Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)CaliforniaNorth AmericaSearch Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Electrical Equipment and Supplies: Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tobacco Use Cessation Products: Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trinitrotoluene: A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.ExplosionsBlast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)BenzoxazolesResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Quinolizidines: Saturated quinolizines that are two fused six-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to CADAVERINE. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.Selenomonas: Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.

Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes. (1/42)

OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy.  (+info)

Insecticidal and neural activities of candidate photoaffinity probes for neonicotinoid binding sites. (2/42)

Photoreactive derivatives of imidacloprid and its nitromethylene analogue were synthesized as candidate photoaffinity probes for identifying the amino acid residues of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that interact with the neonicotinoid insecticides. When the candidate probes were injected into American cockroaches, the nerve cord neural activity initially increased, then ceased and death of the insect followed. Both the nerve cord and toxicity were enhanced by changing the photoreactive substituent from the para position to the meta position on the spacer benzyl moiety. When tested on a Drosophila SAD/chicken beta2 hybrid, recombinant nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the nitromethylene candidate probes showed agonist activity similar to that previously observed for imidacloprid.  (+info)

Benzylidene analogs of anabaseine display partial agonist and antagonist properties at the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine(3A) receptor. (3/42)

The nicotinic receptor drug candidate, 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (also known as GTS-21; DMXBA), its hydroxy metabolites, and some related analogs were evaluated with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique in mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3A) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Although DMXBA lacked partial agonist activity, its hydroxy-benzylidene metabolites and related analogs were partial agonists, displaying the following rank order of potency (EC(50)) and apparent efficacy: 5-HT, 0.9 +/- 0.06 microM (100% efficacy) > 3-(2-hydroxy,4-methoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (2-OH-MBA), 2.0 +/- 0.3 microM (63% efficacy) > 3-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 2.6 +/- 0.3 microM (63% efficacy) > 3-(2-methoxy,4-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 17.2 +/- 1.0 microM (30% efficacy). To examine the influence of a benzylidene ring hydroxy substituent, the agonist actions of the three possible monohydroxy isomers were examined. The rank order of potency, based on EC(50) determinations, and apparent efficacy was: 3-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 20.3 +/- 2.6 microM (63% efficacy) > 3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine, 32.3 +/- 5.9 microM (14% efficacy) > 3-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (3-OH-BA) (no agonist activity). Both DMXBA and 3-OH-BA antagonized 5-HT-mediated currents, with IC(50) values of 15.7 +/- 0.9 and 27.5 +/- 4.7 microM, respectively. DMXBA demonstrated both competitive and noncompetitive forms of antagonism over the range of concentrations tested. These results suggest that a hydroxy substituent at the 2' position of the benzene ring is necessary and sufficient for partial agonist activity; substitution at the 4' position with a hydroxy or methoxy group further enhances agonist potency. Because 2-OH-MBA is a primary metabolite of DMXBA, it may contribute to the physiological, biochemical, and behavioral effects of the parent compound when administered in vivo.  (+info)

Comparative pharmacology of rat and human alpha7 nAChR conducted with net charge analysis. (4/42)

1. Pharmacological studies of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are confounded by the fact that rapid desensitization to high agonist concentration causes alpha7 peak responses to occur well in advance of complete solution exchange. For this reason, peak currents are an invalid measure of response to applied agonist concentrations. We show that results comparable to those that have been corrected for instantaneous concentration are obtained if net charge is used as the measure of receptor response. 2. Dose response curves obtained with these methods indicate that alpha7 receptors are approximately 10 fold more sensitive to agonist than previously reported. The agonists, ACh, choline, cytisine, GTS-21, 4OH-GTS-21 and 4-MeO-CA have the same rank order potency for both human and rat receptors: 4-MeO-CA > 4OH-GTS-21 > GTS-21 > cytisine > ACh > choline. However, differences in efficacy exist between rat and human receptors. GTS-21 is more efficacious for rat than human alpha7 receptors and cytosine more efficacious for human than rat alpha7 receptors. 3. Choline is the least potent agonist for both human and rat alpha7, with a potency approximately 10 fold lower than that of ACh. While the EC50 for the activation of alpha7 receptors by choline (400-500 microM) is outside the normal physiological range (10-100 microM), choline can nonetheless produce detectable levels of channel activation in the physiological concentration range. Since these concentrations are relatively non-desensitizing, the contribution of choline-activated alpha7 receptor current may play a significant role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in alpha7-expressing neurons.  (+info)

Simultaneous analysis of nicotine, nicotine metabolites, and tobacco alkaloids in serum or urine by tandem mass spectrometry, with clinically relevant metabolic profiles. (5/42)

BACKGROUND: Assessment of nicotine metabolism and disposition has become an integral part of nicotine dependency treatment programs. Serum nicotine concentrations or urine cotinine concentrations can be used to guide nicotine patch dose to achieve biological concentrations adequate to provide the patient with immediate relief from nicotine withdrawal symptoms, an important factor in nicotine withdrawal success. Absence of nicotine metabolites and anabasine can be used to document abstinence from tobacco products, an indicator of treatment success. METHODS: The procedure was designed to quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, anabasine, and nornicotine in human serum or urine. The technique required simple extraction of the sample with quantification by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The procedure for simultaneous analysis of nicotine, its metabolites, and tobacco alkaloids simultaneously quantified five different analytes. Test limit of quantification, linearity, imprecision, and accuracy were adequate for clinical evaluation of patients undergoing treatment for tobacco dependency. The test readily distinguished individuals who had no exposure to tobacco products from individuals who were either passively exposed or were abstinent past-tobacco users from those who were actively using a tobacco or nicotine product. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine, and anabasine can be simultaneously and accurately quantified in either serum or urine by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry with imprecision <10% at physiologic concentrations and limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 5 micro g/L. Knowledge of serum or urine concentrations of these analytes can be used to guide nicotine replacement therapy or to assess tobacco abstinence in nicotine dependency treatment. These measurements are now an integral part of the clinical treatment and management of patients who wish to overcome tobacco dependence.  (+info)

Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. (6/42)

In this study we determined urine concentration of the tobacco alkaloids anabasine and anatabine, nicotine and its metabolites cotinine, and nornicotine in 99 cigarette smokers and 205 smokeless tobacco users. We also investigated the possibility that anabasine and anatabine can be used as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. Urine samples and data on self-reported tobacco use were obtained from subjects enrolled in tobacco cessation programs. Urine concentrations of tobacco alkaloids and metabolites were measured and correlated with self-reported tobacco use. Concentrations of anabasine and anatabine were used to validate abstinence in smokeless tobacco users who used nicotine gum as part of the therapy. Correlations of alkaloid concentration with self-reported tobacco use before treatment ranged from fair to poor. In subjects abstaining from smokeless tobacco but using nicotine gum, anabasine and anatabine levels were below the cut-point of 2 ng/ml despite high concentrations of nicotine and cotinine resulting from nicotine gum use. Anabasine and anatabine concentrations in urine can be used to validate abstinence or measure the extent of tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy.  (+info)

Regulation of neuronal function by choline and 4OH-GTS-21 through alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. (7/42)

A unique feature of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor physiology is that, under normal physiological conditions, alpha7 receptors are constantly perfused with their natural selective agonist, choline. Studying neurons of hypothalamic tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus, we show that choline and the selective alpha7 receptor agonist 4OH-GTS-21 can regulate neuronal functions directly, via activation of the native alpha7 receptors, and indirectly, via desensitizing those receptors or transferring them into a state "primed" for desensitization. The direct action produces depolarization and thereby increases the TM neuron spontaneous firing (SF) rate. The regulation of the spontaneous firing rate is robust in a nonphysiological range of choline concentrations >200 microM. However, modest effects persist at concentrations of choline that are likely to be attained perineuronally under some conditions (20-100 microM). At high physiological concentration levels, the indirect choline action reduces or even eliminates the responsiveness of alpha7 receptors and their availability to other strong cholinergic inputs. Similarly to choline, 4OH-GTS-21 increases the TM neuron spontaneous firing rate via activation of alpha7 receptors, and this regulation is robust in the range of clinically relevant concentrations of 4OH-GTS-21. We conclude that factors that regulate choline accumulation in the brain and in experimental slices such as choline uptake, hydrolysis of ACh, membrane phosphatidylcholine catabolism, and solution perfusion rate influence alpha7 nAChR neuronal and synaptic functions, especially under pathological conditions such as stroke, seizures, Alzheimer's disease, and head trauma, when the choline concentration in the CSF is expected to rise.  (+info)

Components of cigarette smoke inhibit expansion of oocyte-cumulus complexes from porcine follicles. (8/42)

The role of alkaloids in cigarette smoke was investigated in the cumulus expansion of oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) isolated from large antral porcine follicles. Suppression of the cumulus expansion stimulated by FSH was observed in the presence of different concentration of cadmium, anabasine and nicotine but not its metabolite cotinine. There were comparable inhibitory effects of cadmium and nicotine on the synthesis and accumulation of hyaluronic acid in the cell/matrix compartment of OCC. The inhibitory effect of tested compounds on the cumulus expansion was accompanied by decreased progesterone synthesis by cumulus cells during 42 h incubation of OCC with FSH. The results suggest that cigarette smoking may affect intrafollicular processes, which are responsible for normal ovulation and fertilization.  (+info)

Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Title: Dissecting the Diverse Actions of Pro- and Mature Neurotrophins. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Barbara L. Hempstead. Affiliation:Department of Medicine,Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, NewYork, NY 10021, USA.. Keywords:Neurotrophin, NGF, BDNF, proneurotrophin, sortilin, p75, Trk. Abstract: The neurotrophins mediate diverse actions in the developing peripheral and central nervous systems. They are initially synthesized as precursor forms, or proneurotrophins, that are cleaved to release C-terminal mature forms that bind to Trk receptor tyrosine kinases to enhance synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. Recent studies suggest that proneurotrophins are not inactive precursors, but signaling proteins that can activate the p75 receptor to mediate diverse responses. Proneurotrophins can activate a heteromeric receptor complex of p75 and sortilin to initiate cell death, or bind to p75 in hippocampal neurons to enhance long term depression. Thus, neurotrophin ...
1-Naphthylamine, 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Abnormalities, Drug-Induced, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Aconitine, Acoustic Stimulation, Actins, Acute Disease, Acyltransferases, Adaptation, Physiological, Adenylate Cyclase, Adiponectin, Adipose Tissue, Administration, Cutaneous, Administration, Oral, Adolescent, Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists, Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists, Adult, Aerosols, Affect, Age Factors, Age of Onset, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Air Pollutants, Alcohol Deterrents, Alcohol Drinking, Alcoholism, Alkaloids, Allosteric Regulation, alpha-Methyltyrosine, Alzheimer Disease, Amino Acids, Amino Acids, Branched-Chain, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Anabasine, Anal Canal, Analgesics, Analysis of Variance, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Animals, Suckling, Anthelmintics, Anti-Anxiety Agents, Anti-HIV Agents, Anticonvulsants, Antidepressive Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Antioxidants, Antipsychotic Agents, ...
The FDA had warned that e-cig use poses "acute health risks," that "the dangers posed by their toxic chemicals . . . cannot seriously be questioned," and that they have caused a wide variety of potentially serious symptoms "including racing pulse, dizziness, slurred speech, mouth ulcers, heartburn, coughing, diarrhea, and sore throat." (E-cigarettes - scientists want more safety studies before use..FDA had found that samples it tested contained detectable levels of known carcinogens and toxic chemicals to which users could be exposed. The FDA said the toxic chemicals included diethylene glycol, "an ingredient used in antifreeze, [which] is toxic to humans"; "certain tobacco-specific nitrosamines which are human carcinogens"; and that "tobacco-specific impurities suspected of being harmful to humans -- anabasine, myosmine, and B-nicotyrine -- were detected in a majority of the samples tested." The FDA does not currently monitor or license e-cigs, and indeed considers them "illegal ...
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1,3-Diethyl-5-(2-methoxybenzylidene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione 3 was prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of 2-methoxybenzaldehyde 1 and N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 2 in ethanol using piperidine as a base [1,2].[...]
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Clothianidin chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of Clothianidin 210880-92-5, What are the physical properties of Clothianidin ect.
Abstract: We present new observations of 26 symbiotic and symbiotic-like stars. The photoelectric UBV observations were made during the years 1982-92, the photographic in 1989-92 and visual in 1989-92. The most interesting results can be summarized as follows: EG And: There is an apparent increase in all three colours corresponding to the ascending branch of the secondary minimum. UV Aur: The long-term photoelectric photometry supports our earlier identification of the red giant component as the primary cause of light variations. BF Cyg: UBV data cover well the last active phase of the star with maximum around 1990 July. CH Cyg: The photoelectric data cover the sudden light brightening starting in Feb-Mar 1992 and decline in Sep 1992. CI Cyg: Long-term UBV observations are presented. AG Dra: UBV photometry cover almost all the interval since the last outburst. CQ Dra: The stars brightness has been decreasing monotonically during the present observational period. AX Per: Our UBV data reveal an ...
0078]As indicated above, it is contemplated that one or more embodiments may include an insecticide 124, 356 effective for exterminating one or more bedbugs. In one form, insecticide 124, 356 may include one or more of 1,2 dichloropropane, 1,3 dichloropropene, abamectin, acephate, acequinocyl, acetamiprid, acethion, acetoprole, acrinathrin, acrylonitrile, alanycarb, aldicarb, aldoxycarb, aldrin, allethrin, allosamidin, allyxycarb, alpha cypermethrin, alpha ecdysone, amidithion, amidoflumet, aminocarb, amiton, amitraz, anabasine, arsenous oxide, athidathion, azadirachtin, azamethiphos, azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, azobenzene, azocyclotin, azothoate, barium hexafluorosilicate, barthrin, benclothiaz, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, benomyl, benoxafos, bensultap, benzoximate, benzyl benzoate, beta cyfluthrin, beta cypermethrin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, binapacryl, bioallethrin, bioethanomethrin, biopermethrin, bistrifluoron, borax, boric acid, bromfenvinfos, bromo DDT, bromocyclen, bromophos, bromophos ...
In 2017, more than 5 million house structures were sprayed through the U.S. Presidents Malaria Initiative, protecting more than 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. New IRS formulations, SumiShield™ 50WG and Fludora Fusion™ WP-SB, became World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified vector control products in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Both formulations contain the neonicotinoid active ingredient, clothianidin. The target site of neonicotinoids represents a novel mode of action for vector control, meaning that cross-resistance through existing mechanisms is less likely. In preparation for rollout of clothianidin formulations as part of national IRS rotation strategies, baseline susceptibility testing was conducted in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. While work coordinated by the WHO is ongoing to develop a suitable bottle bioassay procedure, there was no published guidance regarding clothianidin susceptibility procedures or diagnostic concentrations. Therefore, a protocol was developed for
In 2017, more than 5 million house structures were sprayed through the U.S. Presidents Malaria Initiative, protecting more than 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. New IRS formulations, SumiShield™ 50WG and Fludora Fusion™ WP-SB, became World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified vector control products in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Both formulations contain the neonicotinoid active ingredient, clothianidin. The target site of neonicotinoids represents a novel mode of action for vector control, meaning that cross-resistance through existing mechanisms is less likely. In preparation for rollout of clothianidin formulations as part of national IRS rotation strategies, baseline susceptibility testing was conducted in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. While work coordinated by the WHO is ongoing to develop a suitable bottle bioassay procedure, there was no published guidance regarding clothianidin susceptibility procedures or diagnostic concentrations. Therefore, a protocol was developed for
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Substances identified in e-cigarette liquids and aerosols include nicotine, solvent carriers (PG and glycerol), tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), flavorings, tobacco alkaloids, and drugs. Most reviewed studies have evaluated nicotine and impurities in the liquids such as TSNAs and nicotine-related impurities, while other studies have focused on identifying potentially harmful chemicals in the aerosol, such as carbonyl compounds, VOCs, TSNAs, metals, and silicates. Various chemical substances and ultrafine particles known to be toxic, carcinogenic, and/or to cause respiratory and cardiac disease have been identified in e-cigarette aerosols, cartridges, refill liquids, and environmental emissions. Some of the identified TSNAs, aldehydes, metals, VOCs, phenolic compounds, PAHs, and tobacco alkaloids are harmful or potentially harmful constituents." ...
FOR CORN, EACH ACCELERON® SEED APPLIED SOLUTIONS OFFERING is a combination of separate individually registered products containing the active ingredients: BASIC plus Poncho®/VOTiVO® Offering for corn: metalaxyl, prothioconazole, fluoxastrobin, clothianidin, Bacillus firmus I-1582. ELITE plus Poncho®/VOTiVO® Offering for corn: metalaxyl, clothianidin, and Bacillus firmus I-1582; prothioconazole and fluoxastrobin at rates that suppress additional diseases. BASIC Offering for corn: metalaxyl, prothioconazole, fluoxastrobin, and clothianidin. ELITE Offering for corn: metalaxyl, and clothianidin; prothioconazole and fluoxastrobin at rates that suppress additional diseases. BioRise™ Corn Offering is the on-seed application of either BioRise™ 360 ST or the separately registered seed applied products Acceleron® B-300 SAT and BioRise™ 360 ST. BioRise™ Corn Offering is included seamlessly across offerings on all class of 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 products.. FOR SOYBEANS, EACH ACCELERON® ...
We are interested in understanding how kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mammalian CNS, operate at a molecular and biophysical level. Kainate receptors are modulatory proteins that help to balance excitatory and inhibitory tone through diverse actions at pre- and postsynaptic sites. They also have been shown to be promising drug targets in several pathologies (particularly epilepsy and chronic pain). A current project focuses on how an associated family of auxiliary proteins, known as Neto-1 and Neto-2, shape kainate receptor function. We would like to identify which domains in both the receptor subunits and auxiliary proteins are key for allosteric modulation by Neto proteins ...
Sushrut Yog is a spiritual wellness centre established in Jan 2005. At Sushrut Yog, we believe in application of diverse action plans for physical mental and spiritual well-being of a person leading towards harmonious life. ...
This book looks at the latest information on a number of natural toxins, narcotics, and doping agents derived from marine, fungal, microbial, plant and animal origins. It examines the diversity of chemical classes among natural toxins and venoms as well as the biological effect and diverse action of toxicosis from these materials.
2XNV: Acetylcholine Binding Protein (Achbp) as Template for Hierarchical in Silico Screening Procedures to Identify Structurally Novel Ligands for the Nicotinic Receptors.
2XNU: Acetylcholine Binding Protein (Achbp) as Template for Hierarchical in Silico Screening Procedures to Identify Structurally Novel Ligands for the Nicotinic Receptors.
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
2020 all rights reserved by Organic Authority, Inc, and can not be reproduced without permission in writing. We are a digital magazine for entertainment, we are not here to diagnose or treat any health or medical conditions. When making any health or lifestyle changes consult your primary care ...
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To read the authors abstract of the article, click on the title of the article. Then, to read the full article, click on the full text icon. KEY WORDS: Affordable, Anabasine, Anadirachtin, Asteraceae, Biodegradable, Broad-spectrum, Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), Chikungunya fever, Chrysanthemum, Cladophoraceae, d-lemonene (lemonine), DDT, Dengue fever, Derris, Encephalitis, Environmental quality, Filiriasis, Hellebore, Infection, […]. View Post ...
p,Neonicotinoids are a widely used class of insecticides that are commonly applied as seed coatings for agricultural crops. Such neonicotinoid use may pose a risk to non-targetinsects, including pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests, and ecosystems. This study assessed neonicotinoid residues in groundwater, surface runoff water, soil, and native plants adjacent to corn and soybean crop fields with a history of being planted with neonicotinoid-treated seeds from 2008 to 2013. Data from six sites with the same crop management history, three with and three without in-field prairie strips, were collected in 2015-2016, 2-3 years after neonicotinoid (clothianidin and imidacloprid) seed treatments were last used. Three of the six neonicotinoids analyzed were detected in at least one environmental matrix: the two applied as seed coatings on the fields (clothianidin and imidacloprid) and another widely used neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam). Sites with prairie strips generally had lower concentrations ...
Since their discovery in the late 1980s, neonicotinoid pesticides have become the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, with large-scale applications ranging from plant protection (crops, vegetables, fruits), veterinary products, and biocides to invertebrate pest control in fish farming. In this review, we address the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil together with neonicotinoids because of similarities in their toxicity, physicochemical profiles, and presence in the environment. Neonicotinoids and fipronil currently account for approximately one third of the world insecticide market; the annual world production of the archetype neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, was estimated to be ca. 20,000tonnes active substance in 2010. There were several reasons for the initial success of neonicotinoids and fipronil: (1) there was no known pesticide resistance in target pests, mainly because of their recent development, (2) their physicochemical properties included many advantages over previous generations of ...
Why are the Bees Dying Off? Reason #1: Neonicotinoid Pesticides. It has become well known especially in Russia and Europe that neonicotinoid pesticides are linked to bees dying off. Consequently, Europe restricted the use of 3 neonicotinoids for two years starting December 1st, 2013. Neonicotinoids are a relatively new class of insecticides that have a chemical structure very similar to nicotine (hence their name), and work by severely disrupting the central nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. Common neonicotinoids are imidacloprid, acetamiprid and clothianidin, with Bayers imidacloprid the most widely used insecticide in the world.. Numerous studies have linked neonicotinoids and CCD, such as:. - this 2012 Xerxes study which found that "few field studies have been properly designed or conducted over a long enough period of time to assess the full risks to bees. Nevertheless, the overall evidence points to the fact that neonicotinoids are harming bees";. - this 2014 study ...
Neonicotinoids are considered safe because of their low affinities to mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) relative to insect nAChRs. However, because of importance of nAChRs in mammalian brain development, there remains a need to establish the safety of chronic neonicotinoid exposures with regards to childrens health. Here we examined the effects of longterm (14 days) and low dose (1 μM) exposure of neuron-enriched cultures from neonatal rat cerebellum to nicotine and two neonicotinoids: acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Immunocytochemistry revealed no differences in the number or morphology of immature neurons or glial cells in any group versus untreated control cultures. However, a slight disturbance in Purkinje cell dendritic arborization was observed in the exposed cultures. Next we performed transcriptome analysis on total RNAs using microarrays, and identified significant differential expression (p < 0.05, q < 0.05, ≥1.5 fold) between control cultures versus nicotine-,
While the EU acted in accordance with scientific research from the European Food Safety Authority, it will completely ban three substances (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) known as neonicotinoids everywhere except greenhouses.. The way neonicotinoids work is by "integration throughout a plants structure," NPR reported. Instead of staying on the surface of the plant - such as its leaves - the chemicals are sent to the "flowers, pollen and nectar," which attacks bees nervous systems when encountered killing the crucial pollinators and keeping others from laying eggs.. "Bee health remains of paramount importance for me since it concerns biodiversity, food production and the environment," Vytenis Andriukaitis, the EUs Commissioner for Health and Food Safety, said.. Bayer CropScience, Europes biggest seller of neonicotinoids, reacted to the ban by saying it "will not improve the lot of bees or other pollinators" and instead, it is "a sad day for farmers and a bad deal for ...
Quantitative weight of evidence assessment of higher-tier studies on the toxicity and risks of neonicotinoid insecticides in honeybees 1: Methods
In late April, the European Union banned a blockbuster trio of neonicotinoid insecticides, marketed by chemical giants Syngenta and Bayer. The decision,
[VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] (1, sal-L-tryp = N-salicylidene-L-tryptophanate) was used as a precursor to produce the new complexes [VO(sal-L-tryp)(MeATSC)].1.5C(2)H(5)OH [2, MeATSC = 9-Anthraldehyde-N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone], [VO(sal-L-tryp)(N-ethhymethohcarbthio)]center dot H2O [3, N-ethhymethohcarbthio = (E)-N-ethyl-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-hydrazinecarbothioamide] and [VO(sal-L-tryp)(acetylethTSC)]center dot C2H5OH {4, acetylethTSC = (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl) ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide} by reaction with the respective thiosemicarbazone. The chemical and structural properties of these ligands and complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, FTIR, UV/Vis, ESR and H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and [D-6]DMSO solutions of 1-4 were oxidised in air to produce vanadium(V) species, which were verified by ESI-MS and V-51 NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer properties of 2-4 were examined with three colon cancer cell lines,
Purpose: Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that is highly expressed in many cancers and represents an attractive molecule for targeted cancer therapy. Although primarily regarded as an intracellular protein with diverse actions, survivin has also been identified in association with circulating tumor exosomes.. Experimental Design: We have reported that active, specific vaccination with a long peptide survivin immunogen leads to the development of survivin-specific CD8-mediated tumor cell lysis and prolongation of survival in tumor-bearing mice. In addition to cellular antitumor responses, circulating anti-survivin antibodies are detected in the serum of mice and human glioblastoma patients following vaccination with the survivin immunogen.. Results: Here we demonstrate that survivin is present on the outer cell membrane of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including both murine and human glioma cells. In addition, antibodies to survivin that are derived from the immunogen ...
PIPERAZINE-META TRIFLUOROMETHYLTHIORIBOSE-5 h. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154(9)1248в54. Serradeil-Le Gal that multiple receptor types (the granisetron iv administration Y1, Y2, Y3, PP1 or Y4, PYY-preferring and appetite receptors) support granisetron iv administration diverse actions of NPY and those of the two closely related hormones, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptides (PP) (Tatemoto et aL, 1982). 123 Introduction .
Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential therapeutic agents. The focus is on studies in humans, but animal data are mentioned when relevant to the interpretation of human data. The pathways of nicotine metabolism are described in detail. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of nicotine and related compounds are reviewed. Enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism including cytochrome P450 enzymes, aldehyde oxidase, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, amine N-methyltransferase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases are represented, as well as factors affecting metabolism, such as genetic variations in metabolic enzymes, ...
A nicotine metabolite shows promise for improving memory and protecting brain cells from diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons without addiction and other side effects of nicotine, says a Medical College of Georgia researcher.
The president said replacement for the Affordable Care Act would guarantee insurance coverage for those with preexisting medical conditions In a wide-ranging interview that aired having failed to reach a vote due to internal party division, Republicans in Congress are now moving to weaken protections for sick Americans seeking insurance. This week, in writing on […]. Read More ». ...
Whole Life Insurance offers pros and cons but for most Americans term life insurance is a better option. Life insurance is a great way to protect your family, not so much as an investment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of benzylidene-anabaseine analogues with agonist and allosteric sites on muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. AU - Arias, H. R.. AU - Xing, H.. AU - MacDougall, K.. AU - Blanton, M. P.. AU - Soti, F.. AU - Kern, W. R.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Background and purpose: Benzylidene-anabaseines (BAs) are partial agonists of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) but their mechanism(s) of action are unknown. Our study explores several possibilities, including direct interactions of BAs with the nAChR channel. Experimental approach: Functional and radioligand-binding assays were used to examine the interaction of two BA analogues, 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (DMXBA) and Its primary metabolite 3-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (4OH-DMXBA) with both agonist and non-competitive antagonist (NCA)-bindlng sites on muscle-type nAChRs. Key results: Both BAs non-competitively inhibited ACh activation of human fetal muscle nAChRs and ...
Stilbene Benzylidene compounds are alkene derivatives of benzene . They are primarily divided into two groups: Styrenes (one benzene ) Stilbenes (two benzenes ) Benzylidene is also used to describe a type of protecting group in synthetic organic chemistry of the form PhCH(R) For example, 4,6-O-benzylidene-glucopyranose is a glucose molecule whose 4- and 6-OH groups are protected by being bound to a benzylic carbon, forming a benzyl acetal. See also Dibenzylideneacetone Aurone External links Look up benzylidene in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Benzylidene Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Stilbene Benzylidene compounds are alkene derivatives of benzene . They are primarily divided into two groups: Styrenes (one benzene ) Stilbenes (two benzenes ) Benzylidene is also used to describe a type of protecting group in synthetic organic chemistry of the form PhCH(R) For example, 4,6-O-benzylidene-glucopyranose is a glucose molecule whose 4- and 6-OH groups are
Yoshiyuki Ito, Minoru Hirano, Noriko Umemoto, Liqing Zang, Zhipeng Wang, Takehiko Oka, Yasuhito Shimada, Yuhei Nishimura, Ichiro Kurokawa, Hitoshi Mizutani, Toshio Tanaka
BMB Rep. 2008 Feb 29;41(2):139-45.


Abstract

We cloned and pharmacologically characterized the guinea pig cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) 2 receptor (gpCysLT2). gpCysLT2 consists of 317 amino acids with 75.3%, 75.2%, 73.3% identity to those of humans, mice and rats, respectively. The gpCysLT2 gene is highly expressed in the lung, moderately in eosinophils, skin, spleen, stomach, colon, and modestly in the small intestine. CysLTs accelerated the proliferation of gpCysLT2-expressing HEK293. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) enhanced the cell proliferation higher than Bay-u9773, a CysLT2 selective partial agonist and a nonselective antagonist for CysLT receptors. Bay-u9773 did not antagonize the cell proliferation by LTC4 and LTD4. Despite the equipotency of the mitogenic effect
Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited ...
Rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced operant task to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from saline. After discrimination training stabilized, test doses of (+)-amphetamine (0.0625-2.0 mg/kg), (-)-nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or (-)-nornicotine (1-10 mg/kg) were assessed for their ability to substitute for the (+)-amphetamine training dose during brief test sessions in which food reinforcement was withheld. As expected, as the test dose of (+)-amphetamine increased, there was a dose-related increase in drug-appropriate responding, with both 1 and 2 mg/kg test doses substituting fully for the (+)-amphetamine training dose. Both (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine showed partial substitution (approximately 50% drug-appropriate responding) for the (+)-amphetamine training dose, with (-)-nicotine being more potent than (-)-nornicotine. Rate suppressant effects prevented the assessment of higher doses of (-)-nicotine or (-)-nornicotine. Thus, while (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine share ...
Beyond Pesticides, August, 20, 2018) Health Canadas Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) has announced a plan to phase out the outdoor use of two neonicotinoid insecticides - thiamethoxam and clothianidin - over three to five years, due to concerns about their effects on aquatic invertebrates. This comes after their 2016 proposal to phase out another neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, for the same concerns, but the proposal has not been finalized. In April, the European Union (EU) voted to ban the most widely used neonicotinoids, citing risks to bees.. Earlier this year, PMRA proposed to phase out a number of uses of neonicotinoids in order to mitigate risks to pollinators. And now, after the Canadian agency initiated a special review based on a preliminary analysis of available information on the concentrations and frequency of detection of clothianidin in aquatic environment, the agency has proposed another round of phase-outs. The agencys review focused on assessing potential risk to aquatic ...
Research at the Universities of St Andrews and Dundee has confirmed that levels of neonicotinoid insecticides accepted to exist in agriculture cause both impairment of bumblebees brain cells and subsequent poor performance ...
Chang CH, MacIntosh DL, Lemos B, Zhang Q, Lu C. 2018. Characterization of daily dietary intake and the health risk of neonicotinoid insecticides for the U.S. population. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 66(38):10097-10105.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30192531. ...
The review also delves into areas of study that were not considered by EFSA, such as the impact of neonicotinoids on environmental health. The researchers compile a range of risks to non-target organisms, including the death of beneficial predator populations, the persistence of neonicotinoids in soils, which leads to constant contamination and accumulation over time, to a higher sensitivity of aquatic organisms to neonicotinoids. The authors make the case that, due to this new evidence demonstrating greater risk to bees and the environment, the current moratorium on imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam in Europe should be extended, and that the partial ban should be expanded to other neonic uses.. This review adds merit to the body of research regarding neonicotinoids and their impacts on pollinators and other non-target beneficial species. Neonicotinoids are a class of insecticides that share a common mode of action that affects the central nervous system of insects, resulting in ...
The MAJORITY Of Ontario. Bee Health Working Group. Will VOTE IN FAVOUR. Of Arbitrary Prohibition. Against Neonicotinoid. Insecticides In Ontario. ――――――――――――――――――――. Background Information. From An Independent Perspective. ――――――――――――――――――――. Background Information From An Independent Perspective. Is There Any Connection Between Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Long-Term Honey Bee Losses In Canada ?. There is NO EVIDENCE TO SUGGEST A LINK between neonicotinoid insecticides and long-term honey bee losses in Canada.. There is NO GEOGRAPHICAL CORRELATION between long-term bee losses and insecticide use.. Although some neonicotinoid insecticides are toxic to bees upon direct con-tact ( as are many insecticides ), they are used in a way that MINIMIZES ANY DIRECT EXPOSURE TO BEES.. Under normal field use, THE EXPOSURE TO BEES IS AT VERY LOW LEVELS, FAR TOO LOW TO CAUSE HARMFUL EFFECTS.. Independent, long-term, controlled ...
Europe, Britain and some U.S. researchers believe new, powerful pesticides known as neonicotinoids, incorporated into the plants themselves could be an important factor in colony collapse disorder.. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) labeled the pesticide clothianidin as being an "unacceptable" danger to bees. EFSA found the Bayer CropScience study self-serving. The EPA has been criticized as the using the Bayer study as its sole basis for neonicotinoid use approval. The study began after the deaths of 300-500 million bees in German, where Bayer CropScience neonicotinoid products are used and where the company is based. The EPA has not banned neonicotinoids so far. Montana follows the EPA.. State Entomologist Cam Lay believes it is an active question whether neonicotinoids subtle sublethal effect on honeybees applies to levels bees encounter in the fields; he feels drought was significant in bee stress and 2012 deaths.. Neonicotinoid use in the US is widespread. The Alliance for Natural ...
... is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants. Nicotine acts as an agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), except at two nicotinic receptor subunits (nAChRα9 and nAChRα10) where it acts as a receptor antagonist. Nicotine is found in the leaves of Nicotiana rustica, in amounts of 2-14%; in the tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum; in Duboisia hopwoodii; and in Asclepias syriaca. Nicotine constitutes approximately 0.6-3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. It also occurs in edible plants, such as those in the Solanaceae family, which include eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes for example, but at trace levels generally under 200 nanograms per gram, dry weight (less than .00002%). Nicotine functions as an antiherbivore chemical; consequently, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past, and neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are widely used. Nicotine is highly addictive. An average cigarette yields about 2 mg of ...
Pre-existing cognitive and mood disorders may influence the development and maintenance of nicotine dependence.[22] Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic stimulant[11] that binds to and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain,[12] which subsequently causes the release of dopamine and other neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine, acetylcholine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, endorphins,[23] and several neuropeptides.[24] Repeated exposure to nicotine can cause an increase in the number of nicotinic receptors, which is believed to be a result of receptor desensitization and subsequent receptor upregulation.[23] This upregulation or increase in the number of nicotinic receptors significantly alters the functioning of the brain reward system.[25] With constant use of nicotine, tolerance occurs at least partially as a result of the development of new nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain.[23] After several months of nicotine abstinence, the number of receptors ...
A nicotinic agonist is a drug that mimics the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The nAChR is named for its affinity for nicotine. Examples include nicotine (by definition), acetylcholine (the endogenous agonist of nAChRs), choline, epibatidine, lobeline, varenicline and cytisine. Nicotine has been known for centuries for its intoxicating effect. It was first isolated in 1828 from the tobacco plant by German chemists, Posselt and Reimann. The discovery of positive effects from nicotine on animal memory was discovered by in vivo researches in the mid 1980s. Those researches led to a new era in studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and their stimulation but until then the focus had mainly been on nicotine addiction. The development of nAChR agonists began in the early 1990s after the discovery of nicotine's positive effects. Some research showed a possible therapy option in preclinical researches. ABT-418 was one of the first in a series of ...
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) and a stimulant drug. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. It is made in the roots and accumulates in the leaves of the plants. It constitutes approximately 0.6-3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco[1] and is present in the range of 2-7 µg/kg of various edible plants.[2] It functions as an antiherbivore chemical; consequently, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past[3][4] ...
... (also known as quitting smoking) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, which is addictive. Nicotine withdrawal makes the process of quitting often very prolonged and difficult. Seventy percent of smokers would like to quit smoking, and 50 percent report attempting to quit within the past year. Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Tobacco cessation significantly reduces the risk of dying from tobacco-related diseases such as coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Due to its link to many chronic diseases, cigarette smoking has been restricted in many public areas. Many different strategies can be used for smoking cessation, including quitting without assistance ("cold turkey" or cut down then quit), behavioral counseling, and medications such as bupropion, cytisine, nicotine replacement therapy, or varenicline. Most smokers who try to quit do so without assistance, ...
After tobacco is harvested, it is cured (dried), and then aged to improve its flavor. There are four common methods of curing tobacco: air curing, fire curing, flue curing, and sun curing. The curing method used depends on the type of tobacco and its intended use. Air-cured tobacco is sheltered from wind and sun in a well-ventilated barn, where it air dries for six to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are air cured. In fire curing, smoke from a low-burning fire on the barn floor permeates the leaves. This gives the leaves a distinctive smoky aroma and flavor. Fire curing takes three to ten weeks and produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured. Flue-cured tobacco is kept in an enclosed barn heated by flues (pipes) of hot air, but the tobacco is not directly exposed to smoke. This method produces cigarette tobacco that ...
Nick Naylor is the chief spokesman for the Academy of Tobacco Studies, a tobacco industry lobbying firm that promotes the benefits of cigarettes. He utilizes high-profile media events and intentionally provocative rhetoric in order to highlight what his clients view as an unfair crusade against tobacco and nicotine products.. The political satire is heightened by Naylor's informal association with lobbyists from other industries that are subjected to routine vilification in the media, e.g. Polly Bailey, a lobbyist for the alcohol/spirits industry, and Bobby Jay Bliss, who represents the firearms industry. Collectively, they form what is known as the M.O.D. Squad, a reference to the title of a police drama, although in this case, "M.O.D." stands for "Merchants Of Death".. A pivotal point in the plot occurs when Naylor is kidnapped by a clandestine group who attempt to kill him by covering him with nicotine patches. The search for the perpetrators of the crime leads to surprising results.. In this ...
Cigarettes can be any dried leaf that people roll in thin paper to smoke, but the word is most often used to refer ones with dried tobacco leaves. The nicotine in the tobacco can be addictive to people. The nicotine from cigarettes makes people want to smoke more, even if they do not like the taste or its other effects. The smoke also has other things that are bad for people's health. Many countries have laws saying who can smoke tobacco cigarettes and where they can smoke them. They can cause lung cancer, heart disease and many other diseases. Most packs of cigarettes have warning labels on them. ...
Cigarettes can be any dried leaf that people roll in thin paper to smoke, but the word is most often used to refer ones with dried tobacco leaves. The nicotine in the tobacco can be addictive to people. The nicotine from cigarettes makes people want to smoke more, even if they do not like the taste or its other effects. The smoke also has other things that are bad for people's health. Many countries have laws saying who can smoke tobacco cigarettes and where they can smoke them. They can cause lung cancer, heart disease and many other diseases. Most packs of cigarettes have warning labels on them. ...
... (INN,[1] codenamed ABT-089) is a drug developed by Abbott, that has nootropic and neuroprotective effects.[2][3][4] Animal studies suggested it useful for the treatment of ADHD[5] and subsequent human trials have shown ABT-089 to be effective for this application.[6] It binds with high affinity subtype-selective to the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has partial agonism to the α6β2 subtype,[7][8] but not the α7 and α3β4 subtypes familiar to nicotine. It has particularly low tendency to cause side effects compared to other drugs in the class,[9][10] making it an exciting candidate for clinical development. ...
... (born c. 1957) is an American smoking cessation educator. He currently serves as technical advisor at WhyQuit.com, a free nicotine dependence recovery website. All of his videos and writings on WhyQuit.com end with his advice, "Never Take Another Puff!" Spitzer began presenting smoking prevention seminars at the age of 14 in 1971 as a volunteer speaker for the American Cancer Society (ACS). By the time he was a senior in high school, he was lecturing in medical schools and at professional medical conferences. In 1977, he became Smoking Program Coordinator for the Chicago Unit of the ACS. In 1978, Spitzer became the smoking programs coordinator for the Rush North Shore Medical Center in Skokie, Illinois - the first hospital-based prevention program in the United States. Although the program was a 3-year pilot, he stayed for 22 years. At his lectures, perhaps a hundred people would listen and not speak to him, but the medical center gave him a feeling of purpose. He wrote, "I called ...
... refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. In many cases one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug when supply is low. Poly drug use often carries with it more risk than use of a single drug, due to an increase in side effects, and drug synergy. The potentiating effect of one drug on another is sometimes considerable and here the licit drugs and medicines - such as alcohol, nicotine and antidepressants - have to be considered in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substances. The risk level will depend on the dosage level of both substances. If the drugs taken are illegal, they have a chance of being mixed (also known as "cutting") with other substances which dealers are reported to do to increase the perceived quantity when selling ...
எம்.ஜீயில் தன்பிறப்பொருளெதிரிகள் பெரும்பாலாக நிகோடினிக் அசிடைல்கொலின் ஏற்பிகளுக்கு( என்.ஏ.சி.எச்.ஆர் (nAChR)) எதிராக இயக்கப்படுகின்றன.[5] என்.ஏ.சி.எச்.ஆர் தசை இறுக்கத்தைத் தூண்டும் நரம்பியத்தாண்டுவிப்பியாக அசிடைல்கொலினுக்கான இயக்க முனைத்தட்டுக்கான ஏற்பியாகும். பிறப்பொருளெதிரியின் சில வடிவங்கள் அசிடைல்கொலின் ஏற்பிகளுடன் பிணைவதை பாழாக்குகின்றன. மற்றவை ஏற்பிகள் அழியக் ...
  • Context-Dependent Medicinal Effects of Anabasine and Infection-Depende" by Evan C. Palmer-Young, Alison Hogeboom et al. (umass.edu)
  • We examined variation in the effects of anabasine on infection with different lineages of the intestinal parasite Crithidia under pollen-fed and pollen-starved conditions. (umass.edu)
  • Once the urinary excretion rates of smoke anabasine and anatabine are better known, it will become possible to extend the existing back-calculation to use levels of these biomarkers to estimate the number of cigarettes smoked per 1000 people. (separationsnow.com)
  • b) Biosynthesis of Ammodendrine and Anabasine Samples of (R)- and (S) -[1-2H]cadaverines were used to establish the stereochemistry of the enzymic processes taking place in the biosynthesis of ammodendrine and anabasine. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Journal Article] Revisiting anabasine biosynthesis in tobacco hairy roots expressing plant lysine decarboxylase gene by using 15N-labeled lysine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Compounds of plant origin such as rotenone, nicotine, anabasine , methyl anabasine and lupinine were found effective in killing Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae) (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We found that anabasine did not reduce infection intensity in individual bees infected with any of four Crithidia lineages that were tested in parallel, nor did anabasine reduce infection intensity in microcolonies of queenless workers. (umass.edu)
  • In southern Kazakhstan, where anabasine was collected from the wild thickets, 14,000 tons were gathered in a single year and processed at a chemical plant in the city of Chimkent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, anabasine exacerbated the negative effects of infection on bee survival and microcolony performance. (umass.edu)