Amygdalin: A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Macadamia: A plant genus of the family PROTEACEAE that is the source of edible NUTS.Huckleberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible huckleberry fruit.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Lagerstroemia: A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE. Members contain lagertannin and have hypoglycemic effects.TriterpenesEriobotrya: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Depsides: Phenolic benzoic acid esters.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.KazakhstanEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.Echinacea: A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.

The cyanogenic glucoside, prunasin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-D-glucoside), is a novel inhibitor of DNA polymerase beta. (1/26)

A DNA polymerase beta (pol. beta) inhibitor has been isolated independently from two organisms; a red perilla, Perilla frutescens, and a mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris. These molecules were determined by spectroscopic analyses to be the cyanogenic glucoside, D-mandelonitrile-beta-D-glucoside, prunasin. The compound inhibited the activity of rat pol. beta at 150 microM, but did not influence the activities of calf DNA polymerase alpha and plant DNA polymerases, human immunodefficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, calf terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, or any prokaryotic DNA polymerases, or DNA and RNA metabolic enzymes examined. The compound dose-dependently inhibited pol. beta activity, the IC(50) value being 98 microM with poly dA/oligo dT(12-18) and dTTP as the DNA template and substrate, respectively. Inhibition of pol. beta by the compound was competitive with the substrate, dTTP. The inhibition was enhanced in the presence of fatty acid, and the IC(50) value decreased to approximately 40 microM. In the presence of C(10)-decanoic acid, the K(i) value for substrate dTTP decreased by 28-fold, suggesting that the fatty acid allowed easier access of the compound to the substrate-binding site.  (+info)

Pharmacological properties of traditional medicines (XXVII). Interaction between Ephedra Herb and Gypsum under hyperthermal conditions in rats. (2/26)

There are many important considerations in the interactions among the herbal constituents in a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ephedra Herb [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph) is described a warm and acrid agent in TCM. The combination of Eph and Gypsum [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph-Gyp) shows specific actions in patients with different body temperatures. Previous reports suggested that Gypsum prevents the thermogenesis effect induced by ephedrine at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. In this investigation, the properties of Eph-Gyp in hyperthermal rats were studied in detail. It was shown that Gypsum Extract (GyE) enhanced the thermogenesis of Eph in hyperthermal rats, although not in normal rats. The results support not only the opposite actions of Eph-GyE but also the clinical differences in the symptomatic patterns of body temperature for Makyo-Kanseki-To [Chinese characters: see text] and Dai-Seiryu-To [Chinese characters: see text].  (+info)

Reverse-phase HPLC separation of D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin and optimum conditions for inhibition of racemization of amygdalin. (3/26)

In boiling aqueous solution, D-amygdalin usually begins to convert into neoamygdalin in 3 min and more than 30% of the initial D-amygdalin is found as neoamygdalin after 30 min. In this report, we establish methods for simple HPLC analysis and the inhibition of D-amygdalin conversion. D-Amygdalin and its conversion product, neoamygdalin, were clearly separated on reverse-phase column chromatography by an optimized eluent of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.8) containing 6% acetonitrile. Linearity for analyzing D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin was observed in the range from 0.05 to 0.5 mM. The detection limits for D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin were ca. 5 microM per injected amount. We found that D-amygdalin conversion was completely inhibited by adding 0.05% citric acid to the aqueous solution before boiling. To prevent the loss of pharmaceutical potency of Tonin, we applied this method to measure the conversion rate of D-amygdalin. We confirmed that D-amygdalin conversion in Tonin is effectively inhibited by acidic boiling solution with 0.1% citric acid.  (+info)

Failure of amygdalin to arrest B16 melanoma and BW5147 AKR leukemia. (4/26)

Parenteral amygdalin was found to be ineffective in C57BL/6 mice with B16 melanoma and in AKR mice with BW5147 lymphatic leukemia, in doses ranging from 50 to 5000 mg/kg.  (+info)

Cellulase of Neurospora crassa. (5/26)

Mycelia and ungerminated conidia of Neurospora crassa were found to secrete extracellular endocellulase (EC 3.2.1.4). A simple induction system of potassium phosphate buffer (ph 6.0) plus inducer relied on the internal metabolic reserves of conicia or mycelia to provide energy and substrates for protein synthesis. Buffer concentration for optimum enzyme production was 100 mM, but at higher buffer concentrations enzyme production was inhibited. Cellobiose was clearly the best inducer, with an optimum effect from 0.05 to 1 mM. In deionized water, cellulase remained mostly associated with the cell, but a variety of salts stimulated the release of cellulase into the medium.  (+info)

Positive selection on a high-sensitivity allele of the human bitter-taste receptor TAS2R16. (6/26)

BACKGROUND: During periods of human expansion into new environments, recognition of bitter natural toxins through taste may have conferred an important selective advantage. The G protein-coupled receptor encoded by TAS2R16 mediates response to salicin, amygdalin, and many bitter beta-glucopyranosides. beta-glucopyranosides are ubiquitous in nature, with many having a highly toxic cyanogenic activity. RESULTS: We examined evidence for natural selection on the human receptor TAS2R16 by sequencing the entire coding region, as well as part of the 5' and 3' UTRs, in 997 individuals from 60 human populations. We detected signatures of positive selection, indicated by an excess of evolutionarily derived alleles at the nonsynonymous site K172N and two linked sites and significant values of Fay and Wu's H statistics in 19 populations. The estimated age range for the common ancestor of the derived N172 variant is 78,700-791,000 years, placing it in the Middle Pleistocene and before the expansion of early humans out of Africa. Using calcium imaging in cells expressing different receptor variants, we showed that N172 is associated with an increased sensitivity to salicin, arbutin, and five different cyanogenic glycosides. CONCLUSION: We have detected a clear signal of positive selection at the bitter-taste receptor gene TAS2R16. We speculate that the increased sensitivity that is shown toward harmful cyanogenic glycosides and conferred by the N172 allele may have driven the signal of selection at an early stage of human evolution.  (+info)

Amygdalin inhibits genes related to cell cycle in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells. (7/26)

AIM: The genes were divided into seven categories according to biological function; apoptosis-related, immune response-related, signal transduction-related, cell cycle-related, cell growth-related, stress response-related and transcription-related genes. METHODS: We compared the gene expression profiles of SNU-C4 cells between amygdalin-treated (5 mg/mL, 24 h) and non-treated groups using cDNA microarray analysis. We selected genes downregulated in cDNA microarray and investigated mRNA levels of the genes by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Microarray showed that amygdalin downregulated especially genes belonging to cell cycle category: exonuclease 1 (EXO1), ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F, member 2 (ABCF2), MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (MRE11A), topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1), and FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1). RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA levels of these genes were also decreased by amygdalin treatment in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that amygdalin have an anticancer effect via downregulation of cell cycle-related genes in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells, and might be used for therapeutic anticancer drug.  (+info)

Isolation and quantitation of amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. by HPLC with solid-phase extraction. (8/26)

Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. are traditional Chinese herb medicines that contain amygdalin as their major effective ingredient. In this report, three methods for the extraction of amygdalin from the medicinal materials are compared: ultrasonic extraction by methanol, Soxhlet extraction by methanol, and reflux extraction by water. The results show that reflux extraction water containing 0.1% citric acid is the best option. The optimal reflux is 2.5 h and water bath temperature is 60 degrees C. The solid-phase extraction method using C18 and multiwalled carbon nanotube as adsorbents is established the pretreatment of reflux extract, and the result shows that the two adsorbents have greater adsorptive capacity for amygdalin and good separation effect. In order to quantitate amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb., a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using methanol-water (15:85, for 30 min and pure methanol after 30 min) as mobile phase is developed and a good result is obtained.  (+info)

  • Meanwhile, amygdalin was used as a standard to calculate the quantification of amygdalin and the concentration ratio of neoamygdalin and total amygdalin by HPLC-DAD. (mdpi.com)
  • In this research, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the content of amygdalin in different tissues of loquat fruit cv. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The objective of this study is to determine the content of amygdalin in loquat fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).We anticipate that the information obtained in this research can serve as foundation of future studies to provide a theoretical basis for the evaluation of the health effects of loquat fruit and comprehensive utilization of waste materials during loquat fruit processing. (alliedacademies.org)
  • To establish an HPLC method for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xiao'er Pingchuan Qutan granule. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ernst Krebs conducted many of the anti-cancer studies of amygdalin and he ultimately named the compound vitamin B-17, although there is no established metabolic need for amygdalin and none of the common vitamin deficiency symptoms occur when this chemical is excluded from the diet of humans. (fsu.edu)
  • Vitamin B-17, also known as amygdalin, is a substance found naturally in over 1,200 different foods including the seeds of many fruits (such as apricots, plums, cherries, oranges, nectarines, apples, and peaches) and many kinds of raw nuts. (naturesalternatives.com)
  • The misleading term vitamin B 17 , has sometimes been applied to amygdalin. (druglead.com)
  • Vitamin B-17 is the name given this substance by Dr. Ernst T. Krebs Jr., the man who first identified amygdalin. (cancertutor.com)
  • The report suggests that a female patient increased the cyanide toxicity risk by taking amygdalin concomitantly with a high dose of vitamin C (4,800 mg). 12 A case report of a 4-year-old boy with severe encephalopathy due to cyanide poisoning after oral and intravenous administration of amygdalin has been published in 2015. (cam-cancer.org)
  • However, the quality of this study is questionable since a heterogeneous patient cohort was used, no control groups were included, and a racemate instead of pure amygdalin was used for the i.v. therapy. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • As opposed to oral administration, there is no proof for toxicities associated with parenterally administered pure amygdalin. (cam-cancer.org)
  • A number of other practitioners advise the use of "pure" amygdalin, 8 but the meaning of the word "pure" is unclear: Moertel et. (ispub.com)
  • also refer to the mixture they used as "pure amygdalin" (p. 202). (ispub.com)
  • Amygdalin is one of a number of nitrilosides, the natural cyanide‑containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that are used to treat cancer and relieve pain. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Amygdalin is usually taken orally in the form of bitter apricot seeds. (cam-cancer.org)
  • However, amygdalin preparations contaminated with beta-glucosidases, seen particularly when the product is made from apricot seeds, may enhance the hydrolysis of amygdalin and thus considerably increase its toxicity. (cam-cancer.org)
  • Amygdalin, belongs to one of the cyanogenic glucosides ( Figure 1 ), is widely distributed in the plant kingdom, especially in the seeds of Rosaceae plant with higher content than those of non-Rosaceae species [ 1 - 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Amygdalin is the natural, raw substance that comes from the seeds or kernels of many fruits including apricots, but it is also present in lima beans, clover, and sorghum. (alivenhealthy.com)
  • Found in over 1200 plants, amygdalin, also called vitamin B17, is a nitriloside found in some 1200 plants, the seeds of non citrus fruits like apricots and peaches. (healthy.net)
  • Amygdalin and prunasin are found in the leaves, twigs, and seeds (Cheeke and Schull 1985). (gc.ca)
  • In treating one of my patients for a rare form of blood vessel cancer (by the way, he seems to be doing very well so far), a Japanese neighbor of his recommended that he drink loquat leaf tea (just as herbalists on Cyprus were recommending) and that he eat 2 loquat seeds daily because these are some 1300 times higher in amygdalin than the leaves. (whale.to)
  • Moertel CG, Ames MM, Kovach JS, Moyer RP, Rubin JR, Tinker JH (1981) A pharmacologic and toxicologic study of amygdalin in man. (springer.com)
  • A pharmacologic and toxicological study of amygdalin. (cam-cancer.org)
  • Molecular mechanism of amygdalin action in vitro: review of the latest research. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In the rat model of obstructive nephropathy, following ureteral obstruction, the administration of amygdalin immediately eliminated the extracellular matrix accumulation and alleviated the renal injury on the 21st day. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In enzymology, an amygdalin beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.117) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-amygdalin + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (R)-prunasin + D-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (R)-amygdalin and H2O, whereas its two products are (R)-prunasin and D-glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pharmacokinetics of amygdalin after intravenous administration were compared with those of diatrizoate, a model substance for extracellular volume and glomerular filtration. (springer.com)
  • Based on this risk assessment and the lack of evidence for the effectiveness of amygdalin even after decades of clinical use, more recent reviews conclude that this substance should not be recommended for anti-cancer therapy. (cam-cancer.org)
  • A substance derived from amygdalin that has been promoted by some individuals as a treatment for cancer, although scientific studies have found no evidence of its effectiveness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hence, in theory, amygdalin is the perfect, selective search and destroy substance for cancer therapy. (healthy.net)
  • The three isolates all tested positive for [beta]-galactosidase and utilization of glucose, mannitol and rhamnose, but only AS5-A and AS5-J tested positive for arginine dihydrolase and arabinose metabolism, and AS5-E and AS5-J tested positive for amygdalin utilization [Table (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For the most part, it has been found that amygdalin is devoid of any significant activity against tumor cells and can be lethal if ingested in excessive amounts. (fsu.edu)
  • Furthermore, amygdalin induced a marked decrease in cell cycle activating proteins, in particular cdk1 and cyclin B. Functional blocking of cdk1 and cyclin B resulted in significantly diminished tumor cell growth in all three RCC cell lines. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Hence, exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibited cell cycle progression and tumor cell growth by impairing cdk1 and cyclin B expression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A 24 h or 2 week amygdalin application distinctly reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 and RT112 cells. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • ILK was moderately, and activated FAK strongly, lost in all tumor cell lines in the presence of amygdalin. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • In two further mouse models with transplantable tumors, amygdalin did not induce tumor regression for Ridgway osteogenic sarcoma, Walker 256 carcinosarcoma , melanoma, Lewis lung carcinoma or leukemia cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amygdalin may offer a new therapeutic option for patients with cervical cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Amygdalin influences bladder cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The famous trial case of the Kansas farmer with rectal cancer was the first to put amygdalin in the eye of the storm, bringing it out in the open. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amygdalin has been advocated by some as a "cure" or a "preventative" for cancer , but due to a lack of scientifically accepted evidence of its efficacy, it has not been approved for this use by the United States' Food and Drug Administration . (wikidoc.org)
  • The first studies on amygdalin use by cancer patients came from Russia in the 1840s ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the 1920s amygdalin was also administered to cancer patients in the United States ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • By 1978, approximately 70,000 US cancer patients had used amygdalin ( 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • According to current scientific understanding there is no evidence for the effectiveness of drugs containing amygdalin in anti-cancer therapy. (cam-cancer.org)
  • Amygdalin was first identified and isolated by French chemists in 1830 and was used as an anti-cancer agent in 1845 in Russia. (cam-cancer.org)
  • They postulate that amygdalin is selectively effective against cancer cells only. (cam-cancer.org)
  • A journalist rounded on him, asking: 'Do you stick by your belief that amygdalin stops the spread of cancer? (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Over the years, I have stumbled upon seemingly credible testimonials of people who managed their gliomas (aggressive brain cancer) with amygdalin. (health-matrix.net)
  • Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Since the different actions of amygdalin on the different cell lines was mirrored by β1 or β4 knock down, it is postulated that amygdalin influences adhesion and migratory properties of bladder cancer cells by modulating β1 or β4 integrin expression. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Amygdalin has been promoted as a cancer cure from as early as the 1950s. (best-dietary-supplements.com)
  • Amygdalin is believed to be able to kill cancer cells thus some researchers believed it had potential as an anti cancer drug. (best-dietary-supplements.com)
  • According to the National Cancer Institute, amygdalin has shown little or no anticancer activity in all the tests and trials. (best-dietary-supplements.com)
  • RT-PCR analysis reveals that mRNA levels of these genes are also decreased by amygdalin treatment in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells . (focusbio.com.au)
  • Amygdalin modulates prostate cancer cell adhesion and migration In vitro. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Various researchers found that injection of amygdalin in animals slowed the growth of cancer and helped stop spreading of malignant cells into the lungs. (rroij.com)
  • In human amygdalin has shown anti-cancer activity due to release cyanide which killed the cancer cells in addition to the cyanide will also damage healthy cells [ 4 ]. (rroij.com)
  • Cancer researcher Dr Ralph Moss, then a science writer at Sloan-Kettering, claims the institute covered up positive results with amygdalin (Cancer Therapy, Ralph Moss, Equinox Press, New York, 1995). (healthy.net)
  • This study was designed to test the putative protective effect of 3% and 5% bitter apricot kernel containing food (frequently consumed in Mediterranean diet) treated with amygdalin on apoptosis and oxidative stress in a preclinical model: carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in Sprage Dawley rats. (scitechnol.com)
  • Amygdalin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in plasma ultrafiltrate and urine. (springer.com)
  • In this work the amygdalin profile of three producing areas in China was determined, with respect to three differently processed bitter almond products: raw, stir-fried and scalded. (mdpi.com)
  • Amygdalin is also known as vitamin B17, mandelonitrile-beta-glucuronide (semi-synthetic), mandelonitrile beta-D-gentiobioside (natural product), amygdalina, and nitriloside. (cam-cancer.org)
  • Amygdalin showed anti-borrelieae effects by killing mature cysts as well as the "persisters" in cerebrospinal fluid, the brain, and the disseminated remnants not killed by antibiotics or non-synthetic (natural) compounds in the organism. (health-matrix.net)
Amygdalin | Definition of Amygdalin by Merriam-Webster
Amygdalin | Definition of Amygdalin by Merriam-Webster (merriam-webster.com)
Almond - Wikipedia
Almond - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
R)-amygdalin (CHEBI:17019)
R)-amygdalin (CHEBI:17019) (ebi.ac.uk)
The pharmacokinetics of amygdalin | SpringerLink
The pharmacokinetics of amygdalin | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Molecular Expressions: The Vitamin Collection - Amygdalin (Vitamin B-17, Laetrile)
Molecular Expressions: The Vitamin Collection - Amygdalin (Vitamin B-17, Laetrile) (micro.magnet.fsu.edu)
Amygdalin | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine | Alternative
Amygdalin | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine | Alternative (greenmedinfo.com)
Beta-glucosidase - Wikipedia
Beta-glucosidase - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Doramectin. Short expiry date due to chemical nature of component(s)- CAS Number 117704-25-3
Doramectin. Short expiry date due to chemical nature of component(s)- CAS Number 117704-25-3 (lgcstandards.com)
Carbohydrate - Configuration | Britannica.com
Carbohydrate - Configuration | Britannica.com (britannica.com)
Laxative (Oral Route) Before Using - Mayo Clinic
Laxative (Oral Route) Before Using - Mayo Clinic (mayoclinic.org)
Cancer Quackery - Recognize it! Report it! Stop it!
Cancer Quackery - Recognize it! Report it! Stop it! (healthwatcher.net)
THE 'MIRACLE' ALTERNATIVES: WHAT'S REALLY WORKING - Healthy.net
THE 'MIRACLE' ALTERNATIVES: WHAT'S REALLY WORKING - Healthy.net (healthy.net)
The Swiss Secret to Optimal Health: Dr. Rau's Diet for Whole Body Healing | Marion Institute
The Swiss Secret to Optimal Health: Dr. Rau's Diet for Whole Body Healing | Marion Institute (marioninstitute.org)
Nutrition: 5 Foods to Help You Stay Hydrated | Marion Institute
Nutrition: 5 Foods to Help You Stay Hydrated | Marion Institute (marioninstitute.org)
Pierre Jean Robiquet - Wikipedia
Pierre Jean Robiquet - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Kidney Cancer | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine
Kidney Cancer | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine (greenmedinfo.com)
Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural
Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural (greenmedinfo.com)
B17 Essentials 500 | Apricot Power
B17 Essentials 500 | Apricot Power (apricotpower.com)
Cyanide Toxicity Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination
Cyanide Toxicity Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination (emedicine.medscape.com)
Cyanide Toxicity Medication: Antidotes, Anticonvulsants, Other, Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists
Cyanide Toxicity Medication: Antidotes, Anticonvulsants, Other, Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists (emedicine.medscape.com)
Dog Cancer Supplements Dr. Dressler Excludes from Full Spectrum Cancer Care ... and Why - Dog Cancer Blog
Dog Cancer Supplements Dr. Dressler Excludes from Full Spectrum Cancer Care ... and Why - Dog Cancer Blog (dogcancerblog.com)
Natural cancer cures - The Skeptic's Dictionary
Natural cancer cures - The Skeptic's Dictionary (skepdic.com)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - The University of Texas at Austin
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - The University of Texas at Austin (wildflower.org)
Amygdalin 97.0 %, TCI America
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Amygdalin 97.0 %, TCI America | Fisher Scientific (fishersci.com)
Characteristics of cyanogenic glycosides - Botanical online
Characteristics of cyanogenic glycosides - Botanical online (botanical-online.com)
Anti-Tumor | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural Medicine
Anti-Tumor | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural Medicine (greenmedinfo.com)
Apricot Kernels and Bitter Almonds Display Promising Effects
Apricot Kernels and Bitter Almonds Display Promising Effects (greenmedinfo.com)
Leukemia: Acute myelogenous leukemia AML  | GreenMedInfo | Disease
Leukemia: Acute myelogenous leukemia AML | GreenMedInfo | Disease (greenmedinfo.com)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural (greenmedinfo.com)
Kidney Fibrosis | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine
Kidney Fibrosis | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine (greenmedinfo.com)
Amygdalin ameliorates the progression of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor‑deficient mice
Amygdalin ameliorates the progression of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor‑deficient mice (spandidos-publications.com)
Latest with natural plant extracts - buy with natural plant extracts
Latest with natural plant extracts - buy with natural plant extracts (futurenowinc.com)
Echinacea: Benefits, uses, side effects, and effectiveness
Echinacea: Benefits, uses, side effects, and effectiveness (medicalnewstoday.com)