Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Septum Pellucidum: A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.alpha-Galactosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee: The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Mice, Inbred C57BLPons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
... amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, habenula, cingulate gyrus, and thalamus. The septal area (medial olfactory area) has no ... The septal nuclei (medial olfactory area) are a set of structures that lie below the rostrum of the corpus callosum, anterior ... The septal nuclei play a role in reward and reinforcement along with the nucleus accumbens. In the 1950s, Olds & Milner showed ... The septal nuclei receive reciprocal connections from the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, ...
Different thalamic nuclei, (from the anterior and midline groups), the medial septal nucleus, the supramamillary nucleus of the ... olfactory cortex, and amygdala. Paul MacLean later suggested that the limbic structures comprise the neural basis of emotion. ... Its projecting pathways include the medial septal nucleus and supramammillary nucleus.[24] The dorsal hippocampus also has more ... and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, ...
It includes the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, fornix, columns of fornix, ... septal nuclei and the brain stem reticular formation via the medial forebrain bundle, with the hippocampus via the fornix, and ... particularly the mammillary bodies and septal nuclei Subcortical areas: Septal nuclei, a set of structures that lie in front of ... Amygdala, located deep within the temporal lobes and related with a number of emotional processes. Nucleus accumbens: involved ...
... medial shell nucleus accumbens and medial olfactory tubercle. ... In the 1970s it was recognized that the olfactory tubercle ... basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, thalamic nuclei (specifically the midline thalamic nuclei and intralaminar nuclei of ... Septal nuclei Carlson, Neil R. Physiology of Behavior. 11th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2013. Print.[page needed] Nucleus Accumbens ... The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for ...
Stria medullaris → Habenular nuclei. *Amygdala → Stria terminalis → Hypothalamus. *Medial forebrain bundle → Hypothalamus ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the ... the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract.[2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are ...
The medial pallium also may contribute to the pallial amygdala, forming the amygdalohippocampal nucleus and the posteromedial ... The amygdala thus encompasses an heterogeneous group of subpallial nuclei and hypopallial olfactory and amygdalohippocampal ... which are stretched obliquely between the septal midline and the amygdala at the posterior pole of the telencephalon. At least ... The olfactory cortex is much reduced, whereas the hypopallial or dorsal ventricular ridge nuclei increase significantly in size ...
It leads from the basolateral nucleus and central nucleus of the amygdala. The amygdala is a limbic structure in the medial ... the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the basal forebrain, the brain stem, septal nuclei and nucleus ... including the anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, the pyriform cortex, the entorhinal cortex, the insular cortex, ... The dorsal medial nucleus therefore receives indirect input from both the amygdala and the nucleus basalis. Lesions to the ...
It is defined as the part of the prefrontal cortex that receives projections from the magnocellular, medial nucleus of the ... Direct afferent inputs arrive from most primary olfactory areas, including piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex, in ... anterior thalamus and septal diagonal band. The lateral part can be further subdivided into three sectors. The most caudal ... Involvement of OFC is often implicated in addictive behavior in addition to the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. The striato- ...
Amygdala (limbic system) (limbic lobe) Central nucleus (autonomic nervous system) Medial nucleus (accessory olfactory system) ... Anterior perforated substance Substantia innominata Nucleus basalis Diagonal band of Broca Septal nuclei Medial septal nuclei ... nucleus Medial nuclear group Medial dorsal nucleus Midline nuclear group Paratenial nucleus Reuniens nucleus Rhomboidal nucleus ... nucleus Central lateral nucleus Central medial nucleus Lateral nuclear group Lateral dorsal nucleus Lateral posterior nucleus ...
Heath RG, Harper JW (November 1974). "Ascending projections of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus to the hippocampus, amygdala, ... These limbic structures include the hippocampus, cingulate cortex, olfactory cortex, and amygdala. Paul MacLean once suggested ... the medial septum and the diagonal band of Broca, the claustrum, the substantia innominata and the basal nucleus of Meynert, ... In rodents, the hippocampus is positioned so that, roughly, one end is near the top of the head (the dorsal or septal end) and ...
In regards to NGF, the basal forebrain (production and distribution of AcH in the brain), more specifically the medial septal ... olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens), as well as regions of the cerebellum (lobules V1, V11). In the day-wake group, fMRI ... Evidence from simultaneous recordings in the lateral amygdala and the medial geniculate in rats". Behavioral Neuroscience. 112 ... The interesting part of the experiment is that fear responding to the noise (measured in the amygdala) was observed when the ...
In Macaca fascicularis, these inputs include the amygdala (specifically the anterior amygdaloid area, the basolateral nucleus, ... These limbic structures include the hippocampus, cingulate cortex, olfactory cortex, and amygdala. Paul MacLean once suggested ... The more septal the more ipsilateral entorhinal-CA1 projections that take alvear pathway (instead of perforant path).[18] ... Hippocampus anatomy describes the physical aspects and properties of the hippocampus, a neural structure in the medial temporal ...
Stria terminalis, specifically bed nuclei (BNST), act as the information pathway between the amygdala and hypothalamus, as well ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is heavily correlated with the cingulate gyrus and septal area to act out positive/negative ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The anterior olfactory nucleus distributes reciprocal signals between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.[22] The anterior ...
Forebrain cholinergic nuclei (FCN):. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial septal nucleus, and diagonal band ... Neurons from the VTA innervate the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, orbital and ... The basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei are comprised the medial septal nucleus (Ch1), the vertical nucleus of the diagonal band ... medial shell nucleus accumbens and medial olfactory tubercle. ... In the 1970s it was recognized that the olfactory tubercle ...
The axons from these neurons project to the accessory olfactory bulb, which targets the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria ... The medial, concave area of the lumen is lined with a pseudo stratified epithelium that has three main cell types: receptor ... estimated that around 92% of their subjects that had no septal surgery had at least one intact VNO. Kjaer and Fisher Hansen, on ... Unlike the main olfactory bulb that sends neuronal signals to the olfactory cortex, the VNO sends neuronal signals to the ...
... fasciculus medial meniscus medial olfactory stria medial pterygoid plate medial rectus muscle medial vestibular nucleus medial ... tubules semitendinosus sensorimotor cortex sensory decussation sensory system septal cartilage septal nuclei septal vein septum ... alveolar process alveolus alveus of the hippocampus amatory anatomy amaurosis Ammon's horn ampulla Ampulla of Vater amygdala ... notochord nuchal ligament nucleus nucleus accumbens nucleus ambiguus nucleus fastigius nucleus of Luys nucleus pulposus nucleus ...
basal optic nucleus of Meynert. (mainly) M1 receptors in: *neocortex. medial septal nucleus. (mainly) M1 receptors in: * ... amygdala. Cholinergic system Pedunculopontine nucleus and dorsolateral tegmental nuclei (pontomesencephalotegmental complex). ( ... The cholinergic system consists of projection neurons from the pedunculopontine nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and ... The majority (80-90%) is found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.[11][12] It travels around the brain along the medial ...
... these include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central medial amygdala, the shell of the NAc, and the sublenticular ... the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen), substantia nigra (i.e ... ". "Positive Reinforcement Produced by Electrical Stimulation of Septal Area and Other Regions of Rat Brain". "The Functional ... parabrachial nucleus, amygdala, and the remainder of the extended amygdala. The dorsal raphe nucleus and cerebellum appear to ...
Different thalamic nuclei, (from the anterior and midline groups), the medial septal nucleus, the supramamillary nucleus of the ... olfactory cortex, and amygdala. Paul MacLean later suggested that the limbic structures comprise the neural basis of emotion. ... Its projecting pathways include the medial septal nucleus and supramammillary nucleus.[25] The dorsal hippocampus also has more ... and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, ...
The axons from these neurons project to the accessory olfactory bulb, which targets the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria ... The medial, concave area of the lumen is lined with a pseudo stratified epithelium that has three main cell types: receptor ... Trotier et al.[35] estimated that around 92% of their subjects that had no septal surgery had at least one intact VNO. Kjaer ... Unlike the main olfactory bulb that sends neuronal signals to the olfactory cortex, the VNO sends neuronal signals to the ...
... amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, habenula, cingulate gyrus, and thalamus. The septal area (medial olfactory area) has no ... The septal nuclei (medial olfactory area) are a set of structures that lie below the rostrum of the corpus callosum, anterior ... The septal nuclei play a role in reward and reinforcement along with the nucleus accumbens. In the 1950s, Olds & Milner showed ... The septal nuclei receive reciprocal connections from the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, ...
Excessive drug taking also engages the activation of CRF in the medial prefrontal cortex, paralleled by deficits in executive ... Excessive drug taking also engages the activation of CRF in the medial prefrontal cortex, paralleled by deficits in executive ... extended amygdala, and frontal cortex (both between-system opponent processes). CRF antagonists block anxiety-like responses ... extended amygdala, and frontal cortex (both between-system opponent processes). CRF antagonists block anxiety-like responses ...
... septal nuclei, basolateral amygdala, mammillary bodies, the anterior thalamic nuclei and their interconnections and connections ... The primary cortical areas that we include under the umbrella of the limbic system include the olfactory cortex, amygdala and ... hippocampal formation, and nearly all parahippocampal cortex and cingulate cortex, but also caudal orbital and medial ... Subcortical areas, such as the cortical and central amygdala, the septal nuclei, and diencephalic regions, including the ...
Page 292-293 (page 417-418): Olfactory bulb, septal nuclei, hippocampus, amygdala, stria terminalis Page 295 (page 420): Septal ... All nuclei of thalamus, including midline, medial dorsal (MD), all lateral and all ventral, intralaminar nuclei (centromedian, ... Page 30 (page 47): Olfactory bulb, septal nuclei, anterior nuclei of thalamus, mammillary bodies, indusium griseum, hippocampus ... Nucleus accumbens, septal nuclei, nucleus basalis (of Meynert), ventral tegmental area (VTA), stria terminalis, stria ...
The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. (See the image ... Medial fibers of the tract contact the anterior olfactory nucleus and the septal area. Some fibers project to the contralateral ... The thalamic connections are thought to serve as a conscious mechanism for odor perception, while the amygdala and the ... The anterior olfactory nucleus receives collateral fibers from the olfactory tract and projects to the contralateral olfactory ...
Different thalamic nuclei, (from the anterior and midline groups), the medial septal nucleus, the supramamillary nucleus of the ... olfactory cortex, and amygdala. Paul MacLean later suggested that the limbic structures comprise the neural basis of emotion. ... Its projecting pathways include the medial septal nucleus and supramammillary nucleus.[24] The dorsal hippocampus also has more ... and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, ...
The limbic system includes the olfactory bulb and tract, hippocampus, fornix, amygdaloid body, and septal nuclei. The principal ... It is on the medial surface of each hemisphere. It is actually a rim of cortex. This cortex is not well convoluted and is ... This "old brain," especially the amygdala is quite involved in emotion and in reacting to danger. A recent functional MRI study ... This circular area includes the septal region, hippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus and island of Reil. ...
small group of nuclei in the medial wall of the frontal lobe. contains cholinergic neurons ... olfactory association emotional affective response to food 23 functions of the amygdala ... ring of cortex on the medial surface of the brain that spans across aspects of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. ...
... including the medial septal nucleus. It also sends fibers to the nasal mucosa [16] and rostral ventral brains structures, ... primarily olfactory and limbic areas (i.e., amygdala, hypothalamic nuclei) [17]. These connections provide access to the limbic ... CN0 rests on the anterior surface of the brain in the region of the olfactory trigone and courses anteriorly on the medial ... Medially, it forms a plexus of fibers closely associated with the olfactory stria (medial to the anterior perforated space) ...
Page 292-293 (page 417-418): Olfactory bulb, septal nuclei, hippocampus, amygdala, stria terminalis ... All nuclei of thalamus, including midline, medial dorsal (MD), all lateral and all ventral, intralaminar nuclei (centromedian, ... Page 30 (page 47): Olfactory bulb, septal nuclei, anterior nuclei of thalamus, mammillary bodies, indusium griseum, hippocampus ... Nucleus accumbens, septal nuclei, nucleus basalis (of Meynert), ventral tegmental area (VTA), stria terminalis, stria ...
1. Cortex (neo and allo), 2. Thalamic, 3. Basal ganglia, 4. Brainstem structures nuclei, 5. Spinal cord ... VTA to DLPFC, VMPFC, cingulate, olfactory bulbs; cognition/motivation/emotional responses pathway ... Interconnects anterior frontal lobe (OFC) with anterior temporal lobe (hippocampus, amygdala) 44 ... Mediates inputs from thalamus that are not from specific sensory relay nuclei; Layer III ...
... the lateral amygdala also projects to the septal nuclei, hypothalamus, corpus striatum, dorsal medial thalamus, brainstem, and ... THE MEDIAL AMYGDALA The medial amygdala receives fibers from the olfactory tract, and via a rope of fibers called the stria ... THE SEPTAL NUCLEI HIPPOCAMPAL & SEPTAL INTERACTIONS The septal nuclei consists of medial and lateral nuclei, and can be further ... By contrast,the medial amygdala (or rather, the central division of the medial amygdala, central-medial amygdala) extends ...
The medial septal nucleus (Ch1 cellular group) and the vertical limb nucleus of the diagonal band (Ch2) supply the main ... 514) coded for olfactory receptors (OLR), the largest gene family in the genome, or the related. ... supply the principal cholinergic insight of the rest of the cerebral cortex and amygdala (6). The trajectories of white matter ... The medial pathway passes through the white matter deep to the cingulate gyrus (5). WML are usually located in even more ...
... the lateral and medial septal nucleus, the horizontal and vertical limb of the diagonal band nucleus, the nuclei of the ... and olfactory epithelium. Pax-6 was also expressed in the optic vesicle and the olfactory bulb, the neural parts of the eye and ... basolateral complex of the amygdala, some cells of the ventral pallidum, the entopeduncular nucleus, and the zona incerta and ... olfactory bulb; oe, olfactory epithelium; sc, spinal cord; vt, ventral thalamus. This is explained in more detail below. ...
Olfactory tracts also travel to the prepyriform cortex, the amygdala, the septal nuclei, the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, ... The main destination of the olfactory nerve tract is the primary olfactory cortex (pyriform cortex) in the medial temporal lobe ... The septal nuclei and amygdala are part of the "pleasure center." The hippocampus is associated with memory and food sensations ... The olfactory signals are carried from the olfactory bulb primarily by cranial nerve I, but the trigeminal nerve or cranial ...
... it sends projections to the medial pre-commissural septum and the medial septal nucleus, among others. It appears to have a ... while other fibers travel laterally to the amygdala and piriform cortex, also known as the primary olfactory cortex where ... The central processes of these olfactory bulb neurons project through the olfactory trigone medially to the septal area and the ... This nerve conveys special sensory afferents (SSA) from the inner ear to the cochlear nuclei and the vestibular nuclei in the ...
olfactory stria. Any of three bands of fibers (lateral, intermediate, and medial) that form the roots of the olfactory tract. ... A thin axon tract that originates in the septal nuclei, the hypothalamus, and the anterior thalamic nucleus and synapses in the ... An axon tract that originates in the amygdala and synapses in the hypothalamus. It is a slender, compact tract that curves over ... As it reaches the olfactory areas of the cortex on the undersurface of the brain, the olfactory tract splits into two visible ...
These include networks that encompass basal ganglia (BG, CPu, Globus Pallidus), thalamic nuclei, the amygdala, septal nucleus, ... Based on the regions observed, including the thalamus (ventral lateral, ventral medial, ventroposterior, mediodorsal nuclei), ... olfactory cortex and insular cortex. These have been also observed in parts of ICA [27], [28] or seed-based analysis [19], [20] ... This subcortical network consists of structures involved in emotion (e.g., basal ganglia, extended amygdala, septal regions). ...
... the amygdala, septal nuclei and cingulate gyrus. As noted, the septal nucleus and amygdala often act in balanced opposition. ... For example, the medial amygdala is highly involved in motor, olfactory and sexual functioning, whereas the lateral division is ... Amygdala A. Medial & Lateral Amygdala Nuclei B. The Amygdala & Hypothalamus C. Fear, Rage, Aggression D. Social-Emotional ... V. SEPTAL NUCLEI The septal nuclei, like the amygdala is very ancient, and appears to develop out of the hypothalamus. ...
... septofimbrial nucleus, intercalated nuclei of the amygdala, medial mammillary nucleus, many thalamic nuclei, and pontine nuclei ... ventral part of the lateral septal nucleus; septohippocampal nucleus; triangular septal nucleus; nuclei of the diagonal band; ... interpeduncular nucleus, pontine nuclei, and dorsal cochlear nucleus; and dorsal horn of the spinal cord, olfactory tubercle, ... amygdaloid nuclei other than the intercalated nuclei; preoptic region; hypothalamic nuclei other than the medial mammillary ...
For example, the strong medial (older) to lateral (younger) neurogenetic gradient in the lateral septal nucleus is linked to ... The basal ganglia include the septal region, the magnocellular basal telencephalic nuclei, the striatum, the amygdala, the bed ... The basal ganglia are a diverse collection of large structures in the telencephalon that are not strictly part of the olfactory ... nucleus of the stria terminalis, the entopeduncular nucleus, and the claustrum. Each part of the basal ganglia has ...
Loc: btw olfactory tubercle, hypothalamus, overlaps anterior perforated substance. *Includes: septal region (septal nuclei of ... Limbic system: limbic lobe + hypothalamus, amygdala, septal nuclei, some thalamic nuclei. *Archicortex (3 layers): hippocampal ... Precommisural fibers: septal nuclei, dorsal, lateral preoptic hypothalamus. -Stria terminalis: reciprocal, to anterior & medial ... Connects septal nuclei, preoptic nucleus (hypothalamus), anterior thalamic nucleus --, Habenecular nuclei. --, Fasciculus ...
... of the amygdala, in the rat, has been shown to be the main terminal area of a spino(trigemino)-parabrachio-amygdaloid ... the accumbens nucleus, the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus of olfactory tract and the rostral pole of the cingulate/frontal ... The Ce lateral division (CeL) and the Ce medial division (CeM), adjacent to the CeLC, also project to the SId with slightly ... Septal Nuclei / cytology * Septal Nuclei / physiology * Substantia Innominata / cytology * Substantia Innominata / physiology ...
Stria medullaris → Habenular nuclei. *Amygdala → Stria terminalis → Hypothalamus. *Medial forebrain bundle → Hypothalamus ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the ... the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract.[2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are ...
... the septal nuclei (medial and lateral), and the dorsal anterior nucleus of the olfactory bulb (Fig. 5). Fibers in these nuclei ... the central nucleus of the amygdala, the arcuate nucleus, the central gray, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, the ... medial cerebellar nucleus;mlf, medial longitudinal fasciculus; MVe, medial vestibular nucleus; MVeV, medial vestibular nucleus ... medial geniculate nucleus; ml, medial lemniscus; MM, medial mammillary nucleus, medial part;mt, mammillothalamic tract; pc, ...
  • The substantia innominata of the basal forebrain and regions of the amygdala had the highest amount of receptor expression energy for all four neuromodulatory systems examined. (springer.com)
  • The arcuate nucleus produces inhibiting and releasing factors (adrenocorticotrophic hormone, beta-lipotrophic hormone, and beta-endorphin) for pituitary hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neuromodulatory systems originate in nuclei localized in the subcortical region of the brain and control fundamental behaviors by interacting with many areas of the central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • To improve our understanding of the role of neurosteroids in cholinergic systems during normal and pathological aging, we need to determine whether there is specific regionalization of neurosteroids, and we need to investigate the relationship between neurosteroid concentrations in cholinergic nuclei and age-related sleep and memory impairments. (springer.com)
  • An exploratory survey of the cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic receptor expression energy in the amygdala, and in the neuromodulatory areas themselves was undertaken using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. (springer.com)
  • The schism between the rational and the emotional is real, and is due to the raw energy of emotion having it's source in the nuclei of the ancient limbic lobe -- a series of structures which first make their phylogenetic appearance over a hundred million years before humans walked upon this earth and which continue to control and direct human behavior. (brainmind.com)
  • There is a feedback loop in which the amygdala affects stress hormones, and then the stress hormones acts on the NTS, which then acts on the locus coeruleus, resulting in the release of NE in the amygdala. (springer.com)
  • We measured the volumes of the caudate nucleus (head), the putamen, and the globus pallidus on MR images of 53 healthy adults whose ages at baseline ranged between 20 and 77 years. (ajnr.org)
  • The average annual shrinkage rate was 0.83% in the caudate nucleus, 0.73% in the putamen, and 0.51% in the globus pallidus. (ajnr.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies of humans ( 3 ) and other primates ( 4 ) indicate that old age is associated with reduced volumes of the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), whereas age differences in the volume of paleostriatum (globus pallidus) are significantly smaller ( 5 , 6 ). (ajnr.org)
  • The most prominent structures of the basal ganglia are the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus (Figs. 1-6 and 1-7). (what-when-how.com)
  • The caudate nucleus is a large mass of cells that is most prominent at anterior levels of the forebrain adjacent to the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle and can be divided into three components (Fig. 1-8). (what-when-how.com)
  • This narrow region of the caudate nucleus, distal to the head, is called the tail of the caudate nucleus. (what-when-how.com)
  • The region between the head and tail is referred to as the body of the caudate nucleus. (what-when-how.com)
  • Note again the relationships of the caudate nucleus and diencephalon relative to those of the globus pal-lidus and putamen with respect to the position of the internal capsule. (what-when-how.com)
  • The fiber system associated with the amygdala is the stria terminalis and is just ventromedial to the tail of the caudate nucleus (Fig. 1-8). (what-when-how.com)
  • The trajectory of the stria terminalis is parallel to that of the tail of the caudate nucleus. (what-when-how.com)
  • The intracerebral course of the recurrent artery of Heubner is uni-vectorial, thereby heading towards the head of the caudate nucleus. (statpearls.com)
  • It lies just below the anterior end of the tail of the caudate nucleus. (brainkart.com)
  • The vomeronasal organ is a specialized bilateral membranous structure located in the base of the anterior nasal septum, at the junction of the septal cartilage and the bony septum. (medscape.com)
  • The olfactory neuroepithelium is located at the upper area of each nasal chamber adjacent to the cribriform plate, superior nasal septum, and superior-lateral nasal wall. (medscape.com)
  • For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. (bvsalud.org)
  • These have been pivotal in the understanding of the terminal nerve embryological development along with other olfactory structures in human embryos. (statpearls.com)
  • provided reconstructions which were essential for the understanding and correct interpretation of the developmental happenings of the neural connections within and beyond the olfactory system structures . (statpearls.com)
  • Buried within the depths of the cerebrum are several large aggregates of limbic structures and nuclei which are preeminent in the control and mediation of memory, emotion, learning, dreaming, attention, and arousal, and the perception and expression of emotional, motivational, sexual, and social behavior including the formation of loving attachments. (brainmind.com)
  • The structures and nuclei of the limbic system are exceedingly ancient, some of which began to evolve over 450 million years ago. (brainmind.com)
  • Anatomically, the main structures we have to consider become visible only when we split the brain sagitally into two halves and look at the inner or medial surface (3). (acampbell.uk)
  • We examined age-related differences and longitudinal changes in the volume of the striatal nuclei, compared longitudinal measures of changes with their cross-sectional estimates, and addressed the question of differential aging of the basal ganglia. (ajnr.org)
  • This "old brain," especially the amygdala is quite involved in emotion and in reacting to danger. (csuchico.edu)
  • B1: Brain Tissue, Nuclei, Fluid & Autonomic Nervous System, plus at least three (3) months of practice after attending B1. (thelivingwellco.com.sg)
  • The EC is divided in to the lateral (towards the outside of the brain) and medial (towards the middle of the brain) portions and composed of 6 laminar layers (I-VI) that are cytoarchitectonically distinct. (neuralconnections.net)
  • Norepinephrine activation in the amygdala helps to consolidate and modulate memory in other brain regions (McGaugh 2004 ). (springer.com)