Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Anabaena flos-aquae: A species in the genus ANABAENA containing gas vacuoles that gives buoyancy to the organism. It can form extensive blooms in FRESH WATER and is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Anabaena cylindrica: A species in the genus ANABAENA whose trichomes are composed of cylindrical cells.AcetyleneBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phycocyanin: The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Flavodoxin: A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.Nostoc: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Oscillatoria: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Methionine SulfoximineAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microcystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Phycobilisomes: Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.Sensory Rhodopsins: Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.

A cold shock-induced cyanobacterial RNA helicase. (1/485)

The ability to modify RNA secondary structure is crucial for numerous cellular processes. We have characterized two RNA helicase genes, crhB and crhC, which are differentially expressed in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. crhC transcription is limited specifically to cold shock conditions while crhB is expressed under a variety of conditions, including enhanced expression in the cold. This implies that both RNA helicases are involved in the cold acclimation process in cyanobacteria; however, they presumably perform different roles in this adaptation. Although both CrhB and CrhC belong to the DEAD box subfamily of RNA helicases, CrhC encodes a novel RNA helicase, as the highly conserved SAT motif is modified to FAT. This alteration may affect CrhC function and its association with specific RNA targets and/or accessory proteins, interactions required for cold acclimation. Primer extension and analysis of the 5' untranslated region of crhC revealed the transcriptional start site, as well as a number of putative cold shock-responsive elements. The potential role(s) performed by RNA helicases in the acclimation of cyanobacteria to cold shock is discussed.  (+info)

Constitutive and nitrogen-regulated promoters of the petH gene encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (2/485)

Determination of the putative transcription start points of the petH gene encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. PCC 7119 and PCC 7120 showed that this gene is transcribed from two promoters, one constitutively used under different conditions of nitrogen nutrition and the other one used in cells subjected to nitrogen stepdown and in nitrogen-fixing filaments. The latter promoter, whose use was NtcA-dependent but HetR-independent, was functional in heterocysts. The N-control transcriptional regulator NtcA was observed to bind in vitro to this promoter. For the sake of comparison, the transcription start points of the nifHDK operon in strain PCC 7120 and binding of NtcA to the nifHDK promoter were also examined.  (+info)

Quantitative structure activity relationships for the electron transfer reactions of Anabaena PCC 7119 ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase with nitrobenzene and nitrobenzimidazolone derivatives: mechanistic implications. (3/485)

The steady state single electron reduction of polynitroaromatics by ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (EC 1.18.1.2) from cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 has been studied and quantitative structure activity relationships are described. The solubility of the polynitroaromatics as well as their reactivity towards ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase are markedly higher than those for previously studied mononitroaromatics and this enabled the independent measurement of the kinetic parameters-k(cat) and Km. Interestingly, the natural logarithm of the bimolecular rate constant, k(cat)/Km, and also the natural logarithm of k(cat) correlate with the calculated energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the polynitroaromatic substrates. The minimal kinetic model in line with these quantitative structure activity relationships is a ping-pong mechanism which includes substrate binding equilibria in the second half reaction.  (+info)

Lag phase of CO2-dependent O2 evolution by illuminated Anabaena variabilis cells. (4/485)

The steady-state rate of CO2-dependent O2 evolution by Anabaena variabilis cells in response to illumination was established after a lag phase. The lag phase was shortened (1) in cells incubated with glucose as an oxidizable substrate and (2) upon an increase in light intensity. The lag phase was absent during electron transfer from H2O to p-benzoquinone (in combination with ferricyanide) involving Photosystem II. A lag was observed during electron transfer from H2O to methyl viologen involving Photosystems II and I, but not for electron transfer from N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (in combination with ascorbate) to methyl viologen involving only Photosystem I. The lag phases of the light-induced H2O --> CO2 and H2O --> methyl viologen electron transfer reactions showed the same temperature dependences at 10-30 degrees C. The lag was prevented by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea at concentrations that caused partial inhibition of photosynthetic O2 evolution. Retardation of cell respiration by a combination of CN- and benzylhydroxamate shortened the lag phase of the H2O --> methyl viologen electron transfer. It is concluded that the lag phase is associated with the electron transfer step between Photosystem II and Photosystem I common for the photosynthetic and respiratory chains and is due to the stimulation of cell respiration during the initial period of illumination as a consequence of an increase in the reduced plastoquinone pool and to subsequent retardation of respiration resulting from the transition of the electron transfer chain to the competitive pathway involving Photosystem I.  (+info)

Electrostatic forces involved in orienting Anabaena ferredoxin during binding to Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase: site-specific mutagenesis, transient kinetic measurements, and electrostatic surface potentials. (5/485)

Transient absorbance measurements following laser flash photolysis have been used to measure the rate constants for electron transfer (et) from reduced Anabaena ferredoxin (Fd) to wild-type and seven site-specific charge-reversal mutants of Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase (FNR). These mutations have been designed to probe the importance of specific positively charged amino acid residues on the surface of the FNR molecule near the exposed edge of the FAD cofactor in the protein-protein interaction during et with Fd. The mutant proteins fall into two groups: overall, the K75E, R16E, and K72E mutants are most severely impaired in et, and the K138E, R264E, K290E, and K294E mutants are impaired to a lesser extent, although the degree of impairment varies with ionic strength. Binding constants for complex formation between the oxidized proteins and for the transient et complexes show that the severity of the alterations in et kinetics for the mutants correlate with decreased stabilities of the protein-protein complexes. Those mutated residues, which show the largest effects, are located in a region of the protein in which positive charge predominates, and charge reversals have large effects on the calculated local surface electrostatic potential. In contrast, K138, R264, K290, and K294 are located within or close to regions of intense negative potential, and therefore the introduction of additional negative charges have considerably smaller effects on the calculated surface potential. We attribute the relative changes in et kinetics and complex binding constants for these mutants to these characteristics of the surface charge distribution in FNR and conclude that the positively charged region of the FNR surface located in the vicinity of K75, R16, and K72 is especially important in the binding and orientation of Fd during electron transfer.  (+info)

Electron-nuclear double resonance and hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopic studies of flavodoxin mutants from Anabaena sp. PCC 7119. (6/485)

The influence of the amino acid residues surrounding the flavin ring in the flavodoxin of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 on the electron spin density distribution of the flavin semiquinone was examined in mutants of the key residues Trp(57) and Tyr(94) at the FMN binding site. Neutral semiquinone radicals of the proteins were obtained by photoreduction and examined by electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopies. Significant differences in electron density distribution were observed in the flavodoxin mutants Trp(57) --> Ala and Tyr(94) --> Ala. The results indicate that the presence of a bulky residue (either aromatic or aliphatic) at position 57, as compared with an alanine, decreases the electron spin density in the nuclei of the benzene flavin ring, whereas an aromatic residue at position 94 increases the electron spin density at positions N(5) and C(6) of the flavin ring. The influence of the FMN ribityl and phosphate on the flavin semiquinone was determined by reconstituting apoflavodoxin samples with riboflavin and with lumiflavin. The coupling parameters of the different nuclei of the isoalloxazine group, as detected by ENDOR and HYSCORE, were very similar to those of the native flavodoxin. This indicates that the protein conformation around the flavin ring and the electron density distribution in the semiquinone form are not influenced by the phosphate and the ribityl of FMN.  (+info)

Identification of amino acids responsible for the oxygen sensitivity of ferredoxins from Anabaena variabilis using site-directed mutagenesis. (7/485)

The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis (ATCC 29413) possesses two molybdenum dependent nitrogenase systems, nif1 and nif2. The nif1 system is regulated by a developmental program involving heterocyst differentiation; the nif2 system is expressed in all cells only under anaerobic conditions and the expression is controlled environmentally. The genes fdxH1 and fdxH2, encoding two [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins, are part of the these two distinct and differently regulated nif gene clusters. The sensitivity of both ferredoxins to oxygen was different; the half-life of FdxH2 in air was only approximately 1.5 h, while FdxH1 retained 80% of its nitrogenase activity after 24 h. We used site-directed mutagenesis to identify the role of individual amino acid residues responsible for oxygen sensitivity and found out that the FdxH2 double mutant I76A/V77L was much more resistant to oxygen than the wild-type ferredoxin (FdxH2) and similar to FdxH1. By modelling it was shown that the accessibility of the cavity around the iron-sulfur cluster was responsible for that.  (+info)

The hetC gene is a direct target of the NtcA transcriptional regulator in cyanobacterial heterocyst development. (8/485)

The heterocyst is the site of nitrogen fixation in aerobically grown cultures of some filamentous cyanobacteria. Heterocyst development in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is dependent on the global nitrogen regulator NtcA and requires, among others, the products of the hetR and hetC genes. Expression of hetC, tested by RNA- DNA hybridization, was impaired in an ntcA mutant. A nitrogen-regulated, NtcA-dependent putative transcription start point was localized at nucleotide -571 with respect to the hetC translational start. Sequences upstream from this transcription start point exhibit the structure of the canonical cyanobacterial promoter activated by NtcA, and purified NtcA protein specifically bound to a DNA fragment containing this promoter. Activation of expression of hetC during heterocyst development appears thus to be directly operated by NtcA. NtcA-mediated activation of hetR expression was not impaired in a hetC mutant, indicating that HetC is not an NtcA-dependent element required for hetR induction.  (+info)

*Anabaena

... sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. Anabaena Bory de Saint- ... Sci.: Processes Impacts 04/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5EM00097A Sequenced Anabaena Genomes Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Anabaena ... Anabaena is used as a model organism to study simple vision. The process in which light changes the shape of molecules in the ... Certain species of Anabaena have been used on rice paddy fields, proving to be an effective natural fertilizer. Under nitrogen- ...

*Anabaena circinalis

... exhibits a filamentous morphology, each filament a string of task-specific cells. The appearance of cell ... Biological toxicity aside, Anabaena circinalis blooms have the potential to disrupt commercial fishing areas, water-treatment ... Anabaena circinalis is a species of Gram-negative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria common to freshwater environments throughout ... Add to this the high cost of toxicity monitoring, and it's apparent that Anabaena circinalis can have a detrimental economic ...

*Anabaena variabilis

... is a species of filamentous cyanobacterium. This species of the genus Anabaena and the domain Eubacteria is ... though no such relationship has been observed with Anabaena variabilis. Anabaena variabilis is also a model organism for ... Anabaena variabilis is a phylogenic-cousin of the more well-known species Nostoc spirrilum. Both of these species along with ... Pearce, J.; Leach, C. K.; Carr, N. G. (1969). "The Incomplete Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in the Blue-green Alga Anabaena ...

*Pulicat Lake

Invasive phytoplankton species of Prosopis juliflora, Spirulina major, Oscillatoria spp., Anabaena spp., Rhizosolenia ...

*Cyanophages

... can infect and kill four common bloom-forming cyanobacteria: Lyngbya birgei, Anabaena circinalis, Anabaena ... The A-group of the virus causes lysis and infects Anabaena species. Similarly, the host range of the AN group includes both ... "New Anabaena and Nostoc cyanophages from sewage settling ponds". Virology. 114 (1): 236-246. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(81)90269-5. ... "Anabaena circinalis". JOHNSON, DAVID W.; POTTS, MALCOLM (1985). "Host Range of LPP Cyanophages". International Journal of ...

*Cyanobacteria

... such as Anabaena (a symbiont of the aquatic fern Azolla), can provide rice plantations with biofertilizer. Many ... doi:10.1016/0038-0717(84)90118-4. "Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice ... Golden JW, Yoon HS (December 1998). "Heterocyst formation in Anabaena". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 1 (6): 623-9. PMID ... Webserver for Cyanobacteria Research CyanoBase Growth Model for the Blue-Green Alga Anabaena catenula Wolfram Demonstrations ...

*Pansteatitis

Cyanobacterial blooms (Anabaena spp.) are common in the stagnant water of dams, but do not occur in the flowing water of rivers ...

*Resting spore

It is found in Anabaena. Resting spores of a particular fungus are known create the phenomenon known as late potato blight. ...

*Cyanobacterial clock proteins

The KaiA protein from Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7120) lacks the N-terminal CheY-like domain. KaiB adopts an alpha-beta meander ... Garces RG, Wu N, Gillon W, Pai EF (April 2004). "Anabaena circadian clock proteins KaiA and KaiB reveal a potential common ...

*Thioredoxin domain

Gleason FK, Eklund H, Saarinen M (1995). "Crystal structure of thioredoxin-2 from Anabaena". Structure. 3 (10): 1097-1108. doi: ...

*Diazotroph

Examples are Anabaena cylindrica and Nostoc commune. Other cyanobacteria lack heterocysts and can fix nitrogen only in low ... The fern association is important agriculturally: the water fern Azolla harbouring Anabaena is an important green manure for ...

*List of restriction enzyme cutting sites: A

de Waard A, Korsuize J, van Beveren CP, Maat J (December 1978). "A new sequence-specific endonuclease from Anabaena cylindrica ... Whitehead PR, Brown NL (April 1985). "Three restriction endonucleases from Anabaena flos-aquae". J Gen Microbiol. 131 (4): 951- ... Hughes SG, Murray K (January 1980). "The nucleotide sequences recognized by endonucleases AvaI and AvaII from Anabaena ... "Complete genomic sequence of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120". DNA Res. 8 (5): 227- ...

*Cyanotoxin

ISBN 0-12-597180-X. Carmichael WW, Gorham PR (1978). "Anatoxins from clones of Anabaena flos-aquae isolated from lakes of ... Carmichael WW, Biggs DF, Gorham PR (1975). "Toxicology and pharmacological action of Anabaena flos-aquae toxin". Science. 187 ( ... Saxitoxin is produced by the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp., some Aphanizomenon spp., Cylindrospermopsis sp., Lyngbya sp. and ... a toxic alkaloid from Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-44h". Can. J. Chem. 55 (8): 1367-1371. doi:10.1139/v77-189. Moore RE (1977). " ...

*Fish kill

In Florida, these include Aphanizomenon, Anabaena and Microcystis. Some notable fish kills in Louisiana in the 1950s were due ...

*Pielinen

Anabaena flos-aquae and Aphanizomenon gracile. The fauna in the lake consists of eight types of benthos and ten types of fish ...

*Cofactor engineering

2010). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nitrogenase active site to increase photobiological ...

*Hoek, Mann and Jahns system

Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Scytonema, Rivularia) Order Stigonematales (e.g., Stigonema) Class Prochlorophyceae (e.g., Prochloron ...

*Sucrose synthase

Porchia AC, Curatti L, Salerno GL (1999). "Sucrose metabolism in cyanobacteria: sucrose synthase from Anabaena sp. strain PCC ...

*Neurotoxin

Devlin JP, Edwards OE, Gorham PR, Hunter NR, Pike RK, Stavric B (1977). "Anatoxin-a, a toxic alkaloid from Anabaena flos-aquae ... Carmichael WW, Gorham PR (1978). "Anatoxins from clones of Anabaena flos-aquae isolated from lakes of western Canada". Mitt. ... "Toxicology and pharmacological action of Anabaena flos-aquae toxin". Science. 187 (4176): 542-544. doi:10.1126/science.803708. ...

*Cycas revoluta

Roots are called coralloid with an Anabaena symbiosis allowing nitrogen fixation. Tannins-rich cells are found on either side ... Ultrastructure and phenolic histochemistry of the Cycas revoluta-Anabaena symbiosis. M. Obukowicz, M. Schaller and G.S. Kennedy ...

*1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase

Sato N; Murata N (1982). "Lipid biosynthesis in the blue-green-alga (cyanobacterium), Anabaena variabilis. 3. UDP-glucose- ...

*Nostocaceae

Certain species of Anabaena have been used on rice paddy fields. Mosquito ferns carrying the cyanobacteria grow on the water in ... Anabaena) may be found in both fresh and salt water. Like other cyanobacteria, these bacteria sometimes contain photosynthetic ...

*Cyanobacterial non-coding RNA

PCC 6803 and in the filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PsrR1 (photosynthesis regulatory RNA1), formerly known ...

*Lake Chillisquaque

Slightly less than 10 percent of the microbes are Anabaena. In July 2010, Oscillatoria and Synechococcus each made up ... approximately 25 percent of the microbes and between 10 and 15 percent were Anabaena. Slightly less than 60 percent of the ...

*Heterocyst

Azolla-Anabaena plants are grown before and after rice crops are planted. As the Azolla-Anabaena plants grow, they accumulate ... A notable symbiotic relationship is that of Anabaena cyanobacteria with Azolla plants. Anabaena reside on the stems and within ... Anabaena sp. together with Azolla caroliniana has been shown to be successful in removing uranium, a toxic pollutant caused by ... The Anabaena-Azolla relationship has also been explored as a possible method of removing pollutants from the environment, a ...
Nitrogen is an essential building block of proteins and nucleic acids and, therefore, crucial for the biosphere. Nearly 79 % of the air consists of nitrogen, but in the form of nitrogen gas (N2), which cannot be utilized by most organisms. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms such as cyanobacteria have a central role in supplying biologically useful nitrogen to the biosphere. Therefore, it is important to achieve further understanding of control mechanisms involved in nitrogen fixation and related processes. This thesis concerns different molecular aspects of the transcription factor NtcA from the heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Apart from performing oxygenic photosynthesis, Anabaena PCC 7120 is also capable of fixing nitrogen. NtcA is a protein regulating transcription of a wide range of genes and in particular genes involved in cyanobacterial global nitrogen control. NtcA binds as a dimer to the promoter regions of target genes such as those involved in nitrogen fixation and ...
Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that fixes N2 in specialized cells called heterocysts, which differentiate from vegetative cells in a process that requires the nitrogen control transcription factor NtcA. 2-Oxoglutarate-stimulated binding of purified NtcA to wild-type and modified versions of the ntcA gene promoter from Anabaena sp. was analyzed by mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays, and the role of NtcA-binding sites in the expression of the ntcA gene during heterocyst differentiation was studied in vivo by using an ntcA-gfp translational fusion and primer extension analysis. Mutation of neither of the two identified NtcA-binding sites eliminated localized expression of ntcA in proheterocysts, but mutation of both sites led to very low, nonlocalized expression. Copyright © 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Anabaena sp., Gram-negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Note the larger cells in the filament called heterocysts which are involved in nitrogen fixation. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue, Green algae). It found as planktonic cyanobacterium (all types of water) and is known for its nitrogen fixing abilities. Blooms or massive growths can occur in waters with a lot of nutrients. These blooms discolour the water and give it a bad odour when the cells die and decay. Anabaena is one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins. These toxins are harmful to local wildlife, as well as farm animals and pets. Production of these neurotoxins is part of its symbiotic relationships it forms with certain plants. Some species of Anabaena are endophytes. Magnification: x660 when shortest axis printed at 25 - Stock Image C032/2525
Nitrogen-fixing heterocysts are arranged in a periodic pattern on filaments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 under conditions of limiting combined nitrogen. Patterning requires two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and
The freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. 287 exhibited enhanced tolerance to NaCl in the presence of ammonium, nitrate, and the amino acids, alanine, valine, proline, lysine, histidine, methionine and aspartic acid. Apart from providing permanent
Geosmin has often been associated with off-flavor problems in drinking water with *Anabaena* sp. as the major producer. Rapid on-site detection of geosmin-producers as well as geosmin is important for a timely management response to potential off-flavor events. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed to detect the levels of *Anabaena* sp. and geosmin, respectively, by designing two PCR primer sets to quantify the *rpoC₁* gene (ARG) and geosmin synthase one (GSG) in *Anabaena* sp. in freshwater systems. The ARG density determined by qPCR assay is highly related to microscopic cell count (r² = 0.726, p | 0.001), and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the qPCR method were 0.02 pg and 0.2 pg of DNA, respectively. At the same time, the relationship between geosmin concentrations measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GSG copies was also established (r² = 0.742, p | 0.001) with similar LOD and LOQ values.
In South Africa, little is known about the production of microcystin by the genus Anabaena Bory. In April 2012, during a cyanobacterial bloom event in Theewaterskloof Dam, Western Cape province, the plankton was sampled on 10 occasions. The dominant algae belonged to the genus Anabaena, a family of filamentous cyanobacteria known to produce cyanotoxins such as anatoxin-a, harmful to humans and the aquatic foodweb. The specimens isolated lacked the characteristic akinetes and/or heterocysts associated with this genus. Therefore the 16S rRNA gene was Sanger sequenced and a maximum parsimony tree was constructed, confirming its identity as Anabaena ucrainica (Schkorbatow) M. Watanabe. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the presence of microcystin-LR in the isolated A. ucrainica field sample, while PCR analysis and sequencing further confirmed the presence of mcy genes in this species. It was speculated from the data that prevailing low water-column temperatures and strong gusty ...
Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium that fixes nitrogen and CO2 using the energy of sunlight via oxygen-evolving plant-type photosynthesis. It has also been studied extensively for the production of hydrogen using solar energy. It has a complex life cycle that includes different types of differentiated cells: heterocysts for nitrogen fixation, and akinetes (spores) for survival. It has been studied extensively for over 40 years and is the strain of choice for many laboratories throughout the world. (EBI Integr8 ...
A notable symbiotic relationship is that of Anabaena cyanobacteria with Azolla plants. Anabaena reside on the stems and within leaves of Azolla plants[7]. The Azolla plant undergoes photosynthesis and provides fixed carbon for the Anabaena to use as an energy source for dinitrogenases in the heterocyst cells.[7]. In return, the heterocysts are able to provide the vegetative cells and the Azolla plant with fixed nitrogen in the form of ammonia which supports growth of both organisms[7][8].. This symbiotic relationship is exploited by humans in agriculture. In Asia, Azolla plants containing Anabaena species are used as biofertilizer where nitrogen is limiting[7] as well as in animal feed[8]. Different strains of Azolla-Anabaena are suited for different environments and may lead to differences in crop production[9]. Rice crops grown with Azolla-Anabaena as biofertilizer have been shown to result in a much greater quantity and quality of produce compared to crops without the cyanobacteria[8][10]. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Under nitrogen deprivation, filaments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena undergo a process of development, resulting in a one-dimensional pattern of nitrogen-fixing heterocysts separated by about ten photosynthetic vegetative cells. Many aspects of gene expression before nitrogen deprivation and during the developmental process remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, the coupling of gene expression fluctuations between cells along a multicellular filament is unknown. We studied the statistics of fluctuations of gene expression of HetR, a transcription factor essential for heterocyst differentiation, both under steady-state growth in nitrogen-rich conditions and at different times following nitrogen deprivation, using a chromosomally-encoded translational hetR-gfp fusion. Statistical analysis of fluorescence at the individual cell level in wild-type and mutant filaments demonstrates that expression fluctuations of hetR in nearby cells are coupled, with a characteristic spatial range of circa two to ...
I think I might do something on cell differentiation into heterocysts in the cyanobacteria, and look at cell fate. I read about something called patS which is a peptide that appears when the nitrogen levels of the area are very low and those bacterial cells that have large quantities of patS differentiate into heterocysts, which then secrete patS to the surrounding cells and inhibiting them from differentiating and this is how the reasonably equal spacing between heterocysts is achieved. Is this all correct? Also any more information on heterocyst formation would be appreciated ...
The lexA gene of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 has been cloned by PCR amplification with primers designed after TBLASTN analysis of its genome sequence using the Escherichia coli LexA
A study on Anabaena strains was carried out to investigate the effect of combined stress of polyethylene glycol 6000 (0,-5 bar and -7 bar) and temperature (30°C and 45 °C) on photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycobilins) and total proteins as stress metabolites. The selected strains, A. oryzae and A. ellipsospora were sensitive to osmotic stress at ambient temperature of 30 0C and increase in the temperature to 45 0C was harmful to the growth of Anabaena strains. Chlorophyll a contents decreased at 30 0C and -7 bar pressure from 8.868 to 0.710 µg ml-1 and 4.360 to 0.220 µg ml-1 in A. oryzae and in A. ellipsospora, respectively and at -7 bar osmotic stress and 45 0C temperature, decrease in Chl a content of A.oryzae was 92.9%, however A. ellipsospora was highly sensitive and could not survive under these conditions. Carotenoids and phycobilins also showed decreasing trends with increase in temperature and osmotic potential. Moreover, combined stress adversely ...
Anabaena: Genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores (heterocysts), found as plankton in shallow water and on moist soil....
1J7C: Structure-function relationships in Anabaena ferredoxin: correlations between X-ray crystal structures, reduction potentials, and rate constants of electron transfer to ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase for site-specific ferredoxin mutants.
Head, R. and Bailey-Watts, A. E. (1996) The distribution of Anabaena solitaria akinetes in the upper sediments of a small lake. Phycologia, 43. p. 22. ISSN 0031-8884. Full text not available from this repository ...
Growth and phage resistance of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 in the presence of cyanophage AN-15. Mole,R., Meredith,D., Adams,D.G. (1997). Journal of Applied Phycology [J. Appl. Phycol. ] 9:339-345. The cyanophage AN-15 was found to have a requirement for either 1 mM calcium or 1 mM magnesium ions to maintain viral stability, whereas 1 mM calcium ions alone were essential for the infection process to proceed in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Following prolonged incubation, phage-resistant cells were detected at a high frequency (approximately 10 super(-5)) in lysates, as either renewed growth in liquid cultures, or as colonies in confluently lysed lawns. Southern hybridisation failed to detect AN-15 DNA in any of the resistant strains, implying that resistance is unlikely to be due to the presence of temperate phages. A high rate of spontaneous mutation is therefore likely to be the cause of resistance. Two classes of resistant cells were identified; those in which AN-15 failed to attach to host ...
ABC-type neutral amino acid permease N-I is required for optimal diazotrophic growth and is repressed in the heterocysts of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 ...
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Variation of microcystins, cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, in Anabaena spp. as a function of growth stimuli. Dissolved nitrogen uptake by a cyanobacterial bloom (Anabaena flos-aquae) ina subartic lake
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Azolla plant surface. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the surface of an Azolla (water fern) plant. This plant has a symbiotic relationship with Anabaena cyanobacteria, where the cyanobacteria doubles the rate of photosynthesis and fulfils the nitrogen requirements of the plant. Both these factors give the water fern a competitive advantage over other water plants, a factor spotted by the Chinese 2000 years ago. The Anabaena-Azolla association is used as a green manure for rice crops. Anabaena is a filamentous organism, which, apart from vegetative cells, forms heterocysts and akinetes. - Stock Image C022/6173
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Current Research: Cyanobacteria, through billions of years of evolution, have become well-tuned biological devices that can efficiently harvest solar energy, the one limitless source of energy on Earth, and convert that energy into a variety of reduced carbon compounds. Because of their simple requirements for rapid growth and ease of genetic manipulation as well as industrialized production, cyanobacteria are particularly attractive organisms for bioenergy production. One topic of research in my laboratory is focused on developing a suite of engineered Anabaena strains that are separately capable of directly converting CO2 and H2O into fuel ethanol, long-chain alcohols and other commodity chemicals using free solar energy. Through purposefully genetic alteration of targeted metabolic pathways, we will redirect Anabaenas carbon flow from producing stored bioenergy precursors (i.e., lipids and polysaccharides) to direct production of excreted products. This will enable continuous product ...
Current Research: Cyanobacteria, through billions of years of evolution, have become well-tuned biological devices that can efficiently harvest solar energy, the one limitless source of energy on Earth, and convert that energy into a variety of reduced carbon compounds. Because of their simple requirements for rapid growth and ease of genetic manipulation as well as industrialized production, cyanobacteria are particularly attractive organisms for bioenergy production. One topic of research in my laboratory is focused on developing a suite of engineered Anabaena strains that are separately capable of directly converting CO2 and H2O into fuel ethanol, long-chain alcohols and other commodity chemicals using free solar energy. Through purposefully genetic alteration of targeted metabolic pathways, we will redirect Anabaenas carbon flow from producing stored bioenergy precursors (i.e., lipids and polysaccharides) to direct production of excreted products. This will enable continuous product ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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center>,big>,big>,big>Cyanobacteria - "Blue-Green Algae",/big>,/big>,/big>,/center> ,br> [[Image:Anabaena sperica.jpg,thumb,200px,center,Anabaena sperica, a filamentous cyanobacterium ([[Phycobacteria]], [[Nostocales]], [[Nostocaceae]])]] ,br> ,table border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="1" width="100%" > ,tr>,th bgcolor="#CCCCCC" colspan="2">Cyanobacteria,/th>,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="center" width="200" valign="top" >Linnaean Hierarchy,/td> ,td align="center" width="400" valign="top" >Local Cladogram,/td> ,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="justify" valign="top" > [[Domain]]: [[Eubacteria]],br> [[Division]]: Cyanobacteria,br> [[Order]]s: * [[Chroococcales]] * [[Prochlorales]] * [[Pleurocapsales]] * [[Oscillatoriales]] * [[Nostocales]] * [[Stigonematales]] ,/td> ,td align="justify" valign="top"> [[LUCA]] ,--[[Eubacteria]] (note) , ,--[[Clostridea]] , `--[[Cyanobacteria]] , see [[#Phylogeny,phylogeny section]] (below) for subgroups `--[[Neomura]] ,--[[Archaea]] ...
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Nostoc punctiforme is a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium belonging to the family Nostocaceae in the order Nostocales (Castenholz and Waterbury, 1989). All cyanobacteria are characterized as eubacteria that grow as autotrophs with CO2 as the carbon source, utilizing an oxygen-producing photosynthetic mechanism for the generation of ATP and reductant. Members of the order Nostocales are broadly characterized by growth as unbranched filaments and the production of up to three kinds of differentiated cells. Heterocysts differentiate in response to the lack of combined nitrogen in the environment and are the sites of nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts occur singularly in a semi-regular spacing pattern in the filaments at a frequency of 3 to10 % of the total cells (panel A). Nostoc species also produce relatively short, motile filaments called hormogonia (panel B) and this characteristic, in part, distinguishes them from members of the closely related genus Anabaena. In addition, Nostoc species ...
The aim of this thesis is to enhance heterocyst-based hydrogen production inNostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. We envision to do so by finely regulatingthe ratio of heterocyst in order to optimize the filament energy balance. Wehereby report the development of an optogenetic synthetic switch basedon the native PcpeC promoter. The optogenetic switch featured a 24-folddynamic range when measuring reporter sfGFP fluorescence. Such a geneticgate was conceived to artificially drive the expression of hetR, the masterregulator of heterocyst development. We achieved to induce enhancedheterocyst differentiation in the presence of ammonia only by changing thechromatic properties of the light source. Thus, the natural cell developmentregulation was substituted by effectively introducing a full person-drivencontrol over the process.. ...
by Nanne Nanninga | As will be argued below the present definition of a prokaryote is highly unsatisfactory. To give an example: a prokaryote is a cell or organism lacking a nucleus and other membrane-enclose organelles, usually having its DNA in a single circular molecule (Brock, Biology of Microorganisms, 10th Ed.). This seems a summary of the original definition of Stanier & van Niel (1962), which I quote for the sake of completeness...
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Summary of ACKR2 (CCBP2, CCR10, CCR9, CMKBR9, D6) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression mainly in placenta and ciliated cells.
Mielke, S. P., Kiang, N. Y., Blankenship, R. E., Gunner, M. R., & Mauzerall, D. (2011). Efficiency of pho- tosynthesis in a Chl d-utilizing cyanobacterium is comparable to or higher than that in Chl a-utilizing oxygenic species. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics, 1807(9), 1231-1236. doi: 10.1016/j. bbabio.2011.06. ...
In January of 2013, the first HETL conference was hosted by Melody Bowdon at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, Florida, USA, with the theme, Exploring Spaces for Learning ...
tolybyssidin B: isolated from the culture medium of mass cultured cyanobacterium Tolypothrix byssoidea; structure in first source
A 3.2 kb fragment of an indigenous Anabaena azollae plasmid was isolated and fully sequenced. Sequence analysis identified an open reading frame of 1110-bp that showed high similarity (56-71%) with glutathione dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase genes (gdfaldh) from various bacteria. The identity of the gene was confirmed by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli with a pET-32 (a) vector followed by enzyme assay. Adjacent to the gdfaldh a second gene was detected that showed high similarity (53%) with an S-formylglutathione hydrolase (fgh) gene from the methylotrophic bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. The presence of gdfaldh and fgh-like genes adjacent to each other may suggest that the corresponding gene products interact in a common metabolic pathway involved in removing exogenous or endogenous formaldehyde ...
Anatoxin-a was first discovered by P.R Gorham in the early 1960s, after several herds of cattle died as a result of drinking water from Saskatchewan Lake in Canada, which contained toxic algal blooms. It was later isolated (1972) by J.P. Devlin from the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos aquae.[2]. In 1977, Carmichael, Gorham, and Biggs experimented with anatoxin-a. They introduced toxic cultures of Anabaena flos aquae into the stomachs of two young male calves, and observed that muscular fasciculations and loss of coordination occurred in a matter of minutes, while death due to respiratory failure occurred anywhere between several minutes and a few hours. They also established that extensive periods of artificial respiration did not allow for detoxification to occur and natural neuromuscular functioning to resume. From these experiments, they calculated that the oral minimum lethal dose (MLD) (of the algae, not the anatoxin molecule), for calves is roughly 420 mg/kg body weight.[3]. In the same year ...
A gapped BLAST reveals four significant hits to the ATP Synthase Epsilon Chain proteins from a number of organisms. For example: Residues 4-112 are 25% similar to the AtpC of M.genitalium (ATPE_MYCGE). Residues 7-112 are 25% similar to the ATP synthase epsilon chain of Euglena gracilis chloroplast (ATPE_EUGGR). The other two significant hits were to the ATP synthase epsilon chains of M.pneumoniae (ATPE_MYCPN), and M.gallisepticum (ATPE_MYCGA). In addition to these results, one iteration of PSI-BLAST resulted in significant hits to the ATP synthase epsilon chains of a number of organisms. For example: Significant hits were made to the ATP synthase epsilon chains of: C.vulgaris chloroplasts (ATPE_CHLVU), M.polymorpha cholorplast (ATPE_MARPO), Anabaena PCC7120 (a cyanobacterium) (ATPE_ANASP) and many others ...
Looking for online definition of cyanobacterium in the Medical Dictionary? cyanobacterium explanation free. What is cyanobacterium? Meaning of cyanobacterium medical term. What does cyanobacterium mean?
Shturmovik[KGB] writes Now if *this* aint bitingly appropriate, I dont know what is! Blue-Green Algae has announced that they will be entering the IPO market. Algae, aka anabaena, and myself who has a patent on respiration will be entering into a strategic alliance to corner the market on re...
Expression of ACKR4 (CCBP2, CCR11, CCRL1, CCX-CKR, PPR1, VSHK1) in duodenum tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
APT1_YEAST (P49435 ), APT2_ARATH (Q42563 ), APT2_YEAST (P36973 ), APT3_ARATH (Q9SUW2 ), APT4_ARATH (Q9SU38 ), APT5_ARATH (Q9LFP0 ), APT_ACAM1 (B0CBF7 ), APT_ACHLI (A9NGG3 ), APT_ACIAC (A1TWI0 ), APT_ACIC1 (A0LUK1 ), APT_ACIC5 (C1F3T2 ), APT_ACICJ (A5FVJ4 ), APT_ACIET (B9MIH9 ), APT_ACISJ (A1WDB0 ), APT_ACTP2 (A3MYY8 ), APT_ACTP7 (B3H0A8 ), APT_ACTPJ (B0BSS1 ), APT_ACTSZ (A6VMZ1 ), APT_AERHH (A0KKD3 ), APT_AERS4 (A4SMN3 ), APT_AGARV (C4ZF43 ), APT_AGRFC (Q8UD91 ), APT_ALISL (B6EJ41 ), APT_ANAD2 (B8JDQ9 ), APT_ANADE (Q2INZ6 ), APT_ANADF (A7H8F4 ), APT_ANASK (B4UE87 ), APT_ANAVT (Q3MAA1 ), APT_ARCB4 (A8ESP0 ), APT_ARTS2 (A0JV33 ), APT_ASHGO (Q756E2 ), APT_AZOC5 (A8IEI6 ), APT_BDEBA (Q6MPK7 ), APT_BEII9 (B2IBU5 ), APT_BIFA0 (B8DUE5 ), APT_BIFAA (A1A1K5 ), APT_BIFLD (B3DRY2 ), APT_BIFLO (Q8G6B5 ), APT_BIFLS (B7GR20 ), APT_BLOFL (Q7VRB8 ), APT_BLOPB (Q493A5 ), APT_BORA1 (Q2KUE4 ), APT_BORAP (Q0SM77 ), APT_BORBP (Q65ZZ7 ), APT_BORBR (Q7WEY7 ), APT_BORBU (O51718 ), APT_BORBZ (B7J0M3 ), APT_BORPA (Q7W3L2 ...
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To date, phylogenies have been based on known gene sequences accessible at GenBank, and the absence of many cyanobacterial lineages from collections and sequence databases has hampered their classification. Investigating new biotopes to isolate more genera and species is one way to enrich strain collections and subsequently enhance gene sequence databases. A polyphasic approach is another way of improving our understanding of the details of cyanobacterial classification. In this work, we have studied phylogenetic relationships in strains isolated from freshwater bodies in Senegal and Burkina Faso to complement existing morphological and genetic databases. By comparing 16S rDNA sequences of African strains to those of other cyanobacteria lineages, we placed them in the cyanobacterial phylogeny and confirmed their genus membership. We then focused on the Nostocaceae family by concatenated analysis of four genes (16S rDNA, hetR, nifH, and rpoC1 genes) to characterize relationships among Anabaena ...
Results *. Classification Results *. Discussion and Conclusions *. Bibliography *. Appendix 1 *. List of Features Extracted from Image Objects *. Appendix 2 *. Authors Address *. Introduction. The increasing occurrence of algal bloom contamination in both lakes and sea serves as a worrying indicator of increasing environmental stress on water ecosystems. Such blooms have the potential to become a serious issue in terms of a governments ability to supply drinking water that meets national health standards, not to mention the devastating effects such blooms can have on the environment. Lake Biwa, Japans largest lake and source of drinking water for over 14 million people, has experienced such blooms with increasing frequency over the last decade. The majority of these blooms are caused by 3 endemic species of cyanobacteria Microcystis sp., Anabaena sp., and Planktothrix sp.. Monitoring of water supplies (for the presence or absence of targeted species) usually involves the manual analysis of ...
The production of ammonia via the Haber-Bosch process consumes large amounts of fossil fuels and releases large amounts of greenhouse gases. Ammonia has many important applications including fertilizer for crops and for microalgae-derived biofuel systems. Aquatic cyanobacteria fix nitrogen from the air and have been mass-cultured for many uses. This study analyzes, on a life cycle basis, a process to culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals; transport the ammonium sulfate and convert it to liquid ammonia and concentrated sulfuric acid. When compared to the ammonia produced via the Haber-Bosch process, savings of about 1.0 × 105 MJ of non-renewable energy and 3100 kg CO2 equivalent of global warming potential per 1000 kg of liquid ammonia might be possible. The ...
Morsy, F. M., Elbadry, M., El-Sayed, W. S., Abd El-Hady, D. 2019 Dark and photofermentation H2 production from hydrolyzed biomass of the potent extracellular polysaccharides producing cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and intracellular polysaccharide (glycogen) enriched Anabaena variabilis NIES-2095. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 44, 16199-16211 ...
Two genes encoding putative isoforms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC4.1.1.31), Phatrdraft_27976 and Phatrdraft_51136, are present in the P. tricornutum draft genome and both were up-regulated moderately under N deprivation, 1.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively (Additional file 3: Table S1d). The two PEPCs were predicted to be localized in the chloroplast (Phatrdraft_27976; mito: 7.0, chlo: 7.0; Phatrdraft_51136, chlo: 9.0, cyto: 5.0, by WoLF PSORT) implicating the presence of C4 photosynthetic pathway. Two green microalgae, C. reinhardtii and Selenastrum minutum, also reportedly possess at least two distinct PEPC isoforms, which differ significantly from their plant and prokaryotic counterparts [23]. PEPC catalyzes the irreversible β-carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in the presence of HCO3- and Me2+ to yield inorganic phosphate and oxaloacetate (OAA). Thus, it is intimately involved in C4-dicarboxylic acid metabolism in these organisms. It also plays an anaplerotic role in ...
National Geographic. Merismopedia (from the Greek merismos (division) and the Greek pedion (plain) ) is a genus of cyanobacteria found on fresh and marine waters. It is ovoid or spherical in shape and are arranged in rows and flats, forming rectangular colonies held together by a mucilaginous matrix. Species in this genus divide in only two directions, creating a characteristic grid-like pattern. The cyanobacteria Merismopedia sp. are fairly common in several varieties of water habitats. Along with other cyanobacteria, they contribute to primary production through photosynthesis. They also can produce lipopolysaccharides which are known to create skin irritation and gastrointestinal distress (NOAA). Currently no genome sequencing projects of Merimopedia strains are ongoing. However, several similar blue-green algae cyanobacteria have been sequenced or are currently in progress. Although there is still a lot of data that needs to be collected from an individual genome sequencing of a Merismopedia ...
Oh my god, Im catching the FEVER from the indigenous tribe of Patapon! Ever since I hook on the latest PSP game titled "Patapon", all I could hear is the rhythmic drum and the singing eyeballs responding to my godly command. My loyal Patapon is constantly fueling my insanity with their worships..."GREAT LORD...THE ALMIGHTY...", wishing me to bestow the Miracles upon the once forgotten tribe ...
Lake Thunderbird Algae Study 2003 Final Report Lake Thunderbird Algae 2003 for the Central Oklahoma Master Conservancy District May 2004 Final Report Oklahoma Water Resources Board 3800 North Classen Boulevard Oklahoma City, OK 73118 Oklahoma Water Resources Board LAKE THUNDERBIRD ALGAE STUDY FINAL REPORT 2 Executive Summary Algae have long been known to cause water quality problems in many municipal water systems. From the available data, Lake Thunderbird contains algae with the potential to produce taste and odor (T&O) and toxin chemicals (Table 0.1). Table 0.1: Summary of potential taste and odor and toxin producing species identified in Lake Thunderbird in 2003. Species Division Potential T&O Potential Toxin Anabaena bergeii v. limnetica Cyanophyta X X Anabaena flos-aquae Cyanophyta X X Anabaena spiroides Cyanophyta X X Anabaenopsis elenkinii** Cyanophyta X Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi Cyanophyta X X Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Cyanophyta X Planktolyngbya contorta (Lyngbya lagerheimii f. ...
Lake Thunderbird Algae Study 2003 Final Report Lake Thunderbird Algae 2003 for the Central Oklahoma Master Conservancy District May 2004 Final Report Oklahoma Water Resources Board 3800 North Classen Boulevard Oklahoma City, OK 73118 Oklahoma Water Resources Board LAKE THUNDERBIRD ALGAE STUDY FINAL REPORT 2 Executive Summary Algae have long been known to cause water quality problems in many municipal water systems. From the available data, Lake Thunderbird contains algae with the potential to produce taste and odor (T&O) and toxin chemicals (Table 0.1). Table 0.1: Summary of potential taste and odor and toxin producing species identified in Lake Thunderbird in 2003. Species Division Potential T&O Potential Toxin Anabaena bergeii v. limnetica Cyanophyta X X Anabaena flos-aquae Cyanophyta X X Anabaena spiroides Cyanophyta X X Anabaenopsis elenkinii** Cyanophyta X Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi Cyanophyta X X Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Cyanophyta X Planktolyngbya contorta (Lyngbya lagerheimii f. ...
Lake Thunderbird Algae Study 2003 Final Report Lake Thunderbird Algae 2003 for the Central Oklahoma Master Conservancy District May 2004 Final Report Oklahoma Water Resources Board 3800 North Classen Boulevard Oklahoma City, OK 73118 Oklahoma Water Resources Board LAKE THUNDERBIRD ALGAE STUDY FINAL REPORT 2 Executive Summary Algae have long been known to cause water quality problems in many municipal water systems. From the available data, Lake Thunderbird contains algae with the potential to produce taste and odor (T&O) and toxin chemicals (Table 0.1). Table 0.1: Summary of potential taste and odor and toxin producing species identified in Lake Thunderbird in 2003. Species Division Potential T&O Potential Toxin Anabaena bergeii v. limnetica Cyanophyta X X Anabaena flos-aquae Cyanophyta X X Anabaena spiroides Cyanophyta X X Anabaenopsis elenkinii** Cyanophyta X Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi Cyanophyta X X Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Cyanophyta X Planktolyngbya contorta (Lyngbya lagerheimii f. ...
Lake Thunderbird Algae Study 2003 Final Report Lake Thunderbird Algae 2003 for the Central Oklahoma Master Conservancy District May 2004 Final Report Oklahoma Water Resources Board 3800 North Classen Boulevard Oklahoma City, OK 73118 Oklahoma Water Resources Board LAKE THUNDERBIRD ALGAE STUDY FINAL REPORT 2 Executive Summary Algae have long been known to cause water quality problems in many municipal water systems. From the available data, Lake Thunderbird contains algae with the potential to produce taste and odor (T&O) and toxin chemicals (Table 0.1). Table 0.1: Summary of potential taste and odor and toxin producing species identified in Lake Thunderbird in 2003. Species Division Potential T&O Potential Toxin Anabaena bergeii v. limnetica Cyanophyta X X Anabaena flos-aquae Cyanophyta X X Anabaena spiroides Cyanophyta X X Anabaenopsis elenkinii** Cyanophyta X Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi Cyanophyta X X Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Cyanophyta X Planktolyngbya contorta (Lyngbya lagerheimii f. ...
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the NER pathway are linked to at least three diseases: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The repair of damaged DNA involves at least 30 polypeptides within two different sub-pathways of NER known as transcription-coupled repair (TCR-NER) and global genome repair (GGR-NER). TCR refers to the expedited repair of lesions located in the actively transcribed strand of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). In GGR-NER the first step of damage recognition involves XPC-hHR23B complex together with XPE complex (in prokaryotes, uvrAB complex). The following steps of GGR-NER and TCR-NER are similar ...
High-level, inducible expression of heterologous genes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was obtained using the Escherichia coli trc promoter and lacl repressor. The petE gene of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7937 encoding plastocyanin precursor protein and the E. coli uidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase were initially placed under the control of the trc promoter and lacl repressor by cloning into the E. coli pTrc99C expression vector and were introduced into the chromosomal platform for integration in metF (PIM) of the Synechococcus R2-PIM9 recipient strain. These pTrc99C-derived constructs often gave rise to transformants that did not contain a complete insert gene, probably because of gene conversion events. Selection of the desired Synechococcus R2-PIM9 transformants was vastly improved using the new pTrcIS vector that contains the aadA gene encoding streptomycin resistance as an extra antibiotic resistance marker. The influence of IPTG concentration and induction time on gene
Theelastic compressibility of gas vesicles isolated from Anabaena flos-aquae has been measured with a specially constructed apparatus. The gas vesicle suspension was contained in a glass tube, closed at one end with a piston allowing volume adjustment and attached at the other end to a microcapillary, and was subjected to pressure from compressed air. The elastic compressibility of the gas vesicle suspension was determined by applying or removing pressure and measuring the ensuing displacement of the meniscus in the capillary with a vernier microscope. After allowing for the compressibility of the compression tube and of water in the suspension, the compressibility of the intact gas vesicles has been calculated to be 0.00155 bar-1, and the elastic bulk modulus 645 bar. The elastic modulus of the protein that forms the gas vesicle wall can also be calculated from these measurements; it is 27500 bar. These measurements confirm that the gas vesicle is a rigid structure and show that the buoyancy ...
BD FACSMelody™ cell sorter, BD™ Precise kits, BD CLiC™ system. .. In the case of biofuels and other solvent-like chemicals, product toxicity isdistinguished from the production of fine chemicals by the eventual scale atIn Synechocystis sp. strain PCC, n-butanol-related ROS stress could be. [ Get Price ] ...
Five industry experts speaking at a panel at this weeks PATA conference in Pattaya say that the medical-tourism industry has grown so much that it needs an international regulatory body and an advertising code of conduct.
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Psithyrus variabilis, abdomen, UGCA195894 image
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: PCC Courier 10/17/2013, Author: PCC Courier, Name: PCC Courier 10/17/2013, Length: 7 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-10-17
한국 최고의 가격 Deva 완전 채식 글루코사민, MSM 및 CMO 관절 (90) 탭 부터 eVitamins.com. 알다 Vegan Glucosamine, MSM and CMO Joint Support 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. Vegan Glucosamine, MSM and CMO Joint Support 다른 제품으로 Deva 당신의 건강 요구에.
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Hi all-- thank you for reading this, if you are. I am new to the OR, started the day after Memorial Day for a 6 month orientation. I came to the OR after 6 years of step-down/telemetry unit.
Airplane cabin fragrances: Singapore Airlines, All Nippon Airways and others use pleasant scents in their cabins to enhance their flights.
Article Two cyanobacterial strains can be distinguished from each other and other eukaryotic algae by spectral absorption method. Spectral absorption method based on two step linear regression analyses (TSLR) was applied for detection of two strains ...
Abstract The diversity of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in the western basin of Lake Erie was studied using sequence analysis of mcyA gene fragments. Distinct populations of ..
2-Methylhopanes, molecular fossils of 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol (2-MeBHP) lipids, have been proposed as biomarkers for cyanobacteria, and by extension, oxygenic photosynthesis. However, the robustness of this interpretation is unclear, as 2-methylhopanoids occur in organisms besides cyanobacteria and their physiological functions are unknown. As a first step toward understanding the role of 2-MeBHP in cyanobacteria, we examined the expression and intercellular localization of hopanoids in the three cell types of Nostoc punctiforme: vegetative cells, akinetes, and heterocysts. Cultures in which N. punctiforme had differentiated into akinetes contained approximately 10-fold higher concentrations of 2-methylhopanoids than did cultures that contained only vegetative cells. In contrast, 2-methylhopanoids were only present at very low concentrations in heterocysts. Hopanoid production initially increased threefold in cells starved of nitrogen but returned to levels consistent with vegetative cells ...
Cyanobacteria are diverse in their habitats, structure, and metabolism that can grow as unicellular or long filaments and secreting high molecular mass polymers (extracellular polymer substances, EPS), which can either be released into the surrounding environment or remain attached to the cell surface. Four different cyanobacterial environmental samples (soil crust, microbial mats, pond water and marine bloom) were studied to compare between the cyanobacteria species that grow and form cyanomatrix and cyanofilms in those environmental habitats using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Diatoms were also detected with cyanobacteria at microbial mats and pond water samples. All samples had variable concentrations and compositions of extracellular matrix and biofilm. Microscopic observation and analyses also revealed complex network of filamentous cyanobacteria and extracellular polymer secretions, which binds and traps particles of soil and minerals ...
A novel cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility was isolated in pure culture from several locations in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a small unicellular form, assignable to the genus Synechococcus, that is capable of swimming through liquids at speeds of 25 micrometers per second. Light microscopy revealed that the motile cells display many features characteristic of bacterial flagellar motility. However, electron microscopy failed to reveal flagella and shearing did not arrest motility, indicating that the cyanobacterium may be propelled by a novel mechanism. ...
연골 내 주요 성분으로서, 글루코사민은 관절,연골의 건강에 중요한 역할을 합니다. 연구에 의하면, 글루코사민은 연골을 형성하는 기초요소를 제공합니다. Deva 글루코사민은 갑각류나 다른 동물이 아닌 옥수수에서 추출한 것입니다. MSM은 유기형태의 황으로 천연의 효과적인 자원인데, 콜라겐 형성에 필수적이며 신체 조직상의 많은 분자들을 필요로 합니다. MSM은 관절의 건강과 기능에 필수적인 것으로 보이며 모든 형태의 연결조직에는 그것이 일반적입니다. CMO는 관절에 윤활제 역할을 하여 면역체계를 바로잡고 통증을 줄이는데 도움을 줄 수 있다고 합니다.. 권장 사용량:. 1일 1정씩 2~3회 복용(식사와 함께 복용하세요). 혹은 건강상담사와 상의하시기 바랍니다.. Deva 는 100% 비건/베지테리언 제품만 생산하는 회사로 Vegan 이라는 처음으로 사용하는 Vegan ...
Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. BMAA also caused growth arrest and massive cellular glycogen accumulation, as observed by electron microscopy. With nitrogen fixation being a process highly sensitive to oxygen species we propose that the BMAA effects found here may be related to the production of reactive oxygen species, as reported for other organisms.
ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria are often the most conspicuous structural part of microbial mats. They are also the only oxygenic phototrophs capable of N2 fixation (diazotrophy). This represents an important advantage for persistence in the often N-depleted marine intertidal microbial mats. In this study the daily pattern of expression of the structural gene for dinitrogenase reductase, nifH and the 16S rRNA gene of 3 benthic filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp., Nodularia sp. and Anabaena sp.) was measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression patterns were compared and related to the daily pattern of nitrogenase activity. Microscopic observations revealed that the non-heterocystous Lyngbya sp. was the major cyanobacterial morphotype in all the microbial mats studied. When normalized to copy number, nifH as well as 16S rRNA gene expression by Lyngbya sp. was higher than by the heterocystous Cyanobacteria in all but one mat type. Related to the total amount of extracted RNA, ...
Spirulina tablets 1000 x 400mg 100% GMO Free detox diet weight loss cleanse,cyanobacterium,dietary supplement, aquaculture, aquarium,poultry industries,Algas Verdiazul, Algues Bleu-Vert,Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae,dietary protein, B-vitamins,attent
Spirulina tablets 500 x 400mg 100% GMO Free detox diet weight loss cleanse,cyanobacterium,dietary supplement, aquaculture, aquarium,poultry industries,Algas Verdiazul, Algues Bleu-Vert,Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae,dietary protein, B-vitamins,attenti
Filamentous cyanobacteria, bathed in seawater and often growing in nutrient-rich environments, are surrounded by diverse communities of heterotrophic bacteria. The heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with cyanobacteria likely consume released nutrients, but may also produce vitamins and other factors useful to cyanobacterial growth, as well as assisting in cycling of CO2 and phosphate, or lowering O2 levels for oxygen-sensitive processes such as nitrogen fixation [1, 2]. Various studies have classified some of the taxa of heterotrophic bacteria that live in close proximity to cyanobacterial blooms, including common aquatic phyla such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes [3, 4]. Some potentially new species or genera were also located within these samples, which could suggest that some bacteria may have specific relationships with cyanobacteria [3]. However, many of these latter bacteria are also found living independently of cyanobacteria [4], and the makeup ...
Cyanobacteria are N2-fixing oxygenic phototrophs with potential as sources of nitrogenous biofertilizer independent of fossil fuels. Recently, attention has been paid to their role in this respect, and to strain selection to facilitate enhanced agricultural productivity. The capacities to fix N2 in the presence of combined nitrogen, to resist herbicides and to tolerate salinity changes and desiccation are of particular importance. Mutant strains of N2-fixing cyanobacteria with potential applications have been produced, including strains which photoproduce ammonia and amino acids, strains with altered transport systems and strains which are herbicide-resistant. By using bioreactors and immobilization systems in conjunction with these strains, techniques have been developed for extracellular product-liberation. Gene transfer systems are now available in both unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria and these offer the possibility of strain selection and modification. The way in which these ...
OscillatoriaOscillatoria princepsScientific classificationKingdom:BacteriaPhylum:CyanobacteriaClass:CyanophyceaeOrder:OscillatorialesFamily:OscillatoriaceaeGenus:OscillatoriaVaucher ex Gomont, 1822Type speciesOscillatoria princepsVaucher ex GomontOscillatoria is a genus of filamentous cyanobacterium which is named after the oscillation in its movement. Filaments in the colonies can slide back and forth against each other until the whole mass is reoriented to its light source.. It is commonly found in watering-troughs waters, and is mainly blue-green or brown-green. Oscillatoria is an organism that reproduces by fragmentation. Oscillatoria forms long filaments of 400s which can break into fragments called hormogonia. The hormogonia can grow into a new, longer filament. Breaks in the filament usually occur where dead cells (necridia) are present. Oscillatoria uses photosynthesis to surviveImage GalleryCyanobacterial Image GalleryDisclaimer and AcknowledgementsThe images in this gallery are ...
This tiny, floating aquatic fern is occasional on quiet backwaters in northern Indiana. It usually bears a reddish color, making it stand out from the little duckweeds with which it grows. Its reproductive cycle is much different than terrestrial ferns (it produces separate male and female spores, each producing their own gametophyte), and it lives in symbiosis with a blue-green algae, Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen. There is debate on identification of two species in the Midwest: Azolla caroliniana and Azolla mexicana ...
The operators of safaris in the tiger reserves of the state are in a tizzy after the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has come up with a new formula of calculating tourism carrying capacity inside the reserves that is likely to affect the number of both gypsies and canters.
The hospital that I work for has a Critcal Care area and a special care area. The special care is a progressive care or step-down type of unit. They take vent patients, a few drips such as sedation,
33. Two cells A and B are contiguous. Cell A has osmotic pressure 10 atm, turgor pressure 7 atm and diffusion pressure deficit 3 atm. Cell B has osmotic pressure 8 atm, turgor pressure 3 atm and diffusion pressure deficit 5 atm. The result will be ...
Florence Pugh (/pjuː/ PEW; born 3 January 1996) is an English actress. She made her professional acting debut in the mystery film The Falling (2014) and gained recognition for her leading role as an unhappily married woman in the independent drama Lady Macbeth (2016). Her performance in the latter won her the BIFA Award for Best Actress. She also drew critical praise for her leading role in the miniseries The Little Drummer Girl (2018). ...
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In additon to the great finds of this and the Conops yesterday I also keyed out Platycheirus scutatus (s.l - it was a female) from the same day. That takes me to 41 species for the year, with another Cheilosia which is of the variabilis group and therefore also new. If not this year, then next year my target will certainly be 50, as well as trying to record more good data on host etc ...
台南市自然專輔陳藝珍彙編. 動物受精卵發育方式介紹. 卵生. 1. ( 卵 ) 胎生. 2. 胎生. 3. 卵產出一段時間後幼體才孵化. 體內孵卵 . 發育完全後產出 . 幼體再破膜而出. 在 母體內經由臍帶吸收母體的 營養. 卵生. 卵生動物把卵或受精卵排出體外,或掩埋土砂中 ( 如蝗蟲、龜、某些蛇類等 ) ,或留樹皮空隙中 ( 如蟬 ) ,或水域中 ( 如魚、蛙等 ) ,然後藉太陽的輻射熱發育孵化成幼蟲或幼體 。 藉 卵黃的養分而發育 , 卵 較大 . 如大多數魚類 、鳥類、兩生 類和爬蟲類。. 卵生的台灣鈍頭蛇 / 青蛇. Slideshow 2277676 by deva
TY - JOUR. T1 - A randomized prospective study of topical antimicrobial agents on skin grafts after thermal injury. AU - Herndon, David. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84937174366&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84937174366&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 86. SP - 1065. JO - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. JF - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. SN - 0032-1052. IS - 6. ER - ...
Guests enjoyed a refreshing West Coast Cooler and light brunch in the beautiful surroundings of Robinson & Cleaver, whilst FASHIONWEEK director Cathy Martin talked through the schedule and key trends of mellow yellows, popping pinks, lavish layers and beetle-juice inspired stripes that adorned the stunning CMPR models. Returning to venues across the city of Belfast from 23-26 March, the full schedule of super stylish events is available online at www.belfastfashionweek.com, and tickets can be purchased now from the Belfast Welcome Centre on 028 9024 6609 or via the website." ...
Introduction. Cyanobacteria occur in surface waters, especially in waters where physical conditions and nutrient loads are favourable for their proliferation (Whitton and Potts, 2000). Several of the cyanobacteria genera produce cyanotoxin and subsequently may pose a human health risk, especially after direct contact with, or ingestion of water contaminated with these genera (Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Codd et al., 1997). Seven toxic cyanobacteria genera (targeted in this study) are most likely to be encountered in surface water sources. These are Microcystis spp., Oscillatoria spp., Anabaena spp., Cylindrospermopsis spp., Aphanizomenon spp., Nodularia spp. and Nostoc spp. (Chorus and Bartram, 1999), of which Microcystis spp. are reported to be the most abundant. These cyanobacteria are potential producers of cyanotoxins of which the most common type is the microcystins (Du Preez et al. 2007; Du Preez and Van Baalen 2006; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Carmichael, 1992). People in underdeveloped areas ...
Climate change may cause increased microbial growth in water sources and more knowledge is required on how this may affect the hygienic water quality, i.e., whether increased occurrence of cyanobacteria and algae may stimulate the growth rate of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate if the presence of the cyanobacteria Anabanea lemmermannii and Microcystis aeruginosa affected the survival and growth rate of the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the faecal indicators Escherichia coli and coliforms. Cyanobacteria were cultured in bottles containing the nutrient-poor medium O2. Sewage, A. hydrophila or P. aeruginosa was added to cyanobacterial cultures and the bacterial growth and survival was followed. E. coli and coliforms from sewage died within few days and the decay rate was not affected by the presence of cyanobacteria. The presence of Anabaena stimulated the growth rate of P. aeruginosa, ...
across the tropical north Atlantic. Nicole J. Bale, Tracy A. Villareal, Ellen C. Hopmans, Corina P.D. Brussaard, Marc Besseling, Denise Dorhout, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan Schouten. Biogeosciences. 15, 1229-1241, 2018.. A quest for the biological sources of the ubiquitous long chain alkyl diols in the marine realm. Sergio Balzano, Julie Lattaud; Laura Villanueva; Sebastiaan Rampen; Corina P Brussaard; Judith van Bleijswijk; Nicole Bale; Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté; Stefan Schouten. Biogeosciences. 15, 5951-5968, 2018 Natronobiforma cellulotropha gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel haloalkaliphilic member of the family Natrialbaceae (class Halobacteria) from hypersaline alkaline lakes. Dimitry Sorokin, Taniana Khijniak, Nadezhda Kostrikina, Alexander Elcheninov, Stepan Toshchakov, Nicole Bale, Jaap Sinninghe Damste, Ilya Kublanov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 41, 355-362, 2018. A novel heterocyst glycolipid detected in a pelagic N2-fixing cyanobacterium of the genus Calothrix. Nicole J. Bale, ...

Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), SEM - Stock Image C032/2525 - Science Photo LibraryCyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), SEM - Stock Image C032/2525 - Science Photo Library

Anabaena is one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins. These toxins are harmful to local wildlife, as well ... Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue, Green algae). It found as planktonic cyanobacterium ( ... Some species of Anabaena are endophytes. Magnification: x660 when shortest axis printed at 25 - Stock Image C032/2525 ... of Anabaena sp., Gram-negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Note the ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/799344/view

Expression and purification of the transcription factor NtcA from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120Expression and purification of the transcription factor NtcA from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120

NtcA from Anabaena PCC 7120 was heterologously expressed in E. coli and a high yield of recombinant protein was achieved ... Expression and purification of the transcription factor NtcA from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Wisén, Susanne Uppsala ... Apart from performing oxygenic photosynthesis, Anabaena PCC 7120 is also capable of fixing nitrogen. NtcA is a protein ... Biochemistry, NtcA, transcription regulation, cyanobacteria, redox regulation, DNA binding, nitrogen fixation, Anabaena PCC ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:163177

DIGITAL.CSIC: Role of two NtcA-binding sites in the complex ntcA gene promoter of the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium...DIGITAL.CSIC: Role of two NtcA-binding sites in the complex ntcA gene promoter of the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium...

Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that fixes N2 in specialized cells called heterocysts, which ... Role of two NtcA-binding sites in the complex ntcA gene promoter of the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain ... 2-Oxoglutarate-stimulated binding of purified NtcA to wild-type and modified versions of the ntcA gene promoter from Anabaena ...
more infohttps://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/111847

Establishment of quantitative PCR methods for the quantification of geosmin-producing potential and Anabaena sp. in freshwater...Establishment of quantitative PCR methods for the quantification of geosmin-producing potential and Anabaena sp. in freshwater...

In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed to detect the levels of *Anabaena* sp. and ... Anabaena* sp. in freshwater systems. The ARG density determined by qPCR assay is highly related to microscopic cell count (r² ... Anabaena* sp. as the major producer. Rapid on-site detection of geosmin-producers as well as geosmin is important for a timely ... Anabaena Quantitative PCR Geosmin rpoC₁ gene Geosmin synthase gene Ming Su. Associate Professor of Environmental Engneering. My ...
more infohttps://drwater.net/publication/su-2013-establishment/

Marine Drugs  | Free Full-Text | Recreational Exposure to Low Concentrations of Microcystins During an Algal Bloom in a Small...Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Recreational Exposure to Low Concentrations of Microcystins During an Algal Bloom in a Small...

Anabaena. Macrospore. 4,925. 5,746. 11,492. 1,437. 10,056. 7,183. 1,437. 456. 8,619. 7,183. 2,873. 17,239. ... The dominant genera of PTOX-C reported in water samples were Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, and Microcystis. The ... The dominant species present were Anabaena macrospora, Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides/gracile, and Microcystis cf. botrys. ... two documented microcystin-producing genera present were Anabaena and Microcystis. No Planktothrix species were observed. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/6/2/389/htm

Guidelines for the Integrated Management of the Watershed - Phytotechnology and EcohydrologyGuidelines for the Integrated Management of the Watershed - Phytotechnology and Ecohydrology

Anabaena, Plantotrix (Oscillatoria), Cylindrospermum, Aphanizomenon Anabaena. anatoxin-a(s). Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, ...
more infohttp://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/Publications/Freshwater/FMS5/8/B_1.asp

Anabaena - WikipediaAnabaena - Wikipedia

Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. Anabaena Bory de Saint- ... Sci.: Processes Impacts 04/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5EM00097A Sequenced Anabaena Genomes Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Anabaena ... Anabaena is used as a model organism to study simple vision. The process in which light changes the shape of molecules in the ... Certain species of Anabaena have been used on rice paddy fields, proving to be an effective natural fertilizer. Under nitrogen- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anabaena

Anabaena circinalis - WikipediaAnabaena circinalis - Wikipedia

Anabaena circinalis exhibits a filamentous morphology, each filament a string of task-specific cells. The appearance of cell ... Biological toxicity aside, Anabaena circinalis blooms have the potential to disrupt commercial fishing areas, water-treatment ... Anabaena circinalis is a species of Gram-negative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria common to freshwater environments throughout ... Add to this the high cost of toxicity monitoring, and its apparent that Anabaena circinalis can have a detrimental economic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anabaena_circinalis

Anabaena | cyanobacteria | Britannica.comAnabaena | cyanobacteria | Britannica.com

Anabaena: Genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores ( ... Anabaena, genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores ( ... In temperate latitudes during the summer months, Anabaena may form water blooms. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/Anabaena

Anabaena - microbewikiAnabaena - microbewiki

Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena flos-aque, Anabaena aequalis Description and Significance. Anabaena provides a model for the ... Anabaena grow in long filaments of vegetative cells.. Anabaena. The arrow points to a heterocyst From from: University of ... Figure A shows normal Anabaena grown in a complete medium. Figure B shows normal Anabaena growing in a medium lacking nitrogen ... Unlike most other strains of Anabaena, Anabaena sp. strain ATCC 29413 differenciates between their hetrocyst and akinetes forms ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Anabaena&oldid=4995

Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngbye) Brebisson ATCC ® 22664™Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngbye) Brebisson ATCC ® 22664™

Anabaena flos-aquae ATCC ® 22664™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Toxicity testing Fixes nitrogen This strain is ... Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngbye) Brebisson (ATCC® 22664™) Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ...
more infohttps://atcc.org/en/Products/Quality_Control_Strains/By_Instrument/22664.aspx

Anabaena variabilis (strain ATCC 29413 / PCC 7937)Anabaena variabilis (strain ATCC 29413 / PCC 7937)

"Complete genome sequence of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.". Thiel T., Pratte B.S., Zhong J., Goodwin L., Copeland A., Lucas S ... Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium that fixes nitrogen and CO2 using the energy ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/proteomes/UP000002533

Inhibition of growth of Anabaena variabilis population by single and mixed steroid hormones | SpringerLinkInhibition of growth of Anabaena variabilis population by single and mixed steroid hormones | SpringerLink

Culture conditions of Anabaena variabilis Anabaena variabilis ATCC-29413 was obtained from the Faculty of Biology, University ... Exposure of Anabaena variabilis to steroid hormones. The A. variabilis colonies were cultured in the presence of the following ... Anabaena variabilis Cyanobacteria Phytoplankton Hormones Endocrine-disrupting compounds Growth inhibition Electronic ... Measuring the growth of Anabaena variabilis The growth of the A. variabilis was assessed by counting the number of cells and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10811-018-1589-9

Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), SEM - Stock Image C032/2524 - Science Photo LibraryCyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), SEM - Stock Image C032/2524 - Science Photo Library

Anabaena is one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins. These toxins are harmful to local wildlife, as well ... Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue, Green algae). It found as planktonic cyanobacterium ( ... Some species of Anabaena are endophytes. Magnification: x660 when shortest axis printed at 25 - Stock Image C032/2524 ... of Anabaena sp., Gram-negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Note the ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/799343/view/cyanobacterium-anabaena-sp-sem

The Difference between Nostoc and Anabaena | Difference BetweenThe Difference between Nostoc and Anabaena | Difference Between

The Difference between Nostoc and Anabaena. • Categorized under Science , The Difference between Nostoc and Anabaena ... Anabaena. Anabaenas are known for their intercalary heterocysts and amorphous filaments. They are also known for their nitrogen ... my question is nostoc and anabaena are blue green algae.and filamentous and of course unbranched.they are found in pond, paddy ... Two of these are Nostoc and Anabaena. Both share some common characteristics, which make it very difficult to determine one ...
more infohttp://www.differencebetween.net/science/the-difference-between-nostoc-and-anabaena/

RCSB PDB 









- 1EWY: ANABAENA PCC7119 FERREDOXIN:FERREDOXIN-NADP+-REDUCTASE COMPLEX Macromolecule Annotations PageRCSB PDB - 1EWY: ANABAENA PCC7119 FERREDOXIN:FERREDOXIN-NADP+-REDUCTASE COMPLEX Macromolecule Annotations Page

... studies of the interaction between the ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase and ferredoxin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena: looking for ... Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), pcc 7119 [TaxId: 1167] C. d1ewyc_. Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) beta-Grasp (ubiquitin-like) 2Fe ... Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), pcc 7119 [TaxId: 1167] A142-303. d1ewya2. Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) Ferredoxin reductase- ... Cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp.), pcc 7119 [TaxId: 1167] B142-303. d1ewyb2. Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) Ferredoxin reductase- ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1EWY

RCSB PDB 









- 1J7C: STRUCTURE OF THE ANABAENA FERREDOXIN MUTANT E95K Macromolecule Annotations PageRCSB PDB - 1J7C: STRUCTURE OF THE ANABAENA FERREDOXIN MUTANT E95K Macromolecule Annotations Page

Structure-function relationships in Anabaena ferredoxin: correlations between X-ray crystal structures, reduction potentials, ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1J7C

WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Anabaena kisseleviana Elenkin, 1938WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Anabaena kisseleviana Elenkin, 1938

Anabaena kisseleviana Elenkin, 1938. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia. ...
more infohttp://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=669471

Effects of freshwater bacterial siderophore on Microcystis and Anabaena.Effects of freshwater bacterial siderophore on Microcystis and Anabaena.

Siderophore; Iron; Microcystis; Anabaena. Products or Services information in the article. ...obtained. Genomic DNA was ... Effects of siderophore on cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 and Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 were studied. ...
more infohttps://www.genscript.com/reference_peer-reviewed_literature_10675.html?journal=Biological%2520Control.&pubmed_id=null

rbpA - Putative RNA-binding protein RbpA - Anabaena sp. (strain L31) - rbpA gene & proteinrbpA - Putative RNA-binding protein RbpA - Anabaena sp. (strain L31) - rbpA gene & protein

sp,P83161,RBPA_ANASL Putative RNA-binding protein RbpA (Fragment) OS=Anabaena sp. (strain L31) OX=29412 GN=rbpA PE=1 SV=1 ... Anabaena sp. (strain L31). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P83161

Dynamics of transcriptional start site selection during nitrogen stress-induced cell differentiation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 |...Dynamics of transcriptional start site selection during nitrogen stress-induced cell differentiation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 |...

Different Functions of the Paralogs to the N-Terminal Domain of the Orange Carotenoid Protein in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp ... Dynamics of transcriptional start site selection during nitrogen stress-induced cell differentiation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. ... In Nostocales, such as Anabaena, this process is spatially separated from oxygenic photosynthesis and occurs in heterocysts. ... The trpE Gene Negatively Regulates Differentiation of Heterocysts at the Level of Induction in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/11/23/1112724108

Geographical Segregation of the Neurotoxin-Producing Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis | Applied and Environmental MicrobiologyGeographical Segregation of the Neurotoxin-Producing Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis | Applied and Environmental Microbiology

1992) Anabaena circinalis. in Identification of common noxious cyanobacteria, part 1. Nostocales. ed Tyler P. (Melbourne Water ... Included in the analyses were Anabaena flos-aquae, A. cylindrica, A. solitaria, and A. affinis. From the 16S rRNA gene, the ... 1978) Pharmacology of anatoxin-a produced by the freshwater cyanophyte Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-44-1. Toxicon 17:229-236. ... Geographical Segregation of the Neurotoxin-Producing Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis E. Carolina Beltran, Brett A. Neilan ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/66/10/4468

Ectopic expression of hetP can partially bypass the need for hetR in heterocyst differentiation by Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120...Ectopic expression of hetP can partially bypass the need for hetR in heterocyst differentiation by Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120...

Ectopic expression of hetP can partially bypass the need for hetR in heterocyst differentiation by Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 ... Differentiation of nitrogen-fixing cells, called heterocysts, by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 requires HetR ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545862?dopt=Abstract

Effect of growth temperature on lipid and fatty acid compositions in the blue-green algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis...Effect of growth temperature on lipid and fatty acid compositions in the blue-green algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis...

Effect of growth temperature on lipid and fatty acid compositions in the blue-green algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis ... The lipid composition was affected by growth temperature in Anacystis nidulans, but was not in Anabaena variabilis. A. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/104734?dopt=Abstract

Isolation and sequence of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the cyanobacterium...Isolation and sequence of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the cyanobacterium...

Codon usage in the Anabaena rbcA gene is not significantly different from that in the Anabaena genes for nitrogenase reductase ... The same probes were used to isolate, from a recombinant λ library, a 17-kilobase-pair EcoRI Anabaena DNA fragment containing ... 5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120. Stephanie E. Curtis and Robert Haselkorn ... DNA fragments from Anabaena 7120 carrying the corresponding gene sequence. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/80/7/1835?ijkey=eccdd5a6cc2c96533b37c38f7717795e6820c35b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • 2-Oxoglutarate-stimulated binding of purified NtcA to wild-type and modified versions of the ntcA gene promoter from Anabaena sp. (csic.es)
  • and geosmin, respectively, by designing two PCR primer sets to quantify the rpoC₁ gene (ARG) and geosmin synthase one (GSG) in Anabaena sp. (drwater.net)
  • We designed primers targeting for Anabaena rpoC₁ gene and geosmin synthase gene. (drwater.net)
  • Susceptibility of acetolactate synthase (ALS) was compared in vitro and in vivo in Anabaena flos-aquae todetermine the mechanism of ALS inhibition by metsulfuron. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The same probes were used to isolate, from a recombinant λ library, a 17-kilobase-pair Eco RI Anabaena DNA fragment containing the coding sequence for the rbc A gene. (pnas.org)
  • Codon usage in the Anabaena rbc A gene is not significantly different from that in the Anabaena genes for nitrogenase reductase and nitrogenase β subunit. (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe a protocol to inactivate a target gene in Anabaena sp. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Upon a single crossover (homologous recombination) between the cargo plasmid and the Anabaena chromosome, the endogenous target gene is disrupted by generating 3'- and 5'-deleted fragments. (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2-Oxoglutarate-stimulated binding of purified NtcA to wild-type and modified versions of the ntcA gene promoter from Anabaena sp. (csic.es)
  • The sequencing of the anabaena genome will aid researchers in studying the genetics and physiology of cellular differentiation, (as exhibited in the heterocycsts of Anabaena ) pattern formation, and nitrogen fixation. (kenyon.edu)
  • A DNA sequencing project was undertaken in 1999, which mapped the complete genome of Anabaena, which is 7.2 million base pairs long. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent sequencing of the genome of Anabaena sp . (kenyon.edu)
  • The purified recombinant Anabaena sp. (asm.org)
  • Plasmid constructions containing the genes from Anabaena sp. (asm.org)
  • RBPA_ANASL Putative RNA-binding protein RbpA (Fragment) OS=Anabaena sp. (uniprot.org)
  • Figure A shows normal Anabaena grown in a complete medium. (kenyon.edu)
  • Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the effect of estrogens (estrone, 17ß-estadiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, and estriol), progestagens (progesterone, 5-pregnen-3b-ol-20-one, and levonorgestrel), and androgens (testosterone) on the growth of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis . (springer.com)
  • The lipid composition was affected by growth temperature in Anacystis nidulans, but was not in Anabaena variabilis. (nih.gov)
  • The process in which light changes the shape of molecules in the retina, thereby driving the cellular reactions and signals that cause vision in vertebrates, is studied in Anabaena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular basis for the integration of environmental signals by FurB from Anabaena sp. (biochemj.org)
  • The cells of Anabaena sp. (springer.com)
  • As a part of resistant mechanism and also to counteract the deleterious effect of H 2 O 2 , the cells of Anabaena sp. (springer.com)
  • Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, a specific light-sensitive membrane protein, is central to this research. (wikipedia.org)