A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A species in the genus ANABAENA containing gas vacuoles that gives buoyancy to the organism. It can form extensive blooms in FRESH WATER and is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
A species in the genus ANABAENA whose trichomes are composed of cylindrical cells.
Acetylene is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound (C2H2) commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings for its high energy content and reactivity, which may have various applications in medicine such as wound healing and surgical procedures, but it is not a medical diagnosis or disease.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
Methionine Sulfoximine is a toxic compound that functions as an inhibitor of methionine metabolism, being formed through the oxidation of methionine by the enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.
Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).
The act of feeding on plants by animals.

A cold shock-induced cyanobacterial RNA helicase. (1/485)

The ability to modify RNA secondary structure is crucial for numerous cellular processes. We have characterized two RNA helicase genes, crhB and crhC, which are differentially expressed in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. crhC transcription is limited specifically to cold shock conditions while crhB is expressed under a variety of conditions, including enhanced expression in the cold. This implies that both RNA helicases are involved in the cold acclimation process in cyanobacteria; however, they presumably perform different roles in this adaptation. Although both CrhB and CrhC belong to the DEAD box subfamily of RNA helicases, CrhC encodes a novel RNA helicase, as the highly conserved SAT motif is modified to FAT. This alteration may affect CrhC function and its association with specific RNA targets and/or accessory proteins, interactions required for cold acclimation. Primer extension and analysis of the 5' untranslated region of crhC revealed the transcriptional start site, as well as a number of putative cold shock-responsive elements. The potential role(s) performed by RNA helicases in the acclimation of cyanobacteria to cold shock is discussed.  (+info)

Constitutive and nitrogen-regulated promoters of the petH gene encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (2/485)

Determination of the putative transcription start points of the petH gene encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. PCC 7119 and PCC 7120 showed that this gene is transcribed from two promoters, one constitutively used under different conditions of nitrogen nutrition and the other one used in cells subjected to nitrogen stepdown and in nitrogen-fixing filaments. The latter promoter, whose use was NtcA-dependent but HetR-independent, was functional in heterocysts. The N-control transcriptional regulator NtcA was observed to bind in vitro to this promoter. For the sake of comparison, the transcription start points of the nifHDK operon in strain PCC 7120 and binding of NtcA to the nifHDK promoter were also examined.  (+info)

Quantitative structure activity relationships for the electron transfer reactions of Anabaena PCC 7119 ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase with nitrobenzene and nitrobenzimidazolone derivatives: mechanistic implications. (3/485)

The steady state single electron reduction of polynitroaromatics by ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (EC 1.18.1.2) from cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 has been studied and quantitative structure activity relationships are described. The solubility of the polynitroaromatics as well as their reactivity towards ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase are markedly higher than those for previously studied mononitroaromatics and this enabled the independent measurement of the kinetic parameters-k(cat) and Km. Interestingly, the natural logarithm of the bimolecular rate constant, k(cat)/Km, and also the natural logarithm of k(cat) correlate with the calculated energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the polynitroaromatic substrates. The minimal kinetic model in line with these quantitative structure activity relationships is a ping-pong mechanism which includes substrate binding equilibria in the second half reaction.  (+info)

Lag phase of CO2-dependent O2 evolution by illuminated Anabaena variabilis cells. (4/485)

The steady-state rate of CO2-dependent O2 evolution by Anabaena variabilis cells in response to illumination was established after a lag phase. The lag phase was shortened (1) in cells incubated with glucose as an oxidizable substrate and (2) upon an increase in light intensity. The lag phase was absent during electron transfer from H2O to p-benzoquinone (in combination with ferricyanide) involving Photosystem II. A lag was observed during electron transfer from H2O to methyl viologen involving Photosystems II and I, but not for electron transfer from N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (in combination with ascorbate) to methyl viologen involving only Photosystem I. The lag phases of the light-induced H2O --> CO2 and H2O --> methyl viologen electron transfer reactions showed the same temperature dependences at 10-30 degrees C. The lag was prevented by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea at concentrations that caused partial inhibition of photosynthetic O2 evolution. Retardation of cell respiration by a combination of CN- and benzylhydroxamate shortened the lag phase of the H2O --> methyl viologen electron transfer. It is concluded that the lag phase is associated with the electron transfer step between Photosystem II and Photosystem I common for the photosynthetic and respiratory chains and is due to the stimulation of cell respiration during the initial period of illumination as a consequence of an increase in the reduced plastoquinone pool and to subsequent retardation of respiration resulting from the transition of the electron transfer chain to the competitive pathway involving Photosystem I.  (+info)

Electrostatic forces involved in orienting Anabaena ferredoxin during binding to Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase: site-specific mutagenesis, transient kinetic measurements, and electrostatic surface potentials. (5/485)

Transient absorbance measurements following laser flash photolysis have been used to measure the rate constants for electron transfer (et) from reduced Anabaena ferredoxin (Fd) to wild-type and seven site-specific charge-reversal mutants of Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase (FNR). These mutations have been designed to probe the importance of specific positively charged amino acid residues on the surface of the FNR molecule near the exposed edge of the FAD cofactor in the protein-protein interaction during et with Fd. The mutant proteins fall into two groups: overall, the K75E, R16E, and K72E mutants are most severely impaired in et, and the K138E, R264E, K290E, and K294E mutants are impaired to a lesser extent, although the degree of impairment varies with ionic strength. Binding constants for complex formation between the oxidized proteins and for the transient et complexes show that the severity of the alterations in et kinetics for the mutants correlate with decreased stabilities of the protein-protein complexes. Those mutated residues, which show the largest effects, are located in a region of the protein in which positive charge predominates, and charge reversals have large effects on the calculated local surface electrostatic potential. In contrast, K138, R264, K290, and K294 are located within or close to regions of intense negative potential, and therefore the introduction of additional negative charges have considerably smaller effects on the calculated surface potential. We attribute the relative changes in et kinetics and complex binding constants for these mutants to these characteristics of the surface charge distribution in FNR and conclude that the positively charged region of the FNR surface located in the vicinity of K75, R16, and K72 is especially important in the binding and orientation of Fd during electron transfer.  (+info)

Electron-nuclear double resonance and hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopic studies of flavodoxin mutants from Anabaena sp. PCC 7119. (6/485)

The influence of the amino acid residues surrounding the flavin ring in the flavodoxin of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 on the electron spin density distribution of the flavin semiquinone was examined in mutants of the key residues Trp(57) and Tyr(94) at the FMN binding site. Neutral semiquinone radicals of the proteins were obtained by photoreduction and examined by electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopies. Significant differences in electron density distribution were observed in the flavodoxin mutants Trp(57) --> Ala and Tyr(94) --> Ala. The results indicate that the presence of a bulky residue (either aromatic or aliphatic) at position 57, as compared with an alanine, decreases the electron spin density in the nuclei of the benzene flavin ring, whereas an aromatic residue at position 94 increases the electron spin density at positions N(5) and C(6) of the flavin ring. The influence of the FMN ribityl and phosphate on the flavin semiquinone was determined by reconstituting apoflavodoxin samples with riboflavin and with lumiflavin. The coupling parameters of the different nuclei of the isoalloxazine group, as detected by ENDOR and HYSCORE, were very similar to those of the native flavodoxin. This indicates that the protein conformation around the flavin ring and the electron density distribution in the semiquinone form are not influenced by the phosphate and the ribityl of FMN.  (+info)

Identification of amino acids responsible for the oxygen sensitivity of ferredoxins from Anabaena variabilis using site-directed mutagenesis. (7/485)

The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis (ATCC 29413) possesses two molybdenum dependent nitrogenase systems, nif1 and nif2. The nif1 system is regulated by a developmental program involving heterocyst differentiation; the nif2 system is expressed in all cells only under anaerobic conditions and the expression is controlled environmentally. The genes fdxH1 and fdxH2, encoding two [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins, are part of the these two distinct and differently regulated nif gene clusters. The sensitivity of both ferredoxins to oxygen was different; the half-life of FdxH2 in air was only approximately 1.5 h, while FdxH1 retained 80% of its nitrogenase activity after 24 h. We used site-directed mutagenesis to identify the role of individual amino acid residues responsible for oxygen sensitivity and found out that the FdxH2 double mutant I76A/V77L was much more resistant to oxygen than the wild-type ferredoxin (FdxH2) and similar to FdxH1. By modelling it was shown that the accessibility of the cavity around the iron-sulfur cluster was responsible for that.  (+info)

The hetC gene is a direct target of the NtcA transcriptional regulator in cyanobacterial heterocyst development. (8/485)

The heterocyst is the site of nitrogen fixation in aerobically grown cultures of some filamentous cyanobacteria. Heterocyst development in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is dependent on the global nitrogen regulator NtcA and requires, among others, the products of the hetR and hetC genes. Expression of hetC, tested by RNA- DNA hybridization, was impaired in an ntcA mutant. A nitrogen-regulated, NtcA-dependent putative transcription start point was localized at nucleotide -571 with respect to the hetC translational start. Sequences upstream from this transcription start point exhibit the structure of the canonical cyanobacterial promoter activated by NtcA, and purified NtcA protein specifically bound to a DNA fragment containing this promoter. Activation of expression of hetC during heterocyst development appears thus to be directly operated by NtcA. NtcA-mediated activation of hetR expression was not impaired in a hetC mutant, indicating that HetC is not an NtcA-dependent element required for hetR induction.  (+info)

Anabaena is a genus of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. These bacteria are capable of photosynthesis and can form colonies that resemble fine filaments or hair-like structures. Some species of Anabaena are able to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making them important contributors to the nitrogen cycle in aquatic ecosystems. In some cases, certain species of Anabaena can produce toxins that can be harmful to other organisms, including humans and animals.

It's worth noting that while Anabaena is a widely used and well-established genus name, recent research has suggested that the traditional classification system for cyanobacteria may not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. As a result, some scientists have proposed alternative classification schemes that may lead to changes in the way these organisms are named and classified in the future.

Anabaena variabilis is a species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can form filamentous colonies. It is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, making it an important contributor to the nitrogen cycle in aquatic environments. The term 'variabilis' refers to the variable size and shape of its cells.

Here's a simple medical definition:

Anabaena variabilis: A species of filamentous cyanobacteria known for its ability to fix nitrogen, contributing to the nitrogen cycle in aquatic environments. Its cells can vary in size and shape.

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are a type of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, similar to plants. They can produce oxygen and contain chlorophyll a, which gives them a greenish color. Some species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins that can be harmful to humans and animals if ingested or inhaled. They are found in various aquatic environments such as freshwater lakes, ponds, and oceans, as well as in damp soil and on rocks. Cyanobacteria are important contributors to the Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere and play a significant role in the global carbon cycle.

'Anabaena flos-aquae' is a type of cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae) that can be found in freshwater environments. It has the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making it an important contributor to the nutrient cycle in aquatic ecosystems. However, when conditions are favorable (such as high nutrient levels and warm temperatures), 'Anabaena flos-aquae' can reproduce rapidly and form dense blooms that can cover the water surface. These blooms can be harmful to both the environment and human health, as they can produce toxins that can cause illness or death in aquatic organisms and potentially in humans who come into contact with contaminated water. Therefore, 'Anabaena flos-aquae' is often referred to as a harmful algal bloom (HAB) species.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

Nitrogenase is not a medical term, but a biological term used in the field of microbiology and biochemistry. It refers to an enzyme complex found in certain bacteria and archaea that have the ability to fix nitrogen gas (N2) from the atmosphere into ammonia (NH3), a form of nitrogen that can be utilized by plants and other organisms for growth and development. This process is known as biological nitrogen fixation, which is essential for maintaining the global nitrogen cycle and supporting life on Earth.

The medical field may refer to nitrogenase in relation to human health in the context of understanding the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil fertility and their impact on agriculture and food production. However, there is no direct medical definition or application for nitrogenase.

Anabaena cylindrica is a type of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. It forms filamentous colonies and can be found in various aquatic environments, such as freshwater and marine systems. This species is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, making it an essential contributor to the nitrogen cycle in these ecosystems.

The term 'Anabaena cylindrica' refers to its morphological characteristics: 'Anabaena' comes from the Greek word 'anabainein', meaning 'to rise up', which alludes to the way the filaments float in the water column, and 'cylindrica' describes the cylindrical shape of the trichomes (filaments) formed by this species.

It is important to note that some strains of Anabaena cylindrica can produce harmful cyanotoxins, which may pose a risk to human health and aquatic ecosystems when blooms occur in bodies of water used for recreation or drinking water supply.

Acetylene is defined as a colorless, highly flammable gas with a distinctive odor, having the chemical formula C2H2. It is the simplest and lightest hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded together by a triple bond. Acetylene is used as a fuel in welding and cutting torches, and it can also be converted into other chemicals, such as vinyl acetate and acetic acid. In medical terms, acetylene is not a substance that is commonly used or discussed.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex found in cyanobacteria and some types of algae, such as Spirulina. It belongs to the family of phycobiliproteins and plays a crucial role in the light-harvesting process during photosynthesis. Phycocyanin absorbs light in the orange and red regions of the visible spectrum and transfers the energy to chlorophyll for use in photosynthesis. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and potential therapeutic uses.

Flavodoxin is not strictly a medical term, but it is a term used in biochemistry and molecular biology. Flavodoxins are small electron transfer proteins that contain a non-heme iron atom bound to a organic molecule called flavin mononucleotide (FMN). They play a role in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and respiration where they function as electron carriers. Flavodoxins can undergo reversible oxidation and reduction, and this property allows them to transfer electrons between different enzymes during metabolic reactions. They are not specific to human physiology, but can be found in various organisms including bacteria, algae, and plants.

Nostoc is not a medical term, but a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can form colonies in various aquatic and terrestrial environments. Some species of nostoc are capable of forming gelatinous masses or "mats" that can be found in freshwater bodies, soils, and even on the surface of rocks and stones.

While nostoc itself is not a medical term, it has been studied in the context of medicine due to its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that nostoc may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, among others. However, more studies are needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of nostoc and its safety for human consumption or use in medical treatments.

Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase (FDNR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+, reducing it to NADPH. This reaction plays a crucial role in several metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation.

In photosynthesis, FDNR is located in the stroma of chloroplasts and receives electrons from ferredoxin, which is reduced by photosystem I. The enzyme then transfers these electrons to NADP+, generating NADPH, which is used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation.

In nitrogen fixation, FDNR is found in the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and receives electrons from ferredoxin, which is reduced by nitrogenase. The enzyme then transfers these electrons to NADP+, generating NADPH, which is used in the reduction of nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH3).

FDNR is a flavoprotein that contains a FAD cofactor and an iron-sulfur cluster. The enzyme catalyzes the electron transfer through a series of conformational changes that bring ferredoxin and NADP+ in close proximity, allowing for efficient electron transfer.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Microcystins are a type of toxin produced by certain species of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) that can contaminate freshwater bodies. They are cyclic peptides consisting of seven amino acids, and their structure varies among different microcystin variants. These toxins can have negative effects on the liver and other organs in humans and animals upon exposure through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with contaminated water. They are a concern for both public health and environmental safety, particularly in relation to drinking water supplies, recreational water use, and aquatic ecosystems.

"Oscillatoria" is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic genus name in the field of biology and microbiology. It belongs to the family of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) called "Pseudanabaenaceae." Oscillatoria species are filamentous bacteria that contain chlorophyll and can perform photosynthesis. They form long, straight or slightly curved trichomes (filaments) without heterocysts or akinetes. The cells in the trichome are typically separated by narrow gaps, giving them a beaded appearance.

These organisms are often found in various aquatic environments such as freshwater, brackish water, and marine habitats. Some species of Oscillatoria can produce toxins, known as cyanotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals when they contaminate drinking water sources or recreational bodies of water.

In a medical context, exposure to harmful algal blooms containing Oscillatoria species might lead to symptoms such as skin irritation, allergic reactions, gastrointestinal issues, or respiratory problems in sensitive individuals. However, it is essential to note that these health effects are not exclusive to Oscillatoria and can be caused by various cyanobacterial genera.

Glutamate-ammonia ligase, also known as glutamine synthetase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism. It catalyzes the formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia in the presence of ATP, resulting in the conversion of ammonia to a less toxic form. This reaction is essential for maintaining nitrogen balance in the body and for the synthesis of various amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. The enzyme is widely distributed in various tissues, including the brain, liver, and muscle, and its activity is tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by glutamine and other metabolites.

Methionine Sulfoximine (MSO) is not a medical term itself, but it is a compound that has been used in research and scientific studies. It's a stable analogue of the essential amino acid methionine, which can be found in some foods like sesame seeds, Brazil nuts, and fish.

Methionine Sulfoximine has been used in research to study the metabolism and transport of methionine in cells and organisms. It is also known for its ability to inhibit the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which plays a role in the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid associated with cardiovascular disease when present at high levels.

However, Methionine Sulfoximine is not used as a therapeutic agent or medication in humans due to its potential toxicity and lack of established clinical benefits.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Microcystis" is not a medical term, but a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) commonly found in freshwater environments. Some species of Microcystis can produce toxins called microcystins, which can cause liver damage and other health problems in humans and animals when they consume or come into contact with contaminated water. Therefore, Microcystis blooms in recreational waters or drinking water sources can pose a public health concern.

Phycobilisomes are large, complex pigment-protein structures found in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of red algae and glaucophytes. They function as light-harvesting antennae, capturing light energy and transferring it to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Phycobilisomes are composed of phycobiliproteins, which are bound together in a highly organized manner to form rod-like structures called phycobil rods. These rods are attached to a central core structure called the phycobilisome core. The different types of phycobiliproteins absorb light at different wavelengths, allowing the organism to efficiently utilize available sunlight for photosynthesis.

Sensory rhodopsins are light-sensitive proteins found in the archaea, a group of single-celled microorganisms. They are part of a larger family of proteins called rhodopsins which contain retinal, a light-sensitive molecule that undergoes a change in shape when it absorbs light.

In sensory rhodopsins, this light-induced change in the retinal triggers a signal transduction pathway that allows the archaea to detect and respond to different wavelengths of light in their environment. This is important for the archaea's survival as it helps them to regulate their behavior, such as swimming towards or away from light sources.

There are two types of sensory rhodopsins, known as SR I and SR II, which allow the archaea to detect different wavelengths of light. SR I is responsible for negative phototaxis, or movement away from light, while SR II is involved in positive phototaxis, or movement towards light.

Overall, sensory rhodopsins play a crucial role in helping archaea to navigate and survive in their environment by allowing them to detect and respond to different wavelengths of light.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Dinitrogenase reductase is a protein involved in the process of nitrogen fixation in certain bacteria and archaea. It is responsible for delivering electrons to the enzyme dinitrogenase, which converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for use by living organisms. Dinitrogenase reductase contains a cluster of iron and sulfur atoms that facilitate the transfer of electrons. The combined action of dinitrogenase reductase and dinitrogenase allows these microorganisms to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere as a source of nitrogen for growth, making them important contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.

Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that play a crucial role in electron transfer reactions in various biological systems, particularly in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. They contain one or more clusters of iron and sulfur atoms (known as the iron-sulfur cluster) that facilitate the movement of electrons between different molecules during metabolic processes.

Ferredoxins have a relatively simple structure, consisting of a polypeptide chain that binds to the iron-sulfur cluster. This simple structure allows ferredoxins to participate in a wide range of redox reactions and makes them versatile electron carriers in biological systems. They can accept electrons from various donors and transfer them to different acceptors, depending on the needs of the cell.

In photosynthesis, ferredoxins play a critical role in the light-dependent reactions by accepting electrons from photosystem I and transferring them to NADP+, forming NADPH. This reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is then used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation and the production of glucose.

In nitrogen fixation, ferredoxins help transfer electrons to the nitrogenase enzyme complex, which reduces atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for assimilation by plants and other organisms.

Overall, ferredoxins are essential components of many metabolic pathways, facilitating electron transfer and energy conversion in various biological systems.

Phycobilins are linear tetrapyrrole chromophores found in cyanobacteria, red algae, and glaucophytes. They are the light-harvesting pigments associated with phycobiliproteins in the phycobilisome complex, which is a type of antenna system used to capture light for photosynthesis. The main types of phycobilins are phycocyanobilin, phycoerythrobilin, and allophycocyanobilin. These pigments absorb light in the blue-green to red region of the electromagnetic spectrum and transfer the energy to chlorophyll a for use in photosynthesis. Phycobilins are also used as fluorescent labels in various biochemical and medical research applications.

Cycadophyta, also known as cycads, is a division of plants that includes several species of mostly tropical and subtropical gymnosperms. These plants are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves, a stout trunk often undergrown by other plants, and a cone-like reproductive structure. Cycads are considered to be living fossils because they have remained relatively unchanged for millions of years and are thought to resemble some of the earliest seed plants. They are found in scattered locations around the world, particularly in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Some cycad species are endangered due to habitat loss and overcollection for ornamental purposes.

Cupressaceae is a family of coniferous plants, also known as the cypress family. It includes a variety of genera such as *Cupressus* (cypress), *Juniperus* (juniper), *Thuja* (arborvitae or cedar), and *Chamaecyparis* (false cypress or Port Orford cedar). These plants are characterized by their small, scale-like leaves, and many produce cones that contain seeds. Some species in this family have economic importance as timber, ornamental plants, or for their essential oils.

Ferns are a group of vascular plants that reproduce by means of spores rather than seeds. They are characterized by their frond-like leaves and lack of flowers or fruits. Ferns have been around for millions of years, with some fossilized ferns dating back to the Devonian period, over 360 million years ago.

Ferns are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in tropical rainforests where they provide habitat and food for a variety of animals. They also play a role in soil erosion control and nutrient cycling.

Medically, some ferns have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as bracken fern which has been used to treat wounds, burns, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that not all ferns are safe for consumption or use as medicines, and some can be toxic if ingested or applied topically. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies.

Gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that include conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. The name "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek words "gymnos," meaning naked, and "sperma," meaning seed. This refers to the fact that the seeds of gymnosperms are not enclosed within an ovary or fruit, but are exposed on the surface of modified leaves called cones or strobili.

Gymnosperms are vascular plants, which means they have specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. They are also heterosporous, meaning that they produce two types of spores: male microspores and female megaspores. The microspores develop into male gametophytes, which produce sperm cells, while the megaspores develop into female gametophytes, which produce egg cells.

Gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have been around for millions of years. They are adapted to a wide range of environments, from temperate forests to deserts and high mountain ranges. Many gymnosperms are evergreen, with needle-like or scale-like leaves that are able to resist drought and cold temperatures.

Conifers, which include trees such as pines, firs, spruces, and redwoods, are the most diverse and widespread group of gymnosperms. They are characterized by their woody cones and needle-shaped leaves. Cycads are another group of gymnosperms that are found in tropical and subtropical regions. They have large, stiff leaves and produce large seeds that are enclosed in a fleshy covering. Ginkgo is a unique gymnosperm that has been around for over 200 million years. It is a deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves and large, naked seeds.

Gnetophytes are a small group of gymnosperms that include the ephedra, welwitschia, and gnetum. They have unique features such as vessels in their wood and motile sperm cells, which are not found in other gymnosperms.

Overall, gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have adapted to a wide range of environments and play a crucial role in many ecosystems.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hepatophyta" is not a valid medical or scientific term in modern usage. It appears to be a combination of the Greek word "hepar" meaning "liver" and the suffix "-phyta" which is used to denote a plant or group of plants in taxonomy. However, it is not a term that is recognized or used in modern biology or medicine.

It's possible that you may be thinking of "Hepatica," which is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae. These plants are also known as liverworts, although they should not be confused with actual liverworts, which are non-vascular plants in the division Marchantiophyta.

If you have any further questions or if there is another term you would like me to define, please let me know!

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

10.1039/C5EM00097A Media related to Anabaena at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Anabaena at Wikispecies Sequenced Anabaena ... is studied in Anabaena. Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. ... Anabaena is used as a model organism to study simple vision. The process in which light changes the shape of molecules in the ... This has made Anabaena azollae completely dependent on its host, as several of its genes are either lost or has been ...
... exhibits a filamentous morphology, each filament a string of task-specific cells. The appearance of cell ... Biological toxicity aside, Anabaena circinalis blooms have the potential to disrupt commercial fishing areas, water-treatment ... Baker, P. (1992). "Anabaena circinalis". In Tyler, P (ed.). Identification of common noxious cyanobacteria, part 1. Nostocales ... Anabaena circinalis is a species of Gram-negative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria common to freshwater environments throughout ...
... is a species of filamentous cyanobacterium. This species of the genus Anabaena and the domain Eubacteria is ... though no such relationship has been observed with Anabaena variabilis. Anabaena variabilis is also a model organism for ... Anabaena variabilis is a phylogenic-cousin of the more well-known species Nostoc spirrilum. Both of these species along with ... Pearce, J.; Leach, C. K.; Carr, N. G. (1969). "The Incomplete Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in the Blue-green Alga Anabaena ...
Anabaena spp. colonize the roots of wheat and cotton plants. Calothrix sp. has also been found on the root system of wheat. ... Assessment of wheat seedling roots revealed two types of association patterns: loose colonization of root hair by Anabaena and ... Anabaena and Cylindrospermum, from plant root and soil. ...
"Naomi Fraga homepage". anabaena.net. Retrieved 2022-10-23. Fraga (2015). Barber, Gregory. "The Lithium Mine Versus the ...
Anabaena spp. colonize the roots of wheat and cotton plants. Calothrix sp. has also been found on the root system of wheat. ... Cyanobacteria such as Anabaena (a symbiont of the aquatic fern Azolla) can provide rice plantations with biofertilizer. ... Others, such as Anabaena variabilis, can steer by bending the trichome. Finally, photophobic microorganisms respond to spatial ... Assessment of wheat seedling roots revealed two types of association patterns: loose colonization of root hair by Anabaena and ...
Invasive phytoplankton species of Prosopis juliflora, Spirulina major, Oscillatoria spp., Anabaena spp., Rhizosolenia ...
Previous studies attributed neurotoxin production to Anabaena flos-aquae species, which is also a type of nitrogen-fixing ... They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, an extracellular endosymbiont (living outside the ... Agnihotri, Vijai K. (2014). "Anabaena flos-aquae". Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 44 (18): 1995-2037 ...
The genus Anabaena uses specialized cells called heterocysts to physically separate nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. ... Agnihotri, Vijai K (2014). "Anabaena flos-aquae". Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 44 (18): 1995-2037 ...
Freshwater Anabaena species" (PDF). Preslia (in English and Latin). 77: 211-234. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 June ...
Cyanobacterial blooms (Anabaena spp.) are common in the stagnant water of dams, but do not occur in the flowing water of rivers ...
Anabaena sperica Anabaena is used as a model organism to study simple vision Helical filaments of cyanobacteria Helical ... Golden JW, Yoon HS (December 1998). "Heterocyst formation in Anabaena". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 1 (6): 623-9. doi: ... Schapiro, Igor (May 2014). "Ultrafast photochemistry of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin: Experiment and theory". Biochimica et ... and Anabaena sphaerica. They fix nitrogen from atmospheric N2 using the enzyme nitrogenase, in order to provide the cells in ...
Ana Baena (2022-12-30). ""Luis Torras cumplió 110 años: "Sólo pido tranquilidad""". atlantico. Retrieved 2022-12-30. Woman ...
Azotobacter, Anabaena, and Clostridium) , symbiotic (ex. Rhizobium and Trichodesmium) and associative symbiotic (ex. ...
The KaiA protein from Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7120) lacks the N-terminal CheY-like domain. KaiB adopts an alpha-beta meander ... Garces RG, Wu N, Gillon W, Pai EF (April 2004). "Anabaena circadian clock proteins KaiA and KaiB reveal a potential common ...
Gleason FK, Eklund H, Saarinen M (1995). "Crystal structure of thioredoxin-2 from Anabaena". Structure. 3 (10): 1097-1108. doi: ...
Examples are Anabaena cylindrica and Nostoc commune. Other cyanobacteria lack heterocysts and can fix nitrogen only in low ... The fern association is important agriculturally: the water fern Azolla harbouring Anabaena is an important green manure for ...
de Waard A, Korsuize J, van Beveren CP, Maat J (December 1978). "A new sequence-specific endonuclease from Anabaena cylindrica ... Whitehead PR, Brown NL (April 1985). "Three restriction endonucleases from Anabaena flos-aquae". J Gen Microbiol. 131 (4): 951- ... Hughes SG, Murray K (January 1980). "The nucleotide sequences recognized by endonucleases AvaI and AvaII from Anabaena ... "Complete genomic sequence of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120". DNA Res. 8 (5): 227- ...
ISBN 978-0-12-597180-5. Carmichael WW, Gorham PR (1978). "Anatoxins from clones of Anabaena flos-aquae isolated from lakes of ... Carmichael WW, Biggs DF, Gorham PR (1975). "Toxicology and pharmacological action of Anabaena flos-aquae toxin". Science. 187 ( ... Saxitoxin is produced by the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp., some Aphanizomenon spp., Cylindrospermopsis sp., Lyngbya sp. and ... a toxic alkaloid from Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-44h". Can. J. Chem. 55 (8): 1367-1371. doi:10.1139/v77-189. Moore RE (1977). " ...
In Florida, these include Aphanizomenon, Anabaena and Microcystis. Some notable fish kills in Louisiana in the 1950s were due ...
AlgaeBase: Anabaena azollae Strasburger 1884 Sjödin, Erik (2012). The Azolla Cooking and Cultivation Project. "Azolla nilotica ... of a species that has variously been called Anabaena azollae, Nostoc azollae or Trichormus azollae. It occurs in stagnant or ...
Nultsch, Wilhelm; Schuchart, Hartwig; Höhl, Marga (1979). "Investigations on the phototactic orientation of Anabaena variabilis ... Anabaena, Synechocystis) can slowly orient along a light vector. This orientation occurs in filaments or colonies, but only on ...
Anabaena flos-aquae and Aphanizomenon gracile. The fauna in the lake consists of eight types of benthos and ten types of fish ...
2010). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nitrogenase active site to increase photobiological ...
Nultsch, Wilhelm; Schuchart, Hartwig; Höhl, Marga (1979). "Investigations on the phototactic orientation of Anabaena variabilis ... Anabaena, Synechocystis) can slowly orient along a light vector. This orientation occurs in filaments or colonies, but only on ...
Dominant phytoplankton genera include Anabaena, Scenedesmus, and Melosira. The city of Oshkosh lies between Lake Butte des ...
Strambi, A.; Durbeej, B.; Ferre, N.; Olivucci, M. (22 November 2010). "Anabaena sensory rhodopsin is a light-driven ...
... s can infect and kill four common bloom-forming cyanobacteria: Lyngbya birgei, Anabaena circinalis, Anabaena ... The A-group of the virus causes lysis and infects Anabaena species. Similarly, the host range of the AN group includes both ... They play an important role in infecting and causing lysis of members of the genera Nostoc, Anabaena and Plectonema. ... Hu, Nien-Tai; Thiel, Teresa; Giddings, Thomas H.; Wolk, C.Peter (1981). "New Anabaena and Nostoc cyanophages from sewage ...
Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Scytonema, Rivularia) Order Stigonematales (e.g., Stigonema) Class Prochlorophyceae (e.g., Prochloron ...
"Phylogenetic comparison of the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena and Aphanizomenon". International Journal of Systematic and ...
10.1039/C5EM00097A Media related to Anabaena at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Anabaena at Wikispecies Sequenced Anabaena ... is studied in Anabaena. Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. ... Anabaena is used as a model organism to study simple vision. The process in which light changes the shape of molecules in the ... This has made Anabaena azollae completely dependent on its host, as several of its genes are either lost or has been ...
Cyanobacteria Anabaena. Reference. Reinholld, Kosloffr, and Kaplan, 1991. A model for inorganic carbon fluxes and ... electron micrograph of the Anabaena cell indicated a radius of about 200 nm for the carboxysome. Making appropriate allowance ...
... from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. Plus protein sequence and external database links. ... Domain assignment for gi,75910353,ref,YP_324649.1, from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. Domain architecture ... cystathionine gamma-lyase [Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413]. Sequence. ...
Bottle Copies - Dr Hulda Clarks Recommended Source for Homeographic Drops
Anabaena South Australia Murray River.. Algal toxins.. Description: January 2003. Amendments in pocket inside back cover. ... Growth of Anabaena circinalis in the Lower Murray River, South Australia / by Karen Jillian Westwood. ...
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence.. ...
Anabaena and Nodularia) were identified in marine coastal waters during one HAB event. ...
More extended study on a higher number of strains is necessary fora deeper understanding the biodiversity of Anabaena spp. ... Kust, A. (2013). Karakterizacija bentoskih i perifitonskih sojeva cijanobakterija vrste Anabaena spp. iz areala Sokolov (Češka) ... Main aim of this thesis is polyphasic characterization of 16 benthic andperiphytic Anabaena strain collected from eight ... According to the results, we can conclude benthic and periphytic Anabaena genus is phylogenetically heterogeneous. Clustering ...
The gas vesicles of Anabaena flos-aquae have been used as localized force actuators in a targeted mouse brain region, and ... Buchholz, B., Hayes, P. K., and Walsby, A. E. (1993). The distribution of the outer gas vesicle protein, GvpC, on the Anabaena ... Among bacteria, cyanobacteria such as Anabaena, Planktothrix, Calothrix, or Microcystis, the proteobacterium Serratia ATCC ... The five α-helical repeats of the Anabaena GvpC would then span five adjacent ribs to stabilize the shell. ...
Anabaena flos-aquae var. jacutica I.A. Kisselev Issl. oz. SSSR Gos. Gidrol. Inst. Vyp. 8: 83, figs. 1, 2. 1935. (G) Type ... Retrieve all Anabaena Get original family assignment from Index Nominum Genericorum Check for UC specimen record Problems/ ...
Algae (Anabaena). Amoeba (Amoeba proteus) - Blue. Amoeba (Amoeba proteus) - Orange. Amoeba (Amoeba proteus) - Yellow ...
Characterization of the superoxide dismutases in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.. Autoren: Regelsberger, G ... Hydrogen peroxide removal in Anabaena variabilis: Cloning, overexpression and characterization of a thioredoxin peroxidase.. ...
Species Anabaena sp. [TaxId:1168] [188238] (4 PDB entries). *. Species Helicobacter pylori [TaxId:210] [187348] (2 PDB entries) ... Species Anabaena, pcc 7119 and 7120 [TaxId:1163] [52223] (8 PDB entries). ...
Saxitoxin is produced by the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp., some Aphanizomenon spp., Cylindrospermopsis sp., Lyngbya sp. and ...
correlated with Anabaena biovolume. Genetic diversity of the Microcystis population. was assessed during 2011 and showed that ... the cyanobacterial bloom shifted from Microcystis to the N-fixing Anabaena.. Furthermore, during 2011, the concentration of the ...
FNR variants from the cyanobacterium Anabaena in which the C-terminal Tyr has been replaced by Trp, Phe, or Ser have been ...
Anabaena sp. DCC D0672. *Anabaena sp. FACHB-418. *Anabaena sp. IRRI Ab 47 XX ...
Presentation] シアノバクテリアの光センサー蛋白質 Anabaena sensory rhodopsinの光誘起プロトン移動の解析2012. *. Author(s). 長谷見崇俊、菊川峰志、神谷昌克、相沢智康、河野敬一、Kwang-Hwan ... Presentation] Photo-induced proton transfer of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin2012. *. Author(s). 長谷見崇俊、菊川峰志、神谷昌克、相沢智康、河野敬一、Kwang- ... Presentation] Photo-induced proton transfer of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin2012. *. Author(s). 長谷見
Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive algae NOEC (Anabaena flos-aquae = cyanobacteria) EC10 399 mikrog/ ... Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive algae (Anabaena flos-aquae) NOEC 440 microg/L. ...
AFA, Algae, Algas Verdiazul, Algues Bleu-Vert, Algues Bleu-Vert du Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira ...
Cyanobacteria, especially members of the genera Microcystis, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon and Oscillatoria, are common and ...
Anabaena, bullfrog tadpoles and Paramecium, 3 prepared microscope slides: Bacilli, Saccharomyces and Elodea, and supplies: a ...
Anabaena bergii and Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides) and three native (Aphanizomenon gracile, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and ... Anabaena macrospora) cyanobacterial species (Nostocales) from German lakes. We also included one potentially invasive ( ...
Some forms of Anabaena algae have been to known emit toxins when it dies that attack the liver and cause other sorts of health ... U.S. Army Corps of Engineers staff at Marion Reservoir discovered a blue-green algae-tentatively identified as the anabaena ...
What is the function of a heterocyst in anabaena? asked in Microbes in Human Welfare by Lifeeasy Biology *. anabaena. ...
Anabaena voda. -. modrozelené baktérie, tvoria kyslík, niektoré viažu dusík. aktinomycéty. Streptomyces. Micromonospora. ...
List of words that start with An. Here you can find complete list of 700+ important words starting with an.
  • Anabaena flos-aquae var. (berkeley.edu)
  • 1991. Dose-response relationship of Anabaena flos- aquae and Selenastrum capricornutum to atrazine and hexazinone using chlorophyll (a) content and 14C uptake. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive algae NOEC (Anabaena flos-aquae = cyanobacteria) EC 10 399 mikrog/L. (janusinfo.se)
  • To evaluate their further development in temperate lakes, we studied the temperature- and light-dependent growth of three invasive (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Anabaena bergii and Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides) and three native (Aphanizomenon gracile, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena macrospora) cyanobacterial species (Nostocales) from German lakes. (kompetenz-wasser.de)
  • Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria that exist as plankton. (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers staff at Marion Reservoir discovered a blue-green algae-tentatively identified as the anabaena species-in a restricted area at Hillsboro Cove swim beach and in small, protected pools at the base of the dam. (hillsborofreepress.com)
  • Some forms of Anabaena algae have been to known emit toxins when it dies that attack the liver and cause other sorts of health problems, according to Steven Garrett, Hillsboro city administrator. (hillsborofreepress.com)
  • The fern Azolla, forms a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to this essential nutrient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynamics and Cell-Type Specificity of the DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Protein RecN in the Developmental Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • FNR variants from the cyanobacterium Anabaena in which the C-terminal Tyr has been replaced by Trp, Phe, or Ser have been produced. (rcsb.org)
  • Following Nlimitation, the cyanobacterial bloom shifted from Microcystis to the N-fixing Anabaena. (osu.edu)
  • Certain species of Anabaena have been used on rice paddy fields, proving to be an effective natural fertilizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas low light intensities of 200 lux and 38°C result in a 6- to 11-fold increased transcription of the gas vesicle protein ( gvp ) gene cluster of Anabaena sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Growth of Anabaena circinalis in the Lower Murray River, South Australia / by Karen Jillian Westwood. (edu.au)
  • Growth of Anabaena circinalis in the Lower Murray River, South Australia / by Karen Jillian Westwood. (edu.au)
  • DOI:10.1039/C5EM00097A Media related to Anabaena at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Anabaena at Wikispecies Sequenced Anabaena Genomes Guiry, M.D. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA sequencing project was undertaken in 1999, which mapped the complete genome of Anabaena, which is 7.2 million base pairs long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anabaena is used as a model organism to study simple vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eduardo Romero-Vivas, Fernando Daniel Von Borstel, Claudia Perez-Estrada, Darla Torres-Ariño, Francisco Juan Villa-Medina, Joaquin Gutierrez (2015) On-water remote monitoring robotic system for estimating patch coverage of Anabaena sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of Anabaena Variabilis ATCC 29413" by Teresa Thiel, Brenda Pratte et al. (umsl.edu)
  • PCC 6803 and Anabaena PCC 7120 at 1.3 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively, and show that they retain the classic Sm fold despite low sequence conservation. (rcsb.org)
  • Robust, coherent, and synchronized circadian clock-controlled oscillations along Anabaena filaments. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3HFN: Crystal Structure of an Hfq protein from Anabaena sp. (rcsb.org)
  • We study the dynamics of a circadian clock -controlled gene at the individual cell level in Anabaena sp. (bvsalud.org)