A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
A plant genus of the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glucosides.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.
A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE a common weed of the southeast US. There has been folk use for alcoholism and liver protection. It contains puerarin, kakkalide, daidzein (isoflavonoids), and kudzusaponins (oleanene-type triterpene glycosides).
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
A species in the genus ANABAENA containing gas vacuoles that gives buoyancy to the organism. It can form extensive blooms in FRESH WATER and is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE, order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae best known for okra.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
A species in the genus ANABAENA whose trichomes are composed of cylindrical cells.
Acetylene is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound (C2H2) commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings for its high energy content and reactivity, which may have various applications in medicine such as wound healing and surgical procedures, but it is not a medical diagnosis or disease.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Methionine Sulfoximine is a toxic compound that functions as an inhibitor of methionine metabolism, being formed through the oxidation of methionine by the enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.
Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.

Analysis of tryptic digests indicates regions of GvpC that bind to gas vesicles of Anabaena flos-aquae. (1/5)

The gas vesicles of the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae contain two main proteins: GvpA, which forms the ribs of the hollow cylindrical shell, and GvpC, which occurs on the outer surface. Analysis by MALDI-TOF MS shows that after incubating Anabaena gas vesicles in trypsin, GvpA was cleaved only at sites near the N-terminus, whereas GvpC was cleaved at most of its potential tryptic sites. Many of the resulting tryptic peptides from GvpC remained attached to the underlying GvpA shell: the pattern of attachment indicated that there are binding sites to GvpA at both ends of the 33-residue repeats (33RRs) in GvpC, although one of the tryptic peptides within the 33RR did not remain attached. Tryptic peptides near the two ends of the GvpC molecule were also lost. The mean critical collapse pressure of Anabaena gas vesicles decreased from 0.63 MPa to 0.20 MPa when GvpC was removed with urea or fully digested with trypsin; partial digestion resulted in partial decrease in critical pressure.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of extracellular beta-glucosidase from Sinorhizobium kostiense AFK-13 and its algal lytic effect on Anabaena flos-aquae. (2/5)

A beta-glucosidase from the algal lytic bacterium Sinorhizobium kostiense AFK-13, grown in complex media containing cellobiose, was purified to homogeneity by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, and anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographies. The enzyme was shown to be a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 52 kDa and isoelectric point of approximately 5.4. It was optimally active at pH 6.0 and 40'C and possessed a specific activity of 260.4 U/mg of protein against 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). A temperature-stability analysis demonstrated that the enzyme was unstable at 50 degrees C and above. The enzyme did not require divalent cations for activity, and its activity was significantly suppressed by Hg+2 and Ag+, whereas sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 moderately inhibited the enzyme to under 70% of its initial activity. In an algal lytic activity analysis, the growth of cyanobacteria, such as Anabaena flos-aquae, A. cylindrica, A. macrospora, Oscillatoria sancta, and Microcystis aeruginosa, was strongly inhibited by a treatment of 20 ppm/disc or 30 ppm/disc concentration of the enzyme.  (+info)

Solid-state NMR evidence for inequivalent GvpA subunits in gas vesicles. (3/5)

 (+info)

An amyloid organelle, solid-state NMR evidence for cross-beta assembly of gas vesicles. (4/5)

 (+info)

Gas vesicles across kingdoms: a comparative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study. (5/5)

 (+info)

Anabaena is a genus of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. These bacteria are capable of photosynthesis and can form colonies that resemble fine filaments or hair-like structures. Some species of Anabaena are able to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making them important contributors to the nitrogen cycle in aquatic ecosystems. In some cases, certain species of Anabaena can produce toxins that can be harmful to other organisms, including humans and animals.

It's worth noting that while Anabaena is a widely used and well-established genus name, recent research has suggested that the traditional classification system for cyanobacteria may not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. As a result, some scientists have proposed alternative classification schemes that may lead to changes in the way these organisms are named and classified in the future.

"Lonicera" is a genus of shrubs and climbers commonly known as honeysuckles. It does not have a specific medical definition, but some species of Lonicera are used in traditional medicine in various cultures. For example, Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants as medicine should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also have side effects and interact with other medications.

"Carthamus" is the genus name for a group of plants that includes safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Safflower is an herb that has been used in traditional medicine and as a source of dye. The seeds, flowers, and leaves of safflower have been used in traditional medicine to treat various conditions such as menstrual pain, fever, and cough. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is limited, and more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Safflower oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the plant, is commonly used in cooking and as a source of vegetable oil. It contains unsaturated fats and has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as improving cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of heart disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

It's worth noting that while safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is the most well-known member of the Carthamus genus, there are other species as well, such as Carthamus oxyacantha and Carthamus lanatus, which have also been used in traditional medicine. However, there is limited scientific evidence on their efficacy and safety.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about chrysanthemums. Chrysanthemums are flowering plants that belong to the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to Asia and northeastern Europe and are particularly significant in East Asian cultures.

Chrysanthemums have been cultivated for centuries for their beautiful flowers, which come in a variety of colors including white, yellow, red, and purple. In some countries, chrysanthemums are considered symbolic of death and are used in funerals or on graves, while in others they represent life, joy, and longevity.

While chrysanthemums do not have a direct medical definition, some parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. For example, chrysanthemum flowers are sometimes used to make teas that are believed to help with headaches, fever, and inflammation. However, it is important to note that the effectiveness of these remedies has not been scientifically proven, and chrysanthemums can cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in some people. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies.

Anabaena variabilis is a species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can form filamentous colonies. It is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, making it an important contributor to the nitrogen cycle in aquatic environments. The term 'variabilis' refers to the variable size and shape of its cells.

Here's a simple medical definition:

Anabaena variabilis: A species of filamentous cyanobacteria known for its ability to fix nitrogen, contributing to the nitrogen cycle in aquatic environments. Its cells can vary in size and shape.

Chlorogenic acid is a type of polyphenolic compound that is found in various plants, including coffee, tea, and several fruits and vegetables. It is a ester of cinnamic acid and quinic acid. Chlorogenic acids are known to have antioxidant properties and may also play a role in regulating glucose metabolism and inhibiting the growth of certain types of cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with chlorogenic acid consumption.

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are a type of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, similar to plants. They can produce oxygen and contain chlorophyll a, which gives them a greenish color. Some species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins that can be harmful to humans and animals if ingested or inhaled. They are found in various aquatic environments such as freshwater lakes, ponds, and oceans, as well as in damp soil and on rocks. Cyanobacteria are important contributors to the Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere and play a significant role in the global carbon cycle.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Forsythia" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of flowering plants in the olive family, Oleaceae. These plants are known for their yellow flowers that typically bloom in early spring. They are often used as ornamental shrubs in gardens and landscapes. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help with those!

"Materia Medica" is a term that comes from the Latin language, where "materia" means "substance" or "material," and "medica" refers to "medical." In a medical context, Materia Medica historically refers to a collection of detailed descriptions of substances that are used for medicinal purposes.

It is essentially a comprehensive reference book that describes the properties, actions, uses, dosages, potential side effects, and contraindications of various drugs or medicinal agents. The information in a Materia Medica is typically based on historical use, experimental pharmacological data, clinical trials, and other scientific research.

Modern Materia Medica has evolved to become more specialized, with separate references for different types of medicinal substances, such as botanical (herbal) medicine, homeopathic remedies, or conventional pharmaceuticals. These resources are often used by healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, to guide their prescribing decisions and ensure the safe and effective use of medications for their patients.

Fumigation is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and environmental medicine. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), fumigation is defined as "the treatment of a building or commodity by introducing a gaseous pesticide (fumigant) in sufficient concentration to kill all stages of pests present."

Fumigation is used to control pests, such as insects, rodents, and other organisms that can cause harm to human health, property, or the environment. It is commonly used in agriculture to protect stored commodities from pests during transportation and storage. In addition, fumigation may be used in public health to disinfect buildings, equipment, and other items that have been infested with pests, such as bed bugs, cockroaches, or termites.

Fumigants are toxic gases that can cause harm to humans and animals if not handled properly. Therefore, fumigation should only be carried out by trained professionals who follow strict safety protocols to protect people, pets, and the environment from exposure.

"Pueraria" is a genus of plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The most commonly known species is Pueraria lobata, also called kudzu or Japanese arrowroot. This plant is native to East Asia and has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes such as treating alcoholism, fever, and inflammation.

In a medical context, "Pueraria" may refer to the use of extracts from this plant in dietary supplements or alternative medicine practices. Some studies have suggested that certain compounds found in Pueraria, such as isoflavones, may have potential health benefits, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish safe and effective dosages.

It's important to note that while some natural products containing Pueraria extracts may be marketed for various health purposes, they should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care or treatment. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Butylene glycols are a type of organic compounds that belong to the class of diols, which are chemical compounds containing two hydroxyl groups. Specifically, butylene glycols are composed of a four-carbon chain with two hydroxyl groups located on adjacent carbon atoms.

There are two isomeric forms of butylene glycol: 1,2-butanediol and 1,3-butanediol.

* 1,2-Butanediol (also known as 1,2-butylene glycol) has the hydroxyl groups on the first and second carbon atoms of the chain. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is used as a solvent, humectant, and antifreeze in various industrial and cosmetic applications.
* 1,3-Butanediol (also known as 1,3-butylene glycol) has the hydroxyl groups on the first and third carbon atoms of the chain. It is also a colorless, viscous liquid that is used as a solvent, humectant, and antifreeze in various industrial and cosmetic applications.

Butylene glycols are generally considered to be safe for use in cosmetics and other consumer products, although they may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, such as polyesters and polyurethanes.

'Anabaena flos-aquae' is a type of cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae) that can be found in freshwater environments. It has the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making it an important contributor to the nutrient cycle in aquatic ecosystems. However, when conditions are favorable (such as high nutrient levels and warm temperatures), 'Anabaena flos-aquae' can reproduce rapidly and form dense blooms that can cover the water surface. These blooms can be harmful to both the environment and human health, as they can produce toxins that can cause illness or death in aquatic organisms and potentially in humans who come into contact with contaminated water. Therefore, 'Anabaena flos-aquae' is often referred to as a harmful algal bloom (HAB) species.

Abelmoschus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It includes several species that are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia. Some of these species have historically been used in traditional medicine and as sources of food and fiber.

One of the most well-known species in this genus is Abelmoschus esculentus, which is commonly known as okra or gumbo. This vegetable is widely cultivated and consumed around the world for its edible green pods, which are rich in nutrients and have a unique slimy texture that makes them popular in soups and stews.

Other species of Abelmoschus include Abelmoschus manihot (also known as Hibiscus manihot), which is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various ailments, and Abelmoschus moschatus (also known as musk mallow), which has been used in perfumes and incense for its fragrant seeds.

It's worth noting that while some species of Abelmoschus have medicinal or culinary uses, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies, as they can interact with other medications or have unintended side effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pentanes" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a group of five-carbon alkane hydrocarbons, including n-pentane and iso-pentane. These substances can be used in medical settings as anesthetics or for medical research, but "Pentanes" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Glycols are a type of organic compound that contain two hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms. They are colorless, odorless, and have a sweet taste. The most common glycols are ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is widely used as an automotive antifreeze and in the manufacture of polyester fibers and resins, while propylene glycol is used as a food additive, in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent in various industries. Glycols are also used as a coolant, humectant, and in the production of unsaturated polyester resins. Exposure to high levels of glycols can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and ingestion can be harmful or fatal.

Tissue Microarray (TMA) analysis is a surgical pathology technique that allows for the simultaneous analysis of multiple tissue samples (known as "cores") from different patients or even different regions of the same tumor, on a single microscope slide. This technique involves the extraction of small cylindrical samples of tissue, which are then arrayed in a grid-like pattern on a recipient paraffin block. Once the TMA is created, sections can be cut and stained with various histochemical or immunohistochemical stains to evaluate the expression of specific proteins or other molecules of interest.

Tissue Array Analysis has become an important tool in biomedical research, enabling high-throughput analysis of tissue samples for molecular markers, gene expression patterns, and other features that can help inform clinical decision making, drug development, and our understanding of disease processes. It's widely used in cancer research to study the heterogeneity of tumors, identify new therapeutic targets, and evaluate patient prognosis.

Sodium oxybate is a central nervous system depressant, which is a sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is also known as gamma-hydroxybutyrate monosodium salt or sodium GHB. Sodium oxybate is used in the medical field for the treatment of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone). It is sold under the brand name Xyrem.

Sodium oxybate works by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain, specifically increasing the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and wakefulness. The medication is available only through a restricted distribution program due to its potential for abuse and dependence. It is usually taken at night in two doses, one at bedtime and the other about 2.5 to 4 hours later.

It's important to note that sodium oxybate has a high potential for misuse and addiction, and it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Racemases and epimerases are two types of enzymes that are involved in the modification of the stereochemistry of molecules, particularly amino acids and sugars. Here is a brief definition for each:

1. Racemases: These are enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of D- and L-stereoisomers of amino acids or other chiral compounds. They do this by promoting the conversion of one stereoisomer to its mirror image, resulting in a racemic mixture (a 1:1 mixture of two enantiomers). Racemases are important in various biological processes, such as the biosynthesis of some amino acids and the degradation of certain carbohydrates.

Example: Alanine racemase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine, which is essential for bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

2. Epimerases: These are enzymes that convert one stereoisomer (epimer) of a chiral compound into another stereoisomer by changing the configuration at a single asymmetric carbon atom while keeping the rest of the molecule unchanged. Unlike racemases, epimerases do not produce racemic mixtures but rather create specific stereoisomers.

Example: Glucose-1-phosphate epimerase is an enzyme that converts glucose-1-phosphate to galactose-1-phosphate during the Leloir pathway, which is the primary metabolic route for lactose digestion in mammals.

Both racemases and epimerases play crucial roles in various biochemical processes, including the synthesis and degradation of essential molecules like amino acids and carbohydrates.

Nitrogenase is not a medical term, but a biological term used in the field of microbiology and biochemistry. It refers to an enzyme complex found in certain bacteria and archaea that have the ability to fix nitrogen gas (N2) from the atmosphere into ammonia (NH3), a form of nitrogen that can be utilized by plants and other organisms for growth and development. This process is known as biological nitrogen fixation, which is essential for maintaining the global nitrogen cycle and supporting life on Earth.

The medical field may refer to nitrogenase in relation to human health in the context of understanding the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil fertility and their impact on agriculture and food production. However, there is no direct medical definition or application for nitrogenase.

Anabaena cylindrica is a type of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. It forms filamentous colonies and can be found in various aquatic environments, such as freshwater and marine systems. This species is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, making it an essential contributor to the nitrogen cycle in these ecosystems.

The term 'Anabaena cylindrica' refers to its morphological characteristics: 'Anabaena' comes from the Greek word 'anabainein', meaning 'to rise up', which alludes to the way the filaments float in the water column, and 'cylindrica' describes the cylindrical shape of the trichomes (filaments) formed by this species.

It is important to note that some strains of Anabaena cylindrica can produce harmful cyanotoxins, which may pose a risk to human health and aquatic ecosystems when blooms occur in bodies of water used for recreation or drinking water supply.

Acetylene is defined as a colorless, highly flammable gas with a distinctive odor, having the chemical formula C2H2. It is the simplest and lightest hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded together by a triple bond. Acetylene is used as a fuel in welding and cutting torches, and it can also be converted into other chemicals, such as vinyl acetate and acetic acid. In medical terms, acetylene is not a substance that is commonly used or discussed.

Protein array analysis is a high-throughput technology used to detect and measure the presence and activity of specific proteins in biological samples. This technique utilizes arrays or chips containing various capture agents, such as antibodies or aptamers, that are designed to bind to specific target proteins. The sample is then added to the array, allowing the target proteins to bind to their corresponding capture agents. After washing away unbound materials, a detection system is used to identify and quantify the bound proteins. This method can be used for various applications, including protein-protein interaction studies, biomarker discovery, and drug development. The results of protein array analysis provide valuable information about the expression levels, post-translational modifications, and functional states of proteins in complex biological systems.

Glycosides are organic compounds that consist of a glycone (a sugar component) linked to a non-sugar component, known as an aglycone, via a glycosidic bond. They can be found in various plants, microorganisms, and some animals. Depending on the nature of the aglycone, glycosides can be classified into different types, such as anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, and saponin glycosides.

These compounds have diverse biological activities and pharmacological effects. For instance:

* Cardiac glycosides, like digoxin and digitoxin, are used in the treatment of heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias due to their positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and negative chronotropic (heart rate-slowing) effects on the heart.
* Saponin glycosides have potent detergent properties and can cause hemolysis (rupture of red blood cells). They are used in various industries, including cosmetics and food processing, and have potential applications in drug delivery systems.
* Some glycosides, like amygdalin found in apricot kernels and bitter almonds, can release cyanide upon hydrolysis, making them potentially toxic.

It is important to note that while some glycosides have therapeutic uses, others can be harmful or even lethal if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body in large quantities.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex found in cyanobacteria and some types of algae, such as Spirulina. It belongs to the family of phycobiliproteins and plays a crucial role in the light-harvesting process during photosynthesis. Phycocyanin absorbs light in the orange and red regions of the visible spectrum and transfers the energy to chlorophyll for use in photosynthesis. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and potential therapeutic uses.

Flavodoxin is not strictly a medical term, but it is a term used in biochemistry and molecular biology. Flavodoxins are small electron transfer proteins that contain a non-heme iron atom bound to a organic molecule called flavin mononucleotide (FMN). They play a role in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and respiration where they function as electron carriers. Flavodoxins can undergo reversible oxidation and reduction, and this property allows them to transfer electrons between different enzymes during metabolic reactions. They are not specific to human physiology, but can be found in various organisms including bacteria, algae, and plants.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be awakened, cannot respond to stimuli, and does not exhibit any sleep-wake cycles. It is typically caused by severe brain injury, illness, or toxic exposure that impairs the function of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.

In a coma, the person may appear to be asleep, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate or respond to stimuli. Comas can last for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks or even months, and some people may emerge from a coma with varying degrees of brain function and disability.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tools and assessments to evaluate the level of consciousness and brain function in individuals who are in a coma, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. Treatment for coma typically involves supportive care to maintain vital functions, manage any underlying medical conditions, and prevent further complications.

Automation in the medical context refers to the use of technology and programming to allow machines or devices to operate with minimal human intervention. This can include various types of medical equipment, such as laboratory analyzers, imaging devices, and robotic surgical systems. Automation can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and safety in healthcare settings by reducing the potential for human error and allowing healthcare professionals to focus on higher-level tasks. It is important to note that while automation has many benefits, it is also essential to ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to prevent accidents and maintain quality of care.

Nostoc is not a medical term, but a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can form colonies in various aquatic and terrestrial environments. Some species of nostoc are capable of forming gelatinous masses or "mats" that can be found in freshwater bodies, soils, and even on the surface of rocks and stones.

While nostoc itself is not a medical term, it has been studied in the context of medicine due to its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that nostoc may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, among others. However, more studies are needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of nostoc and its safety for human consumption or use in medical treatments.

Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase (FDNR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+, reducing it to NADPH. This reaction plays a crucial role in several metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation.

In photosynthesis, FDNR is located in the stroma of chloroplasts and receives electrons from ferredoxin, which is reduced by photosystem I. The enzyme then transfers these electrons to NADP+, generating NADPH, which is used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation.

In nitrogen fixation, FDNR is found in the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and receives electrons from ferredoxin, which is reduced by nitrogenase. The enzyme then transfers these electrons to NADP+, generating NADPH, which is used in the reduction of nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH3).

FDNR is a flavoprotein that contains a FAD cofactor and an iron-sulfur cluster. The enzyme catalyzes the electron transfer through a series of conformational changes that bring ferredoxin and NADP+ in close proximity, allowing for efficient electron transfer.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Microcystins are a type of toxin produced by certain species of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) that can contaminate freshwater bodies. They are cyclic peptides consisting of seven amino acids, and their structure varies among different microcystin variants. These toxins can have negative effects on the liver and other organs in humans and animals upon exposure through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with contaminated water. They are a concern for both public health and environmental safety, particularly in relation to drinking water supplies, recreational water use, and aquatic ecosystems.

"Oscillatoria" is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic genus name in the field of biology and microbiology. It belongs to the family of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) called "Pseudanabaenaceae." Oscillatoria species are filamentous bacteria that contain chlorophyll and can perform photosynthesis. They form long, straight or slightly curved trichomes (filaments) without heterocysts or akinetes. The cells in the trichome are typically separated by narrow gaps, giving them a beaded appearance.

These organisms are often found in various aquatic environments such as freshwater, brackish water, and marine habitats. Some species of Oscillatoria can produce toxins, known as cyanotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals when they contaminate drinking water sources or recreational bodies of water.

In a medical context, exposure to harmful algal blooms containing Oscillatoria species might lead to symptoms such as skin irritation, allergic reactions, gastrointestinal issues, or respiratory problems in sensitive individuals. However, it is essential to note that these health effects are not exclusive to Oscillatoria and can be caused by various cyanobacterial genera.

Glutamate-ammonia ligase, also known as glutamine synthetase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism. It catalyzes the formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia in the presence of ATP, resulting in the conversion of ammonia to a less toxic form. This reaction is essential for maintaining nitrogen balance in the body and for the synthesis of various amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. The enzyme is widely distributed in various tissues, including the brain, liver, and muscle, and its activity is tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by glutamine and other metabolites.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Methionine Sulfoximine (MSO) is not a medical term itself, but it is a compound that has been used in research and scientific studies. It's a stable analogue of the essential amino acid methionine, which can be found in some foods like sesame seeds, Brazil nuts, and fish.

Methionine Sulfoximine has been used in research to study the metabolism and transport of methionine in cells and organisms. It is also known for its ability to inhibit the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which plays a role in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid associated with cardiovascular disease when present at high levels.

However, Methionine Sulfoximine is not used as a therapeutic agent or medication in humans due to its potential toxicity and lack of established clinical benefits.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Microcystis" is not a medical term, but a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) commonly found in freshwater environments. Some species of Microcystis can produce toxins called microcystins, which can cause liver damage and other health problems in humans and animals when they consume or come into contact with contaminated water. Therefore, Microcystis blooms in recreational waters or drinking water sources can pose a public health concern.

Phycobilisomes are large, complex pigment-protein structures found in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of red algae and glaucophytes. They function as light-harvesting antennae, capturing light energy and transferring it to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Phycobilisomes are composed of phycobiliproteins, which are bound together in a highly organized manner to form rod-like structures called phycobil rods. These rods are attached to a central core structure called the phycobilisome core. The different types of phycobiliproteins absorb light at different wavelengths, allowing the organism to efficiently utilize available sunlight for photosynthesis.

Sensory rhodopsins are light-sensitive proteins found in the archaea, a group of single-celled microorganisms. They are part of a larger family of proteins called rhodopsins which contain retinal, a light-sensitive molecule that undergoes a change in shape when it absorbs light.

In sensory rhodopsins, this light-induced change in the retinal triggers a signal transduction pathway that allows the archaea to detect and respond to different wavelengths of light in their environment. This is important for the archaea's survival as it helps them to regulate their behavior, such as swimming towards or away from light sources.

There are two types of sensory rhodopsins, known as SR I and SR II, which allow the archaea to detect different wavelengths of light. SR I is responsible for negative phototaxis, or movement away from light, while SR II is involved in positive phototaxis, or movement towards light.

Overall, sensory rhodopsins play a crucial role in helping archaea to navigate and survive in their environment by allowing them to detect and respond to different wavelengths of light.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Dinitrogenase reductase is a protein involved in the process of nitrogen fixation in certain bacteria and archaea. It is responsible for delivering electrons to the enzyme dinitrogenase, which converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for use by living organisms. Dinitrogenase reductase contains a cluster of iron and sulfur atoms that facilitate the transfer of electrons. The combined action of dinitrogenase reductase and dinitrogenase allows these microorganisms to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere as a source of nitrogen for growth, making them important contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.

Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that play a crucial role in electron transfer reactions in various biological systems, particularly in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. They contain one or more clusters of iron and sulfur atoms (known as the iron-sulfur cluster) that facilitate the movement of electrons between different molecules during metabolic processes.

Ferredoxins have a relatively simple structure, consisting of a polypeptide chain that binds to the iron-sulfur cluster. This simple structure allows ferredoxins to participate in a wide range of redox reactions and makes them versatile electron carriers in biological systems. They can accept electrons from various donors and transfer them to different acceptors, depending on the needs of the cell.

In photosynthesis, ferredoxins play a critical role in the light-dependent reactions by accepting electrons from photosystem I and transferring them to NADP+, forming NADPH. This reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is then used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation and the production of glucose.

In nitrogen fixation, ferredoxins help transfer electrons to the nitrogenase enzyme complex, which reduces atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for assimilation by plants and other organisms.

Overall, ferredoxins are essential components of many metabolic pathways, facilitating electron transfer and energy conversion in various biological systems.

Phycobilins are linear tetrapyrrole chromophores found in cyanobacteria, red algae, and glaucophytes. They are the light-harvesting pigments associated with phycobiliproteins in the phycobilisome complex, which is a type of antenna system used to capture light for photosynthesis. The main types of phycobilins are phycocyanobilin, phycoerythrobilin, and allophycocyanobilin. These pigments absorb light in the blue-green to red region of the electromagnetic spectrum and transfer the energy to chlorophyll a for use in photosynthesis. Phycobilins are also used as fluorescent labels in various biochemical and medical research applications.

Previous studies attributed neurotoxin production to Anabaena flos-aquae species, which is also a type of nitrogen-fixing ... Agnihotri, Vijai K. (2014). "Anabaena flos-aquae". Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 44 (18): 1995-2037 ... They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, an extracellular endosymbiont (living outside the ...
Anabaena flos-aquae. Dolichospermum flos-aquae. Angiopoietin-like 4 Protein. Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 ...
OCSPP 850.4550: Cyanobacteria (Anabaena flos-aquae) Toxicity.. Alexandrium spp. PCR Detection Kit ...
Desjardins et al (2006) was performed in freshwater with Anabaena flos-aqua. The test organisms were exposed the test material ... Kranzfelder (2000a) was performed in freshwater with Anabaena flos-aqua. The test organisms were exposed the test material at ...
Toxicity data for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Anabaena flos-aquae and Synechococcus leopoldenisis were used to determine PNECs for ...
Kinetics of growth and death in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae under light limitation and supersaturation. Journal of ... Specific death rate of the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae and production of dissolved organic carbon from cell death. ... Circadian rhythm in growth and death of the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. Journal of Phycology 35(4):694-699. ...
Anabaena flos-aquae. and other blue-green algae. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1979;. 57. (21):2443-2451. DOI: 10.1139/b79-288. ... Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. is less light dependent than Dolichospermum flos-aquae. , so in situations where there is less light ... Direct evidence for the role of light mediated gas vesicle collapse in the buoyancy regulation of Anabaena flos-aquae ( ... Microcystis flos-aquae. , M. wesenbergii. , Oscillatoria. sp., Dolichospermum. sp., Lingbya. sp., Anabaenopsis. sp.. [3, 48, 84 ...
Structure of Anabaena flos-aquae gas vesicles revealed by cryo-ET. Dutka P, Metskas LA, Hurt RC, Salahshoor H, Wang TY, ... Cryo-EM of A. flos-aquae gas vesicles, related to Figure 5 (A) Representative micrographs of A.flos-aquae GVs. GV edges were ... Structure of Anabaena flos-aquae gas vesicles revealed by cryo-ET. Dutka P, Metskas LA, Hurt RC, Salahshoor H, Wang TY, ... Blaurock A.E., Walsby A.E. Crystalline structure of the gas vesicle wall from Anabaena flos-aquae. J. Mol. Biol. 1976;105:183- ...
AFA, Algae, Algas Verdiazul, Algues Bleu-Vert, Algues Bleu-Vert du Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira ... Consumption of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae has rapid effects on the circulation and function of immune cells in humans. A novel ... The effect of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-Aquae on nutrient assimilation in rats. JANA 2001;3:35-39. ... Favorable effects of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on rat plasma lipids. JANA 2000;2:59-65. ...
Anabaena B3.585.51 Anabaena cylindrica B3.585.51.150 Anabaena flos-aquae B3.585.51.300 Anabaena variabilis B3.585.51.900 ...
Anabaena flos-aquae. Dolichospermum flos-aquae. Analytical Methods. Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods. ...
Induction of heterocysts in the blue-green alga Anabaena sp. l-31 is totally inhibited by potassium nitrate in batch cultures ... The effect of various nitrogen sources upon heterocyst formation in Anabaena flos-aquae a-37. Journal of Experimental Botany 18 ... Talpasayi E. R. S., Kale K. S. 1967; Induction of heterocysts in the blue-green alga Anabaena ambigua. Current Science 36:218- ... Smith R. V., Evans M. C. W. 1970; Soluble nitrogenase from vegetative cells of the blue-green alga Anabaena cylindrica. Nature ...
Toxicity of Seven Herbicides to the Three Cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae, Microcystis flos-aquae and Mirocystis aeruginosa ...
Polyferric sulphate, ferric sulphate, aluminium sulphate, polyaluminium chloride, coagulants, algae, ANABAENA FLOS- AQUAE, ... Anabaenaflos-aquae and Asterionetta formosa) and other model waters prepared by mixing aquatic humic substances with ...
NAS RA with Yerevan State University have shown that that during 2020-2021 the presence of Dolichospermum/Anabaena flos-aquae ...
Anabaena flos-aquae (organism). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Anabaena flos-aquae (organism). ...
Anabaena flos-aquae Anabaena flosaquae Dolichospermum flosaquae Registry Number. txid1166. Previous Indexing. Algae (1965-1968) ... Anabaena (1991-2004). Cyanobacteria (1969-1991). Public MeSH Note. 2022; see ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE 2005-2021. History Note. 2022( ... Anabaena flos-aquae Term UI T557598. Date11/07/2003. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2005). ... Dolichospermum flos-aquae Preferred Term Term UI T001103770. Date04/01/2021. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2022). ...
Anabaena flos-aquae Anabaena flosaquae Dolichospermum flosaquae Registry Number. txid1166. Previous Indexing. Algae (1965-1968) ... Anabaena (1991-2004). Cyanobacteria (1969-1991). Public MeSH Note. 2022; see ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE 2005-2021. History Note. 2022( ... Anabaena flos-aquae Term UI T557598. Date11/07/2003. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2005). ... Dolichospermum flos-aquae Preferred Term Term UI T001103770. Date04/01/2021. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2022). ...
Anabaena flos-aquae. Ref.. Plantae. Euphorbiaceae. Croton tiglium Ref.. Plantae. Fabaceae. Astragalus mongholicus. Ref.. ...
Isolation and culture of toxic strains of Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngb.) De Bréb. Verh Internat Verein Limnol. 1964;15(2):796-804 ...
A Glimpse at Siderophores Production by Anabaena flos-aquae UTEX 1444. Teta, Roberta; Esposito, Germana; Kundu, Karishma; ... This study unveils the capability of Anabaena flos-aquae UTEX 1444 to produce a large array of siderophores and may be a ... In this study, a strain of Anabaena flos-aquae UTEX 1444 was cultivated in six different concentrations of iron (III). Cultures ...
Agnihotri V (2014) Anabaena flos-aquae , Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 10.1080/10643389.2013.803797 ... flos-aquae, Journal of Applied Phycology, 10.1007/s10811-015-0688-0, 28:3, (1543-1552), Online publication date: 1-Jun-2016. ... First report on cylindrospermopsin producing Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanobacteria) isolated from two German lakes, Toxicon, ... Response of cylindrospermopsin production and release in Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanobacteria) to varying light and ...
C), Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (H1), and Anabaena sporoides (H1) to Microcystis flos-aquae (M). In Lake Dianchi, the dominant ... J) to Microcystis flos-aquae (M).. 4 Discussion. In Lakes Erhai and Dianchi, the nutrient levels varied significantly over the ...
Use of lactic acid bacteria as a biological agent against the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. J Appl Phycol. 2016. 28: 1747 ... Use of lactic acid bacteria as a biological agent against the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. J Appl Phycol. 2016. 28: 1747 ...
Anabaena cylindrica. 4-7. 43-56. 25-30. Aphanizomenon flos-aqua. 3. 62. 23. ...
Anabaena B3.585.51 Anabaena cylindrica B3.585.51.150 Anabaena flos-aquae B3.585.51.300 Anabaena variabilis B3.585.51.900 ...

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