Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Salivary alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)ChymotrypsinogenHyperamylasemia: A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Bethanechol CompoundsSalivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Pancreatic alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)De Lange Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Oligo-1,6-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 3.2.1.10.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.

The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase. (1/1858)

Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC 3.2.1.24] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II.  (+info)

Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. (2/1858)

Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed.  (+info)

Detection of viruses and body fluids which may contain viruses in the domestic environment. (3/1858)

The domestic environment was investigated for the presence of viruses and body fluids that may contain viruses. A range of surfaces in 39 homes (17 visited on 2 occasions) were sampled by swabbing and analysed using cell culture, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for enteroviral RNA, haemoglobin as a marker for blood, amylase as an indicator of urine, saliva and sweat, and protein as an indicator of general hygiene. Haemoglobin was found on 1.9% of surfaces sampled and of the positive samples 30% were from articles frequently handled. Amylase (> 5 U/l) was found in 29.3% of samples tested. Protein was found in 97.8% of samples tested. Enteroviral RNA, indicating the presence of virus, was detected in 3 out of 448 samples tested; they were from a tap handle, telephone handpiece and a toilet bowl. No viruses were isolated in cell culture, however significant problems were encountered with bacterial and fungal contamination. This work demonstrates that only testing environmental samples for bacteria and ATP may not give a total view of the microbiological problem in the home. A range of test methods is useful to gain a broad view of the problems of hygiene in the home and to allow comparative studies of specific areas such as the kitchen and bathroom.  (+info)

Underestimation of acute pancreatitis: patients with only a small increase in amylase/lipase levels can also have or develop severe acute pancreatitis. (4/1858)

BACKGROUND: In most treatment studies on acute pancreatitis, pancreatologists base their diagnosis on amylase/lipase levels more than three times above the upper limit of normal (>3n) and thus exclude patients with smaller enzyme level increases. The recommendations derived from the results of treatment studies do not take into account such patients. Non-pancreatologists frequently believe that only patients with high enzyme levels have a serious prognosis. AIMS: To question the assumption that high enzyme levels indicate severe, and conversely low enzyme levels indicate mild, acute pancreatitis. PATIENTS/METHODS: This retrospective study includes 284 consecutive patients with a first attack of acute pancreatitis. The cause was biliary in 114 (40%) patients, alcoholism in 83 (29%), other in 21 (7%), and unknown in 66 (23%). Patients were divided into two groups according to their serum enzyme levels (amylase: 3n, n = 196; lipase: 3n, n = 233). Renal impairment, indication for dialysis and artificial ventilation, development of pseudocysts, necessity for surgery, and mortality were taken as parameters of severity. RESULTS: The incidence of severity was the same for both the 3n groups. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of acute pancreatitis is independent of the elevation in serum amylase/lipase level (3n) on admission. Patients with only a slight increase can also have or develop severe acute pancreatitis. Patients with +info)

Genetic regulation of tissue-specific expression of amylase structural genes in Drosophila melanogaster. (5/1858)

Laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster were screened for spatial variations in adult midgut alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) expression. No strain-specific differences were found anteriorly, but three patterns of activity were discerned in the posterior midgut: A, activity throughout most of the region; B, activity in the anterior part of the region; and C, little or no activity. Alleles of a control gene, map, are responsible for this tissue-specific regulation of activity; e.g., mapA homozygotes produce the A pattern and mapC homozygotes the C pattern. The map locus was placed at 2--80 +/- on the genetic map of chromosome 2R, about two crossover units distal to the Amy structural gene region for alpha-amylase. Electrophoretic studies showed that mapA is trans acting in mapA/mapC flies, allowing expression of amylase isozymes coded for by genes on the opposite chromosome. The map gene behaves as a temporal gene that is clearly separable from the tightly linked, duplicated Amy structural genes.  (+info)

Modes of action of acarbose hydrolysis and transglycosylation catalyzed by a thermostable maltogenic amylase, the gene for which was cloned from a Thermus strain. (6/1858)

A maltogenic amylase gene was cloned in Escherichia coli from a gram-negative thermophilic bacterium, Thermus strain IM6501. The gene encoded an enzyme (ThMA) with a molecular mass of 68 kDa which was expressed by the expression vector p6xHis119. The optimal temperature of ThMA was 60 degrees C, which was higher than those of other maltogenic amylases reported so far. Thermal inactivation kinetic analysis of ThMA indicated that it was stabilized in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. ThMA harbored both hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities. It hydrolyzed beta-cyclodextrin and starch mainly to maltose and pullulan to panose. ThMA not only hydrolyzed acarbose, an amylase inhibitor, to glucose and pseudotrisaccharide (PTS) but also transferred PTS to 17 sugar acceptors, including glucose, fructose, maltose, cellobiose, etc. Structural analysis of acarbose transfer products by using methylation, thin-layer chromatography, high-performance ion chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that PTS was transferred primarily to the C-6 of the acceptors and at lower degrees to the C-3 and/or C-4. The transglycosylation of sugar to methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside by forming an alpha-(1,3)-glycosidic linkage was demonstrated for the first time by using acarbose and ThMA. Kinetic analysis of the acarbose transfer products showed that the C-4 transfer product formed most rapidly but readily hydrolyzed, while the C-6 transfer product was stable and accumulated in the reaction mixture as the main product.  (+info)

Ultrastructural analysis of some functional aspects of Xenopus laevis pancreas during development and metamorphosis. (7/1858)

Morphological studies using both light and electron microscope were carried out with the aim of characterizing cells present in the larval and adult pancreas of Xenopus laevis. The following cell types have been seen: (1) exocrine cells, with a very well developed r.e.r. (rough endoplasmic reticulum), well defined Golgi complexes and numerous large secretory granules (A cells); (2) cells without either r.e.r. or secretory granules but with a large number of well developed mitochondria (B cells); (3) endocrine cells often clustered in the typical islets and with small membrane-coated granules showing a very dense central core surrounded by a light halo (C cells). During development, the aspect is seen to change from an unorganized tissue in which the acinar structures are still not clearly visible (stage 42), to a more organized form in which the exocrine cells (A cells) are seen to be arranged around the lumen of the acinus together with some B cells. At the stages 54-56, an increasing number of acini surrounded both by A and B cells was observed. At about stage 61, large quantities of necrotic cells were seen and it became more difficult to individualize the acinar organization found in the preceding stages. Finally, there are no necrotic cells in the adult but only A, B cells which are organized in well developed acinar structures and C cells. The investigation also included a study of some pancreatic enzymes (lipase and amylase) synthesized during larval life. Lipase activity shows a peak at stage 54-56 in which the most well organized tissue of the entire larval life was observed. The activity then decreases, reaching a minimum at stage 66, after which it rapidly rises. Maximum amylase activity occurs at stage 51 after which there is a decrease, to a minimum at stage 66. The activity then remains at constant level.  (+info)

A monoclonal anti-interleukin 8 antibody (WS-4) inhibits cytokine response and acute lung injury in experimental severe acute necrotising pancreatitis in rabbits. (8/1858)

BACKGROUND: Interleukin 8 (IL-8) has recently been proposed to have an important role in mediating the development of the systemic sequelae associated with severe acute pancreatitis. AIMS: To define the role of IL-8 in acute pancreatitis by neutralising its effects with a monoclonal anti-IL-8 antibody (WS-4), in a rabbit model of severe acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced by retrograde injection of 5% chenodeoxycholic acid into the pancreatic duct and duct ligation. Twenty rabbits were divided equally into two groups: acute pancreatitis controls received physiological saline and the treated group received WS-4, 30 minutes before induction of acute pancreatitis. RESULTS: Pretreatment of animals with WS-4 resulted in significant down regulation of serum IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from three to six hours after induction of acute pancreatitis (p = 0.011 and 0.047 for IL-8 and 0.033 and 0.022 for TNF-alpha, respectively). In addition, a significant reduction in the CD11b and CD18 positive cells and the amount of interstitial neutrophil infiltration in the lungs from WS-4 treated animals was seen. In contrast, WS-4 did not alter the amount of pancreatic necrosis and the serum concentrations of amylase, lipase, calcium, and glucose. CONCLUSION: WS-4 cannot change the amount of pancreatic necrosis induced by injection of 5% bile acid, but does reduce the acute lung injury, presumably through inhibition of circulating IL-8 and TNF-alpha, and CD11b/CD18 in lung tissue. Therefore, a role of IL-8 in the progression of acute pancreatitis and the development of its systemic complications is suggested.  (+info)

Genetic stability of amylase activity after serial subcultivation experiments with amylolytic ruminalStreptococcus bovis strains was investigated. Two strains Amy+ and Amy− were obtained. Loss of amylase activity connected with the loss of plasmid DNA was not found in these strains. The presence of the gene responible for the amylase activity in the chromosome of these strains was revealed by hybridization of the α-amylase gene on pJK108 against chromosomal DNA ofS. bovis andBacillus subtilis after a complete restriction withEcoRI.
The amylases are a group of hydrolases that split complex carbohydrates constituted of I D glucose units. The two recognised types of amylases are ? amylase (e.g. plant and bacterial exoamylase) and human I amylases which can attack the I 1, 4 linkage anywhere along a polyglucan chain.. Human I amylase consists of two major isoenzymes, pancreatic and salivary, which are encoded by two different genes. Pancreatic amylase is synthesised only in pancreatic tissue by acinar cells. Amylase measurements are used primarily for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). The evaluation of the pancreatic isoamylase may have a greater clinical specificity for the diagnosis of pancreatic disorders than total amylase assessment. ...
The major sources of amylase are the pancreas and the salivary glands. The most common cause of elevation of serum amylase is inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). In acute pancreatitis, serum amylase begins to rise within 6-24 hours, remains elevated for a few days and returns to normal in 3-7 days. Other causes of elevated serum amylase are inflammation of salivary glands (mumps), biliary tract disease and bowel obstruction. Elevated serum amylase can also be seen with drugs (e.g., morphine) which constrict the pancreatic duct sphincter preventing excretion of amylase into the intestine ...
Introduction. Kiu Yi, IP 13M The effect of temperature on amylase activity Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to investigate if temperature will affect the amount of starch broken down as enzyme activity can change by different temperature. This is because as temperature rises the rate of chemical reactions increases due to the temperature increases the rate of the molecules motion. More interactions will be existed between an enzyme and its substrate. The enzyme used in this lab exercise is amylase, which is commonly found in saliva and germinating seeds, catalyzes the breakdown of starch. It also reacts quickly when heat is present during the process of it reaction. However, if the temperature is higher than the optimum point, enzymes can be denatured and they can no longer bind to a substrate and catalyze reactions. My hypothesis is therefore the amylase activity would increase as the temperature rise, until a certain high temperature at which the amylase would denature and be ...
The polymorphic patterns of human salivary amylase of a large number of individuals of Caucasian origin were determined by using isoelectric focusing and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nine diffe
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreatic islet-acinar cell interaction. T2 - Amylase messenger RNA levels are determined by insulin. AU - Korc, Murray. AU - Owerbach, David. AU - Quinto, Carmen. AU - Rutter, William J.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Pancreatic amylase messenger RNA progressively decreases in rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin. Insulin reverses this effect, inducing a selective increase in amylase messenger RNA in the pancreas. Parotid amylase messenger RNA is not significantly affected by either diabetes or insulin.. AB - Pancreatic amylase messenger RNA progressively decreases in rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin. Insulin reverses this effect, inducing a selective increase in amylase messenger RNA in the pancreas. Parotid amylase messenger RNA is not significantly affected by either diabetes or insulin.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019795914&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019795914&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - ...
Changes in rheological properties and amylase activities occurring in trifoliate yam, Dioscorea dumetorum, starch after harvest were investigated. Trifoliate yam tubers were harvested and stored under tropical ambient (28°C) and cold room conditions (4°C) for 12, 24 and 36 h. The D. dumetorum starches were extracted from the tubers under study and samples were evaluated for changes in their rheological properties (paste characteristics) during storage and to study the action of amylases on D. dumetorum starch after harvesting. The post-harvest activities of α and β-amylases were also studied to evaluate their rate of action on D. dumetorum starch. Storage caused decreases in the rheological properties (paste characteristics) of the tubers within 36 h of harvest. Similarly, α and β-amylase activities in the tubers more than doubled within 24 h after harvesting. Blanching, however, effectively decreased the action of amylases on D. dumetorum starch during storage, with subsequential increase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of a family of rat amylase genes. AU - MacDonald, Raymond J.. AU - Crerar, Michael M.. AU - Swain, William F.. AU - Pictet, Raymond L.. AU - Thomas, Gilles. AU - Rutter, William J.. PY - 1980/12/1. Y1 - 1980/12/1. N2 - The sequences of two cloned rat pancreatic amylase cDNAs comprising 95% of the mRNA sequence are reported. Analysis of cloned rat genomic DNA fragments using cloned cDNA probes indicates that the rat genome contains multiple closely related amylase genes in which the cDNA sequences are distributed within a region 9 kilobases in length and are interrupted by at least seven intervening sequences.. AB - The sequences of two cloned rat pancreatic amylase cDNAs comprising 95% of the mRNA sequence are reported. Analysis of cloned rat genomic DNA fragments using cloned cDNA probes indicates that the rat genome contains multiple closely related amylase genes in which the cDNA sequences are distributed within a region 9 kilobases in length and are interrupted by ...
This is one of the Enzymology protocol on Effect of Temperature on Amylase activity (Enzymology Protocol). Download Salivary amylase activity assay Protocol
Cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and amylase secretion were measured in isolated rat pancreatic acini loaded with the intracellularly trapped fluorescent indicator quin2. Both caerulein and carbamoylcholine caused a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, with a maximal 3-fold increase at 10(-9) M-caerulein and 10(-4) M-carbamoylcholine. However, caerulein (10(-12) M and 10(-11) M) as well as carbamoylcholine (10(-7) M) caused a significant stimulation of amylase release, while not inducing any detectable rise in [Ca2+]i. Changes in [Ca2+]i after addition of either secretagogue were transient and did not last more than 2-3 min. By contrast, when amylase secretion was monitored as a function of time, two distinct secretory phases could be observed upon addition of either carbamoylcholine (10(-5) M) or caerulein (10(-10) M). An initial, rapid phase (0-5 min) which caused a 6-7-fold increase above basal, followed by a sustained (5-30 min), but less marked, secretory rate (2-3-fold above basal). ...
How to Use It Depending on the potency of the amylase inhibitors , typical intake is 1,500 to 6,000 mg before meals. Where to Find It Amylase inhibitors can be extracted from several types of plants, especially those in the legume family. Currently available Amylase inhibitors are extracted from either white kidney bean...
Amylase test, 5x100 tablets [P1302] - Equl Amylase Test The amylase assay Equl Amylase Test is used in a variety of fields for precise determination of α-amylase activity. The presence of the α-amylase enzyme in for instance saliva, food and honey makes Equl tablets useful for forensic saliva tests, diastase tests in honey or amylase tests in
Amylase Tests: Definition Amylase is a digestive enzyme made primarily by the pancreas and salivary glands. Enzymes are substances made and used by the body to trigger specific chemical reactions. The primary function of the enzyme amylase is to break down starches in food so that they can be used by the body. Amylase testing is usually done ... Blood test results reveal Blood disorders in Blood tests and also with a Blood test with Rare Blood types. Good Blood tests make possible state-of-the-art lab procedures that can be provided directly to the public in private and these Blood tests can be provided affordably. Most guidelines now suggest an amylase concentration 2-4 times the upper limit of normal is optimal for diagnostic accuracy, but this may reduce the sensitivity of the test to as low as 60%. 2, 3, 5 The sensitivity is also influenced by other factors, including the timing of the test and the cause of the pancreatitis. The amylase level is also helpful to see how the treatment for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of nucleotide polymorphism in cis-regulatory and coding regions on amylase activity and fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Goto, Hiroki. AU - Szmidt, Alfred. AU - Yamazaki, T.. AU - Inomata, N.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - In natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, there are many amylase (AMY) isozymes encoded by the duplicated genes, but their adaptive significance remains unclear. One approach to elucidate this issue is to understand the molecular basis of functional differences between the allelic classes. In this study, the effects of nucleotide polymorphism in 5′-flanking (cis-regulatory) and coding regions on AMY activity were examined, both on glucose and starch food media and in larvae and adults, using three chimeric Amylase (Amy) genes, Amyc111, Amyc161 and Amy fc661. In this notation, the first number in the superscript indicates the sequence of the 5′-flnaking region (similar to Amy 1 or Amy6), the second number refers to the coding ...
In todays world, there seems to be a widespread belief that carbohydrates (more commonly referred as "carbs") are bad for you. This couldnt be farther from the truth.. Along with proteins and fats, carbohydrates are one of the 3 main macro-nutrients essential to the human body. Amylase is the digestive enzyme responsible for digesting carbohydrates and converting them into glucose and other forms of sugar. In this article, we will be taking a closer look at what exactly amylase is - and why it plays such a major role in your body.. So without further ado, let us begin!. What is amylase?. As we mentioned above, amylase is a digestive enzyme found in the human body. It is more specifically found in the pancreas and the salivary gland where it breaks down sugar and starch and converts them into more simple forms of sugar that can later be used for energy. While amylase is mainly found in humans, it is also found in other animals as well as plants.. Why is amylase important?. Amylase plays a key ...
We have recently summarized the evidence that the amylase of the serum is of heterogenous origin (1). Studies in this laboratory on the regulation of blood amylase levels (2, 3) have shown that [1] normal blood amylase is controlled in part at extrapancreatic sites, [2] blood amylase is lowered in states of increased carbohydrate utilization, and [3] the amylase responses to alterations of carbohydrate metabolism are markedly altered by liver disease but unaffected by total pancreatectomy. These findings led to the conclusion that the liver contributes to the blood amylase level and is an important site of regulation. Similar conclusions ...
Serum amylase and lipase measurements are often used to diagnose acute pancreatitis. This study addresses the question of whether it is advantageous to order serum amylase and lipase tests simultaneously. We evaluated performance of the two tests separately and in combination through a retrospective study of patients for whom both amylase and lipase determinations were ordered. Initial analysis of test performance was conducted with a uniformly applied criterion based on determination of optimal sensitivity-specificity pairs. Individual tests and combinations of tests, including the "AND" and "OR" rules and discriminant functions, were examined. Only the discriminant approach demonstrated better performance than the lipase test alone. This finding was subsequently confirmed by logistic regression analysis. We conclude that ordering both tests simultaneously can be advantageous in diagnosing acute pancreatitis when a bivariate approach is used; however, this must be weighed against the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolated pancreatic acini from suckling and weanling rats. T2 - Changes in amino acid incorporation and carbachol-stimulated amylase secretion with age. AU - Pollack, Paul F.. AU - Verbridge, Jill. AU - Thornburg, William. AU - Koldovsky, Otakar. AU - Korc, Murray. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - To characterize the changes in pancreatic function during postnatal development, isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from rats aged 8-9, 12-14 and 20 days and from adult rats. Isolated acini maintained a normal microscopic appearance and viability as judged by exclusion of trypan blue and linear incorporation of tritiated leucine into total protein. The rate of incorporation in 8-day-old acini was 20% of that observed in adult rats. Significant dose-dependent increases in amylase release in response to carbachol were observed in all age groups; stimulated amylase secretion was significantly less in the 8- to 9- and 12- to 14-day-old animals than in the 20-day-old and adult rats. ...
Scientists published a paper in Nature Genetics Sunday in which they studied an enzyme called amylase thats produced in saliva and breaks down starch. Human amylase genes share a common ancestry with the amylase gene found in our close relative, the chimpanzee. But they are different in some important ways. Instead of one amylase gene, we have several. Human amylase genes range from 2 to 15 copies, averaging three times as many as chimpanzees. But our extra copies not sprinkled randomly across the worlds population. European Americans and tuber-eating African hunter-gatherers known as the Hadza have a lot of copies. Yakuts, who live in Siberia and eat mostly fish, and Mbuti pygmies who eat mostly animals they hunt, have fewer.. See a pattern? The people with few amylase genes are hunters who dont have much starch in their diet. The people with a lot of genes eat a lot of starch. How did this pattern arise? As cells give rise to eggs and sperm, chunks of their DNA sometimes get accidentally ...
α-amylase is a very important enzyme, which is widely used in food processing, food industry, brewing, fermentation, textile industry and pharmaceutical industry, etc. It is one of the most widely used enzymes. As it has wide application, α- amylase has great commercial value.. In this report, ASKCI will further disclose market potential and commercial opportunities for α-amylase industry in China. Recommendations will be given at the end of the report to describe the prospect and provide suggestions for strategy making.. Browse Full Report Visit - http://www.acutemarketreports.com/report/market-analysis-and-prospect-of-alpha-amylase-industry-in-china-2015-2020-proposal. 1)The Aim of Report. -To provide readers with comprehensive and in-depth understanding of Chinese α-amylase industry;. -To analyze the market of the industry;. -To discover drivers and barriers of the industry;. -To reveal opportunities for α-amylase industry in China.. 2)Benefit from the Report. -Obtain latest info of ...
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Computer graphics representation of taka amylase, an enzyme. Amylases are a group of related enzymes that break down starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides. Plants contain both the alpha and beta types of amylases; animals possess only the alpha form, found in pancreatic secretions and (in humans) in saliva. Amylases break the long polysaccharide chains, leaving a mixture of the sugars glucose and maltose. Blue sticks, light blue ribbons. - Stock Image A605/0025
Technically, starch blockers are amylase inhibitors. Amylase is one of the main enzymes the body uses to digest starch. In theory, when amylase is blocked, starch can pass through the body undigested. If the body is unable to digest a part of the meal the calorie intake will be lower which can aid in weight loss. However, theory is one thing, reality another and clinical studies of amylase inhibitors have not established definitive benefits.1-3 For example, one published study failed to find that use of a phaseolus product reduced the usual blood sugar rise that follows a meal.7 Several possible reasons for this discrepancy have been proposed, such as that the amylase inhibitor may be broken down and made ineffective in the stomach, the product may supply enough of its own amylase to counteract any benefit, and that another enzyme, glucoamylase, may be able to take over when amylase cant do the job. However, according to the manufacturer of a current product, more concentrated extracts of ...
Amylases are enzymes that help convert starch into sugars. It is common in mammal saliva where it helps to start digestion. If youve ever chewed a starchy food for long enough for it to become sweet, amylases are responsible for that. Amylases are also instrumental in the process of fermentation.. ...
α-Amylase hydrolyzes the 2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotrioside (CNPG3) to release 2-chloro-nitrophenol and form 2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltoside (CNPG2), maltotriose (G3) and glucose (G). The rate of increase in absorbance is measured at 405 nm and is proportional to the α-amylase activity in the sample.(G). The rate of increase in absorbance is measured at 405 nm and is proportional to the α-amylase activity in the sample.. ...
Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect ...
Introduction. The Effect that Temperature Has on the Rate at which the Enzyme (Amylase) can Breakdown its Substrate Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out the effect that the temperature has on the rate at which the enzyme (Amylase) can breakdown its substrate, which is Starch. Amylase: Enzyme having physiological, commercial, and historical significance, also called diastase. It is found in both plants and animals. Amylase hydrolyzes starch, glycogen, and dextrin to form in all three instances glucose, maltose, and the limit-dextrins. Prediction: I predict that as the temperature increases, the speed of the reaction will increase. Since temperature is a measure of the motion of particles, increasing the temperature will cause the particles to move faster. When particles move faster, more collisions occur and the collisions are more violent. This should increase the reaction rate. This is backed up by the collision theory, according to this theory; reacting molecules must collide with ...
Amylase er en gruppe enzymer som spalter stivelse (polysakkarider) til sukker (disakkarider). Amylase finnes i spytt og i sekresjoner fra bukspyttkjertelen. Den starter virkningen på stivelse alt i munnhulen. Stivelse består egentlig av de to polysakkaridene amylose og amylopektin (begge er såkalte K3a karbohydrater ). Amylase spalter amylosen, som er lange sukkerkjeder, til to og to glukoseenheter (disakkarider) av gangen, slik at det kan dannes maltose. På samme måte spalter amylasen amylopektin, men prosessen stopper opp når den når fram til forgreningene (1-6 bindingene) og danner nye svært forgrenede molekyler som er den del av polysakkaridet dekstrin. Dette spaltes av et annet enzym (isomaltase) til maltose (et disakkarid). Et forhøyet nivå av amylase i blod og urin kan være et signal på betennelse i bukspyttkjertelen, såkalt pancreatitt. ...
α-Amylase is a protein enzyme EC 3.2.1.1 that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose. It is the major form of amylase found in humans and other mammals. It is also present in seeds containing starch as a food reserve, and is secreted by many fungi. Although found in many tissues, amylase is most prominent in pancreatic juice and saliva, each of which has its own isoform of human α-amylase. They behave differently on isoelectric focusing, and can also be separated in testing by using specific monoclonal antibodies. In humans, all amylase isoforms link to chromosome 1p21 (see AMY1A). Amylase is found in saliva and breaks starch into maltose and dextrin. This form of amylase is also called "ptyalin" /ˈtaɪəlɪn/ It will break large, insoluble starch molecules into soluble starches (amylodextrin, erythrodextrin, and achrodextrin) producing successively smaller starches and ultimately maltose. Ptyalin acts on linear ...
Amylase crystals are a herblore secondary used in the creation of stamina potions. A player can mix amylase crystals with a Super energy potion at 77 Herblore to make a stamina potion. One amylase crystal creates a single dose of stamina potion from a Super energy(1), and as such, four amylase...
Fran, We use the monoclonal anti- Pancreatic Amylase Cat# MU099-UC from Biogenex. Formaldehyde-fixed(16-24hrs) paraffin-embedded, 4 micron thick sections are dried overnight at 45C, de-waxed in Xylene 3X10 min., rinsed X2 in 100% ETOH, endogenous peroxidase blocked in 5% H2O2 in methanol for 30 min., 95% ETOH X2 @ 1min, 70%ETOH-water. Sections are pretreated by digestion for 10 [email protected] in 0.6% w/v Ficin dissolved in 0.01M NaOH containing 0.1mg CaCl2 per 100ml, pH is adjusted to pH7.8 with 1/N HCl. Following blocking in 1% v/v Normal Goat Serum (NGS) in TBS, sections are incubated for 1 hour at RT in 1:100 dilution of Ab in 1%NGS in TBS. Detection is with LSAB(Zymeds Histostain, GaM), chromogen is AEC. The results have always been consistent on our controls( pancreas fixed in NBF for several time points), test specimens are prone to reflect the quality of fixation and processing( particularly short fixation!). Hope this helps Bryan , ---------- , From: [email protected][SMTP:[email protected]] , ...
In this experiment, students investigate and compare amylase activity in different life stages of barley. The experiment allows students to make connections between concepts and processes previously covered in lectures and reading materials and is relevant to learning and skills development in the scientific method and related areas such report writing and the interpretation of results. With regard to theoretical and conceptual knowledge, the practical investigates the function of an enzyme in a living organism and explores concepts around the ontogenic regulation of metabolism in an organism as it develops. Development of skills in the scientific method and the communication of science are also important components of this exercise.. ...
A 2013 study published in the Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research was designed to determine the serum amylase, blood glucose and the serum lipid profile in 110 type 2 diabetes patients compared to healthy individuals of the same age and sex. The research showed that for the diabetic subjects wherever blood sugar levels were higher, serum amylase activity was found to be significantly lower. This finding was reflective of pancreas malfunction and speaks to the importance of a healthy pancreas producing healthy amounts of amylase. ...
Amylase in the blood is important for undisturbed performance of all body functions. Check the level of Amylase in the body and avoid disease.
Bacillus licheniformis RM44 was isolated from hot spring near Karachi and screened forthe production of extracellular amylase Amy RM44. Amy RM44 was purified to homogeneityon a single step by affinity chromatography using insoluble corn starch. The molecular weightof Amy RM44 was estimated to be 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis. Nine foldpurification was achieved with the specific activity of 870 U/mg that provides the total yieldof the enzyme up to 31%. Studies on purified AmyRM44 characterization revealed that theoptimum temperature of enzyme was 100 ºC. Amy RM44 was proved to be highly thermostableas it retained 50% activity after 2 h at 100 ºC. Amy RM44 was stable over wide range of pHwith optimum activity at pH 5. Enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by SDS andEDTA. Amy RM44 also exhibited its activity towards various carbohydrates such as dextrin,pullulan, α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin.
The optimum pH of salivary amylase is approximately 6.7 to 7, according to Worthington Biochemical Corporation, meaning very slightly acidic. If the pH is significantly out of this range, the enzyme...
Essential Therapeutics Digestive Enzymes is a high potency pancreatic supplement that breaks down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to prevent malabsorption and gastric discomfort.
Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing amylase. Find information on amylase use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula.
An amylase test measures the amount of this enzyme in a sample of blood taken from a vein or in a sample of urine. Many conditions can change amylase levels. Your doctor will discuss any significant abnormal results with you in relation to your symptoms and past health.. Results are normally available within 72 hours. The normal values listed here-called a reference range-are just a guide. These ranges vary from lab to lab, and your lab may have a different range for whats normal. Your lab report should contain the range your lab uses. Also, your doctor will evaluate your results based on your health and other factors. This means that a value that falls outside the normal values listed here may still be normal for you or your lab.. ...
Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology. Annals of Gastroenterology.Journal part.Scientific article.Article.2007 . Creators: Kokozidis G, Kinigopoulou P., Kapetanos D., Paikos D., Papaioannou A., Progia E., Kitis G., ..Pancreatitis is the most common of the serious complications of ERCP, with rates between 2 and 40%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of serum levels of amylase, lipase and elastase after ERCP, in the prediction and diagnosis of pancreatitis. Patients: Forty three consecutive patients underwent ERCP for various indications. Methods: Serum samples were taken before, one hour and six hours after the procedure. Amylase was evaluated with enzymatic colourimetric test (Olympus, normal2N) the first hour and 26 (60%) the sixth. Twenty seven (62%) had serum lipase elevation (|2N) the first hour and 30 (70%) the sixth. Four (9%) had increased elastase (|2N) the first hour and 2 (4%) the sixth. The only enzyme that was significantly elevated in the patients who developed
AmyTM is a truncated mutant of the α-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus US100. It has been derived from the wild type amylase gene via a reading frame shift, following a tandem duplication of the mutant primer, associated to an Adenine base dele
Meisler, M and Strahler, J R., "Two distinct amylase genes active in pancreas of ybr mice. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1964 ...
Torulopsis ingeniosaDi Menna was found to possess an α-amylase strongly attached to the cell wall, its pH optimum being at 5.5, optimum temperature at 50 °C, highly sensitive to thermal inactivation. The enzyme was found to be induced by starch but the synthesis is not subject to a glucose effect.
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Background and Objective: Thermostable amylases from bacteria are of great importance for industrial purposes and for today s biotechnological applications. This research aimed to study industrially important and physico-chemical stress-resistant bacterial amylase and its applications. Methodology: Amylase producing bacteria was collected from Bakreshwar hot-spring water, India by serial-dilution plating method on starch agar media. The strain, sm-sr14 was selected due to its strong hydrolysis efficiency. The strain was identified by polyphasic approach using biochemical, physiological properties and 16S rDNA homolgy. The optimization for amylase production, enzyme characterization and production using solid-state natural substrate were carried out with special emphasis on its heat stability by DNS method. The SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A hyperthermostable (60% residual activity up to 250°C) and highly alkaline (8-13; optimum 10) amylase producing Bacillus cereus ...
Digestion begins immediately in the oral cavity with both mechanical and chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion in the oral cavity consists of grinding of food into smaller pieces by the teeth; a process called mastication. Chemical digestion in the mouth is minor but consists of salivary amylase (ptyalin, or alpha-amylase) and lingual lipase; both contained in the saliva. Salivary amylase is chemically identical to pancreatic amylase and digests starch into maltose and maltotriose, working at a pH optimum of 6.7 to 7.0. Lingual lipase, also contained in the saliva, hydrolyzes the ester bonds in triglycerides to form diacylglycerols and monoacylglycerols.[1] After sufficient digestion in the oral cavity, the partially digested foodstuff, or bolus, is swallowed into the esophagus. No digestion occurs in the esophagus.. After passage through the esophagus, the bolus will enter the stomach and undergo mechanical and chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion in the stomach occurs via peristaltic ...
Amylase Enzyme is a food-grade bacterial alpha-amylase enzyme produced by fermentation of a non-GMO strain of bacillus. In the brewing process it is used for liquefaction of grain mashes and malt extracts for increased fermentability. Amylase Enzyme is typically used by all-grain brewers to add to a high adjunct mash t
Amylase is one of several enzymes produced by the pancreas to help digest proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Secreted through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum, it there helps break down dietary carbohydrates. Amylase is also produced by other
Amylase[edit]. A high amylase level (twice the serum level or the absolute value is greater than 160 Somogy units) in the ...
Sherman, H. C., & Thomas, A. W. (1915). Studies on amylases. VIII. The influence of certain acids and salts upon the activity ... Thomas, A. W. (1917). A noteworthy effect of bromides upon the action of malt amylase. Journal of the American Chemical Society ... Isoelectric point of malt amylase. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 46, 1711-6. Thomas, A. W., & Kelly, M. W. (1925). ... Influence of hydrogen-ion concentration upon enzymatic activity of three typical amylases. Journal of the American Chemical ...
Characterization of amylases". Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 367 (3): 169-76. doi:10.1515/bchm3.1986.367.1.169. PMID 2423098. ... Other names in common use include amylase III, and 1,4-alpha-glucan:1,4-alpha-glucan 4-alpha-glucosyltransferase. Nebinger P ( ... Nebinger P (1986). "Separation and characterization of four different amylases of Entamoeba histolytica. II. ... 1986). "Separation and characterization of four different amylases of Entamoeba histolytica. I. Purification and properties". ...
The different classes of amylases are α-amylases, β-amylases, and glucoamylases. The α-amylases hydrolyze starch by randomly ... In humans, amylases are secreted by both the pancreas and salivary glands with both sources of the enzyme required for complete ... Amylase breaks down carbohydrates into mono- and disaccharides, so a starch agar must be used for this assay. Once the bacteria ... Since iodine binds to starch but not its digested byproducts, a clear area will appear where the amylase reaction has occurred ...
Reasons for false positive elevated serum amylase include salivary gland disease (elevated salivary amylase), bowel obstruction ... Lin, X. Z.; Wang, S. S.; Tsai, Y. T.; Lee, S. D.; Shiesh, S. C.; Pan, H. B.; Su, C. H.; Lin, C. Y. (1989). "Serum amylase, ... Serum amylase may be normal (in 10% of cases) for cases of acute or chronic pancreatitis (depleted acinar cell mass) and ... If the lipase level is about 2.5 to 3 times that of amylase, it is an indication of pancreatitis due to alcohol.Decreased serum ...
"Reference range (amylase)". GPnotebook. Ageno W, Finazzi S, Steidl L, et al. (2002). "Plasma measurement of D-dimer levels for ...
Amylase DNA polymerase. ...
Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.3, glucoamylase, amyloglucosidase (AMG), gamma-amylase, lysosomal alpha-glucosidase, ... Tsujisaka, Y.; Fukimoto, J.; Yamamoto, T. (1958). "Specificity of crystalline saccharogenic amylase of moulds". Nature. 181: ... Amylase French, D.; Knapp, D.W. (1950). "The maltase of Clostridium acetobutylicum". J. Biol. Chem. 187: 463-471. PMID 14803428 ... acid maltase, exo-1,4-alpha-glucosidase, glucose amylase, gamma-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase, acid maltase, 1,4-alpha-D-glucan ...
Richardson M, Bloch Jr C (1991). "A new family of small (5 kDa) protein inhibitors of insect alpha-amylases from seeds or ... Inhibitors of insect alpha-amylases from sorghum. Probable protease inhibitor P322 from Solanum tuberosum (Potato). A ...
Goesaert, Hans; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Delcour, Jan A. (2009-11-01). "Amylases and bread firming - an integrated view". ...
... enzymes such as amylase; and prostaglandins. Its consistency is determined by the influence of the hormones estrogen and ...
nov., a amylase producing bacterium isolated from a hot spring". Systematic and applied microbiology. 28 (5): 415-20. doi: ... Caldimonas taiwanensis produces amylase. Parte, A.C. "Caldimonas". www.bacterio.net. "Caldimonas taiwanensis Taxon Passport - ...
... produces amylase. Smith, Michael R.; Zahnley, James C. (19 August 2005). "Characteristics of ... doi:10.1007/s10295-005-0015-x. Smith, Michael R.; Zahnley, James C. (2 June 2005). "Production of amylase by Arthrobacter ... "Characteristics of the amylase of Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus". Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 32 (10 ... the amylase of Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus". Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 32 (10): 439-448. doi: ...
Amylase: The Test Archived 29 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Lab Tests Online UK Skrha J, Stĕpán J, Sixtová E (October ... As with any inflammation of the salivary glands, the serum level of the enzyme amylase is often elevated. The most common ... 1979). "Amylase isoenzymes in mumps". Eur. J. Pediatr. 132 (2): 99-105. doi:10.1007/BF00447376. PMID 499265. Offit PA (2007). ...
At ASCO 2007, results from the SHARP trial[13] were presented, which showed efficacy of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma. The primary endpoint was median overall survival, which showed a 44% improvement in patients who received sorafenib compared to placebo (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.87; p=0.0001). Both median survival and time to progression showed 3-month improvements; however, there was no significant difference in median time to symptomatic progression (p=0.77). There was no difference in quality of life measures, possibly attributable to toxicity of sorafenib or symptoms related to underlying progression of liver disease. Of note, this trial only included patients with Child-Pugh Class A (i.e. mildest) cirrhosis.[13] Because of this trial Sorafenib obtained FDA approval for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in November 2007.[4] In a randomized, double-blind, phase II trial combining sorafenib with doxorubicin, the median time to progression was not ...
The micronutrients amylases, proteases, and lipases aid digestion. to a variety of shared characteristics of the origins of ...
The midgut also contains amylases, roteases and upases. The narrow cells in its reservoir have little to no function in ... which includes proteases and amylases that function as an extraintestinal digestion of solid food. ...
This heating process activates protein enzymes called amylases. The shape of these enzymes, their active site, gives them the ...
An elevated amylase level, usually > 1,000 IU/L, with protein levels over 3.0 g/dL is diagnostic. Serum amylase is often ...
Fischer worked on alpha-amylase. After his PhD, Fischer went to the United States in 1950 for postdoctoral research. He was ...
Beta-amylase is present in certain bacteria as well as in plants. Three highly conserved sequence regions are found in all ... Beta-amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in starch-type polysaccharide substrates so as to ... The 3D structure of a complex of soybean beta-amylase with an inhibitor (alpha-cyclodextrin) has been determined to 3.0A ... Glycoside hydrolase family 14 CAZY GH_14 comprises enzymes with only one known activity; beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2). A Glu ...
Alpha-amylases are found in plants and in animals. Human saliva is rich in amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme. ... This process is important in the digestion of starch and is also used in brewing, where amylase from the skin of seed grains is ... Marc, A.; Engasser, J. M.; Moll, M.; Flayeux, R. (1983-02-01). "A kinetic model of starch hydrolysis by α- and β-amylase during ... Individuals from populations with a high-starch diet tend to have more amylase genes than those with low-starch diets; Beta- ...
"Developmentally dependent expression of tissue specific amylases in maize". Molecular & General Genetics. 115 (1): 1-9. doi: ...
MURAO, Sawao; OOUCHI, Naoki; GOTO, Akira; ARAI, MOTOO (1983). "New proteinaceous .ALPHA.-amylase inhibitor (Paim) from ...
Serum amylase levels can be trended. If symptoms do not improve by 6 weeks, surgical intervention may be appropriate.[medical ... Amylase (usually high in pseudocysts and low in tumors) The most useful imaging tools are: Ultrasonography - the role of ...
Amylase finnes i spytt og i sekresjoner fra bukspyttkjertelen. Den starter virkningen på stivelse alt i munnhulen. Stivelse ... Et diagram av et amylase-molekyl fra menneskespytt. Kalsiumionet er synlig i lys khaki, kloridionet i grønt. Fra PDB 1SMD. ... Amylase er en gruppe enzymer som spalter stivelse (polysakkarider) til sukker (disakkarider). ... Et forhøyet nivå av amylase i blod og urin kan være et signal på betennelse i bukspyttkjertelen, såkalt pancreatitt. ...
Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced mainly in the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. ... This is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. ... Increased urine amylase levels may be a sign of:. *Acute ... This is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is ... An increased amount of amylase in the urine is called amylasuria. ...
... amylase: …by the salivary glands, whereas pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. ... In amylase. …by the salivary glands, whereas pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. ... Other articles where Pancreatic amylase is discussed: ... Pancreatic amylase. biochemistry. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ...
When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. ... Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. ... Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. When the ... pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood.. A test can be done to measure the level of this enzyme in ...
Amylase Vs. Lipase. Of the scores of different enzymes in the body, amylase and lipase are two enzymes that help us digest the ... Amylase Levels in the Blood. Amylase breaks down the starch and carbohydrate present in the food into simple forms that are ... Amylase Test. Amylase is a digestive enzyme that is produced by the salivary gland and the pancreas. This write-up provides ... Salivary Amylase. Salivary amylase, as the name suggests, is secreted in human and animal saliva. The article below explains ...
The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0 Amylase Alpha-amylase Rejzek, M.; Stevenson, C. E.; Southard, A. M.; Stanley, D.; ... β-amylase is present in an inactive form prior to seed germination. Many microbes also produce amylase to degrade extracellular ... Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan ... doi:10.1016/s0096-5332(08)60139-3. "Amylase, Alpha" , I.U.B.: 3.2.1.11,4-α-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase. Beta-amylase at the US ...
See amylase for more uses of the amylase family in general. α-Amylase has exhibited efficacy in degrading polymicrobial ... Medical laboratories will usually measure either pancreatic amylase or total amylase. If only pancreatic amylase is measured, ... In humans, all amylase isoforms link to chromosome 1p21 (see AMY1A). Amylase is found in saliva and breaks starch into maltose ... The alpha-Amylase Protein alpha-Amylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ...
Plasma Amylase After Gastrectomy. Br Med J 1964; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5394.1381-a (Published 23 May 1964) Cite ...
Alpha amylase (IPR006046). Short name: Alpha_amylase Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Glycoside hydrolase superfamily ( ... Alpha-amylases, which belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13, are 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolases, which degrade both the ...
The results showed a low Amylase level of 22 (30-140 being normal range). What does this mean? Is ... ... Low Amylase Levels in Blood Low level of amylase in the body is mostly resulted due to consumption of high amounts of ... Low Amylase Levels in Blood Low level of amylase in the body is mostly resulted due to consumption of high amounts of ... The results showed a low Amylase level of 22 (30-140 being normal range). What does this mean? Is it bad that my amylase level ...
Amylase has to do with the pancreas. Im sure you already know this if youre a nurse. It can mean inflammation, or, it could ... My labs showed elevated amylase at 160 U/L (Labs range is 28-100U/L). My lipase was within range at 32 U/L (Labs range is 13- ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Infinity Amylase (Powder). 6. Infinity Amylase CNPG3 (Liquid). 7. Infinity Amylase EPS (Liquid). 8. Amylase. 9. Amylase, Body ... Amylase Reagent. 2. Amylase (Colorimetric Method). 3. Amylase (Kinetic Method). 4. Amylase (EPS-G7, kinetics). 5. ...
Record start and stop time and date on the requisition. Instruct patient on proper collection. At the beginning of collection have patient void and discard this urine. Begin timing collection at this point and collect all urine until the end of the collection period. Have patient void and save urine at the final collection point.. ...
For the quantitative kinetic determination of amylase activity, using manual or automated procedures, in human serum and urine ... Infinity Amylase CNPG3 (Liquid). 6. Infinity Amylase EPS (Liquid). 7. Amylase. 8. Amylase, Body Fluid. 9. Amylase, Isoenzymes. ... Amylase Reagent. 2. Amylase (Colorimetric Method). 3. Amylase (EPS-G7, kinetics). 4. Infinity Amylase (Powder). 5. ... For the quantitative kinetic determination of amylase activity, using manual or automated procedures, in human serum and urine. ...
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Amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars. Amylases are f… ... Investigate the effect of temperature on amylase activityIntroduction ... Amylases are foundin almost all plants, animals and microorganisms. Large amounts of amylase occur in germinatingcereals, and ... If the volume of amylase solution is same ineach test tube, the lower concentration means that there are less amylase molecules ...
Amylase enters the bloodstream when the pancreas becomes inflamed... ... The pancreas and the glands that produce saliva also produce amylase, an enzyme that helps the body digest food, notes ... What does the amylase test indicate for the pancreas?. A: The amylase test indicates whether the pancreas is damaged or blocked ... What is the function of salivary amylase?. A: Salivary amylase is an enzyme responsible for breaking down starch, according to ...
... Subash C. B. Gopinath,1,2 Periasamy Anbu,3 M. K. Md Arshad,1 ... Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly ... Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the ... Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production ...
IPR031319. A-amylase_C. IPR006046. Alpha_amylase. IPR031965. CBM26. IPR006047. Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom. IPR013780. Glyco_hydro_b ... IPR031319. A-amylase_C. IPR006046. Alpha_amylase. IPR031965. CBM26. IPR006047. Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom. IPR013780. Glyco_hydro_b ... Alpha-amylaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... tr,Q48502,Q48502_LACAM Alpha-amylase OS=Lactobacillus amylovorus OX=1604 PE=3 SV=2 ...
Make research projects and school reports about amylase easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... amylase Digestive enzyme secreted by the salivary glands (salivary amylase) and the pancreas (pancreatic amylase. It aids ... as pancreatic amylase) and also (in humans and some other species) in saliva (as salivary amylase or ptyalin). Amylases cleave ... Plants contain both α- and β-amylases; the name diastase is given to the component of malt containing β-amylase, important in ...
Find information on amylase use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula. ... Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing amylase. ... Medications containing amylase:. Multi-ingredient medications containing amylase:. amylase/cellulase/hyoscyamine/lipase/ ... Amylase. Important: The information below refers to medicines available in the United States that contain amylase. ...
PS00506. BETA_AMYLASE_1. 1 hit. PS00679. BETA_AMYLASE_2. 1 hit. ... PS00506. BETA_AMYLASE_1. 1 hit. PS00679. BETA_AMYLASE_2. 1 hit ... Beta-amylaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without ... tr,Q42989,Q42989_ORYSA Beta-amylase OS=Oryza sativa OX=4530 PE=3 SV=1 ...
... BruceRat brucerat at aol.com Mon Oct 23 19:25:25 EST 1995 *Previous message: ... Using a simple photometer to detect digestion of iodine-stained arrowroot starch by salivary amylase, I have gotten a graph ...
amylase isoenzymes synonyms, amylase isoenzymes pronunciation, amylase isoenzymes translation, English dictionary definition of ... amylase isoenzymes. n. Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugars. In humans, amylases are ... amylase. (redirected from amylase isoenzymes). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. am·y·lase. (ăm′ə-lās′, -lāz′). ... Amylase isoenzymes - definition of amylase isoenzymes by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/amylase+ ...
Amylase and Hypersomnia (Amylase). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... Show an increase of salivary amylase for children with hypersomnia or narcolepsy compared to a group of children matched on age ... Studies have shown for healthy subjects, that the expression and activity of salivary amylase are increased when subjects are ... Evaluation of Excessive Diurnal Sleepiness by the Expression and Activity of Salivary Amylase in Children With Hypersomnia.. ...
  • Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales. (hindawi.com)
  • Heat Resistant Amylase and Prostease from Thermophilic Fungi", Chem. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Fungi of genus Aspergillus and Rhizopus have been known to synthesize this industrially important sugar producing enzyme .Amylases which are fungal in origin can replace malt amylases imparting undesirable colour to the food products but get fairly inactivated by heat making them less applicable in the bakery based industry . (ukessays.com)
  • This form of amylase is also called "ptyalin" /ˈtaɪəlɪn/ It will break large, insoluble starch molecules into soluble starches (amylodextrin, erythrodextrin, and achrodextrin) producing successively smaller starches and ultimately maltose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gastric juice adjusted to pH 3.3, ptyalin was totally inactivated in 20 minutes at 37 °C. In contrast, 50% of amylase activity remained after 150 minutes of exposure to gastric juice at pH 4.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amylase spalter amylosen, som er lange sukkerkjeder, til to og to glukoseenheter (disakkarider) av gangen, slik at det kan dannes maltose . (wikipedia.org)
  • During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, resulting in the sweet flavor of ripe fruit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic α-amylase randomly cleaves the α(1-4) glycosidic linkages of amylose to yield dextrin, maltose, or maltotriose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.5 A with R-factors of 0.170 and 0.164, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • The structure of the core domain is similar to that of soybean beta-amylase except for the L4 maltose-binding site, whereas the C-terminal domain has the same secondary structure as domain E of cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase. (rcsb.org)
  • These results indicate that the ability of B. cereus beta-amylase to digest raw starch can be attributed to the additional two maltose-binding sites. (rcsb.org)
  • This β‐amylase is intended to be used in the starch processing for maltose syrup production and the manufacture of a Japanese rice cake type. (europa.eu)
  • Conditions affecting the kidneys or liver may also result in high blood amylase results. (wisegeek.com)
  • Avoiding alcohol, and taking all the prescribed medications are the primary treatments for high blood amylase levels, if you are being followed in the outpatient department, and you have not been diagnosed with any kind of pancreatitis. (chemocare.com)
  • If you are experiencing high blood amylase levels, and are without symptoms, you doctor or healthcare provider may tell you to avoid alcohol and narcotics, and they may closely monitor your laboratory values and symptoms. (chemocare.com)
  • If not, the rate of reaction between amylase and starch will be affected.Some test tubes which have more starch solution than others may decrease the time required toreach the reaction temperature. (slideshare.net)
  • And also, the rate of reaction between amylase and starch willbe affected because it may take more time to completely break down starch molecules if there ismore starch solution. (slideshare.net)
  • how about i leave a 1percent starch solution with amylase with buffers of pH 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 for 5 minutes then use benedicts reagent to test for reducing sugars. (physicsforums.com)
  • Low level of amylase in the body is mostly resulted due to consumption of high amounts of carbohydrates. (medhelp.org)
  • Eventually, the level of amylase falls down from the normal recommended level, thus manifesting amylase deficiency symptoms. (medhelp.org)
  • Low level of amylase is also related to other skin problems such as inflammation, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. (medhelp.org)
  • A low level of amylase can also be indicative of a medical condition. (wisegeek.com)
  • For a blood test for amylase, do not eat or drink anything except water for at least 2 hours before having the test. (wellspan.org)
  • For a 24-hour urine test for amylase, be sure to drink enough fluids during the test to prevent dehydration . (wellspan.org)
  • Optimum pH - 7.0 Human body temperature[citation needed] Presence of certain anions and activators: Chloride and bromide - most effective Iodide - less effective Sulfate and phosphate - least effective The salivary amylase gene has undergone duplication during evolution, and DNA hybridization studies indicate many individuals have multiple tandem repeats of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a Japanese individual had 14 copies of the amylase gene (one allele with 10 copies, and a second allele with four copies). (wikipedia.org)
  • Perry and colleagues speculated the increased copy number of the salivary amylase gene may have enhanced survival coincident to a shift to a starchy diet during human evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers, led by Mario Falchi from Imperial College London (ICL) and Philippe Froguel from ICL and Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, and including researchers from Qatar and Saudi Arabia, studied the influence of a CNV affecting the number of copies of the salivary amylase gene AMY1 and obesity, publishing their findings in Nature Genetics . (natureasia.com)
  • Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity. (natureasia.com)
  • Medium Temp Alpha Amylase Enzyme for Pad Steam Desizing with Optimal Stength Retention Introduction: It is a concentrated thermo stable bacterial amylase which should be used as a formulating base for desizing fabrics, sized with. (splicd.com)