Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Anabaena flos-aquae: A species in the genus ANABAENA containing gas vacuoles that gives buoyancy to the organism. It can form extensive blooms in FRESH WATER and is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Anabaena cylindrica: A species in the genus ANABAENA whose trichomes are composed of cylindrical cells.AcetyleneBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phycocyanin: The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Flavodoxin: A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.Nostoc: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Oscillatoria: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Methionine SulfoximineAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microcystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Phycobilisomes: Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.Sensory Rhodopsins: Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Phosphorus Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.GermanySTAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Harmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

A cold shock-induced cyanobacterial RNA helicase. (1/485)

The ability to modify RNA secondary structure is crucial for numerous cellular processes. We have characterized two RNA helicase genes, crhB and crhC, which are differentially expressed in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. crhC transcription is limited specifically to cold shock conditions while crhB is expressed under a variety of conditions, including enhanced expression in the cold. This implies that both RNA helicases are involved in the cold acclimation process in cyanobacteria; however, they presumably perform different roles in this adaptation. Although both CrhB and CrhC belong to the DEAD box subfamily of RNA helicases, CrhC encodes a novel RNA helicase, as the highly conserved SAT motif is modified to FAT. This alteration may affect CrhC function and its association with specific RNA targets and/or accessory proteins, interactions required for cold acclimation. Primer extension and analysis of the 5' untranslated region of crhC revealed the transcriptional start site, as well as a number of putative cold shock-responsive elements. The potential role(s) performed by RNA helicases in the acclimation of cyanobacteria to cold shock is discussed.  (+info)

Constitutive and nitrogen-regulated promoters of the petH gene encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (2/485)

Determination of the putative transcription start points of the petH gene encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. PCC 7119 and PCC 7120 showed that this gene is transcribed from two promoters, one constitutively used under different conditions of nitrogen nutrition and the other one used in cells subjected to nitrogen stepdown and in nitrogen-fixing filaments. The latter promoter, whose use was NtcA-dependent but HetR-independent, was functional in heterocysts. The N-control transcriptional regulator NtcA was observed to bind in vitro to this promoter. For the sake of comparison, the transcription start points of the nifHDK operon in strain PCC 7120 and binding of NtcA to the nifHDK promoter were also examined.  (+info)

Quantitative structure activity relationships for the electron transfer reactions of Anabaena PCC 7119 ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase with nitrobenzene and nitrobenzimidazolone derivatives: mechanistic implications. (3/485)

The steady state single electron reduction of polynitroaromatics by ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (EC 1.18.1.2) from cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 has been studied and quantitative structure activity relationships are described. The solubility of the polynitroaromatics as well as their reactivity towards ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase are markedly higher than those for previously studied mononitroaromatics and this enabled the independent measurement of the kinetic parameters-k(cat) and Km. Interestingly, the natural logarithm of the bimolecular rate constant, k(cat)/Km, and also the natural logarithm of k(cat) correlate with the calculated energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the polynitroaromatic substrates. The minimal kinetic model in line with these quantitative structure activity relationships is a ping-pong mechanism which includes substrate binding equilibria in the second half reaction.  (+info)

Lag phase of CO2-dependent O2 evolution by illuminated Anabaena variabilis cells. (4/485)

The steady-state rate of CO2-dependent O2 evolution by Anabaena variabilis cells in response to illumination was established after a lag phase. The lag phase was shortened (1) in cells incubated with glucose as an oxidizable substrate and (2) upon an increase in light intensity. The lag phase was absent during electron transfer from H2O to p-benzoquinone (in combination with ferricyanide) involving Photosystem II. A lag was observed during electron transfer from H2O to methyl viologen involving Photosystems II and I, but not for electron transfer from N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (in combination with ascorbate) to methyl viologen involving only Photosystem I. The lag phases of the light-induced H2O --> CO2 and H2O --> methyl viologen electron transfer reactions showed the same temperature dependences at 10-30 degrees C. The lag was prevented by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea at concentrations that caused partial inhibition of photosynthetic O2 evolution. Retardation of cell respiration by a combination of CN- and benzylhydroxamate shortened the lag phase of the H2O --> methyl viologen electron transfer. It is concluded that the lag phase is associated with the electron transfer step between Photosystem II and Photosystem I common for the photosynthetic and respiratory chains and is due to the stimulation of cell respiration during the initial period of illumination as a consequence of an increase in the reduced plastoquinone pool and to subsequent retardation of respiration resulting from the transition of the electron transfer chain to the competitive pathway involving Photosystem I.  (+info)

Electrostatic forces involved in orienting Anabaena ferredoxin during binding to Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase: site-specific mutagenesis, transient kinetic measurements, and electrostatic surface potentials. (5/485)

Transient absorbance measurements following laser flash photolysis have been used to measure the rate constants for electron transfer (et) from reduced Anabaena ferredoxin (Fd) to wild-type and seven site-specific charge-reversal mutants of Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase (FNR). These mutations have been designed to probe the importance of specific positively charged amino acid residues on the surface of the FNR molecule near the exposed edge of the FAD cofactor in the protein-protein interaction during et with Fd. The mutant proteins fall into two groups: overall, the K75E, R16E, and K72E mutants are most severely impaired in et, and the K138E, R264E, K290E, and K294E mutants are impaired to a lesser extent, although the degree of impairment varies with ionic strength. Binding constants for complex formation between the oxidized proteins and for the transient et complexes show that the severity of the alterations in et kinetics for the mutants correlate with decreased stabilities of the protein-protein complexes. Those mutated residues, which show the largest effects, are located in a region of the protein in which positive charge predominates, and charge reversals have large effects on the calculated local surface electrostatic potential. In contrast, K138, R264, K290, and K294 are located within or close to regions of intense negative potential, and therefore the introduction of additional negative charges have considerably smaller effects on the calculated surface potential. We attribute the relative changes in et kinetics and complex binding constants for these mutants to these characteristics of the surface charge distribution in FNR and conclude that the positively charged region of the FNR surface located in the vicinity of K75, R16, and K72 is especially important in the binding and orientation of Fd during electron transfer.  (+info)

Electron-nuclear double resonance and hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopic studies of flavodoxin mutants from Anabaena sp. PCC 7119. (6/485)

The influence of the amino acid residues surrounding the flavin ring in the flavodoxin of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 on the electron spin density distribution of the flavin semiquinone was examined in mutants of the key residues Trp(57) and Tyr(94) at the FMN binding site. Neutral semiquinone radicals of the proteins were obtained by photoreduction and examined by electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopies. Significant differences in electron density distribution were observed in the flavodoxin mutants Trp(57) --> Ala and Tyr(94) --> Ala. The results indicate that the presence of a bulky residue (either aromatic or aliphatic) at position 57, as compared with an alanine, decreases the electron spin density in the nuclei of the benzene flavin ring, whereas an aromatic residue at position 94 increases the electron spin density at positions N(5) and C(6) of the flavin ring. The influence of the FMN ribityl and phosphate on the flavin semiquinone was determined by reconstituting apoflavodoxin samples with riboflavin and with lumiflavin. The coupling parameters of the different nuclei of the isoalloxazine group, as detected by ENDOR and HYSCORE, were very similar to those of the native flavodoxin. This indicates that the protein conformation around the flavin ring and the electron density distribution in the semiquinone form are not influenced by the phosphate and the ribityl of FMN.  (+info)

Identification of amino acids responsible for the oxygen sensitivity of ferredoxins from Anabaena variabilis using site-directed mutagenesis. (7/485)

The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis (ATCC 29413) possesses two molybdenum dependent nitrogenase systems, nif1 and nif2. The nif1 system is regulated by a developmental program involving heterocyst differentiation; the nif2 system is expressed in all cells only under anaerobic conditions and the expression is controlled environmentally. The genes fdxH1 and fdxH2, encoding two [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins, are part of the these two distinct and differently regulated nif gene clusters. The sensitivity of both ferredoxins to oxygen was different; the half-life of FdxH2 in air was only approximately 1.5 h, while FdxH1 retained 80% of its nitrogenase activity after 24 h. We used site-directed mutagenesis to identify the role of individual amino acid residues responsible for oxygen sensitivity and found out that the FdxH2 double mutant I76A/V77L was much more resistant to oxygen than the wild-type ferredoxin (FdxH2) and similar to FdxH1. By modelling it was shown that the accessibility of the cavity around the iron-sulfur cluster was responsible for that.  (+info)

The hetC gene is a direct target of the NtcA transcriptional regulator in cyanobacterial heterocyst development. (8/485)

The heterocyst is the site of nitrogen fixation in aerobically grown cultures of some filamentous cyanobacteria. Heterocyst development in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is dependent on the global nitrogen regulator NtcA and requires, among others, the products of the hetR and hetC genes. Expression of hetC, tested by RNA- DNA hybridization, was impaired in an ntcA mutant. A nitrogen-regulated, NtcA-dependent putative transcription start point was localized at nucleotide -571 with respect to the hetC translational start. Sequences upstream from this transcription start point exhibit the structure of the canonical cyanobacterial promoter activated by NtcA, and purified NtcA protein specifically bound to a DNA fragment containing this promoter. Activation of expression of hetC during heterocyst development appears thus to be directly operated by NtcA. NtcA-mediated activation of hetR expression was not impaired in a hetC mutant, indicating that HetC is not an NtcA-dependent element required for hetR induction.  (+info)

Nitrogen is an essential building block of proteins and nucleic acids and, therefore, crucial for the biosphere. Nearly 79 % of the air consists of nitrogen, but in the form of nitrogen gas (N2), which cannot be utilized by most organisms. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms such as cyanobacteria have a central role in supplying biologically useful nitrogen to the biosphere. Therefore, it is important to achieve further understanding of control mechanisms involved in nitrogen fixation and related processes. This thesis concerns different molecular aspects of the transcription factor NtcA from the heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Apart from performing oxygenic photosynthesis, Anabaena PCC 7120 is also capable of fixing nitrogen. NtcA is a protein regulating transcription of a wide range of genes and in particular genes involved in cyanobacterial global nitrogen control. NtcA binds as a dimer to the promoter regions of target genes such as those involved in nitrogen fixation and ...
Jones, K.M.; Haselkorn, R., 2002: Newly identified cytochrome c oxidase operon in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 specifically induced in heterocysts
Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that fixes N2 in specialized cells called heterocysts, which differentiate from vegetative cells in a process that requires the nitrogen control transcription factor NtcA. 2-Oxoglutarate-stimulated binding of purified NtcA to wild-type and modified versions of the ntcA gene promoter from Anabaena sp. was analyzed by mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays, and the role of NtcA-binding sites in the expression of the ntcA gene during heterocyst differentiation was studied in vivo by using an ntcA-gfp translational fusion and primer extension analysis. Mutation of neither of the two identified NtcA-binding sites eliminated localized expression of ntcA in proheterocysts, but mutation of both sites led to very low, nonlocalized expression. Copyright © 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved ...
The CRP-family transcription factor NtcA, universally found in cyanobacteria, was initially discovered as a regulator operating N control. It responds to the N regime signaled by the internal 2-oxoglutarate levels, an indicator of the C to N balance of the cells. Canonical NtcA-activated promoters bear an NtcA-consensus binding site (GTAN8TAC) centered at about 41.5 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start point. In strains of the Anabaena/Nostoc genera NtcA is pivotal for the differentiation of heterocysts in response to N stress. In this study, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing to identify the whole catalog of NtcA-binding sites in cells of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 three hours after the withdrawal of combined N. NtcA has been found to bind to 2,424 DNA regions in the genome of Anabaena, which have been ascribed to 2,153 genes. Interestingly, only a small proportion of those genes are involved in N
Filamentous cyanobacteria represent model organisms for investigating multicellularity. For many species, nitrogen-fixing heterocysts are formed from photosynthetic vegetative cells under nitrogen limitation. Intracellular Ca2+ has been implicated in the highly regulated process of heterocyst differentiation but its role remains unclear. Ca2+ is known to operate more broadly in metabolic signalling in cyanobacteria, although the signalling mechanisms are virtually unknown. A Ca2+-binding protein called the Ca2+ Sensor EF-hand (CSE) is found almost exclusively in filamentous cyanobacteria. Expression of asr1131 encoding the CSE protein in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was strongly induced by low CO2 conditions, and rapidly downregulated during nitrogen step-down. A previous study suggests a role for CSE and Ca2+ in regulation of photosynthetic activity in response to changes in carbon and nitrogen availability. In the current study, a mutant Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 strain lacking asr1131 (Δcse) was highly prone
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Anabaena sp., Gram-negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Note the larger cells in the filament called heterocysts which are involved in nitrogen fixation. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue, Green algae). It found as planktonic cyanobacterium (all types of water) and is known for its nitrogen fixing abilities. Blooms or massive growths can occur in waters with a lot of nutrients. These blooms discolour the water and give it a bad odour when the cells die and decay. Anabaena is one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins. These toxins are harmful to local wildlife, as well as farm animals and pets. Production of these neurotoxins is part of its symbiotic relationships it forms with certain plants. Some species of Anabaena are endophytes. Magnification: x660 when shortest axis printed at 25 - Stock Image C032/2525
Cyanobacteria are gram-negative prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis by fixing carbon dioxide to produce oxygen. Multiple species, such as Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, of cyanobacteria are also capable of fixing N2 when nitrogen sources in the environment are scarce. Around 10% of the vegetative cells of the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiate into heterocysts, cells that specialize in fixing nitrogen, in response to lack of nitrogen sources. Phycobilisomes are protein complexes composed of phycobiliproteins that catch sunlight to use in oxygenic photosynthesis and exist within the thylakoid membranes of vegetative cells. The phycobiliproteins absorb light and are composed of an α and β subunit. We removed the α and β subunit of phycocyanin, one of the phycobilproteins, to create iPC, a mutated strain of Anabaena. The wild type is an unaltered sample of Anabaena and was used as a comparison against iPC. Cells of both were grown in medium with and without a nitrogen
Geosmin has often been associated with off-flavor problems in drinking water with *Anabaena* sp. as the major producer. Rapid on-site detection of geosmin-producers as well as geosmin is important for a timely management response to potential off-flavor events. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed to detect the levels of *Anabaena* sp. and geosmin, respectively, by designing two PCR primer sets to quantify the *rpoC₁* gene (ARG) and geosmin synthase one (GSG) in *Anabaena* sp. in freshwater systems. The ARG density determined by qPCR assay is highly related to microscopic cell count (r² = 0.726, p | 0.001), and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the qPCR method were 0.02 pg and 0.2 pg of DNA, respectively. At the same time, the relationship between geosmin concentrations measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GSG copies was also established (r² = 0.742, p | 0.001) with similar LOD and LOQ values.
Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium that fixes nitrogen and CO2 using the energy of sunlight via oxygen-evolving plant-type photosynthesis. It has also been studied extensively for the production of hydrogen using solar energy. It has a complex life cycle that includes different types of differentiated cells: heterocysts for nitrogen fixation, and akinetes (spores) for survival. It has been studied extensively for over 40 years and is the strain of choice for many laboratories throughout the world. (EBI Integr8 ...
A notable symbiotic relationship is that of Anabaena cyanobacteria with Azolla plants. Anabaena reside on the stems and within leaves of Azolla plants[7]. The Azolla plant undergoes photosynthesis and provides fixed carbon for the Anabaena to use as an energy source for dinitrogenases in the heterocyst cells.[7]. In return, the heterocysts are able to provide the vegetative cells and the Azolla plant with fixed nitrogen in the form of ammonia which supports growth of both organisms[7][8].. This symbiotic relationship is exploited by humans in agriculture. In Asia, Azolla plants containing Anabaena species are used as biofertilizer where nitrogen is limiting[7] as well as in animal feed[8]. Different strains of Azolla-Anabaena are suited for different environments and may lead to differences in crop production[9]. Rice crops grown with Azolla-Anabaena as biofertilizer have been shown to result in a much greater quantity and quality of produce compared to crops without the cyanobacteria[8][10]. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Under nitrogen deprivation, filaments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena undergo a process of development, resulting in a one-dimensional pattern of nitrogen-fixing heterocysts separated by about ten photosynthetic vegetative cells. Many aspects of gene expression before nitrogen deprivation and during the developmental process remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, the coupling of gene expression fluctuations between cells along a multicellular filament is unknown. We studied the statistics of fluctuations of gene expression of HetR, a transcription factor essential for heterocyst differentiation, both under steady-state growth in nitrogen-rich conditions and at different times following nitrogen deprivation, using a chromosomally-encoded translational hetR-gfp fusion. Statistical analysis of fluorescence at the individual cell level in wild-type and mutant filaments demonstrates that expression fluctuations of hetR in nearby cells are coupled, with a characteristic spatial range of circa two to ...
I think I might do something on cell differentiation into heterocysts in the cyanobacteria, and look at cell fate. I read about something called patS which is a peptide that appears when the nitrogen levels of the area are very low and those bacterial cells that have large quantities of patS differentiate into heterocysts, which then secrete patS to the surrounding cells and inhibiting them from differentiating and this is how the reasonably equal spacing between heterocysts is achieved. Is this all correct? Also any more information on heterocyst formation would be appreciated ...
The lexA gene of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 has been cloned by PCR amplification with primers designed after TBLASTN analysis of its genome sequence using the Escherichia coli LexA
A study on Anabaena strains was carried out to investigate the effect of combined stress of polyethylene glycol 6000 (0,-5 bar and -7 bar) and temperature (30°C and 45 °C) on photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycobilins) and total proteins as stress metabolites. The selected strains, A. oryzae and A. ellipsospora were sensitive to osmotic stress at ambient temperature of 30 0C and increase in the temperature to 45 0C was harmful to the growth of Anabaena strains. Chlorophyll a contents decreased at 30 0C and -7 bar pressure from 8.868 to 0.710 µg ml-1 and 4.360 to 0.220 µg ml-1 in A. oryzae and in A. ellipsospora, respectively and at -7 bar osmotic stress and 45 0C temperature, decrease in Chl a content of A.oryzae was 92.9%, however A. ellipsospora was highly sensitive and could not survive under these conditions. Carotenoids and phycobilins also showed decreasing trends with increase in temperature and osmotic potential. Moreover, combined stress adversely ...
Anabaena: Genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores (heterocysts), found as plankton in shallow water and on moist soil....
The British International Freight Association (BIFA) has slammed the recent introduction of the sulphur surcharge by the container shipping industry, describing it as unjustified.. To remind, the worlds largest liner company Maersk Line is planning to introduce a new fuel adjustment surcharge ahead of the 2020 sulphur cap. The surcharge will be introduced on January 1, 2019, and it will be levied separately from the companys freight rate.. As explained, the new Bunker Adjustment Factor (BAF) surcharge aims at recovering Maersk Lines costs of compliance with the global sulphur cap, which is set to increase the companys fuel bill by USD 2 billion a year.. Robert Keen, BIFA Director General, said rises of such magnitude were unjustified and could be construed as "blatant profiteering by shipping lines determined to exploit the situation.". BIFA would prefer any necessary increases to be consolidated within freight rates and with any required fluctuation being managed against that figure.. "BIFA ...
1J7C: Structure-function relationships in Anabaena ferredoxin: correlations between X-ray crystal structures, reduction potentials, and rate constants of electron transfer to ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase for site-specific ferredoxin mutants.
Growth and phage resistance of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 in the presence of cyanophage AN-15. Mole,R., Meredith,D., Adams,D.G. (1997). Journal of Applied Phycology [J. Appl. Phycol. ] 9:339-345. The cyanophage AN-15 was found to have a requirement for either 1 mM calcium or 1 mM magnesium ions to maintain viral stability, whereas 1 mM calcium ions alone were essential for the infection process to proceed in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Following prolonged incubation, phage-resistant cells were detected at a high frequency (approximately 10 super(-5)) in lysates, as either renewed growth in liquid cultures, or as colonies in confluently lysed lawns. Southern hybridisation failed to detect AN-15 DNA in any of the resistant strains, implying that resistance is unlikely to be due to the presence of temperate phages. A high rate of spontaneous mutation is therefore likely to be the cause of resistance. Two classes of resistant cells were identified; those in which AN-15 failed to attach to host ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The interactions can be divided into four classes: direct contacts to bases and phosphates, water-mediated and van der Waals contacts, and α-helix-dipole interactions. Because there is some asymmetry of interaction observed, we first describe the half of the complex where most of the interactions are provided by the A subunit and then indicate differences. Direct interactions with phosphate groups result in "fastening" DNA to protein with a specific register. These direct interactions link Lys76 with P−7/−8, Asn60 with P−8/−9/−10, amides of Leu61 and Arg62 with P−9/−10, Ser179 with P+3/+4 (Figs. 2 and 3), and amides of Glu180 and Ala181 with P+4/+5. From the opposite subunit, His69′ interacts with P+3/+4 (Figs. 2 and 3) and Arg74′ with P0/+1, and Arg188− forms a salt bridge with P−9/−10. Water-mediated interactions involve Arg34, His35, and Asp40 with P+2/+3 (with Asp40 approaching from the minor groove), and from the opposite subunit, Lys47′ and Arg74′ with P0/+1. ...
Protein Spotlight (ISSN 1424-4721) is a monthly review written by the Swiss-Prot team of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Spotlight articles describe a specific protein or family of proteins on an informal tone edited by Vivienne Baillie Gerritsen
Ferredoxin-NAD reductase (FNR) catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NAD via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NAD coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NAD coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NA, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope.. ...
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The filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis forms associations with diatoms and is very abundant in tropical and subtropical seas. The genus Richelia contains only one species, R. intracellularis Schmidt, although it forms associations with several diatom genera and has considerable variation in size and morphology. The genetic diversity, and possible host specificity, within the genus Richelia is unknown. Using primers against hetR, a gene unique for filamentous cyanobacteria, specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from natural populations of R. intracellularis filaments associated with three diatom genera. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences showed that they were all in the same clade. This clade contained only the R. intracellularis sequences. The genetic affiliation of hetR sequences of R. intracellularis to those of other heterocystous cyanobacteria strongly suggests that it was not closely related to endosymbiotic Nostoc spp, ...
A structural model of the DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease NucA from Anabaena sp. PCC7120 that has been obtained on the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the related Serratia nuclease, suggests that the overall architecture of the active site including amino acid residues H124, N155 and E163 (corresponding to H89, N119 and E127 in Serratia nuclease) is similar in both nucleases. Substitution of these residues by alanine leads to a large reduction in activity (,0.1%), similarly as observed for Serratia nuclease demonstrating that both enzymes share a similar mechanism of catalysis with differences only in detail. NucA is inhibited by its specific polypeptide inhibitor with a K1 value in the subpicomolar range, while the related Serratia nuclease at nanomolar concentrations is only inhibited at an approximately 1000-fold molar excess of NuiA. The artificial chromophoric substrate deoxythymidine 3,5-bis-(p-nitrophenyl phosphate) is cleaved by NucA as well as by Serratia nuclease. ...
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Azolla plant surface. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the surface of an Azolla (water fern) plant. This plant has a symbiotic relationship with Anabaena cyanobacteria, where the cyanobacteria doubles the rate of photosynthesis and fulfils the nitrogen requirements of the plant. Both these factors give the water fern a competitive advantage over other water plants, a factor spotted by the Chinese 2000 years ago. The Anabaena-Azolla association is used as a green manure for rice crops. Anabaena is a filamentous organism, which, apart from vegetative cells, forms heterocysts and akinetes. - Stock Image C022/6173
The heterocystous cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis Schmidt 1901 is well known for its capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in oligotrophic wa
Current Research: Cyanobacteria, through billions of years of evolution, have become well-tuned biological devices that can efficiently harvest solar energy, the one limitless source of energy on Earth, and convert that energy into a variety of reduced carbon compounds. Because of their simple requirements for rapid growth and ease of genetic manipulation as well as industrialized production, cyanobacteria are particularly attractive organisms for bioenergy production. One topic of research in my laboratory is focused on developing a suite of engineered Anabaena strains that are separately capable of directly converting CO2 and H2O into fuel ethanol, long-chain alcohols and other commodity chemicals using free solar energy. Through purposefully genetic alteration of targeted metabolic pathways, we will redirect Anabaenas carbon flow from producing stored bioenergy precursors (i.e., lipids and polysaccharides) to direct production of excreted products. This will enable continuous product ...
Current Research: Cyanobacteria, through billions of years of evolution, have become well-tuned biological devices that can efficiently harvest solar energy, the one limitless source of energy on Earth, and convert that energy into a variety of reduced carbon compounds. Because of their simple requirements for rapid growth and ease of genetic manipulation as well as industrialized production, cyanobacteria are particularly attractive organisms for bioenergy production. One topic of research in my laboratory is focused on developing a suite of engineered Anabaena strains that are separately capable of directly converting CO2 and H2O into fuel ethanol, long-chain alcohols and other commodity chemicals using free solar energy. Through purposefully genetic alteration of targeted metabolic pathways, we will redirect Anabaenas carbon flow from producing stored bioenergy precursors (i.e., lipids and polysaccharides) to direct production of excreted products. This will enable continuous product ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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center>,big>,big>,big>Cyanobacteria - "Blue-Green Algae",/big>,/big>,/big>,/center> ,br> [[Image:Anabaena sperica.jpg,thumb,200px,center,Anabaena sperica, a filamentous cyanobacterium ([[Phycobacteria]], [[Nostocales]], [[Nostocaceae]])]] ,br> ,table border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="1" width="100%" > ,tr>,th bgcolor="#CCCCCC" colspan="2">Cyanobacteria,/th>,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="center" width="200" valign="top" >Linnaean Hierarchy,/td> ,td align="center" width="400" valign="top" >Local Cladogram,/td> ,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="justify" valign="top" > [[Domain]]: [[Eubacteria]],br> [[Division]]: Cyanobacteria,br> [[Order]]s: * [[Chroococcales]] * [[Prochlorales]] * [[Pleurocapsales]] * [[Oscillatoriales]] * [[Nostocales]] * [[Stigonematales]] ,/td> ,td align="justify" valign="top"> [[LUCA]] ,--[[Eubacteria]] (note) , ,--[[Clostridea]] , `--[[Cyanobacteria]] , see [[#Phylogeny,phylogeny section]] (below) for subgroups `--[[Neomura]] ,--[[Archaea]] ...
... _technical brief - World Health Organization and water suppliers determine when to take action and what actions to takecyanobacteria, such as Anabaena and Microcystis, may float upward when mixi
Abe, T., Tsuzuki, M., Kaplan, A., Miyachi, S. 1987 Transport and fixation of inorganic carbon during photosynthesis in the cells of Anabaena grown under ordinary air. II. Effect of sodium concentration during growth on the induction of active transport system for IC. Plant Cell Physiol., 28, 671-677 ...
W.M. W.M. Gram £5.69 Gram £5.49 Saf. & F.G. £5.49 Phylum: Chlorophyta (Green Algae) Anabaena filaments W.M. H & F.G. £11.95 ...
Nutrient regulation of alkaline phosphatase (phosphomonoesterase - PMEase) was studied in some diazotrophic cyanobacterial strains like Anabaena variabilis, Anabaena torulosa, Calothrix brevissima, Scytonema javanicum and Hapalosiphon intricatus, in
The aim of this thesis is to enhance heterocyst-based hydrogen production inNostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. We envision to do so by finely regulatingthe ratio of heterocyst in order to optimize the filament energy balance. Wehereby report the development of an optogenetic synthetic switch basedon the native PcpeC promoter. The optogenetic switch featured a 24-folddynamic range when measuring reporter sfGFP fluorescence. Such a geneticgate was conceived to artificially drive the expression of hetR, the masterregulator of heterocyst development. We achieved to induce enhancedheterocyst differentiation in the presence of ammonia only by changing thechromatic properties of the light source. Thus, the natural cell developmentregulation was substituted by effectively introducing a full person-drivencontrol over the process.. ...
General Information: Trichodesmium erythraeum strain IMS101 was isolated from the North Carolina coast in 1992 and grows in straight filaments. Filamentous marine cyanobacterium. This filamentous marine cyanobacterium is a nitrogen-fixing organism that contribues a significant amount of the global fixed nitrogen each year. These bacteria are unusual in that nitrogen fixation takes place in a differentiated cell called the diazocyte which is different from the nitrogen-fixing differentiated cell (heterocyst) found in other cyanobacteria. The diazocyte is developed in order to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases and includes a number of changes including production of more membranes and down-regulation of photosynthetic activity during times of peak nitrogen fixation (noontime). This organism gives the Red Sea its name when large blooms appear and is one of the organisms most often associated with large blooms in marine waters. ...
General Information: Trichodesmium erythraeum strain IMS101 was isolated from the North Carolina coast in 1992 and grows in straight filaments. Filamentous marine cyanobacterium. This filamentous marine cyanobacterium is a nitrogen-fixing organism that contribues a significant amount of the global fixed nitrogen each year. These bacteria are unusual in that nitrogen fixation takes place in a differentiated cell called the diazocyte which is different from the nitrogen-fixing differentiated cell (heterocyst) found in other cyanobacteria. The diazocyte is developed in order to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases and includes a number of changes including production of more membranes and down-regulation of photosynthetic activity during times of peak nitrogen fixation (noontime). This organism gives the Red Sea its name when large blooms appear and is one of the organisms most often associated with large blooms in marine waters. ...
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Summary of ACKR2 (CCBP2, CCR10, CCR9, CMKBR9, D6) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression mainly in placenta and ciliated cells.
tolybyssidin B: isolated from the culture medium of mass cultured cyanobacterium Tolypothrix byssoidea; structure in first source
A 3.2 kb fragment of an indigenous Anabaena azollae plasmid was isolated and fully sequenced. Sequence analysis identified an open reading frame of 1110-bp that showed high similarity (56-71%) with glutathione dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase genes (gdfaldh) from various bacteria. The identity of the gene was confirmed by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli with a pET-32 (a) vector followed by enzyme assay. Adjacent to the gdfaldh a second gene was detected that showed high similarity (53%) with an S-formylglutathione hydrolase (fgh) gene from the methylotrophic bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. The presence of gdfaldh and fgh-like genes adjacent to each other may suggest that the corresponding gene products interact in a common metabolic pathway involved in removing exogenous or endogenous formaldehyde ...
A gapped BLAST reveals four significant hits to the ATP Synthase Epsilon Chain proteins from a number of organisms. For example: Residues 4-112 are 25% similar to the AtpC of M.genitalium (ATPE_MYCGE). Residues 7-112 are 25% similar to the ATP synthase epsilon chain of Euglena gracilis chloroplast (ATPE_EUGGR). The other two significant hits were to the ATP synthase epsilon chains of M.pneumoniae (ATPE_MYCPN), and M.gallisepticum (ATPE_MYCGA). In addition to these results, one iteration of PSI-BLAST resulted in significant hits to the ATP synthase epsilon chains of a number of organisms. For example: Significant hits were made to the ATP synthase epsilon chains of: C.vulgaris chloroplasts (ATPE_CHLVU), M.polymorpha cholorplast (ATPE_MARPO), Anabaena PCC7120 (a cyanobacterium) (ATPE_ANASP) and many others ...
In the lagoon of Moorea in French Polynesia, we have identified a relatively simple tropical marine ecosystem consisting of two primary producers (two filamentous cyanobacteria, Lyngbya majuscula and Anabaena cf. torulosa), three herbivorous molluscs (Stylocheilus striatus, S. longicauda and Bulla orientalis), a carnivorous nudibranch (Gymnodoris ceylonica) and a carnivorous crab (Thalamita coerulipes). L. majuscula and A. cf torulosa, that bloom ephemerally across wide sandy areas and even on corals, are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, mainly cyclic lipopeptides, which may either be toxic or act as feeding deterrents to potential consumers. However, these compounds do not prevent the sea hare S. striatus, feeding on cyanobacteria. S. striatus, considered as L. majuscula specialist, is known to sequester and transform some secondary metabolites produced by L. majuscula,. However we found also S. striatus feeding on A. cf torulosa and in this case it was less susceptible to predation by the
In this study, we investigated the functions of the individual RbpA structural domains to gain insight into the complex in vivo roles of RbpA. To study the roles of the RbpA NTT and CD, we truncated the N-terminal 71 amino acids of RbpA. The role of the RbpA BL was probed using a point mutation at R79, which has been implicated in the interaction between RbpA and DNA (16). Finally, we investigated the RbpA SID by using a point mutation at R88, which is one of the key residues needed for the interaction between RbpA and σ (15) but had yet to be studied in mycobacteria in vivo. We found that the function of each RbpA structural domain is required for M. tuberculosis viability and wild-type growth rates in M. smegmatis and disruption of the RbpA BL and SID functions causes a more severe growth defect than loss of the NTT and CD. Our data indicate that M. tuberculosis has a more stringent requirement for RbpA activity, similar to what we observed for CarD (5, 13).. We determined that the RbpA SID ...
Invasive phytoplankton species of Prosopis juliflora, Spirulina major, Oscillatoria spp., Anabaena spp., Rhizosolenia ...
... can infect and kill four common bloom-forming cyanobacteria: Lyngbya birgei, Anabaena circinalis, Anabaena ... The A-group of the virus causes lysis and infects Anabaena species. Similarly, the host range of the AN group includes both ... "New Anabaena and Nostoc cyanophages from sewage settling ponds". Virology. 114 (1): 236-246. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(81)90269-5. ... "Anabaena circinalis". JOHNSON, DAVID W.; POTTS, MALCOLM (1985). "Host Range of LPP Cyanophages". International Journal of ...
Anabaena-AzollaEdit. A notable symbiotic relationship is that of Anabaena cyanobacteria with Azolla plants. Anabaena reside on ... Azolla-Anabaena plants are grown before and after rice crops are planted[8]. As the Azolla-Anabaena plants grow, they ... Anabaena sp. together with Azolla caroliniana has been shown to be successful in removing uranium, a toxic pollutant caused by ... The Anabaena-Azolla relationship has also been explored as a possible method of removing pollutants from the environment, a ...
Saxitoxin is produced by the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp., some Aphanizomenon spp., Cylindrospermopsis sp., Lyngbya sp. and ... Carmichael WW, Gorham PR (1978). "Anatoxins from clones of Anabaena flos-aquae isolated from lakes of western Canada". Mitt. ... Carmichael WW, Biggs DF, Gorham PR (1975). "Toxicology and pharmacological action of Anabaena flos-aquae toxin". Science. 187 ( ... "Culture-independent evidence for the persistent presence and genetic diversity of microcystin-producing Anabaena (Cyanobacteria ...
... such as Anabaena (a symbiont of the aquatic fern Azolla), can provide rice plantations with biofertilizer. Many ... doi:10.1016/0038-0717(84)90118-4. "Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice ... Golden JW, Yoon HS (December 1998). "Heterocyst formation in Anabaena". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 1 (6): 623-9. PMID ... Webserver for Cyanobacteria Research CyanoBase Growth Model for the Blue-Green Alga Anabaena catenula Wolfram Demonstrations ...
Cyanobacterial blooms (Anabaena spp.) are common in the stagnant water of dams, but do not occur in the flowing water of rivers ...
It is found in Anabaena. Resting spores of a particular fungus are known create the phenomenon known as late potato blight. ...
The KaiA protein from Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7120) lacks the N-terminal CheY-like domain. KaiB adopts an alpha-beta meander ... Garces RG, Wu N, Gillon W, Pai EF (April 2004). "Anabaena circadian clock proteins KaiA and KaiB reveal a potential common ...
Gleason FK, Eklund H, Saarinen M (1995). "Crystal structure of thioredoxin-2 from Anabaena". Structure. 3 (10): 1097-1108. doi: ...
Examples are Anabaena cylindrica and Nostoc commune. Other cyanobacteria lack heterocysts and can fix nitrogen only in low ... The fern association is important agriculturally: the water fern Azolla harbouring Anabaena is an important green manure for ...
de Waard A, Korsuize J, van Beveren CP, Maat J (December 1978). "A new sequence-specific endonuclease from Anabaena cylindrica ... Whitehead PR, Brown NL (April 1985). "Three restriction endonucleases from Anabaena flos-aquae". J Gen Microbiol. 131 (4): 951- ... Hughes SG, Murray K (January 1980). "The nucleotide sequences recognized by endonucleases AvaI and AvaII from Anabaena ... "Complete genomic sequence of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120". DNA Res. 8 (5): 227- ...
In Florida, these include Aphanizomenon, Anabaena and Microcystis. Some notable fish kills in Louisiana in the 1950s were due ...
Anabaena flos-aquae and Aphanizomenon gracile. The fauna in the lake consists of eight types of benthos and ten types of fish ...
2010). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nitrogenase active site to increase photobiological ...
Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Scytonema, Rivularia) Order Stigonematales (e.g., Stigonema) Class Prochlorophyceae (e.g., Prochloron ...
Porchia AC, Curatti L, Salerno GL (1999). "Sucrose metabolism in cyanobacteria: sucrose synthase from Anabaena sp. strain PCC ...
Devlin JP, Edwards OE, Gorham PR, Hunter NR, Pike RK, Stavric B (1977). "Anatoxin-a, a toxic alkaloid from Anabaena flos-aquae ... Carmichael WW, Gorham PR (1978). "Anatoxins from clones of Anabaena flos-aquae isolated from lakes of western Canada". Mitt. ... "Toxicology and pharmacological action of Anabaena flos-aquae toxin". Science. 187 (4176): 542-544. doi:10.1126/science.803708. ...
Roots are called coralloid with an Anabaena symbiosis allowing nitrogen fixation. Tannins-rich cells are found on either side ... Ultrastructure and phenolic histochemistry of the Cycas revoluta-Anabaena symbiosis. M. Obukowicz, M. Schaller and G.S. Kennedy ...
Sato N; Murata N (1982). "Lipid biosynthesis in the blue-green-alga (cyanobacterium), Anabaena variabilis. 3. UDP-glucose- ...
Certain species of Anabaena have been used on rice paddy fields. Mosquito ferns carrying the cyanobacteria grow on the water in ... Anabaena) may be found in both fresh and salt water. Like other cyanobacteria, these bacteria sometimes contain photosynthetic ...
PCC 6803 and in the filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PsrR1 (photosynthesis regulatory RNA1), formerly known ...
Slightly less than 10 percent of the microbes are Anabaena. In July 2010, Oscillatoria and Synechococcus each made up ... approximately 25 percent of the microbes and between 10 and 15 percent were Anabaena. Slightly less than 60 percent of the ...
... lysomonogalactosyldiacylglycerol acyltransferase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 963 (3 ...
"Anabaena sensory rhodopsin: a photochromic color sensor at 2.0 A". Science. 306 (5700): 1390-1393. doi:10.1126/science.1103943 ... halorhodopsin as well as an Anabaena cyanobacterial sensory rhodopsin(TC# 3.E.1.1.6). and others. The association of sensory ...
"Molecular characterization of a novel peroxidase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120". Appl. Environ. ...
NtcA from Anabaena PCC 7120 was heterologously expressed in E. coli and a high yield of recombinant protein was achieved ... Expression and purification of the transcription factor NtcA from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Wisén, Susanne Uppsala ... Apart from performing oxygenic photosynthesis, Anabaena PCC 7120 is also capable of fixing nitrogen. NtcA is a protein ... Biochemistry, NtcA, transcription regulation, cyanobacteria, redox regulation, DNA binding, nitrogen fixation, Anabaena PCC ...
Anabaena: Genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores ( ... Anabaena, genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores ( ... In temperate latitudes during the summer months, Anabaena may form water blooms. ...
Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. Anabaena Bory de Saint- ... Sci.: Processes Impacts 04/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5EM00097A Sequenced Anabaena Genomes Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Anabaena ... Anabaena is used as a model organism to study simple vision. The process in which light changes the shape of molecules in the ... Certain species of Anabaena have been used on rice paddy fields, proving to be an effective natural fertilizer. Under nitrogen- ...
Anabaena circinalis exhibits a filamentous morphology, each filament a string of task-specific cells. The appearance of cell ... Biological toxicity aside, Anabaena circinalis blooms have the potential to disrupt commercial fishing areas, water-treatment ... Anabaena circinalis is a species of Gram-negative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria common to freshwater environments throughout ... Add to this the high cost of toxicity monitoring, and its apparent that Anabaena circinalis can have a detrimental economic ...
How Fmn Binds to Anabaena Apoflavodoxin: A Hydrophobic Encounter at an Open Binding Site. Lostao, A., Daoudi, F., Irun, M.P., ...
Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena flos-aque, Anabaena aequalis Description and Significance. Anabaena provides a model for the ... Anabaena grow in long filaments of vegetative cells.. Anabaena. The arrow points to a heterocyst From from: University of ... Figure A shows normal Anabaena grown in a complete medium. Figure B shows normal Anabaena growing in a medium lacking nitrogen ... Unlike most other strains of Anabaena, Anabaena sp. strain ATCC 29413 differenciates between their hetrocyst and akinetes forms ...
Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena flos-aque, Anabaena aequalis Description and Significance. Anabaena provides a model for the ... Anabaena flos-aquae f. flos-aquae. From the Microbial Culture Collection Anabaena oumiana. From the Anabaena Microbial Culture ... Figure A shows normal Anabaena grown in a complete medium. Figure B shows normal Anabaena growing in a medium lacking nitrogen ... Unlike most other strains of Anabaena, Anabaena sp. strain ATCC 29413 differenciates between their hetrocyst and akinetes forms ...
"Complete genome sequence of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.". Thiel T., Pratte B.S., Zhong J., Goodwin L., Copeland A., Lucas S ... Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium that fixes nitrogen and CO2 using the energy ...
Anabaena flos-aquae ATCC ® 22664™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Toxicity testing Fixes nitrogen This strain is ... Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngbye) Brebisson (ATCC® 22664™) Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ...
These assays were done with a WT Anabaena 29mer and the mutant HetR dimers shown in Fig. 4. Each assay mix contained 1 M NaCl, ... 2001) The role of HetN in maintenance of the heterocyst pattern in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Mol Microbiol 40(4):941-950. ... We modeled the known sequence of a target DNA (the binding site upstream of the hetP gene in Anabaena) into the Fischerella ... Mutations of three basic residues from the HTH motif in Anabaena HetR (Arg62 in H4, and Lys72 and Lys73 in H5) to glutamic acid ...
Culture conditions of Anabaena variabilis Anabaena variabilis ATCC-29413 was obtained from the Faculty of Biology, University ... Exposure of Anabaena variabilis to steroid hormones. The A. variabilis colonies were cultured in the presence of the following ... Anabaena variabilis Cyanobacteria Phytoplankton Hormones Endocrine-disrupting compounds Growth inhibition Electronic ... Measuring the growth of Anabaena variabilis The growth of the A. variabilis was assessed by counting the number of cells and ...
... studies of the interaction between the ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase and ferredoxin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena: looking for ... Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), pcc 7119 [TaxId: 1167] C. d1ewyc_. Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) beta-Grasp (ubiquitin-like) 2Fe ... Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), pcc 7119 [TaxId: 1167] A142-303. d1ewya2. Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) Ferredoxin reductase- ... Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), pcc 7119 [TaxId: 1167] B142-303. d1ewyb2. Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) Ferredoxin reductase- ...
Different Functions of the Paralogs to the N-Terminal Domain of the Orange Carotenoid Protein in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp ... Dynamics of transcriptional start site selection during nitrogen stress-induced cell differentiation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. ... In Nostocales, such as Anabaena, this process is spatially separated from oxygenic photosynthesis and occurs in heterocysts. ... The trpE Gene Negatively Regulates Differentiation of Heterocysts at the Level of Induction in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 ...
sp,P83161,RBPA_ANASL Putative RNA-binding protein RbpA (Fragment) OS=Anabaena sp. (strain L31) OX=29412 GN=rbpA PE=1 SV=1 ... Anabaena sp. (strain L31). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and ...
Anabaena is one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins. These toxins are harmful to local wildlife, as well ... Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue, Green algae). It found as planktonic cyanobacterium ( ... Some species of Anabaena are endophytes. Magnification: x660 when shortest axis printed at 25 - Stock Image C032/2524 ... of Anabaena sp., Gram-negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Note the ...
The three-dimensional structures of the protein called HetR from cyanobacterium Anabaena in complex with symmetric DNA were ... Structures of complexes comprised of Fischerella transcription factor HetR with Anabaena DNA targets. ... Structures of complexes comprised of Fischerella transcription factor HetR with Anabaena DNA targets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. ...
Anabaena kisseleviana Elenkin, 1938. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia. ...
The Difference between Nostoc and Anabaena. • Categorized under Science , The Difference between Nostoc and Anabaena ... Anabaena. Anabaenas are known for their intercalary heterocysts and amorphous filaments. They are also known for their nitrogen ... my question is nostoc and anabaena are blue green algae.and filamentous and of course unbranched.they are found in pond, paddy ... Two of these are Nostoc and Anabaena. Both share some common characteristics, which make it very difficult to determine one ...
Ectopic expression of hetP can partially bypass the need for hetR in heterocyst differentiation by Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 ... Differentiation of nitrogen-fixing cells, called heterocysts, by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 requires HetR ...
Effect of growth temperature on lipid and fatty acid compositions in the blue-green algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis ... The lipid composition was affected by growth temperature in Anacystis nidulans, but was not in Anabaena variabilis. A. ...
Siderophore; Iron; Microcystis; Anabaena. Products or Services information in the article. ...obtained. Genomic DNA was ... Effects of siderophore on cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 and Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 were studied. ...
Studies on the biosynthesis of the heterocyst specific glycolipids of Anabaena cylindrica ... acetate or Na H 14CO3 in the filamentous heterocystous Cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica, showed that the glycose ester ...
1992) Anabaena circinalis. in Identification of common noxious cyanobacteria, part 1. Nostocales. ed Tyler P. (Melbourne Water ... Included in the analyses were Anabaena flos-aquae, A. cylindrica, A. solitaria, and A. affinis. From the 16S rRNA gene, the ... 1978) Pharmacology of anatoxin-a produced by the freshwater cyanophyte Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-44-1. Toxicon 17:229-236. ... Geographical Segregation of the Neurotoxin-Producing Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis E. Carolina Beltran, Brett A. Neilan ...
Synthesis and identification of proposed biosynthetic intermediates of saxitoxin in the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis ( ... Synthesis and identification of proposed biosynthetic intermediates of saxitoxin in the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis ( ...
The purified recombinant Anabaena sp. strain CA RubisCO, much like the RubisCO enzymes from other cyanobacteria, was shown not ... Maximum activity of recombinant ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of Anabaena sp. strain CA requires the product ... Filamentous cyanobacteria of the genus Anabaena contain a unique open reading frame, rbcX, which is juxtaposed and ... Maximum activity of recombinant ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of Anabaena sp. strain CA requires the product ...
  • Anabaena PCC7120 inherently expressed Alr3200 at very low levels, and its overexpressionhad no significant effect on growth of Anabaena under control conditions. (ias.ac.in)
  • Susceptibility of acetolactate synthase (ALS) was compared in vitro and in vivo in Anabaena flos-aquae todetermine the mechanism of ALS inhibition by metsulfuron. (cnki.com.cn)
  • A DNA sequencing project was undertaken in 1999, which mapped the complete genome of Anabaena, which is 7.2 million base pairs long. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent sequencing of the genome of Anabaena sp . (kenyon.edu)
  • The sequencing of the anabaena genome will aid researchers in studying the genetics and physiology of cellular differentiation, (as exhibited in the heterocycsts of Anabaena ) pattern formation, and nitrogen fixation. (kenyon.edu)
  • Structural and functional analysis of the finished genome of the recently isolated toxic Anabaena sp. (duhnnae.com)
  • WA102 genome were detected only by long-read sequencing: a tandem triplication of the anaBCD promoter region in the anatoxin-a synthase gene cluster not triplicated in Anabaena sp. (duhnnae.com)
  • Strikingly, there was no synteny with the genome of its nearest fully assembled relative, Anabaena sp. (duhnnae.com)
  • ConclusionStructural and functional genome analyses indicate that Anabaena sp. (duhnnae.com)
  • Southern hybridization analysis indicated that the Anabaena genome was inserted by the transposon at one site. (elsevier.com)
  • Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a simulation created at the Ohio Supercomputer Center by Bowling Green State's Massimo Olivucci, a short fragment of the long retinal chromophore backbone of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin undergoes a complete clockwise rotation powered by the energy carried by two photons. (osc.edu)
  • In the present study four treatments of Anabaena variabilis (seeds primed in 1% fresh cyanobacterial extract, seeds sown in soils inoculated with 3g fresh or dry cyanobacterial cells per 1 kg soil and wet seeds primed with 3g dry cyanobacterial powder per 1 kg seeds) were examined for their effect on Hordeum vulgare and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. plants. (ekb.eg)