Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Starch Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.alpha-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Ointment Bases: Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalWater Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Betaxolol: A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Levobunolol: The L-Isomer of bunolol.Carteolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Oman: A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Thermus aquaticus ATCC 33923 amylomaltase gene cloning and expression and enzyme characterization: production of cycloamylose. (1/213)

The amylomaltase gene of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus ATCC 33923 was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of this gene consisted of 1,503 nucleotides and encoded a polypeptide that was 500 amino acids long and had a calculated molecular mass of 57,221 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the amylomaltase exhibited a high level of homology with the amino acid sequence of potato disproportionating enzyme (D-enzyme) (41%) but a low level of homology with the amino acid sequence of the Escherichia coli amylomaltase (19%). The amylomaltase gene was overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme was purified. This enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 75 degrees C in a 10-min reaction with maltotriose and was stable at temperatures up to 85 degrees C. When the enzyme acted on amylose, it catalyzed an intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization) reaction which produced cyclic alpha-1,4-glucan (cycloamylose), like potato D-enzyme. The yield of cycloamylose produced from synthetic amylose with an average molecular mass of 110 kDa was 84%. However, the minimum degree of polymerization (DP) of the cycloamylose produced by T. aquaticus enzyme was 22, whereas the minimum DP of the cycloamylose produced by potato D-enzyme was 17. The T. aquaticus enzyme also catalyzed intermolecular transglycosylation of maltooligosaccharides. A detailed analysis of the activity of T. aquaticus ATCC 33923 amylomaltase with maltooligosaccharides indicated that the catalytic properties of this enzyme differ from those of E. coli amylomaltase and the plant D-enzyme.  (+info)

Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively. (2/213)

Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants. Other granule-bound isoforms of starch synthase, such as starch synthase II (SSII), are unable to synthesize amylose. The kinetic properties of GBSSI and SSII that are responsible for these functional differences have been investigated using starch granules from embryos of wild-type peas and rug5 and lam mutant peas, which contain, respectively, both GBSSI and SSII, GBSSI but not SSII and SSII but not GBSSI. We show that GBSSI in isolated granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter. Granule-bound SSII can elongate malto-oligosaccharides, but has a lower affinity for these than GBSSI and does not elongate processively. As a result of these properties GBSSI synthesizes longer malto-oligosaccharides than SSII. The significance of these results with respect to the roles of GBSSI and SSII in vivo is discussed.  (+info)

Stable, inducible thermoacidophilic alpha-amylase from Bacillus acidocaldarius. (3/213)

Bacillus acidocaldarius Agnano 101 produces an inducible thermoacidophilic alpha-amylase. The enzyme production occurs during the stationary phase of growth in the presence of compounds with alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages. The enzymatic activity is both present in the culture medium and associated with the cells; the enzymes purified from both sources show identical molecular and catalytic properties. The purified amylase has a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 68,000 and behaves like an alpha-amylase with affinity constants for starch and related substances of 0.8 to 0.9 mg/ml. The pH and temperature optima for activity are 3.5 and 75degreesC, respectively. The amylase is stable at acidic pH (below 4.5). Its thermal stability is strictly dependent upon protein concentration; the half-life at 60degreesC of the amylase in a 70-mug/ml solution is about 5 days.  (+info)

Mechanism of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibition of amylose and maltopentaose hydrolysis by kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inhibitor and comparison with that by acarbose. (4/213)

The effects of Phaseolus vulgaris inhibitor (alpha-AI) on the amylose and maltopentaose hydrolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) were investigated. Based on a statistical analysis of the kinetic data and using the general velocity equation, which is valid at equilibrium for all types of inhibition in a single-substrate reaction, it was concluded that the inhibitory mode is of the mixed noncompetitive type involving two molecules of inhibitor. In line with this conclusion, the Lineweaver-Burk primary plots intersect in the second quadrant and the secondary plots of the slopes and the intercepts versus the inhibitor concentrations are parabolic curves, whether the substrate used was amylose or maltopentaose. A specific inhibition model of the mixed noncompetitive type applies here. This model differs from those previously proposed for acarbose [Al Kazaz, M., Desseaux, V., Marchis-Mouren, G., Payan, F., Forest, E. & Santimone, M. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 787-796 and Al Kazaz, M., Desseaux, V., Marchis-Mouren, G., Prodanov, E. & Santimone, M. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 252, 100-107]. In particular, with alpha-AI, the inhibition takes place only when PPA and alpha-AI are preincubated together before the substrate is added. This shows that the inhibitory PPA-alphaAI complex is formed during the preincubation period. Secondly, other inhibitory complexes are formed, in which two molecules of inhibitor are bound to either the free enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic efficiency was determined both with and without inhibitor. Using the same molar concentration of inhibitor, alpha-AI was found to be a much stronger inhibitor than acarbose. However, when the inhibitor amount is expressed on a weight basis (mg x L-1), the opposite conclusion is drawn. In addition, limited proteolysis was performed on PPA alone and on the alpha-AI-PPA complex. The results show that, in the complex, PPA is more sensitive to subtilisin attack, and shorter fragments are obtained. These data reflect the conformational changes undergone by PPA as the result of the protein inhibitor binding, which differ from those previously observed with acarbose.  (+info)

Psyllium shifts the fermentation site of high-amylose cornstarch toward the distal colon and increases fecal butyrate concentration in rats. (5/213)

We examined the combination effects of psyllium (PS) and resistant starch on large bowel short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Rats were fed one of the following four diets: low amylose (LAS) or high amylose cornstarch diets (HAS, 50 g/kg diet) with or without 15 g PS/kg diet (LAS/PS and HAS/PS diets). HAS and/or PS were substituted for the same amounts of LAS in diets. Cecal butyrate concentrations were significantly higher in rats fed the HAS and HAS/PS diets than in those fed the LAS and LAS/PS diets. However, butyrate and total SCFA concentrations in rats fed the HAS diet decreased along the length of the colon and fecal butyrate concentration was reduced to one-third of that in the cecum. In contrast, the HAS/PS diet maintained higher butyrate concentrations throughout the large bowel. Fecal butyrate concentration in the HAS/PS diet-fed group significantly exceeded the sum of the concentrations in rats fed the LAS/PS and HAS diets. PS supplementation to the HAS diet significantly increased fecal starch excretion by 10 fold compared with that of rats fed the HAS diet. There was a positive correlation between fecal butyrate concentration and fecal starch excretion (r = 0.709, P < 0.0001). In a further experiment, ileorectostomized rats were fed the HAS and HAS/PS diets. From the difference in fecal starch excretion between normal and ileorectostomized rats, starch degradation by large bowel microflora in rats fed the HAS and HAS/PS diets was deduced to be 96% and 63%, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that PS may delay the fermentation rate of HAS in the cecum and shift the fermentation site of HAS toward the distal colon, leading to the higher butyrate concentration in the distal colon and feces.  (+info)

Characterization and crystallization of an active N-terminally truncated form of the Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme. (6/213)

The prokaryotic glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) can be divided into two groups on the basis of their primary structures: the first group of enzymes, which includes GBE from Escherichia coli, is characterized by a long N-terminal extension that is absent in the enzymes of the second group. The extension consists of approximately 100 amino-acid residues with unknown function. In order to characterize the function of this region, the 728 amino-acid residue, full-length E. coli GBE, and a truncated form (nGBE) missing the first 107 amino-acid residues were overexpressed in E. coli. Both enzymes were purified to homogeneity by a simple purification procedure involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and a second ammonium sulphate precipitation. Purified full-length enzyme was poorly soluble and formed aggregates, which were inactive, at concentrations above 1 mg.mL-1. In contrast, the truncated form could be concentrated to 6 mg.mL-1 without any visible signs of aggregation or loss of activity on concentration. The ability to overexpress nGBE in a highly soluble form has allowed us to produce diffracting crystals of a branching enzyme for the first time. A comparison of the specific activities of purified GBE and nGBE in assays where amylose was used as substrate demonstrated that nGBE retained approximately half of the branching activity of full-length GBE and is therefore a suitable model for the study of the enzymes' catalytic mechanism.  (+info)

Mapping of genes for cooking and eating qualities in Thai jasmine rice (KDML105). (7/213)

Thai jasmine rice, KDML 105, is known as the best quality rice. It is known not only for its aroma but also for its good cooking and eating qualities. Amylose content (AC), gel consistency (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) are important traits determining rice quality. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from KDML105 x CT9993 cross was used to study the genetic control of AC, GC and GT traits. A total of 191 markers were used in the linkage map construction. The 1605.3 cM linkage map covering nearly the whole rice genome was used for QTL (define QTL) analysis. Four QTLs for AC were detected on chromosomes 3, 4, 6 and 7. These QTLs accounted for 80% of phenotypic variation explained (PVE) in AC. The presence of one major gene as well as several modifiers was responsible for the expression of the trait. Two QTLs on chromosome 6 and one on chromosome 7 were detected for GC, which accounts for 57% of PVE. A single gene of major effect along with modifier genes controls GC from this cross. The QTLs in the vicinity of waxy locus were major contributors in the expression of AC and GC. The finding that the position of QTLs for AC and GC were near each other may reflect tight linkage or pleiotropy. Three QTLs were detected, one on chromosome 2 and two on chromosome 6, which accounted for 67% of PVE in GT. Just like AC and GC, one major gene and modifier genes governed the variation in GT resulting from the KDML105 x CT9993 cross. Breeding for cooking and eating qualities will largely rely on the preferences of the end users.  (+info)

Suppression of extablished Friend virus leukemia by statolon: potentiation of statolon's leukemosuppressive activity by chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose. (8/213)

Treatment of Friend virus (FV)-infected mice, 3 days after FV inoculation, with statolon, an extract of the mold Penicillium stoloniferum, induces interferon and restores immunocompetence to viral and nonviral antigens such as sheep erythrocytes. Clinical remissions are established in 20 to 70% of the infected mice. Cholorite-oxidized oxyamylose administered intraperitoneally 24 h before, 3 h before, or 3 h after statolon enhanced interferon production, but the increased number of mice protected against FV disease was more closely related to the associated enhanced synthesis of FV cytotoxic antibody. The prolonged selective immunodepression to intraperitoneal sheep erythrocytes after intraperitoneal administration of chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose-statolon appeared to be related to a stimulation in number and erythrocyte-phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages. The marked activation of macrophages in FV leukemic mice after such treatment may also have contributed to the enhanced FV leukemosuppressive effects of chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose-statolon.  (+info)

  • In this study, the film forming behaviour of low amylose (LA) and high amylose (HA) starches was studied. (
  • Amylose isch chliiner und linear und hät es molekulars Gwicht vo öppe 500'000. (
  • So far, limited evidence is available on the metabolic effect of wheat-based foods rich in amylose. (
  • This randomised controlled study investigated the acute metabolic effects of amylose-rich wheat-based breads in overweight subjects focusing on potential mechanisms. (
  • We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. (
  • The present invention relates to a slow release pharmaceutical tablet, and more particularly to a slow release pharmaceutical tablet incorporating a covalent or non-covalent cross-linked polymer of a mixture of amylose and amylopectin as the slow release matrix. (
  • It is made up of a mixture of amylose (15-20 percent) and amylopectin (80-85 percent). (
  • The HAM gene dosage also had little effect on the structure of amylose of the maize ae-mutant starch. (
  • (EN) The invention provides a method for the manufacture of amylose-lipid complexes The method includes the steps of pasting a mixture of starch and a fatty acid until after the second biphasic peak viscosity is reached, hydrolysing the starch with a hydrolysing enzyme, and dispersing the hydrolysed starch and working up of the residue. (
  • Both major alleles (Wxi and SSIIaj) reduced peak viscosity (PV), onset, peak and end gelatinization temperatures (GTs) of amylopectin, and increased amylose-lipid complex dissociation enthalpy compared with their counterpart-alleles, respectively.SBEIIai and SBEIIbj decreased PV, whereas SSIi and SBEIIbj decreased FV.SBEIi reduced setback viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy. (
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in combination with amylose-lipid complexing index (CI) were used to characterise the changes in structure and properties of edible films. (
  • Amylose concentration in barley grain is one of the important quality traits. (
  • Analyses of carbohydrate and oil fractions and gene expression profiling on a global scale in the rice waxy mutant GM077 revealed several candidate genes implicated in the carbon reallocation response to an amylose deficiency, including genes encoding AGPase and SUSIBA2-like. (
  • Unlike amylopectin, amylose is not soluble in cold water. (
  • The complexes were formed immediately upon mixing of soluble amylose and emulsified PTHF. (
  • The sponges are made by lyophilizing water-soluble salts of the mono- or half-esters, such as water-soluble salts of amylose succinate or amylose glutarate, under process conditions of the invention in the presence of a reticulating agent which causes a controlled melting of the salt solution as it nears the dry state during the lyophilizing step. (
  • High-amylose potato lines have been achieved by inhibiting the two known branching enzyme forms of potato. (
  • High purity dyed, crosslinked and finely milled insoluble AZCL-Amylose for identification of enzyme activities in research, microbiological enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. (
  • The branch links of amylose are different from the α-1 : 6-links of amylopectin and are specifically attacked by Z-enzyme which is without action on the amylopectin branch links. (
  • Cyclodextrins (CDs) are synthesized from starch and related carbohydrates such as amylose, amylopectin and maltooligosaccharide by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase, E.C. which is a bacterial extracellular enzyme ( Ahmed and El-Refai, 2010 ). (
  • However, studies on the changes in starch granules in terms of morphology, swelling, amylose leaching and so on during gelatinization, which are key to uncovering the starch gelatinization process, have rarely been reported. (
  • We studied the influence of glycerol/MMT loading on the nanocomposites morphology prepared from amylose starch biopolymer with various glycerol/MMT (Na+-montmorillonite) concentrations. (
  • This review presents our researches on the preparation and material application of inclusion complexes that comprises an amylose host and polymeric guests through phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization. (
  • Inclusion complexes between amylose and polytetrahydrofurans. (
  • This structure was also observed for complexation of low DP n PTHF with PTHF- b amylose (t m complexes 120-139 °C). However, the V 6II -amylose which indicates the presence of guest PTHF in between the amylose helices was observed in PTHF- b amylose. (
  • We investigate the influence of sorbitol and natural Na+-montmorillonite (nanoclay) loading on the characteristic of high amylose nanocomposites and the distribution of nanoclay after extrusion processing. (
  • Molecular insights into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation--carbohydrate and oil analyses and gene expression profiling in the s. (
  • Amylose is a carbohydrate . (
  • Amylose can act as a storage carbohydrate in plants. (
  • A bioinformatics analysis of the putative SUSIBA2-like binding elements in the promoter regions of the upregulated genes indicated that the SUSIBA2-like transcription factor may be instrumental in promoting the carbon reallocation from amylose to amylopectin. (
  • Allelism tests confirmed that du12 (t) is not allelic to other low amylose controlling genes, wx or du1 . (
  • Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of low amylose gene du12(t) in rice (Oryza sativa L. (
  • It can be assumed that this wastewater is comprised of acids, such as acetic, butyric, propionic, butyric and lactic acids, and the products of amylose and amylopectin degradation, such as dextrin, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides (data non published). (
  • When other things including amylopectin bind to amylose, the viscosity can be affected, but incorporating κ-carrageenan, alginate, xanthan gum, or low-molecular-weight sugars can reduce the loss in stability. (
  • GC is a fit indicator to measure cooked rice flour cold paste-viscosity, especially among grains with high amylose contents [ 17 ]. (
  • The transmission electron microscopic images of GEMS-0067 endosperm tissues harvested at an early stage (20 days after pollination) of the kernel development showed that the elongated starch granules formed by fusion of small granules through amylose interaction in the amyloplast at the early stage of granule development. (
  • To understand how dosage of the high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene affected the structures and properties of endosperm starch of maize ae-mutant, nine maize samples with HAM gene-dosage of 100%, 83.3%, 66.7%, 66.7%, 50%, 33.3%, 33.3%, 16.7%, and 0% were prepared in a generation-means analysis (GMA) study. (
  • The transmission electron micrographs showed fusion through amylose interaction between adjacent small granules in the amyloplast at the early stage of granule development. (
  • To investigate this question, we analyzed 16 isogenic lines carrying independent alleles of the maize amylose-extender (ae) locus, the structural gene for SBEIIb. (
  • A single inserted gene construct for the inhibition of both forms resulted in structural changes of the starch to levels of branching that were below the commercially available amylose standards of potato. (
  • The Wx gene locus was determined to be polymorphic, and was positively correlated with amylose. (
  • GEMS-0067 maize line is a homozygous mutant of amylose-extender (ae) gene and high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s). (
  • A single recessive gene, tentatively designated as du12 (t), was identified as the dull gene that leads to the low amylose character of Milyang262. (