration diverse actions of NPY and those of the two closely related hormones, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptides (PP) (Tatemoto et aL, 1982). 123 Introduction .
Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential therapeutic agents. The focus is on studies in humans, but animal data are mentioned when relevant to the interpretation of human data. The pathways of nicotine metabolism are described in detail. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of nicotine and related compounds are reviewed. Enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism including cytochrome P450 enzymes, aldehyde oxidase, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, amine N-methyltransferase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases are represented, as well as factors affecting metabolism, such as genetic variations in metabolic enzymes, ...
A nicotine metabolite shows promise for improving memory and protecting brain cells from diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons without addiction and other side effects of nicotine, says a Medical College of Georgia researcher.
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Anabasine. *Anethole (mosquito larvae)[36]. *Annonin. *Asimina (pawpaw tree seeds) for lice ...
nicotine anabasine ricinine "Pyridine Alkaloids". Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Entry on Pyridin. at: Römpp ... Examples include nicotine and anabasine which are found in plants of the genus Nicotiana including tobacco. Alkaloids with a ... The most important examples of pyridine alkaloids are the nicotine and anabasine, which are found in tobacco, the areca ...
It is structurally similar to nicotine and anabasine. Similarly, it has been shown to act as an agonist on most nicotinic ...
... the accumulation of anabasine as a major alkaloid." Xiphotheca comprises the following species: Xiphotheca fruticosa (L.) A. L ...
Karadsheh, Naif; Kussie, Paul; Linthicum, D.Scott (March 1991). "Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by caffeine, anabasine, ...
Karadsheh, N; Kussie, P; Linthicum, DS (1991). "Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by caffeine, anabasine, methyl pyrrolidine ...
... anabasine, methyl pyrrolidine and their derivatives". Toxicology Letters. 55 (3): 335-42. doi:10.1016/0378-4274(91)90015-X. ...
The alkaloid Anabasine, a close structural relative of Nicotine, is named for the plant from which it was first isolated : the ... Anabasine sulphate was a widely used botanical insecticide in the former Soviet Union until the 1970s. [Note: the use of the ... Mizrachi, N; Levy, S; Goren, ZQ (May 2000). "Fatal poisoning from Nicotiana glauca leaves: identification of anabasine by gas- ... observation of increased worm-burden in cattle dung). Anabasine is the active principle responsible for deaths from poisoning ...
It contains the toxic alkaloid anabasine and ingestion of the leaves can be fatal. It is being investigated for use as a ...
Anabasine is also the active principle responsible for deaths from poisoning caused by the leaves of Nicotiana glauca, the Tree ... The Nicotine-related alkaloid Anabasine was named for the toxic Central Asiatic species Anabasis aphylla - from which it was ... Mizrachi, N.; Levy, S.; Goren, Z. Q. (2000). "Fatal Poisoning from Nicotiana glauca Leaves: Identification of Anabasine by Gas- ...
Campbell, F. L.; Sullivan, W. N.; Smith, C. R. (1933-04-01). "The Relative Toxicity of Nicotine, Anabasine, Methyl Anabasine, ...
Pyridyl functional groups present in minute amounts include anabasine, myosmine, cotinine and 2, 3′-bipyridyl. The tobacco ...
The project was centered on, but not restricted to, the use of anabasine (an alkaloid), scopolamine and mescaline. The program ...
... anabasine, and anatabine, which are very carcinogenic, can be found in e-cigarette refill liquids. The molecules can lead to ... anabasine, anatabine, myosmine and beta-nicotyrine. The health implications of nicotine-related impurities are not known. A ...
... such as salts of nicotine and anabasine, were used as insecticides. Their use was limited by their high toxicity to humans. ...
Some e-liquids contain tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine, anabasine, or anatabine, and TSNAs, such as N-nitrosonornicotine ... anabasine, myosmine, and beta-nicotyrine. The TSNAs N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone ...
The molecular formula C10H14N2 may refer to: Anabasine Nicotine Phenylpiperazine Rivanicline C10H14N2 (film), a Kannada- ...
... anabasine MeSH D03.383.621.080 - betalains MeSH D03.383.621.080.500 - betacyanins MeSH D03.383.621.080.750 - betaxanthins MeSH ...
Other examples are the fire ant toxin solenopsin, the nicotine analog anabasine of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), lobeline of ...
... selective potent full agonist with nootropic and neuroprotective properties Anabasine Acetylcholine Nicotine Epiboxidine ...
The hydrochloride and sulfate salts become optically inactive if heated in a closed vessel above 180 °C. Anabasine is a ...
... and anabasine making up nearly all the rest. These compounds are thought to be biologically active, and part of plants' natural ...
Despite containing enough nicotine and/or other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids ( ...
Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying ...
... is present in trace amounts in tobacco smoke, and can be used as an indicator of a person's exposure to tobacco smoke ... Anabasine is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) plant, a close relative of the ... The intravenous LD50 of anabasine ranges from 11 mg/kg to 16 mg/kg in mice, depending on the enantiomer. B. Bhatti, et al. made ... Anabasine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. In high doses, it produces a depolarizing block of nerve transmission ...
In the US, "yohimbe" preparations are sold as a dietary supplements for enhancing libido, for weight loss and as aids for bodybuilding; but "There is virtually no published research on yohimbe which supports these or any other claims".[9]:861 Often, these products explicitly claim to contain yohimbine.[8] Cohen et al. found that samples of brands sold in American brick-and-mortar stores contained highly variable amounts of yohimbine, and sometimes none at all.[8]:368 Labelling claims were often misleading.[8]:368 Similar results have been reported by other laboratories for products sold in the U.S., in other countries and on the internet.[15][16][17][18][19] One study found that many brands of "yohimbe" might not derive from the P. johimbe tree in the first place.[20] According to yet another source the yohimbe sold in markets in West Africa, where the tree grows, is frequently adulterated with other species of the genus Pausinystalia; these contain little yohimbine.[21] The amounts of alkaloid ...
Ji, Jianguo; Bunnelle, William H.; Anderson, David J.; Faltynek, Connie; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K.; Rueter, Lynne E.; Curzon, Peter; Buckley, Michael J.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Kempf-Grote, Anita; Meyer, Michael D. (2007). "A-366833: A novel nicotinonitrile-substituted 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor selective agonist: Synthesis, analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile in animal models". Biochemical Pharmacology. 74 (8): 1253-1262. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.08.010. PMID 17854775 ...
... is a drug and research chemical used in scientific studies. It acts as a monoamine releasing agent with 20- to 48-fold selectivity for releasing dopamine versus serotonin. It is most efficacious as a releaser of norepinephrine, with an ec50 of 109/41.4/5246nM for DA/NE/5HT, respectively .[1] It has a fast onset of action and a short duration.[1] It also functions as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) with preference for MAO-A.[2] ...
... , also known as (-)-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2β-pyrrolidine carboxamide and RTI-4229-229, is a potent and long-lasting stimulant drug which was developed in the 1990s as part of a large group of related analogues from the phenyltropane family. With the combination of two potent dopamine transporter (DAT) binding motifs attached to the tropane ring, the p-iodophenyl group at the 3β-position and a pyrrolidine carboxamide at 2β, RTI-229 has extremely high selectivity for the dopamine transporter (2600x and 4600x selective over NET and 5-HTT respectively) and is one of the most DAT-selective compounds in the RTI series.[1][2] ...
Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffee, tea, and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate. It is included in many soft drinks, as well as a larger amount in energy drinks. Caffeine is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant. In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.[63] A few jurisdictions restrict its sale and use. Caffeine is also included in some medications, usually for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the primary ingredient, or reducing one of its side-effects (especially drowsiness). Tablets containing standardized doses of caffeine are also widely available. Caffeine's mechanism of action differs from many stimulants, as it produces stimulant effects by inhibiting adenosine receptors.[64] Adenosine receptors are thought to be a large driver of drowsiness and sleep, and their action increases with extended wakefulness.[65] Caffeine has been found to increase ...
... is a piperidine alkaloid (CHEBI:26147) anabasine (CHEBI:28986) is a pyridine alkaloid (CHEBI:26416) ... anabasine (CHEBI:28986) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) anabasine (CHEBI:28986) has role teratogenic agent (CHEBI:50905 ... anabasine (CHEBI:28986) has role nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist (CHEBI:47958) ...
... ; L-3-(2-Piperidyl)pyridine; Pyridine, 3-(2-piperidyl)-; 3-(2-Piperidinyl)pyridine; (S)-Anabasine; NSC 87504; 2-(3- ... Other names: Pyridine, 3-(2-piperidinyl)-, (S)-; Piperidine, 2-(3-pyridyl)-; (-)-Anabasine; (-)-2-(3-Pyridyl)piperidine; ...
Anabasine is present in trace amounts in tobacco smoke, and can be used as an indicator of a persons exposure to tobacco smoke ... Anabasine is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) plant, a close relative of the ... The intravenous LD50 of anabasine ranges from 11 mg/kg to 16 mg/kg in mice, depending on the enantiomer. B. Bhatti, et al. made ... Anabasine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. In high doses, it produces a depolarizing block of nerve transmission ...
3-[(2S)-2-piperidyl]pyridine sulfate (2:1); 6382-19-0 (CAS number); 6382190 (CAS number without hyphens); Anabasine sulfate; ...
Anabasine. View. View. View. Insecticide. No. Not Listed. 6382-19-0. Related. 1. Anabasine sulfate. View. View. View. ... Anabasine sulfate Anabasine Illinois EPA list. Keith list. Colborn list. Benbrook list. Danish Inert list. EU list. Not Listed ... Anabasine sulfate Anabasine WHO Acute Hazard. TRI Acute Hazard. Material Safety Data Sheets. Acute rating from U.S. EPA product ... Anabasine sulfate Anabasine IARC Carcinogens. U.S. NTP Carcinogens. California Prop 65 Known Carcinogens. U.S. EPA Carcinogens ...
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... certified reference solutions of several tobacco alkaloids including anabasine and native and stable labeled internal standards ...
Furthermore, anabasine exacerbated the negative effects of infection on bee survival and microcolony performance. Anabasine ... nor did anabasine reduce infection intensity in microcolonies of queenless workers. In addition, neither anabasine nor its ... In this experiment, anabasine had antiparasitic effects in bees from only two of four colonies, and infected bees exhibited ... Results We found that anabasine did not reduce infection intensity in individual bees infected with any of four Crithidia ...
"Anabasine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Anabasine" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Anabasine" by people in Profiles. ...
URXANBT - Anabasine, urine (ng/mL). Variable Name: URXANBT. SAS Label: Anabasine, urine (ng/mL). English Text: Anabasine, urine ... URDANBLC - Anabasine, urine Comment Code. Variable Name: URDANBLC. SAS Label: Anabasine, urine Comment Code. English Text: ... Anabasine, urine Comment Code. Target: Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code or Value. Value Description. Count. ... Lastly, anatabine and anabasine are nicotine analogs in tobacco product, and are precursors for nitrosamines. Therefore, levels ...
Find out information about anabasine. A colorless, liquid alkaloid extracted from the plants Anabasis aphylla and Nicotiana ... glauca ; boiling point is 105°C; soluble in alcohol and ether; used as... Explanation of anabasine ... anabasine. Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia. anabasine. [ə′na·bə‚sēn] (organic chemistry) A colorless, liquid alkaloid ... Compounds of plant origin such as rotenone, nicotine, anabasine, methyl anabasine and lupinine were found effective in killing ...
Please inquire us to get a quote for cas 34366-21-7,(R)-Anabasine, > 98per cent ee! ... 3-(2R)-2-Piperidinylpyridine; 2αH-Anabasine; (R)-3-(2-Piperidinyl)pyridine; (+)-Anabasine; (2R)-Anabasine. ...
We just found out that from the materials we are producing energy from it is possible to extract Nicotine and Anabasine too. So ...
|p|Agonists are substances that activate cellular receptor molecules to which they attach. In a nutshell, agonists bind to cellular receptors and elicit a biological response. The agonists enhance the signal transduction by binding to the receptor in cellular systems. They can be full agonists, activating the receptor to maximal activity, or partial agonists. There are also inverse agonists. These ligands bind receptors and cause the reverse biological response of the natural ligand. Alfa Aesar supplies receptor agonists for many different cellular protein receptors. These reagents include both natural receptor ligands as well as synthetic agonists. In addition, the conformational changes brought about by the agonists activate or increase the activation of secondary intracellular messenger.|/p|
Anabasine. *Anethole (mosquito larvae)[36]. *Annonin. *Asimina (pawpaw tree seeds) for lice ...
The present invention relates to the use of phosphated 2-propylheptanol, phosphated 2-proyplheptanol alkoxylate and/or mixtures thereof in agricultural formulations. The invention also relates to agri
Anabasine. Grant support. *R01 GM057481/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States. *GM57481-0142/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ...
Anabasine / toxicity * Animals * Bone and Bones / abnormalities* * Cleft Palate / etiology * Cleft Palate / veterinary* ...
Although anabasine has been detected in e-cigarette fluids,28 the levels are generally considerably lower than those from ... Anabasine is only associated with conventional cigarette use.. Data Sets and Statistical Analysis. Proportions were compared ... 3). Urine anabasine levels in current conventional cigarette smokers were similar among current, former, and never e-cigarette ... Suh-Lailam BB, Haglock-Adler CJ, Carlisle HJ, Ohman T, McMillin GA. Reference interval determination for anabasine: a biomarker ...
Karadsheh, N; Kussie, P; Linthicum, DS (1991). "Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by caffeine, anabasine, methyl pyrrolidine ...
nicotine anabasine ricinine "Pyridine Alkaloids". Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Entry on Pyridin. at: Römpp ... Examples include nicotine and anabasine which are found in plants of the genus Nicotiana including tobacco. Alkaloids with a ... The most important examples of pyridine alkaloids are the nicotine and anabasine, which are found in tobacco, the areca ...
The presence of anabasine greater then 10 ng/mL or nornicotine greater then 30 ng/mL in urine indicates current tobacco use, ... Anabasine is present in tobacco products, but not nicotine replacement therapies. Nornicotine is present as an alkaloid in ... Neither anabasine nor nornicotine accumulates from passive exposure. Tobacco users engaged in programs to abstain from tobacco ... The presence of nornicotine without anabasine is consistent with use of nicotine replacement products. Heavy tobacco users who ...
Anabasine. *Anethole (mosquito larvae)[8]. *Annonin. *Asimina (Pawpaw tree seeds) for lice ...
Nornicotine and anabasine have pharmacological activity qualitatively similar to nicotine, with potencies of 20 to 75 percent ... anabasine, myosmine, nicotyrine and anatabine. These make up 8 to 12 percent of the total alkaloid content of tobacco products ...
HPLC Application #22721: Nicotines at High pH using Kinetex 5u EVO C18 100x3.0mm. Column used: Kinetex® 5µm EVO C18 100 Å, LC Column 100 x 3.0 mm, Ea Part#: 00D-4633-Y0
Anabasine Summary. or. Details. 494-52-0, 13078-04-1. 006001. Insecticide. Botanical. No. Not Listed. ... Anabasine sulfate Summary. or. Details. 6382-19-0. Insecticide. Botanical. No. Not Listed. ...
N427492); (R,S)-Anabasine (Catalog No. A637175); (R,S)-Anabasine-2,4,5,6-d4 (Catalog No. A637180); (R,S)-Anatabine (Catalog No ... Only 74% of smokers had anabasine levels above 2 ng/mL. In addition, 94% had either anatabine or anabasine levels greater than ... The mean anatabine level of all smokers was 15.2 ng/mL (range, 1.2 to 62.3 ng/mL). For anabasine the mean was 6.12 ng/mL (range ... Anatabine and anabasine, two tobacco alkaloids that are not metabolites of nicotine, are included in this method because they ...
Of all the destructive habits one might pursue, cigarette smoking could, quite correctly, be considered one of the worst. Learn why and how it will kill you!
If insufficient saliva is available in the sample for both cotinine and anabasine analysis, anabasine will take priority in the ... Salivary cotinine and anabasine concentrations will be determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) ... The mean (SD) change in salivary anabasine from baseline to 2 months will be reported for each group and the difference and 95 ... As an additional measure of smoking reduction, we will assess the mean change in salivary anabasine concentrations from ...
R,S)-Anabasine A nicotinic receptor agonist 13078-04-1. sc-212638 100 mg. $121.00 0 ... Anabasine hydrochloride A potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist 15251-47-5. sc-202053 sc-202053A 25 mg. 100 mg. $ ...
  • Figure 1 shows the extracted ion chromatograms for nicotine, cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and anabasine at concentrations of 10 ng/mL in extracted human urine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two such markers are anabasine and nornicotine. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The presence of anabasine greater then 10 ng/mL or nornicotine greater then 30 ng/mL in urine indicates current tobacco use, irrespective of whether the subject is on nicotine replacement therapy. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The presence of nornicotine without anabasine is consistent with use of nicotine replacement products. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Heavy tobacco users who abstain from tobacco for 2 weeks exhibit urine nicotine values below 30 ng/mL, cotinine values below 50 ng/mL, anabasine levels below 2 ng/mL, and nornicotine levels below 2 ng/mL. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Neither anabasine nor nornicotine accumulates from passive exposure. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • When nicotine enters the body, it is broken down into more than 20 different substances , including cotinine, anabasine, and nornicotine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These compounds form via nitrosation of tobacco alkaloids (nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine) during the curing process. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 22nd Century is a plant biotechnology company whose proprietary technology allows for the levels of nicotine and other nicotinic alkaloids (e.g., nornicotine, anatabine and anabasine) in the tobacco plant to be decreased or increased through genetic engineering or plant breeding. (businesswire.com)
  • Two distinct ion pairs were analyzed for nicotine and cotinine and one ion pair for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, anabasine, nornicotine, nicotine-[d. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The alkaloids nicotine, nornicotine, and anabasine activate α4β2 and α7 nAChRs. (nanion.de)
  • While four alkaloids-nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and R-anatabine-potently activated α4β2, they were also weak agonists of α7 nAChRs. (nanion.de)
  • Lastly, anatabine and anabasine are nicotine analogs in tobacco product, and are precursors for nitrosamines. (cdc.gov)
  • The SPE and LC-MS method used to detect anatabine and anabasine in wastewater samples demonstrated here could be used to monitor tobacco consumption within a community, with changes in the absolute amounts of markers in wastewater indicating changes in tobacco use over time. (separationsnow.com)
  • Job seekers who test positive for cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine used as a biomarker for nicotine exposure) are contacted and those who report use of nicotine replacement thereapy (NRT) have their sample retested specifically for the presence of anabasine (a tobacco derivative not found in NRT products), to verify NRT self-report. (mdanderson.org)
  • While these levels are elevated in both tobacco users and individuals undergoing nicotine replacement therapy, laboratories can determine what type of nicotine a person is using by testing for the presence of anabasine in the urine. (reference.com)
  • Those who test positive for cotinine and admit that they use tobacco, and those who test positive for both cotinine and anabasine are not eligible for immediate employment. (mdanderson.org)
  • Anabasine is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) plant, a close relative of the common tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important examples of pyridine alkaloids are the nicotine and anabasine, which are found in tobacco, the areca alkaloids in betel and ricinine in castor oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we test effects of the nectar alkaloid anabasine, found in Nicotiana , on infection intensity, dietary preference, and survival and performance of bumble bees ( Bombus impatiens) . (umass.edu)
  • Keeler and Panter also conducted a round of research to see whether the alkaloid anabasine in wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)--a plant that is also toxic to livestock--had similar effects on Spanish goats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Examples include nicotine and anabasine which are found in plants of the genus Nicotiana including tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosynthesis of anabasine was investigated in Nicotiana rustica hairy root cultures produced at the A. F. R. C. Food Research Institute at Norwich. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Context-Dependent Medicinal Effects of Anabasine and Infection-Depende" by Evan C. Palmer-Young, Alison Hogeboom et al. (umass.edu)
  • We examined variation in the effects of anabasine on infection with different lineages of the intestinal parasite Crithidia under pollen-fed and pollen-starved conditions. (umass.edu)
  • Anabasine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (iii) the nicotinic acid attacks the A'-piperideine moiety at C-2' from either the re or si face to produce racemic anabasine. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Overall, our results demonstrate that Bombus impatiens prefer diets without nicotine and anabasine, and suggest that the medicinal effects and toxicity of anabasine may be context dependent. (umass.edu)
  • Most samples also contained impurities known to be toxic to humans, such as anabasine , myosmine, and betanicotyrine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and that "tobacco-specific impurities suspected of being harmful to humans -- anabasine, myosmine, and B-nicotyrine -- were detected in a majority of the samples tested. (prlog.org)
  • When a person has reported that he or she is using nicotine replacement products but is no longer smoking, nicotine, cotinine, and urine anabasine measurements may sometimes be ordered. (labcorp.com)
  • Self report of being quit for 7 continuous days at the time of the 4-week follow-up survey confirmed by saliva cotinine or urine anabasine verification. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In an effort to distinguish between nicotine metabolites acquired from smoking vs NRTs in screening of transplant patients, we extended our nicotine panel to include the tobacco alkaloid anabasine , as well as the primary urinary nicotine metabolite trans-3'-hydroxycotinine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nicotine was the most potent agonist of α4β2, while anabasine elicited the highest activation of α7. (nanion.de)
  • Other alkaloids similar to nicotine produced by plants are anabasine, cytisine, coniine, and lobeline. (nih.gov)
  • Contains anabasine, an alkaloid similar to nicotine which can be extracted to be used as an insecticide. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • Once the urinary excretion rates of smoke anabasine and anatabine are better known, it will become possible to extend the existing back-calculation to use levels of these biomarkers to estimate the number of cigarettes smoked per 1000 people. (separationsnow.com)
  • b) Biosynthesis of Ammodendrine and Anabasine Samples of (R)- and (S) -[1-2H]cadaverines were used to establish the stereochemistry of the enzymic processes taking place in the biosynthesis of ammodendrine and anabasine. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Journal Article] Revisiting anabasine biosynthesis in tobacco hairy roots expressing plant lysine decarboxylase gene by using 15N-labeled lysine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In particular, anabasine and anatabine show promise as tobacco-specific biomarkers, and are in fact already used to detect non-adherence in patients on smoking cessation regimes. (separationsnow.com)
  • This study shows that anabasine and anatabine are suitable biomarkers of tobacco use in wastewater. (separationsnow.com)
  • After the analytical validation of our LC-MS/MS-based assay (4), we determined the clinical utility of anabasine to differentiate active smokers from those who were abstaining from smoking or on NRTs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This was essential to differentiate between nicotine and anabasine, which share the same parent mass and several daughter transitions. (separationsnow.com)
  • Anabasine , a minor tobacco alkaloid and a biomarker used to check compliance of nicotine replacement therapy, was also included in the assay. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, the minor tobacco alkaloids-anabasine and anatabine-can be useful for monitoring compliance in smoking cessation programs that use nicotine replacement therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • The eight chemicals studied were nicotine and anabasine found in nectar of flowers in the tobacco family, caffeine from coffee and citrus nectar, amygdalin from almond nectar, aucubin and catalpol from turtlehead flowers, gallic acid from buckwheat nectar and thymol from basswood tree nectar. (eurekalert.org)
  • Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for determination of anabasine , antabine and other tobacco alkaloids in urine of smokers and smokeless tobacco users. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Compounds of plant origin such as rotenone, nicotine, anabasine , methyl anabasine and lupinine were found effective in killing Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae) (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since nicotine, norcotinine, and anabasine all share the same mass transitions, it's necessary to chromatographically separate these three compounds for accurate quantitation. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • We found that anabasine did not reduce infection intensity in individual bees infected with any of four Crithidia lineages that were tested in parallel, nor did anabasine reduce infection intensity in microcolonies of queenless workers. (umass.edu)
  • We just found out that from the materials we are producing energy from it is possible to extract Nicotine and Anabasine too. (webqc.org)
  • Anabasine is present in trace amounts in tobacco smoke, and can be used as an indicator of a person's exposure to tobacco smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • In southern Kazakhstan, where anabasine was collected from the wild thickets, 14,000 tons were gathered in a single year and processed at a chemical plant in the city of Chimkent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anabasine is a tobacco alkaloid present in tobacco products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anabasine is present in tobacco products, but not nicotine replacement therapies. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Anabasine, an alkaloid, is present in tobacco but not in commercial nicotine replacement products. (labcorp.com)
  • Anabasine is frequently used as a unique marker for recent tobacco use as it can only be detected in the urine of tobacco users and is not present in the urine of those who use nicotine replacement therapies (for example, nicotine patches). (chromatographyonline.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Anabasine" by people in this website by year, and whether "Anabasine" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (jefferson.edu)
  • Anabasine and anatabine are the most abundant minor alkaloids in tobacco (1). (chromatographyonline.com)
  • If a sample tests positive for anabasine, then the person is still using tobacco products. (labcorp.com)
  • Besides nicotine, tobacco products contain other harsh alkaloids such as anabasine and smipine both of which are also very dangerous to wildlife in general. (bellaonline.com)
  • Liquid chromatography was optimised to separate nicotine and anabasine, which are close structural isomers. (separationsnow.com)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Anabasine" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)