Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Starch Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Phosphotransferases (Paired Acceptors): A group of enzymes that transfers two phosphate groups from a donor such as ATP to two different acceptors. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.9.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.DextrinsTrisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Starch Phosphorylase: An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of glycogen branching enzyme 1 (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal GLYCOGEN with long outer branches. Clinical features are MUSCLE HYPOTONIA and CIRRHOSIS. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.

Simultaneous antisense inhibition of two starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers leads to accumulation of grossly modified amylopectin. (1/137)

A chimaeric antisense construct was used to reduce the activities of the two major starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers simultaneously. A range of reductions in total starch-synthase activities were found in the resulting transgenic plants, up to a maximum of 90% inhibition. The reduction in starch-synthase activity had a profound effect on the starch granules, which became extremely distorted in appearance compared with the control lines. Analysis of the starch indicated that the amounts produced in the tubers, and the amylose content of the starch, were not affected by the reduction in activity. In order to understand why the starch granules were distorted, amylopectin was isolated and the constituent chain lengths analysed. This indicated that the amylopectin was very different to that of the control. It contained more chains of fewer than 15 glucose units in length, and fewer of between 15 and 80 glucose units. In addition, the amylopectin contained more very long chains. Amylopectin from plants repressed in just one of the activities of the two starch-synthase isoforms, which we have reported upon previously, were also analysed. Using a technique different to that used previously we show that both isoforms also affect the amylopectin, but in a way that is different to when both isoforms are repressed together.  (+info)

Amylopectinosis in fetal and neonatal Quarter Horses. (2/137)

Three Quarter Horses, a stillborn filly (horse No. 1), a female fetus aborted at approximately 6 months of gestation (horse No. 2), and a 1-month-old colt that had been weak at birth (horse No. 3), had myopathy characterized histologically by large spherical or ovoid inclusions in skeletal and cardiac myofibers. Smaller inclusions were also found in brain and spinal cord and in some cells of all other tissues examined. These inclusions were basophilic, red-purple after staining with periodic acid-Schiff (both before and after digestion with diastase), and moderately dark blue after staining with toluidine blue. The inclusions did not react when stained with Congo red. Staining with iodine ranged from pale blue to black. Their ultrastructural appearance varied from amorphous to somewhat filamentous. On the basis of staining characteristics and diastase resistance, we concluded that these inclusions contained amylopectin. A distinctly different kind of inclusion material was also present in skeletal muscle and tongue of horse Nos. 1 and 3. These inclusions were crystalline with a sharply defined ultrastructural periodicity. The crystals were eosinophilic and very dark blue when stained with toluidine blue but did not stain with iodine. Crystals sometimes occurred freely within the myofibers but more often were encased by deposits of amylopectin. This combination of histologic and ultrastructural features characterizes a previously unreported storage disease in fetal and neonatal Quarter Horses, with findings similar to those of glycogen storage disease type IV. We speculate that a severe inherited loss of glycogen brancher enzyme activity may be responsible for these findings. The relation of amylopectinosis to the death of the foals is unknown.  (+info)

Essential arginine residues in maize starch synthase IIa are involved in both ADP-glucose and primer binding. (3/137)

The arginine-specific reagent phenylglyoxal inactivated the activity of maize starch synthase IIa (SSIIa), due to the modification of at least one arginine residue out of a possible 42. The addition of ADPGlc completely protected SSIIa from the inactivation, indicating that arginine may be involved in the interaction of this anionic substrate with SSIIa. However, site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved Arg-214 in SSIIa showed that this amino acid is important for apparent affinity of SSIIa for its primer (amylopectin and glycogen), as evidenced by a marked increase in the K(m) for primer upon substitution of this amino acid with no concomitant change in V(max), K(m) for ADPGlc, or secondary structure. Therefore, Arg-214 of SSIIa appears to play a role in its primer binding.  (+info)

Interaction with amylopectin influences the ability of granule-bound starch synthase I to elongate malto-oligosaccharides. (4/137)

This paper examines the properties in soluble form of two isoforms of starch synthase. One of these, granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), is responsible for the synthesis of amylose inside the amylopectin matrix of the starch granule in vivo. The other, starch synthase II (SSII), is involved in amylopectin synthesis. Both isoforms can use amylopectin and malto-oligosaccharide as substrates in vitro. As well as acting as a substrate for GBSSI, amylopectin acts as an effector of this isoform, increasing the rate at which it elongates malto-oligosaccharides and promoting a processive rather than distributive mode of elongation of these compounds. The affinity of GBSSI for amylopectin as an effector is greater than its affinity for amylopectin as a substrate. The rate and mode of elongation of malto-oligosaccharides by SSII are not influenced by amylopectin. These results suggest that specific interaction with amylopectin in the matrix of the starch granule is a unique property of GBSSI and is critical in determining the nature of its products.  (+info)

In vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (Amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic bacteria. (5/137)

It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced clear zones on amylopectin maize starch- containing plates were selected for further studies for utilization of amylopectin maize starch and high-amylose maize starch granules A (amylose; Sigma) and B (Culture Pro 958N). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect bacterial starch-degrading enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., and strains of Eubacterium, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium could hydrolyze the gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, while only Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium butyricum could efficiently utilize high-amylose maize starch granules. In fact, C. butyricum and Bifidobacterium spp. had higher specific growth rates in the autoclaved medium containing high-amylose maize starch granules and hydrolyzed 80 and 40% of the amylose, respectively. Starch-degrading enzymes were cell bound on Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides cells and were extracellular for C. butyricum. Active staining for starch-degrading enzymes on SDS-PAGE gels showed that the Bifidobacterium cells produced several starch-degrading enzymes with high relative molecular (M(r)) weights (>160,000), medium-sized relative molecular weights (>66,000), and low relative molecular weights (<66,000). It was concluded that Bifidobacterium spp. and C. butyricum degraded and utilized granules of amylomaize starch.  (+info)

Specificity of starch synthase isoforms from potato. (6/137)

In higher plants several isoforms of starch synthase contribute to the extension of glucan chains in the synthesis of starch. Different isoforms are responsible for the synthesis of essentially linear amylose chains and branched, amylopectin chains. The activity of granule-bound starch synthase I from potato has been compared with that of starch synthase II from potato following expression of both isoforms in Escherichia coli. Significant differences in their activities are apparent which may be important in determining their specificities in vivo. These differences include affinities for ADPglucose and glucan substrates, activation by amylopectin, response to citrate, thermosensitivity and the processivity of glucan chain extension. To define regions of the isoforms determining these characteristic traits, chimeric proteins have been produced by expression in E. coli. These experiments reveal that the C-terminal region of granule-bound starch synthase I confers most of the specific properties of this isoform, except its processive elongation of glucan chains. This region of granule-bound starch synthase I is distinct from the C-terminal region of other starch synthases. The specific properties it confers may be important in defining the specificity of granule-bound starch synthase I in producing amylose in vivo.  (+info)

Identification of the maize amyloplast stromal 112-kD protein as a plastidic starch phosphorylase. (7/137)

Amyloplast is the site of starch synthesis in the storage tissue of maize (Zea mays). The amyloplast stroma contains an enriched group of proteins when compared with the whole endosperm. Proteins with molecular masses of 76 and 85 kD have been identified as starch synthase I and starch branching enzyme IIb, respectively. A 112-kD protein was isolated from the stromal fraction by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to tryptic digestion and amino acid sequence analysis. Three peptide sequences showed high identity to plastidic forms of starch phosphorylase (SP) from sweet potato, potato, and spinach. SP activity was identified in the amyloplast stromal fraction and was enriched 4-fold when compared with the activity in the whole endosperm fraction. Native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses showed that SP activity was associated with the amyloplast stromal 112-kD protein. In addition, antibodies raised against the potato plastidic SP recognized the amyloplast stromal 112-kD protein. The amyloplast stromal 112-kD SP was expressed in whole endosperm isolated from maize harvested 9 to 24 d after pollination. Results of affinity electrophoresis and enzyme kinetic analyses showed that the amyloplast stromal 112-kD SP preferred amylopectin over glycogen as a substrate in the synthetic reaction. The maize shrunken-4 mutant had reduced SP activity due to a decrease of the amyloplast stromal 112-kD enzyme.  (+info)

Two loci control phytoglycogen production in the monocellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (8/137)

The STA8 locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was identified in a genetic screen as a factor that controls starch biosynthesis. Mutations of STA8 cause a significant reduction in the amount of granular starch produced during nutrient limitation and accumulate phytoglycogen. The granules remaining in sta8 mutants are misshapen, and the abundance of amylose and long chains in amylopectin is altered. Mutations of the STA7 locus, which completely lack isoamylase activity, also cause accumulation of phytoglycogen, although sta8 and sta7 mutants differ in that there is a complete loss of granular starch in the latter. This is the first instance in which mutations of two different genetic elements in one plant species have been shown to cause phytoglycogen accumulation. An analytical procedure that allows assay of isoamylase in total extracts was developed and used to show that sta8 mutations cause a 65% reduction in the level of this activity. All other enzymes known to be involved in starch biosynthesis were shown to be unaffected in sta8 mutants. The same amount of total isoamylase activity (approximately) as that present in sta8 mutants was observed in heterozygous triploids containing two sta7 mutant alleles and one wild-type allele. This strain, however, accumulates normal levels of starch granules and lacks phytoglycogen. The total level of isoamylase activity, therefore, is not the major determinant of whether granule production is reduced and phytoglycogen accumulates. Instead, a qualitative property of the isoamylase that is affected by the sta8 mutation is likely to be the critical factor in phytoglycogen production.  (+info)

*Pullulanase

Bender, H.; Wallenfels, K. (1966). "Pullulanase (an amylopectin and glycogen debranching enzyme) from Aerobacter aerogenes". ... Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41, limit dextrinase, amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase, bacterial debranching enzyme, debranching enzyme, ...

*Amylopectin

Amylose or Amylopectin?". Journal of Chemical Education. 52 (11): 729. doi:10.1021/ed052p729. Pure amylopectin that has not ... Amylopectin /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. It is ... Dissolved amylopectin starch has a lower tendency of retrogradation (gelling) during storage and cooling. For this main reason ... Starch is made of about 70% amylopectin by weight, though it varies depending on the source (higher in medium-grain rice to 100 ...

*Starch gelatinization

Molecular associations occur: Amylose-Amylose ; Amylose-Amylopectin; Amylopectin-Amylopectin. A mild association amongst chains ... High amylopectin starches will have a stable gel, but will be softer than high amylose gels. Retrogradation restricts the ... Amylopectin molecules with longer branched structure, increases the tendency to form strong gels. Granule size do not directly ... Water then enters via amorphous regions the tightly bound areas of double helical structures of amylopectin. At ambient ...

*Amylose

Unlike amylopectin, amylose is not soluble in cold water. It also reduces the crystallinity of amylopectin and how easily water ... It is less readily digested than amylopectin; however, because it is more linear than amylopectin, it takes up less space. As a ... This is known as the V form and is how amylopectin binds to amylose to form starch. Within this group, there are many different ... It is one of the two components of starch, making up approximately 20-30%. The other component is amylopectin. Because of its ...

*Jasmine rice

glutinosa), as it has less amylopectin. It is about three times stickier than American long-grain rice. To harvest jasmine rice ...

*Starch

4-alpha bonds in amylopectin. Amylopectin is synthesized from ADP-glucose while mammals and fungi synthesize glycogen from UDP- ... Glycogen and amylopectin have similar structure, but the former has about one branch point per ten 1,4-alpha bonds, compared to ... Amylose is a much smaller molecule than amylopectin. About one quarter of the mass of starch granules in plants consist of ... It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, ...

*Insulin resistance

Byrnes, SE; Brand Miller, JC; Denyer, GS (1995). "Amylopectin starch promotes the development of insulin resistance in rats". ... Wiseman, CE; Higgins, JA; Denyer, GS; Brand Miller, JC (1996). "Amylopectin starch induces nonreversible insulin resistance in ...

*Echinococcidium

Within the cytoplasm amylopectin granules may be present. Nothing is known about the life cycle of this organism. It is ...

*Rice

The grains of long-grain rice (high in amylose) tend to remain intact after cooking; medium-grain rice (high in amylopectin) ... Some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are usually steamed. A stickier ... For example, Thai Jasmine rice is long-grain and relatively less sticky, as some long-grain rice contains less amylopectin than ...

*Staling

The starch amylose and amylopectin molecules realign themselves causing recrystalisation. This results in stale bread's ...

*Glutinous rice

... and high amounts of amylopectin (the two components of starch). Amylopectin is responsible for the sticky quality of glutinous ...

*Waxy corn

confirmed that endosperm starch of waxy maize consists nearly exclusively of amylopectin. The presence of amylopectin in rice ... of amylose and amylopectin among starch types. For example, amylopectin molecules with long external branches bind more iodine ... Amylose and amylopectin have different iodine binding-properties, with maize amylose and amylopectin giving iodine affinity (IA ... Amylopectin of the aewx mutants had an increased proportion of long B-chains and a decreased proportion of short B-chains ...

*Bomba rice

It has short grains due to the presence of amylopectin. Bomba rice is believed to have originated from an Indian variety which ...

*Mochi

In other words, the higher the amylopectin content, the higher the swelling of the starch granule. Even though the amylopectin ... The high amylopectin content of waxy or glutinous starches is genetically controlled by the waxy or wax gene. Its quality of ... Amylopectin on the other hand, is a branched polysaccharide because it has αlpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds with occasional αlpha-1,6 ... Amylose and amylopectin are both components of starch and polysaccharides made from D-glucose units. The big difference between ...

*Low-glycemic diet

High glycemic foods contain refined grains, refined sugars, and increased amylopectin/amylose ratio. There are other factors ...

*Cycloamylose

It was subsequently shown that D-enzyme could create complex cycloglucans from amylopectin. Similar 4-α-glucanotransferases ... "Cyclic Glucans Produced by the Intramolecular Transglycosylation Activity of Potato D-Enzyme on Amylopectin". Biochemical and ... from bacteria and other organisms have also been shown to produce cycloglucans upon incubation with amylose or amylopectin. ...

*Lugol's iodine

Starches include the plant starches amylose and amylopectin and glycogen in animal cells. Lugol's solution will not detect ...

*Acroeimeria

In the late stages of maturation, the cytoplasm becomes filled with amylopectin granules. The macrogamonts are bound by a ...

*Pachyrhizus ahipa

Its dry matter ranges from 15-30%. Further, the tuber contains 48-54% starch, which consists of 96-99.9% amylopectin. This is a ... Because of the high starch and amylopectin content, ahipa is a good material for the starch industry. Further, the suitability ...

*Amflora

"Amflora" potato plants produce pure amylopectin starch that is processed to waxy potato starch. It was approved for industrial ... Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most ... Amflora potatoes would be processed and sold as starch to industries that prefer waxy potato starch with only amylopectin. ... Regular potato starch contains two constituent types of molecules: amylopectin (80 percent), which is more useful as a polymer ...

*Carbohydrate-binding module

Isoamylase hydrolyses 1,6-alpha-D-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin and dextrin; 1,4-alpha-glucan branching ...

*Resistant starch

Starch consists of amylose and amylopectin which affect the textural properties of manufactured foods. Starches with high ...

*Croissant

Amylopectin retrogradation occurs over several days to weeks, as amorphous amylopectin chains are realigned into a more ... Additionally, the formation of the crystal structure of amylopectin requires the incorporation of water. Starch retrogradation ... amylopectin crystallites become more disordered inside the starch granules and cause an irreversible destruction of molecular ...

*Floridean starch

The structure of floridean starch polymers is most similar to amylopectin and is sometimes described as "semi-amylopectin". ... The polymers that make up floridean starch are sometimes referred to as "semi-amylopectin". Floridean starch consists of a ... which use amylopectin and amylose. There is strong phylogenomic evidence that the Archaeplastida are monophyletic and originate ... Floridean starch is often described in contrast to starch (a mixture of amylopectin and amylose) and glycogen: Historically, ...

*Polysaccharide

It is made up of a mixture of amylose (15-20%) and amylopectin (80-85%). Amylose consists of a linear chain of several hundred ... every chain of 24-30 glucose units is one unit of Amylopectin). Starches are insoluble in water. They can be digested by ... having a similar structure to amylopectin but more extensively branched and compact than starch. Glycogen is a polymer of α(1→4 ... being found in the form of both amylose and the branched amylopectin. In animals, the structurally similar glucose polymer is ...
In minimally destructive SHG biomedical imaging (high resolution optical slicing) is greatly desirable to extract the maximum of information from the light matter interaction. Here we develop a 3-D biophysical model and a methodology, which extracts molecular information below the experimental resolution limit. Firstly, it provides the pitch angle (SHG effective orientation) of the SHG source helix of the sample. This information is used to characterize and categorize the SHG sources among them. And secondly, it provides the degree of organization of the SHG source molecules. This can be used as a quantitative imaging biomarker able to characterize the degree of organization (homeostasis) of the sample. Here we applied the model in dried and hydrated wheat starch granules. Our results show that the SHG source molecule in starch is amylopectin. We also conclude that under hydration, the amylopectin molecules are further organized but they do not change structure. This organization is reflected to ...
The characteristics of starches from 17 endosperm mutant genotypes in a common Oh43 inbred background were examined by gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), iodine affinity (IA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chain-length distributions of amylopectins were determined by an enzymatic- chromatographic method. Each genotype exhibited distinctive GPC elution patterns of its native and isoamylase-debranched starches and distinctivemorphology as noted by SEM. The amylose-extender (ae), dull-1 (du1), and sugary-1 (su1) genes were associated with increased amounts of amylose and intermediate fractions compared with normal starch. The waxy (wx) gene was epistatic to other genes relative to the accumulation of amylopectin, which was consistent with work done elsewhere. The discrepancy in amylose percentage determined by GPC and IA in some genotypes may have resulted from the presence of a large amount of intermediate materials in those genotypes, which could not always be distinguished from amylose
Figure 1. Model of bread staling. In fresh bread, amylose and amylopectin exist in amorphous or gelled forms. During storage, moisture is lost, the amylose and
Of the 22 species within the Oryza genus, only two, O. sativa and O. glaberrima, have been domesticated. Although food security is supported by accessing wild Oryza resources for new genes and alleles which enhance plant performance, wild Oryza grain properties have not been extensively studied. Evaluation of the grain physico-chemical properties of eight wild Oryza species found amylose content, amylopectin structure and cooking properties fell within a narrow range relative to cultivated rice. The amylopectin of the wild species had a lower proportion of short branch chains (DP 6-14) relative to cultivated rice and were all of high apparent amylose content and gelatinization temperature. The grain of the wild species did not elongate to the same extent as the cultivated rice and had lower viscosity parameters. These results highlight how significant physio-chemical changes have been made by human selection in the domestication of rice, especially japonica rice. The wild species may be useful for
Starchy foods Unlike sugary foods, the type of starch contained in a food is not as strong a predictor of its GI for a variety of reasons. There are two main types of starch - amylose and amylopectin, with amylose having a lower GI than amylopectin. So a food with more amylose may have a lower GI than one higher in amylopectin, but this is not always the case. This is partly because the starches in unrefined grains like hulled barley, brown rice or wheat berries are encapsulated by the germ and bran, which when left intact can make the starch - regardless of type - very hard to digest. Of course, this is why we process them to provide us with more digestible forms (e.g. pearl barley, white rice and bulgur) or into flour. We have found that the milling method (e.g., stone grinding versus modern steel roller milling) generally has a more significant effect on the ultimate GI of grain foods. Traditionally stone ground flours retain much more of the germ and bran and have more coarsely ground ...
WMS (Waxy Maize Starch) is a complex carbohydrate that is free of sugar and lactose. The high Amylopectin content makes WMS easy for the stomach to digest.
Letter to the editor of J Cellular Oncology Towards a single cell cancer diagnosis. Multimodal and Monocellular Measurements of Markers and Morphology (5M) A. Böcking 1, J. Stockhausen 2, D. Meyer-Ebrecht
In maize kernels, mutations in the gene sugary1 (su1) result in (1) increased sucrose concentration; (2) decreased concentration of amylopectin, the branched component of starch; and (3) accumulation of the highly branched glucopolysaccharide phytoglycogen. To investigate further the me...read more ...
Gene Name: AMY1, AMY2. 1. Overview (General). α-Amylase (1,4-α-D-glucan-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) is the primary digestive enzyme acting on starch or glycogen and is present in plants, animals, bacteria and fungi. Starch from plants is a high molecular weight polymer of glucose. It is made up of amylose, a straight-chain α-1,4 linked polymer of about 105units and amylopectin, a branched chain polymer with α1,4 linked glucose with branch points made up of α-1,6 linkages that contains about 106 units of glucose. Glycogen from animals is similar to amylopectin in structure but is smaller. α-Amylase cleaves the α-1,4 linkage when it is not next to a branch point or terminal glucose residue. Thus its products are maltose (2 glucose residues), maltotriose (3 glucose residues) and α-limit dextrins (5-6 residues which contain a branch point). In vertebrates, these are further cleaved to monosaccharides by the intestinal brush border enzymes isomaltase and maltase which hydrolyze the α-1,6 ...
Polysaccharides are polymers made up from simple sugar monomers joined by glycosidic links into long chains.There are 3 main types found in food; starch and glucose in plants, and glycogen in animals.They are hard to dissolve and do not taste sweet. Starch and glycogen act as engery storage molecules within cells. These polysaccharides are suitable for storage because they are compact molecues with low solubilty in water. This means that they do not affect the concentration of water in the cytoplasm and so do not affect the movement of water into or out of the cell by osmosis. Starch, the storage carbohydrate found in plants, is made up of a mixture of 2 molecules. Amylose and amylopectin. Amylose: between 200 and 5000 glucose molecules with 1,4 glycosidic links. The posistion of the bonds causes the cain to coil into a spiral shape.. Amylopectin: has side branches. A 1,6 glycosidic links holds each side branch onto the main chain. The compact spiral structure of starch and its insoluble nature ...
With regard to the unexpected differences between cold and hot red potatoes, it is important to note that the results of a 2011 study by Kinnear et al. confirm that the latter is not an artifact of the Fernandes study. In their trial, the scientists from the University of Toronto found an average GI reduction of -37% (mean GI for the tested cultivars ~47), when the freshly boiled potatoes were refrigerated at 4°C for 24-28h before they were served to the 10 healthy study participants (Kinnear. 2011). As far as the reasons for this temperature-dependence of the glycemic index is concerned, Kinnear et al. speculate that it is an effect "due to starch retrogradation", which is a process that takes place in gelatinized starch, when the amylose and amylopectin chains realign themselves and thusly causes the liquid to gel. This is quite interesting, as it stands in line with the low GI of the Marfona potato (cf. figure 1), the texture of which is described as "waxy". The long-established relation of ...
Amylose is a glucan composed of unbranched chains of D-glucopyranose residues in alpha(1-,4) glycosidic linkage. The number of repeated glucose subunits (n) is usually in the range of 300 to 3000, but can be many thousands. One of the two components of starch (the other, 70-80%, being amylopectin).Cf. linear maltodextrin, in which the chain length is typically between 3 and 17 glucose ...
Specifically, we wish to examine the glycemic response of barley tortillas containing different ratios of amylose and amylopectin and different amounts of soluble and insoluble fibre with an appropriate control during acute phase testing in healthy volunteers. Possible relationships between composition of the barley tortillas and the degree of physiological response will also be investigated as the secondary objective ...
Different from EC 3.2.1.142 (limit dextrinase) in its action on glycogen, and its rate of hydrolysis of limit dextrins. Its action on amylopectin is complete. Maltose is
As you may know, carbohydrates are the things we get when we eat non-meat stuff like potatoes. They can be as simple as table sugar and as complex as amylopectin and other starches. Now, whats with the name? Carb-o-hydrates? Well, as you can see in the figure on the left, carbohydrates are made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.. Now, theres more to these carbohydrate things. There are usually 3 different forms of carbohydrates, and they sound suspiciously like the things found in in butter. If youre having trouble remembering these, try to think of them as a sack race between Polly (poly), Disa and Mono (Sack-a-rides - saccharides ...
Rye, Grain, Starch, Amylopectin, Gene, Cell, Cells, Role, Bread, Wheat, Family, Liposarcomas, Oncogene, Biomarkers, Concentration, Appetite, Hunger, Transcription Factor, Mutations, Binding Protein
As a post-workout source of carbs, this does seem to be the carb of choice right now. Take your time in choosing a product of this type, as the market is now flooded with them, you have recovery formulas, you have waxy maize formulas combining different simple carb sources with waxy maize, which could potentially cause a greater insulin response, you have some that are meant to be mixed with protein, some that arent, some that mix poorly and clump all up and some that mix better ...
SUPLEMENTOS - A MUNDO DO ATLETA sUPLEMENTOS, Revende os melhores Suplementos do Mercado: Whey,BCAA,Suplementos Emagrecedores,Pr Treinos,Energ ticos, Vitaminas, Kimonos, whey protein, waxy maize, hipercal ricos, bcaa, amino cidos
Many patients travel to the Myeloma Institute from across the U.S. and around the world. Our staff is available to assist you as needed and help make your journey as easy as possible.. If you live outside the U.S., please be sure to visit the UAMS Department of Special Services International Division: http://uamshealth.com/patientsandguests/internationalpatients/departmentofspecialservices2/ Little Rock Airport. Bill and Hillary Clinton National Airport is Arkansass largest commercial service airport, with nearly 2.2 million passengers annually. Also known as Adams Field, Little Rocks airport hosts six airlines with dozens of daily departures and nonstop service to 16 cities.. For information about Little Rocks Bill and Hillary Clinton National Airport, please visit the airports Web site.. Airport Special Assistance Program. Bill and Hillary Clinton National Airport operates the Airport Special Assistance Program to help passengers arriving from out of state or out of the country. Upon ...
Starch constitutes the most important carbon reserve in plants and is composed of branched amylopectin and linear amylose. The latter is synthesized exclusively by the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS, EC 2.4.1.21). Here we report a readily reproducible, specific and highly sensitive protocol, which includes the isolation of intact starch granules from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and the subsequent determination of GBSS activity. We have applied this method to study GBSS activity in diurnal cycles in vegetative growth and during the photoperiodic transition to flowering in Arabidopsis (Tenorio et al., 2003; Ortiz-Marchena et al., 2014).
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics - Crop Genetics and Biotechnology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Science and Technology, Aarhus ...
Plays an important role during endosperm starch synthesis. Determines the type of amylopectin structure of starch grain. Synthesizes long B1 amylopectin chains by elongating short A and B1 chains, independently of the other soluble starch synthases. Barely active in japonica subspecies.
The major components of storage starch are amylose and amylopectin, and in wheat, both an amylose-free mutant lacking granule-bound starch synthase I and a high-amylose mutant lacking starch synthase IIa have been produced recently. Here, we report the production of an amylose-free/ high-amylose dou …
TY - JOUR ID - 19322 AU - Green,Adam F AU - Ramsey,Tara S AU - Ramsey,Justin T1 - Phylogeny and Biogeography of Ivies (Hedera spp., Araliaceae), a Polyploid Complex of Woody Vines PY - 2010 KW - chloroplast DNA KW - chromosome evolution KW - low-copy nuclear gene KW - molecular systematics KW - phylogeography UR - http://dx.doi.org/ N2 - Ivy (Hedera spp., Araliaceae) is a polyploid complex of woody vines. Native to Eurasia and northern Africa, ivy is cultivated worldwide and has become an aggressive invader of North American forests. Despite its ecological impacts and economic significance to the horticultural industry, the taxonomy of Hedera is controversial and historical relationships are poorly defined. Here we characterize the phylogeny of Hedera based on the low-copy nuclear locus Granule-Bound Starch Synthase I (GBSSI) and twelve noncoding cpDNA regions. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of both data sets generally identified Hedera as monophyletic. For GBSSI, we isolated eighteen ...
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The first cassette comprises fragments of both the asparagine synthetase-1 gene (Asn1) and the polyphenol oxidase-5 gene (Ppo5), arranged as inverted repeats between the Agp promoter of the ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (Agp) and the Gbss promoter of the granule-bound starch synthase gene (Gbss) and results in silencing of both the Ppo5 and Asn1 genes ...
IronMaxx have developed this long-chain carbohydrate that provides your body with energy better than some other carbs on the market. This is because this formula restores depleted glycogen faster than a maltodextrin blend. Waxy Maize Starch has a much higher molecule weight than other carbohydrates which enable it to pass through the digestion process quicker and move into the blood stream where it can do its job. In addition to giving you much needed energy taking Waxy Maize can help you to gain weight by packing in the calories. This supplement can be taken alongside other supplements, it is unflavoured so is perfect for mixing with protein powders etc.. 100% Waxy Maize Starch.. ...
Loss of function mutations in the ,i,Waxy ,/i,(,i,Wx,/i,) gene, encoding Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) that synthesizes amylose, results in starch granules containing mostly amylopectin. Grain with this trait has increased usability for feed, food and grain-based ethanol, due to altered starch properties. In sorghum, two classes of ,i,waxy ,/i,(,i,wx,/i,) alleles had been previously characterized for absence or presence of GBSS: ,i,wx,sup,a,/i,,/sup, (GBSS,sup,-,/sup,) and ,i,wx,sup,b,/sup, ,/i,(GBSS,sup,+,/sup,, with reduced activity). Field-grown grain of wild-type; ,i,waxy,/i,, GBSS,sup,-,/sup,; and ,i,waxy,/i,, GBSS,sup,+,/sup, Plant Introduction accessions, were screened for fungal infection. Overall, results showed that ,i,waxy,/i, grains were not more susceptible than wild-type. GBSS,sup,-,/sup, and wild-type grain had similar infection levels. However, height was a factor with ,i,waxy,/i,, GBSS,sup,+,/sup, lines: ,i,wx,sup,b,/sup, ,/i,accessions, which were short, were more ...
Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Hello Was looking into Waxy Maize Starch but I take AAKG pre workout empty stomach imagine bit self defeating to take both ? thanks
The GI database confirms the reproducibility of GI results around the world. White and wholemeal bread, apples, breakfast cereals etc. give the same results wherever/whoever tests them. Where there is variability, there are four possible explanations: 1. When measuring the GI of foods, some GI testing groups do not comply with the International Standard (ISO 26642:2010) Determination of the glycaemic index (GI). 2. Some GI testing groups are not as experienced/accurate as SUGiRS measuring the GI of foods. They use venous blood which gives more variability than capillary blood. If we test a product over and over again at SUGiRS, we get the same result +/- 5%. Thats as good as nutrient data such as protein, fat, fibre etc. 3. The variability among different types of potatoes, rices, and oats is real. They contain different types of starch (amylose, amylopectin) and that affects the degree of starch gelatinisation. When it comes to sugars like fructose, the concentration of the solution makes a ...
Muscat, Delina, Adhikari, Raju, McKnight, Stafford, Guo, Qipeng and Adhikari, Benu 2013, The physicochemical characteristics and hydrophobicity of high amylose starch-glycerol films in the presence of three natural waxes, Journal of food engineering, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 205-219, doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.05.033. ...
Carbohydrate is a major component of the human diet, and includes starch (amylose and amylopectin) and disaccharides such as sucrose, lactose, maltose and, in small amounts, trehalose. The digestion of starch begins with the action of amylase enzymes secreted in the saliva and small intestine, which convert it to maltotriose, maltose, limit dextrins, and some glucose. Digestion of the limit dextrins and disaccharides, both dietary and starch-derived, to monosaccharides - glucose, galactose, and fructose - is accomplished by enzymes located on the luminal surfaces of enterocytes lining the microvilli of the small intestine (Van Beers et al. 1995).. ...
Enzyme-resistant starch for reduced-calorie flour replacer. U. S. Patent 6,352,733. Huber okay, BeMiller JN. 2010. transformed starch. In: Bertolini A, editor. Starches: characterization, houses, and purposes. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 145-203. Jayakody L, Hoover R. 2008. impact of annealing at the molecular constitution and physicochemical houses of starches from assorted botanical origins: a overview. Carbohydr Polym 74:691-703. Kalichevsky MT, Ring SG. 1987. Incompatibility of amylose and amylopectin in aqueous-solution. Carbohydr Res 162:323-328. Kitamura S. 1996. Starch polymers, ordinary and artificial. In: Salamone JC, editor. Polymeric fabrics encyclopedia. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 7915-7922. Morrison WR. 1998. Lipids in cereal starches: a assessment. J Cereal Sci 8:1-15. Nugent AP. 2005. future health houses of resistant starch. British food starting place, foodstuff Bulletin 30:27-54. Parker R, Ring SG. 2001. points of the actual chemistry of starch. J Cereal Sci 34:1-17. ...
Early in this study, an α-Amylase from Bacillus megaterium WHO (BMW) was isolated from hot springs of Ramsar (North of Iran), and its gene was cloned in E.coli. Based on its conserved sequence regions and substrate specificity, it was classified as intermediary group enzymes with the specificity of oligo-1,6-glucosidase and neopullulanase subfamilies. In the sixth conserved region (83-QVNGIWMMP), like oligo-1,6-glucosidase subfamily, there is a highly conserved Trp, instead of Tyr for neopullulanase subfamily. In this study, through Trp88Tyr mutation the role of this amino acid in the substrate specificity of enzyme was investigated. The specificity of enzyme against starch, pullulan, amylose and amylopectin was determined. Compared to the wild type, thermal stability and the catalytic efficiency of the mutant increased while product pattern of enzyme didnt change by mutation. As expected, the neopullulanas activity of enzyme increased.
Modules of approx. 100 residues found in primarily in bacterial pullulanases. The N-terminal module from Thermotoga maritima Pul13 has been shown to bind to the α-glucans amylose, amylopectin, pullulan, and oligosaccharide fragments derived from these polysaccharides (Lammerts van Bueren et al. (2004) Biochemistry 43:15633-42) (PMID: 15581376 ...
Due to the changes that occurred in the baking industry and the growing demand for natural products, clean label enzymes have gained more importance in the bread-making recipes in replacing additives such as oxidants or emulsifiers. The use of amylase from cereal, fungal or bacterial sources is known for many years. However, it is well acknowledged that cereal amylases, such as beta-amylase from soy flour or malt alpha-amylase and fungal ones have a limited effect against aging, whereas bacterial thermostable alpha-amylase has adverse effect on the quality of the finished products, leading to gummy and sticky crumb. Commercial amylases used in the baking industry are, in general, alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes specifically, alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages of amylose and amylopectin molecules in the starch. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to study the effect of lack of alpha- amylase in wheat flour used in the process of bread making. In this context, we intended to study ...
Due to the changes that occurred in the baking industry and the growing demand for natural products, clean label enzymes have gained more importance in the bread-making recipes in replacing additives such as oxidants or emulsifiers. The use of amylase from cereal, fungal or bacterial sources is known for many years. However, it is well acknowledged that cereal amylases, such as beta-amylase from soy flour or malt alpha-amylase and fungal ones have a limited effect against aging, whereas bacterial thermostable alpha-amylase has adverse effect on the quality of the finished products, leading to gummy and sticky crumb. Commercial amylases used in the baking industry are, in general, alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes specifically, alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages of amylose and amylopectin molecules in the starch. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to study the effect of lack of alpha- amylase in wheat flour used in the process of bread making. In this context, we intended to study ...
Introduction. Does Lowering Storage Temperature Increase the Reducing Sugar Content of Potatoes? Hypothesis: Potatoes kept at below freezing for a week will have significantly more reducing sugar in their cells than those kept at 5 degrees Celsius which will contain more than those kept at room temperature, displaying evidence of conversion of starch polysaccharides to maltose at low temperatures. Background The main food store in potatoes is starch, a mixture of the two insoluble polysaccharides amylose and amylopectin. Starch is a good storage material because it is insoluble and so can be accumulated without increasing the water potential of the potato cells. This is essential to the normal function of the cell as it prevents the cells being damaged by absorption of too much water by osmosis. When water freezes and turns to ice, its volume increases. The formation of ice crystals inside cells can cause serious and permanent structural damage to the cells. To reduce the problem of ice damage, ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The patentee (appellant I) and the two opponents (opponent 01/appellant II and opponent 02/appellant III) lodged appeals against the interlocutory decision of the opposition division dated 26 July 2006, whereby European patent No. 0 670 367, which had been granted on European application No. 94 915 270.6 originating from the international publication WO 94/26881, was maintained in an amended form on the basis of the auxiliary request filed at the oral proceedings held on 31 January 2006. The main request then on file had been refused for non-compliance with the requirements of Article 83 EPC.. II. The main request consisted of claims 1 to 8 as granted.. Claim 1 read as follows:. 1. A liquefying alkaline alpha-amylase having the following enzymatic properties:. a) hydrolyzing 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in starches, amylose, amylopectin and partial degradation products thereof and forms glucose (G1), maltose (G2), maltotriose (G3), maltotetrose (G4), ...
Glycogen Biosynthesis; Glycogen Breakdown Glycogen - Wikipedia Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants. It has a structure similar to amylopectin (a component of starch),.... ...
... is derived from Oryza sativa. it is a common starch but much less common than corn starch. Starch grains are are a means for plants to store energy. They are produced by a wide variety of plants and are a mixture of alpha-amylose and amylopectin. Starch grain differ in their size, their shape, and the structure of the center vacuole. Many of these differences are useful for the identification of the plant of origin for the starch grain. ...
Corn starch is derived from Zea mays. it is by far the most common starch grain encountered in the indoor environment. It is used in paper sizing, coating plastics, coating candy, as a body powder, as a carrier for fragrances and pesticides, as an in extender coatings and paints, a mold-release in formed polymer manufacture, and many other uses.. Starch grains are are a means for plants to store energy. They are produced by a wide variety of plants and are a mixture of alpha-amylose and amylopectin. Starch grain differ in their size, their shape, and the structure of the center vacuole. Many of these differences are useful for the identification of the plant of origin for the starch grain. ...
To XXXX and anyone else interested in why gums can cause problems:. The very chemistry of what constitutes a gum is because the structure of the carbohydrates is such that it forms a latticework that confers on it a sticky-like, glue-like consistency. The diagram of the amylopectin molecule on page 30 of my book demonstrates this latticework. It is my hypothesis that at the point of the branches in the molecule is a chemical link called alpha 1-6 isomaltose which we cannot digest (cannot break two glucose molecules attached with that link). I believe that because we cannot digest it, it naturally moves down to the lower small intestine and colon as isomaltose and that a certain type of microorganism thrives on just that very disaccharide. This part of the hypothesis is very exciting to me as most corn products, all potatoes, and FOS have links similar to the isomaltose which remains undigested and goodness knows what is being nourished down there. From the LI ...
CLEARGUM® CO starch is produced from waxy maize. This modified starch is an emulsifying agent and is also used for stabilisation. Roquette is a leader in the modified starch market. | Roquette
THE eating quality of Australian beef continues to rise, with the national average MSA Index reaching 57.56 points in 2015-17 - thats a large rise of 0.84 index points since the 2010-11 grading year, a newly released report has shown. The post MSA eating quality performance continues to rise appeared first on Beef Central ...
Starch is explained as well in its structure as in its general properties. This is the basis for understanding starch functionality in all applications.
Isoamylase. Carbohydrates. For Analytical and Research Applications microbiological enzyme assays - Purchase Insoluble Chromogenic Substrates here.
MetabolismEnergy metabolismBiosynthesis and degradation of polysaccharides1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme (TIGR01515; EC 2.4.1.18; HMM-score: 29.9) ...
MetabolismEnergy metabolismBiosynthesis and degradation of polysaccharides1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme (TIGR01515; EC 2.4.1.18; HMM-score: 37.5) ...
A card sheet including a top material layer having pre-cut weakened lines extending partially but not completely through the top material layer, the top material layer having a front side and a back side; and a starch composition layer applied to the back side of the top material layer, wherein at least a portion of the starch composition diffuses into the top material layer to a depth and renders the top material layer breakable along the weakened lines. A method of making the card sheet, including providing the top material layer, cutting partially through the top material layer; and applying a starch composition to form the starch composition layer on the back side of the top material layer; and at least partially removing any diluent present in the starch composition. The top material layer may be printable, and the card sheet may include a second top material layer.
To our knowledge the present paper shows for the first time the kinetic parameters of all the three starch branching enzyme (BE) isozymes, BEI, BEIIa and BEIIb, from rice with both amylopectin and synthetic amylose as glucan substrate. The activities of these BE isozymes with a linear glucan amylose decreased with a decrease in the molar size of amylose, and no activities of BEIIa and BEIIb were found when the degree of polymerization (DP) of amylose was lower than at least 80, whereas BEI had an activity with amylose of a DP higher than approximately 50. Detailed analyses of debranched products from BE reactions revealed the distinct chain length preferences of the individual BE isozymes. BEIIb almost exclusively transferred chains of DP7 and DP6 while BEIIa formed a wide range of short chains of DP6 to around DP15 from outer chains of amylopectin and amylose. On the other hand, BEI formed a variety of short chains and intermediate chains of a DP ≤40 by attacking not only outer chains but ...
High-amylose starch is in great demand by the starch industry for its unique functional properties. However, very few high-amylose crop varieties are commercially available. In this paper we describe the generation of very-high-amylose potato starch by genetic modification. We achieved this by simultaneously inhibiting two isoforms of starch branching enzyme to below 1% of the wild-type activities. Starch granule morphology and composition were noticeably altered. Normal, high-molecular-weight amylopectin was absent, whereas the amylose content was increased to levels comparable to the highest commercially available maize starches. In addition, the phosphorus content of the starch was increased more than fivefold. This unique starch, with its high amylose, low amylopectin, and high phosphorus levels, offers novel properties for food and industrial applications ...
Microstructural and rheological changes during gelatinisation are important indicators of starch functionality. A combined rheometer and optical microscope system (Rheoscope 1, Thermo Haake) was used to monitor the gelatinisation of different starches (maize starch containing 0%, 24%, 55% and 85% amylose; wheat starch and barley starch) suspended in a 0.1% guar solution (to minimise settling during the initial stages of gelatinisation). The 0.1% guar solution was selected after Rapid Visco Analyser, Modulated DSC and settling studies indicated that it minimised any effect on starch gelatinisation compared to carboxy methyl cellulose and xanthan. The Rheoscope study demonstrated that the viscosity of the starch during gelatinisation is related to changes in starch granules as a result of swelling. There was a two to threefold increase in starch granule size during the gelatinisation for all starches except for high amylose maize starches. Viscosity development during the gelatinisation was ...
Development of genome-specific primers for homoeologous genes in allopolyploid species: the waxy and starch synthase II genes in allohexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. as examples. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Elymus (Poaceae) is a large genus of polyploid species in the wheat tribe Triticeae. It is polyphyletic, exhibiting many distinct allopolyploid genome combinations, and its history might be further complicated by introgression and lineage sorting. We focus on a subset of Elymus species with a tetraploid genome complement derived from Pseudoroegneria (genome St) and Hordeum (H). We confirm the species allopolyploidy, identify possible genome donors, and pinpoint instances of apparent introgression or incomplete lineage sorting. We sequenced portions of three unlinked nuclear genes-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, β-amylase, and granule-bound starch synthase I-from 27 individuals, representing 14 Eurasian and North American StStHH Elymus species. Elymus sequences were combined with existing data from monogenomic representatives of the tribe, and gene trees were estimated separately for each data set using maximum likelihood. Trees were examined for evidence of allopolyploidy and additional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential scanning calorimetry. T2 - Gelatinisation of sago starch in the presence of sucrose and sodium chloride. AU - Abd. Ghani, Ma`Aruf. AU - Che Man, Yaakob B.. AU - Ali, Asbi B.. AU - Mat Hashim, Dzulkifly B.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The effect of sucrose and sodium chloride (NaCl) on sago starch gelatinisation was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The gelatinisation of starch in the presence of low levels of water and high levels of sucrose was studied. The gelatinisation temperature was found to increase in the presence of sucrose, whereas the gelatinisation enthalpy was unaffected. The gelatinisation temperature range was not as broad in the presence of sucrose as without sucrose. Furthermore, the shape of the gelatinisation endotherm was changed by the addition of sucrose. The double endotherm obtained in limited water-starch systems was changed into a single endotherm, similar to the endotherm obtained in excess water-starch systems at ...
Starch is made of two homopolymers: amylose and amylopectin, themselves composed of D-glucose molecules. During the process of digestion, starch is dissociated into simple sugar molecules that are readily assimilated by the body. High amylose starch is more resistant to enzymatic digestion and is used as a food supplement for its high fiber content and low glycemic index. It is also used in the textile industry, cosmetic industry, pharmaceutical industry and the production of biodegradable plastics. We are currently working on the generation amylose-rich wheat lines. This is achieved by knocking out genes encoding starch-branching enzymes in the wheat genome. ...
Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41, limit dextrinase, amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase, bacterial debranching enzyme, debranching enzyme, alpha-dextrin endo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase, R-enzyme, pullulan alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase) is a specific kind of glucanase, an amylolytic exoenzyme, that degrades pullulan. It is produced as an extracellular, cell surface-anchored lipoprotein by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Klebsiella. Type I pullulanases specifically attack α-1,6 linkages, while type II pullulanases are also able to hydrolyse α-1,4 linkages. It is also produced by some other bacteria and archaea. Pullulanase is used as a processing aid in grain processing biotechnology (production of ethanol and sweeteners). Pullulanase is also known as pullulan-6-glucanohydrolase (Debranching enzyme). Its substrate, pullulan, is regarded as a chain of maltotriose units linked by alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Pullulanase will hydrolytically cleave pullulan (alpha-glucan polysaccharides). Lee, E.Y.C.; Whelan, W.J. ...
1. Functions as a useful prebiotic. A particularly significant benefit of amylose is the way it functions as a prebiotic. These non-digestible compounds reach the colon without being digested, where they are fermented by gut microflora. (9) While most prebiotics are fibrous and classified chemically as oligosaccharides, amylose is one of the non-fiber types of prebiotic.. Remember, though, that not all amylose is the same. In lab tests, the amylose in lotus seed and purple potatoes outperforms that found in high amylose maize starch (RS4) by producing healthy gut bacteria more efficiently. (10, 11). Prebiotics contribute to good gut microflora, which in turn affect every internal body system. Its the feature that makes them so effective for boosting health in such a large number of ways.. 2. Boosts immunity. One such benefit of good gut bacteria is a boosted immune response. In general, prebiotic foods cause the "prebiotic effect," referring to a decreased concentration of cancer-promoting ...
FINALLY...ater MUCh delay.... Wazy Maize Starch will be going out first thing in the morning, and should be up by Monday. Thanks everyone for your
Humans have 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes, just four times as many as monocellular organisms such as bakers yeast. However, humans make many more kinds of proteins than monocellular organisms thanks to a mechanism termed alternative processing of precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) during the course of gene expression. It is now known that more than 90% of protein-coding genes undergo alternative pre-mRNA processing and many of them are regulated in a tissue- or cell-type-specific manner. Deregulation of pre-mRNA processing may cause diseases, but studies of the underlying mechanisms have been limited.. A review article in WIREs RNA by Wani and Kuroyanagi from Tokyo Medical and Dental University summarizes advantages of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans in elucidating principles of alternative pre-mRNA processing regulation in multicellular organisms. The tiny nematode worm C. elegans has just 1,000 cells, yet is comprised of multiple tissues such as the nervous system, muscles, ...
Starch is the most abundant storage glucan composed of two main structural components, amylose and amylopectin. Based on the rate of digestion, starch can be classified as rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) (Shi and Maningat 2013). In recent years, the effect of RS has drawn increasing interests in that it is not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but is fermented in the large intestine and is beneficial for the gut environment (Lafiandra et al. 2014). Our recent research has shown that the applications of RS in foods can moderate the glycemic response and maintain a proper microorganism profile in the human gut (Zhou et al. 2013a, b). It has also been found that RS with a slow absorption and a low glycemic index can reduce blood lipids and improve insulin sensitivity, which can improve the glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (Goda et al. 2014). Previous studies have also shown that RS can reduce cholesterol and ...
Modern crops have usually experienced domestication selection and subsequent genetic improvement (post-domestication selection). Chinese waxy maize, which originated from non-glutinous domesticated maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), provides a unique model for investigating the post-domestication selection of maize. In this study, the genetic diversity of six key genes in the starch pathway was investigated in a glutinous population that included 55 Chinese waxy accessions, and a selective bottleneck that resulted in apparent reductions in diversity in Chinese waxy maize was observed. Significant positive selection in waxy (wx) but not amylose extender1 (ae1) was detected in the glutinous population, in complete contrast to the findings in non-glutinous maize, which indicated a shift in the selection target from ae1 to wx during the improvement of Chinese waxy maize. Our results suggest that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved into a target trait with changes in the selection target among genes in a
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Research in starch biosynthesis is likely to have a great impact on agriculture and industry in coming years. Although the original purpose of research into starch synthesis was not industrial application, it is an example of how science, while trying to answer fundamental questions, may lead to the manipulation of nature for beneficial purposes. Although the basic studies of starch synthesis were carried out in England during the 1940s, and led to the discovery of phosphorylase and Q-enzyme (branching enzyme), the basis of our modern ideas originated in Argentina from the work of Luis F. ...
Amylose: which is a straight chain of glucose molecules, like a string of beads. These tend to line up in rows and clump together so that they are hard to gelatinize and digest.. * Amylopectin: which is a string of glucose molecules with lots of branching points. These are thus larger and more open and the starch is easier to gelatinize and digest.. The starch occurs in small granules that have a core of starch surrounded by a network of protein.This starch forms a crystalline structure within this granule and is resistant to digestion when consumed in the raw state. This is why potatoes will give you a pain in the stomach when eaten raw. The table below shows the effect on cooking on the digestibility percentage of sweet potatoes (Canope et al. 1977). The table shows that cooking increases the digestibility of both energy and organic matter to the same extent. The biggest increase in digestibility was however noted on nitrogen (i.e. protein) digestibility. This response it observed due to the ...
An α-amylase produced by Scytalidium thermophilum was purified using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and Sepharose 6B gel filtration. The purified protein migrated as a single band in 6% PAGE and 7% SDS-PAGE. The estimated molecular mass was 36 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and 49 kDa (Sepharose 6B). Optima of pH and temperature were 6.0 and 60°C, respectively. In the absence of substrate the purified α-amylase was stable for 1 h at 50°C and had a half-life of 12 min at 60°C, but was fully stable in the presence of starch. The enzyme was not activated by several metal ions tested, including Ca2+ (up to 10 mM), but HgCl2 and CuCl2 inhibited its activity. The α-amylase produced by S. thermophilum preferentially hydrolyzed starch, and to a lesser extent amylopectin, maltose, amylose and glycogen in that order. The products of starch hydrolysis (up to 6 h of reaction) analyzed by thin layer chromatography, showed oligosaccharides such as maltotrioses, maltotetraoses and ...
Oryza sativa (rice) is a monocotyledonous flowering plant of the family Poaceae and is one of the most important crop plants in the world, providing the principal food source for half of the worlds population. Oryza sativa subsp. japonica is one of three major subspecies of rice, the others being indica and javanica. Oryza sativa subsp. japonica is short-grained and high in amylopectin so that the grains stick together when cooked, which distinguishes it from subsp. indica which is long grained and not sticky. Oryza sativa subsp. japonica is grown in dry fields, mainly in temperate or colder climates such as Japan.. Oryza sativa has a haploid chromosome number of 12, containing 370 Mb with 30,000 protein-coding genes. Rice was an obvious choice for the first whole genome sequencing of a cereal crop. It is the smallest of the major cereal crop genomes and is the easiest to transform genetically. The cultivar sequenced from the japonica subspecies was Nipponbare ...
Amylopectin A-The highly-digestible "complex" carbohydrate that is no better-worse, in fact-than table sugar.. So why not eat non-wheat grains all you want? If they dont cause appetite stimulation, behavioral outbursts in children with ADHD, addictive consumption of foods, dementia (i.e., gluten encephalopathy), etc., why not just eat them willy nilly?. Because they still increase blood sugar. Conventional wisdom is that these foods trend towards having a lower glycemic index than, say, table sugar, meaning they raise blood glucose less.. Thats true . . . but very misleading. Oats, for instance, with a glycemic index of 55 compared to table sugars 59, still sends blood sugar through the roof. Likewise, quinoa with a glycemic index of 53, will send blood sugar to, say, 150 mg/dl compared to 158 mg/dl for table sugar-yeah, sure, its better, but it still stinks. And thats in non-diabetics. Its worse in diabetics.. Of course, John Q. Internist will tell you that, provided your blood sugars ...
Ngoc Chi Dang, Ingrid Aulinger-Leipner, Ham Le Huy, Peter Stamp: Protein Quality Improved Waxy Maize Varieties for South East Asia
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The consumption of cereals-based foods with low glycemic indexes, high micronutrients and fibers contents are highly recommended. The target of this work is to provide new solutions for cereal based foods: the knowledge and understanding on the in vivo fate will be used to define structural features to gain in foods ...
Definition : Serology reagents intended to measure serum antibody titers or antigens in human body fluids due to the presence of pathogenic fungi including molds and monocellular fungi (yeasts). Frequently, these tests provide supplemental information for the diagnosis of mycotic infections and, in some instances, they provide the only means of diagnosis.. Entry Terms : "IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Serology, Fungi/Yeast, Multiple Antibody" , "Yeast Reagents, Identification" , "Yeast Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Multiple Antibody Determination Reagents, Fungi/Yeast" , "Fungi Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Reagents, Fungal Exoantigen" , "Reagents, Yeast Detection" , "Reagents, Fungal Multiple Antibody" , "Reagents, Serology, Fungi/Yeast". UMDC code : 19074 ...
Starch analyzer,Amylose analyzer is your partner when you need excellence in grain amylose analysis. Our experience and expertise in automated grain quality analysis is long and proven.
1H9C: NMR Structure of Cysteinyl-Phosphorylated Enzyme Iib of the N,N-Diacetylchitobiose Specific Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependentphosphotransferase System of Escherichia Coli
Autor: Ragel, Paula et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2013-09; Titel: Loss of Starch Granule Initiation Has a Deleterious Effect on the Growth|br/| of Arabidopsis Plants Due to an Accumulation of ADP-Glucose
Background: Due to their lower glycaemic index, leguminous seeds affect human carbohydrate metabolism lesser than do cereals. Problems, however, could arise from side effects, e.g., increasing flatule
This product is highly recommended for starching of polyester & other synthetic workwear. Gives high resistance against mildew, mold and similar spoilage
Oxidised Starch is a modified starch formulation with controlled viscosity and extra strong film properties. Oxidised Starch finds wide application in the field of paper (coating & sizing). It help in improving wax pick, gloss smoothness of paper...
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Carbohydrate Supplements and powders including maltodextrin, dextrose, waxy maize and Vitargo. Replenish muscle glycogen during excercise
PRECISA® 680 modified food starch is derived from waxy maize and is one of a family of specially designed starches for dairy applications. It is characterized by its excellent process stability and retention rates after separation processes.
Changes in gelatinisation of tuber starch granules from transgenic potato lines. (A) Effect of GBSS knockdown (1041-3) or SBEII overexpression (1047-17) on
PUBLICATIONS (Journals):. Denyer, K. and Keeling P.L. (in progress) The functions of the structural domains of starch synthase enzymes. To be submitted. The Plant Journal.. Tziotis A, Seetharaman K, Klucinec JD, Keeling P, White PJ (2005) Functional properties of starch from normal and mutant corn genotypes. Carb Polymers: 61: 238-247.. Gao Z., Guan H. and Keeling P.L. (2004) Involvement of lysine-193 of the conserved KTGG motif in the catalysis of maize starch synthase IIa. ABB., 427: 1-7.. Imparl-Radosevich J.M., Gameon, J.R., McKean, A., Wetterberg. D., Keeling P.L. and Guan H. (2003) Understanding catalytic properties and functions of maize starch synthase enzymes. J.Appl.Glycosci., 50: 177-182.. Han, Xian-Zhong, O.H. Campanella, H. Guan, P.L. Keeling and B. Hamaker. (2002) Influence of maize starch granule-associated protein on the rheological properties of starch pastes. Part I. Large deformation measurements of paste properties. Carbohydrate polymers 49: 315-321.. Han, Xian-Zhong, O.H. ...
Looking for online definition of amylose in the Medical Dictionary? amylose explanation free. What is amylose? Meaning of amylose medical term. What does amylose mean?
Shafie, Siti Raihanah binti (2017) Saturated fatty acids, linseed components and high amylose wheat in attenuation of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. [Thesis (PhD/Research)] ...
A nanoparticle linked to nisin can hold and release an antimicrobial agent onto food or packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes A US team has pioneered a technique which allows a nanoparticle to attract and hold nisin, which has strong antibacterial properties. Yuan Yao, an assistant professor of food science at Purdue University, altered the surface of phytoglycogen, a carbohydrate found in sweet corn, which led to the creation of several forms of a nanoparticle. The nanoparticle can then safeguard the food-based peptide nisin for up to three weeks, combating Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially fatal foodborne pathogen found in meats, dairy and vegetables. Nisin antibacterial properties have been proved but the problem has been that it is depleted quickly in a food system. Nanoparticles solved this problem by delivering the antimicrobial properties of nisin for extended use. Methodology The scientists employed two strategies to draw nisin to the phytoglycogen nanoparticles. The first ...
Allcosmeticsource.com Fungal amylase 1000000u/g,5kg/bag,free shipping [EP170508011]- Fungal amylase 1000000u/g,5kg/bag,free shipping What is Fungal amylase 1000000u/g? Fungal amylase, also known as fungal alpha amylase (1, 4- alpha -D- glucan hydrolase), is refined by Aspergillus oryzae Wahl deep culture, extraction and other processes. The enzyme is endo amylase, which can rapidly hydrolyze the starch, amylose and amylopectin aqueous solution of alpha -1,
China Pass ISO Certificate of Manufacture of 99% Maltodextrin, Find details about China Dextrin 15; Dextrin 20;, Dextrin Maize Starch from Pass ISO Certificate of Manufacture of 99% Maltodextrin - NEW TIGER CO., LTD.
Grains are the seeds of grasses. If you were to take a stalk of 18-inch tall semidwarf wheat, the creation of a genetics laboratory, you cant eat the roots, nor the stalk, leaves, or husk. You can, however, isolate the seeds, remove the husk, then dry, pulverize, and heat them. You will then have something-porridge or flour-that can yield something you might view as food. But the seed, just like the rest of the plant, has components that are indigestible, such as wheat germ agglutinin, D-amino acids, gliadin (partially digestible), and trypsin inhibitors, among others. The one component that is digestible is amylopectin A, accounting for the exceptional glycemic potential of wheat and other seeds of grasses, explaining why two slices of whole wheat bread increase blood sugar higher than 6 teaspoons of table sugar.. ...
Influence of waxy and high-amylose starch genes on the composition of barley and the cholesterolemic and glycemic responses in chicks and ...
Clothes Using Cold Water Soluble Starch picture from Guangzhou Konnor Daily Necessities Co., Ltd. view photo of Modified Starch, Cold Water Soluble Starch, Water Soluble Starch.Contact China Suppliers for More Products and Price.
Previous characterization of high molecular mass forms of starch biosynthetic enzymes could not determine whether the proteins were in one complex or multiple independent complexes that happen to elute in the same GPC peaks. From the following reproducible genetic data, this study showed that C670 is a single species containing SSIII, SSIIa, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb (Fig. 2; Supplemental Figs. S1-S3). First, loss of SSIIa, SBEIIa, or SBEIIb reduced the apparent molecular mass of the SSIII-containing complex. Second, loss of SIII, SBEIIa, or SBEIIb prevented the assembly of SSIIa into C670. Third, loss of SSIII, SSIIa, or SBEIIa prevented the assembly of SBEIIb into C670. Taken together, elimination of any one of the four starch biosynthetic enzymes found in C670 resulted in altered GPC mobility for the others. These data are consistent with C670 being composed of a single high molecular mass complex containing all four proteins. The great majority of SSIII is present in C670, and this protein even in ...
The Altosaar Lab has been "stuck on starch" for some time. Weve been studying the surface of the starch granule since 1984. The "protein community network" and the proteomic "Systems" landscape at the solid granule surface is becoming a hot spot for bioenergy research. We view the amyloplast as a bio-battery, solid fuel cells storing solar energy as fixed carbon.. Starch Granule Associated Proteins (SGAPs) were first reported by our lab in 1984. LCA-treated GMA sections of starch granules from wheat showed growth rings (arrowhead) in the large type A starch granules. Lectin binding also occurs in the smaller type B granules (arrow) but no growth rings are visible. "Halos" are discernible around both types of granules (Fig. 7) and we have been in hot pursuit of this proteomic-calyx ever since, using advanced biochemical and molecular genetic strategies.. These are not "random" proteins stuck to the surface of the bio-battery. When expressed in transgenic corn (Fig. F), they can have dramatic ...
The genetically modified potato line show a shift of the tuber starch composition to amylose. No difference regarding persistence in agricultural habitats or invasiveness in natural habitats compared to conventional potato varieties is expected. Nor is it expected that a selective advantage or disadvantage is conferred to the GM lines via the introduced traits. Due to the measures to be taken during the release (distance to or absence of cultivated and wild relatives) will the potential for gene transfer virtually be excluded. Interactions of the GM potato lines with non-target species and resulting effects will be comparable to those of conventional potato varieties. No toxic or allergenic effects are expected from elevated levels of amylose, nor from the nptII gene. Measures in place under current field trial practice will safeguard that all tubers and plant material is properly managed, harvested, stored, transported or disposed of to minimize contact to humans or animals. No effects are ...
2004. Study of starch granules swelling by the blue dextran method and by microscopy. 2004. Elizabeth Contreras López, Arnaud Rolée and Martine Le Meste. Starch/Starke, 56, 576-581. ...
0021]In the literature, numerous methods are described with the help of which the amylose content of starch can be reduced by chemical means. However, in these methods for reducing the amylose content treatment at elevated temperatures (normally at greater than 140° C.) is required, whereby degradation products are produced by necessity. However, such degradation products can interfere with many applications. In the construction sector for example, a significant setting delay has to be anticipated. Moreover, the fractionation method is very complex and cost-intensive, so that so far such products have not become prevalent in large-scale applications. To avoid chemical separation of amylose and amylopectin, in recent years potato plants have also been genetically modified in such a way that the starch produced by these plants has a higher amylopectin content compared to traditional potato starch. By antisense inhibition of a GBSS gene (GBSS--granule bound starch synthase) such a modification in ...
In this study, the film forming behaviour of low amylose (LA) and high amylose (HA) starches was studied. The starch-alone and a blend of plasticizer (polyol)-starch films were developed by gelatinising at various temperatures and casting at 25 °C. The starch-plasticizer films contained glycerol and xylitol either individually or in 1:1 combination. The concentration of plasticizer used was 15%, 20% and 30% for LA films while it was 20%, 30% and 40% for HA films on dry solid basis. The HA-glycerol films retained the highest moisture content among all the films. The HA films exhibited higher glass transition temperature, higher tensile strength, higher modulus of elasticity and lower elongation at break than those obtained from LA starch. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity decreased and the elongation increased with increasing plasticizer concentrations above 15% on dry solid basis regardless the starch type. Low water vapour permeability was evident in LA and HA films plasticized by ...
A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers, linked by glycosidic bonds. Many beta-glucans are medically important. They represent a drug target for antifungal medications of the echinocandin class. The following are glucans: (The α- and β- and numbers clarify the type of O-glycosidic bond.) dextran, α-1,6-glucan with α-1,3-branches floridean starch, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan glycogen, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan pullulan, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan starch, a mixture of amylose and amylopectin, both α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucans cellulose, β-1,4-glucan chrysolaminarin, β-1,3-glucan curdlan, β-1,3-glucan laminarin, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan lentinan, a strictly purified β-1,6:β-1,3-glucan from Lentinus edodes lichenin, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan oat beta-glucan, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan pleuran, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus zymosan, β-1,3-glucan Properties of glucans include resistance to oral acids/enzyme and water insolubility. Glucans ...
Yam is the third most important root and tuber crop in the tropics but few species are grown as health food and/or for medicinal purposes. To ascertain the potential health benefits and alternate usage of the species, 20 varieties of Dioscorea alata (water yam) were investigated for their total dietary fiber (TDF), dry matter and amylose contents as well as selected minerals in comparison with Dioscorea rotundata, the preferred species in yam-growing areas. The TDF content varied widely ranging from 4.10 to 11.00%. The dry matter composition ranged from 19.10 to 33.80% and amylose was from 27.90 to 32.30%. In mg kg 1, mineral contents of the varieties were from 10.10-17.60 for Zn, 10 550-20 100 for K, 83-131 for Na, 260-535 for Ca, and 390-595 for Mg. The results show significant differences (P , 0.05) among the test varieties in all the parameters determined. Generally, the test varieties had lower dry matter but higher amylose contents. TDF contents of the varieties were higher than that ...
The Effect of Glucose and of Uncooked Wheat and Maize Starch Alone and Mixed in Equal Quantity With Sucrose on Dental Caries and Recovery of Implanted Streptococcus Mutans in Albino Rats
Accepted name: glycogen phosphorylase. Reaction: [(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n + phosphate = [(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n-1 + α-D-glucose 1-phosphate. For diagram of reaction click here.. Other name(s): muscle phosphorylase a and b; amylophosphorylase; polyphosphorylase; amylopectin phosphorylase; glucan phosphorylase; α-glucan phosphorylase; 1,4-α-glucan phosphorylase; glucosan phosphorylase; granulose phosphorylase; maltodextrin phosphorylase; muscle phosphorylase; myophosphorylase; potato phosphorylase; starch phosphorylase; 1,4-α-D-glucan:phosphate α-D-glucosyltransferase; phosphorylase (ambiguous). Systematic name: (1→4)-α-D-glucan:phosphate α-D-glucosyltransferase. Comments: This entry covers several enzymes from different sources that act in vivo on different forms of (1→4)-α-D-glucans. Some of these enzymes catalyse the first step in the degradation of large branched glycan polymers - the phosphorolytic cleavage of α-1,4-glucosidic bonds from the non-reducing ends of linear ...

2015 Abstract Detail2015 Abstract Detail

... results in starch granules containing mostly amylopectin. Grain with this trait has increased usability for feed, food and ...
more infohttp://www.apsnet.org/publications/Webinars/Pages/2015abstracts.aspx?LID=173

Sweet Wheat - PubMedSweet Wheat - PubMed

The major components of storage starch are amylose and amylopectin, and in wheat, both an amylose-free mutant lacking granule- ... The major components of storage starch are amylose and amylopectin, and in wheat, both an amylose-free mutant lacking granule- ... Biosynthesis and Regulation of Wheat Amylose and Amylopectin from Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Characterization of Granule- ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17159298/

Characterization of the Reactions of Starch Branching Enzymes from Rice Endosperm : Plant and Cell Physiology - oiCharacterization of the Reactions of Starch Branching Enzymes from Rice Endosperm : Plant and Cell Physiology - oi

Based on these results, the functional distinction and interaction of BE isozymes during amylopectin biosynthesis in cereal ... from rice with both amylopectin and synthetic amylose as glucan substrate. The activities of these BE isozymes with a linear ... from rice with both amylopectin and synthetic amylose as glucan substrate. The activities of these BE isozymes with a linear ... chains of DP7 and DP6 while BEIIa formed a wide range of short chains of DP6 to around DP15 from outer chains of amylopectin ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/pcp/pcq035

EP 1103254 A1 20010530 - Process to manufacture starch-containing shaped bodies,mass containing homogenized starch and device...EP 1103254 A1 20010530 - Process to manufacture starch-containing shaped bodies,mass containing homogenized starch and device...

of) amorphous starch having an amylopectin content of at least 50 wt. % (based on anhydrous starch) and at least 12 wt. % ( ... of) amorphous starch having an amylopectin content of at least 50 wt. % (based on anhydrous starch) and at least 12 wt. % ( ... of) amorphous starch having an amylopectin content of at least 50 wt. % (based on anhydrous starch) and at least 12 wt. % ( ...
more infohttps://data.epo.org/gpi/EP1103254A1-Process-to-manufacture-starch-containing-shaped-bodies-mass-containing-homogenized-starch-and-device-to-manufacture-soft-capsules

Amylopectin - WikipediaAmylopectin - Wikipedia

Amylose or Amylopectin?". Journal of Chemical Education. 52 (11): 729. doi:10.1021/ed052p729. Pure amylopectin that has not ... Amylopectin /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. It is ... Dissolved amylopectin starch has a lower tendency of retrogradation (gelling) during storage and cooling. For this main reason ... Starch is made of about 70% amylopectin by weight, though it varies depending on the source (higher in medium-grain rice to 100 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amylopectin

Amylopectin | chemistry | Britannica.comAmylopectin | chemistry | Britannica.com

... the form of amylose or amylopectin. These starches are polysaccharides in which the monomer, or fundamental unit, is glucose. ... Other articles where Amylopectin is discussed: algae: Nutrient storage: … ... Amylopectin has a branched-chain structure and is a somewhat more compact molecule. Several thousand glucose units may be ... bulk of the starch is amylopectin, which has a branch chain linked in after every 25 molecules of glucose on the main chain. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/amylopectin

Amylopectin - WikipediaAmylopectin - Wikipedia

Amylopectin /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in ... Amylose or Amylopectin?". Journal of Chemical Education. 52 (11): 729. doi:10.1021/ed052p729. Pure amylopectin that has not ... "Amylose, Amylopectin (starch)". GMO Compass. Archived from the original on 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2011-02-07.. .mw-parser-output ... Dissolved amylopectin starch has a lower tendency of retrogradation (gelling) during storage and cooling. For this main reason ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amylopectin

AVEBE and BASF Plant Science to develop Phytophthora resistant Amylopectin starch potato | PotatoProAVEBE and BASF Plant Science to develop Phytophthora resistant Amylopectin starch potato | PotatoPro

About genetically modified amylopectin starch potatoes Conventional potatoes produce a mixture of amylopectin and amylose ... After having switched off the gene for the production of amylose, the amylopectin starch potato produces pure amylopectin ... Home » News » Articles » AVEBE and BASF Plant Science to develop Phytophthora resistant Amylopectin starch potato ... AVEBE and BASF Plant Science to develop Phytophthora resistant Amylopectin starch potato. ...
more infohttps://www.potatopro.com/news/2010/avebe-and-basf-plant-science-develop-phytophthora-resistant-amylopectin-starch-potato

Comparison of potato amylopectin starches and potato starches - influence of year and varietyComparison of potato amylopectin starches and potato starches - influence of year and variety

... Svegmark, K; Helmersson, K; ... The potato amylopectin starches (PAP) exhibited higher endothermic temperatures as well as higher enthalpies than the normal ... The potato amylopectin starches (PAP) exhibited higher endothermic temperatures as well as higher enthalpies than the normal ... The potato amylopectin starches (PAP) exhibited higher endothermic temperatures as well as higher enthalpies than the normal ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/347833

New Paradigm for the Treatment of Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome: Low Glycemic Index Diet and Modified High...New Paradigm for the Treatment of Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome: Low Glycemic Index Diet and Modified High...

Modified high amylopectin cornstarch and low glycemic index diet might be an alternative treatment in glucose transporter 1 ... She was started on modified high amylopectin cornstarch at bedtime and low glycemic index diet with meals and snacks every 3-4 ... Stabilization of blood glucose levels by low glycemic index diet and modified high amylopectin cornstarch would provide steady- ... GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome; compliance; ketogenic diet; low glycemic index diet; modified high amylopectin cornstarch ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216499

Essential amino acids of starch synthase IIa differentiate amylopectin structure and starch quality between japonica and indica...Essential amino acids of starch synthase IIa differentiate amylopectin structure and starch quality between japonica and indica...

"Essential amino acids of starch synthase IIa differentiate amylopectin structure and starch quality between japonica and indica ... Differences in amylopectin structure between two rice varieties in relation to the effects of temperature during growth ... The present study confirmed that the SSIIa activity determines the type of amylopectin structure of rice starch to be either ... The present study confirmed that the SSIIa activity determines the type of amylopectin structure of rice starch to be either ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/essential-amino-acids-of-starch-synthase-iia-differentiate-amylopectin-hKflJdr7OZ

Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2 - DTU OrbitDegradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2 - DTU Orbit

Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2. Archives of ... Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2. Archives of ... Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2. Publication ... Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2. / Nielsen, ...
more infohttp://orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/degradation-of-the-starch-components-amylopectin-and-amylose-by-barley-amylase-1-role-of-surface-binding-site-2

Amylopectin crystalline - Fermented Foods - Buffalo Brewing BlogAmylopectin crystalline - Fermented Foods - Buffalo Brewing Blog

In fresh bread, amylose and amylopectin exist in amorphous or gelled forms. During storage, moisture is lost, the amylose and ... Amylopectin crystalline. Fri, 17 Feb 2012 , Fermented Foods Figure 1. Model of bread staling. In fresh bread, amylose and ... During storage, moisture is lost, the amylose and amylopectin retrograde, and crystalline forms appear, leading to firmness and ... amylopectin exist in amorphous or gelled forms. ...
more infohttps://www.buffalobrewingstl.com/fermented-foods-2/amylopectin-crystalline.html

T gondii displays a uniquely simple pathway for amylopectin synthesis - Toxoplasma GondiiT gondii displays a uniquely simple pathway for amylopectin synthesis - Toxoplasma Gondii

... several gene candidates encoding enzymes that are probably involved in amylopectin biosynthesis were identified Coppin et al., ... 1. Enzymes that are involved in amylopectin synthesis, such as amylopectin synthase, branching enzymes, UDP-glucose ... and animal-like amylopectin biosynthetic pathways are required for the synthesis of crystalline amylopectin in the parasite ( ... 2. Enzymes for amylopectin degradation, like a-amylase, dikinase or R1 protein, phosphory-lase, and a-glucosidase. Based on the ...
more infohttp://www.kelmacmedical.us/toxoplasma-gondii/t-gondii-displays-a-uniquely-simple-pathway-for-amylopectin-synthesis.html

The effect of amylose:amylopectin ratio in dietary starch on growth performance and gut morphology in broiler chickensThe effect of amylose:amylopectin ratio in dietary starch on growth performance and gut morphology in broiler chickens

... ... Secondly, the proportion of amylose and amylopectin in the starch is controlled by allelic expression. Cultivars or many cereal ... amylose and amylopectin. Common cereal starches are approximately similar in composition with a range of 0.15 to 0.35 of the ... types have been developed that are either completely composed of amylopectin (described as waxy cultivars) or have a higher ...
more infohttp://openaccess.sruc.ac.uk/handle/11262/7879

Behaviour of amylopectin and amylose components of starch in the selective flocculation of ultrafine iron ore | P.K....Behaviour of amylopectin and amylose components of starch in the selective flocculation of ultrafine iron ore | P.K....

Behaviour of amylopectin and amylose components of starch in the selective flocculation of ultrafine iron ore , P.K. ... Behaviour of amylopectin and amylose components of starch in the selective flocculation of ultrafine iron ore. P.K. Weissenborn ... Behaviour of amylopectin and amylose components of starch in the selective flocculation of ultrafine iron ore. ...
more infohttp://booksc.org/book/2818362/8942d3

Long branch-chains of amylopectin with B-type crystallinity in rice seed with inhibition of starch branching enzyme I and IIb...Long branch-chains of amylopectin with B-type crystallinity in rice seed with inhibition of starch branching enzyme I and IIb...

... the amylose was degraded faster than amylopectin and the amylopectin long branch-chains with B-type crystallinity had high ... The B-type crystallinity and long branch-chains of amylopectin in TRS seed had high resistance to in situ degradation, which ... However, in barley and maize, the repression of SBE changes starch component and amylopectin structure which affects grain ... The starch components including amylose and amylopectin were simultaneously degraded in TQ seeds during seedling growth, but in ...
more infohttps://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12870-017-1219-8

Coatings  | Free Full-Text | Modified Starch-Chitosan Edible Films: Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization | HTMLCoatings | Free Full-Text | Modified Starch-Chitosan Edible Films: Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization | HTML

Amylose and Amylopectin Determination. The amylose/amylopectin content of the starch samples used was determined using the ... OS and AS edible films contain lower amylopectin proportion than WS and this was reflected in less rigid surface structures and ... Cano, A.; Jiménez, A.; Cháfer, M.; Gónzalez, C.; Chiralt, A. Effect of amylose:amylopectin ratio and rice bran addition on ... Thus, starches with increased amylopectin content may minimize these effects. Due to the hydrophilic nature of starch, its ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2079-6412/7/12/224/htm

Chemistry of lifeChemistry of life

Amylopectin. A polymer made up of glucose units joined by -1.4 links with branches at the -1.6 linkages which form every 24-30 ... Amylopectin - a plant polymer made up of glucose units joined mainly by α-1,4 links but with some α-1,6 linkages, so the chains ... This means it is very branched and so more compact than amylopectin, and it can be broken down very rapidly to provide the ... Structurally glycogen is very similar to amylopectin but with more α-1,6 linkages - every 8-12 glucose units. ...
more infohttps://www.abpischools.org.uk/topic/chemistryoflife/6

Glossary of Brewing Terms | BrewlabGlossary of Brewing Terms | Brewlab

Amylopectin. One of the two major forms of starch found in the endosperm of barley and other cereal grains. Composed of a ... In mashing a amylase digests internal bonds of amylose and amylopectin to release a range of sizes of simple sugars and larger ... In mashing b amylase digests amylose and amylopectin molecules by releasing maltose units from the non reducing ends of the ... and the branched polymer amylopectin (around 80%). Starch molecules are condensed into rigid starch grains during growth of the ...
more infohttps://www.brewlab.co.uk/glossary-of-brewing-terms/

Starch gelatinization - WikipediaStarch gelatinization - Wikipedia

Molecular associations occur: Amylose-Amylose ; Amylose-Amylopectin; Amylopectin-Amylopectin. A mild association amongst chains ... High amylopectin starches will have a stable gel, but will be softer than high amylose gels. Retrogradation restricts the ... Amylopectin molecules with longer branched structure, increases the tendency to form strong gels. Granule size do not directly ... Water then enters via amorphous regions the tightly bound areas of double helical structures of amylopectin. At ambient ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch_gelatinization

Plus itPlus it

Amylopectin Structural Analysis. Amylopectin and amylose in the granular starch fraction were separated by gel-permeation ... Chain Length Distribution of Amylopectin from Leaves and Endosperm.. Amylopectin from pooled Sepharose CL2B chromatography ... A) and (B) Amylopectin from wild-type and zpu1-204 leaves harvested at the end of the photoperiod from growth chamber-grown (A) ... The lyophilized amylopectin fraction was suspended at 4 mg Glc equivalents/mL in 30% DMSO and boiled for 10 min. A 10-μL ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/15/3/666

CarbohydratesCarbohydrates

Amylopectin makes up about an 80% of the starch. Amylose has a colloidal structure in suspension while amylopectin is insoluble ... Amylopectin has a high GI, however, it will facilitate an efficient recharge of the glycogen deposits due to its properties. ... Amylopectin can form stable starch gels that are capable of retaining water, while amylose is unable to do so. ... While amylose is a straight chain polymer, amylopectin is highly branched.. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle. ...
more infohttps://www.hsnstore.com/buy/blog/carbohydrates/
  • Cultivars or many cereal types have been developed that are either completely composed of amylopectin (described as 'waxy' cultivars) or have a higher amylose content in the starch content. (sruc.ac.uk)
  • Amylose content and amylopectin structure have important effects on structural and functional properties of starch. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seeds of the knockout mutant rsr1 consistently show the increased amylose content and altered fine structure of amylopectin and consequently form the round and loosely packed starch granules, resulting in decreased gelatinization temperature. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Based on the presence of these enzymes, metabolic pathways and enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis in T. gondii are probably similar to those of starch synthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Figure 8.2). (kelmacmedical.us)
  • In contrast, RSR1 overexpression suppresses the expression of starch synthesis genes, resulting in altered amylopectin structure and increased gelatinization temperature. (plantphysiol.org)
  • New Paradigm for the Treatment of Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome: Low Glycemic Index Diet and Modified High Amylopectin Cornstarch. (nih.gov)
  • Stabilization of blood glucose levels by low glycemic index diet and modified high amylopectin cornstarch would provide steady-state glucose transport into the brain to prevent seizures and cognitive dysfunction in patients with glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome as an alternative treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Arg330X in the SLC2A1) treated with modified high amylopectin cornstarch (Glycosade) and low glycemic index diet because of compliance problems with the ketogenic diet. (nih.gov)
  • She was started on modified high amylopectin cornstarch at bedtime and low glycemic index diet with meals and snacks every 3-4 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Modified high amylopectin cornstarch and low glycemic index diet might be an alternative treatment in glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome patients with compliance problems to the ketogenic diet treatment, but additional patients should be treated to prove usefulness of this new treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Starch is made of about 70% amylopectin by weight, though it varies depending on the source (higher in medium-grain rice to 100% in glutinous rice, waxy potato starch, and waxy corn, and lower in long-grain rice, amylomaize, and russet potatoes, for example). (wikipedia.org)
  • The SSIIa gene fragments shuffling experiments revealed that Val-737 and Leu-781 are essential not only for the optimal SSIIa activity, but also for the capacity to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. (deepdyve.com)
  • This means it is very branched and so more compact than amylopectin, and it can be broken down very rapidly to provide the glucose fuel needed for cellular respiration. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • These results point to SBS2 as an important binding site in amylopectin depolymerization. (dtu.dk)
  • Kinmaze to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. (deepdyve.com)
  • FIGURE 8.1 Transmission electron micrographs of bradyzoites (Br) within a tissue cyst (Panel A). Note the presence of the cyst wall (CW) and numerous amylopectin granules (AG) in the cytoplasm of the bradyzoites. (kelmacmedical.us)
  • Panels B and C shows a higher magnification of ultrastructural morphology of bradyzoite and tachyzoite which lacks amylopectin granules. (kelmacmedical.us)