Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Kindling, Neurologic: The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Subliminal Stimulation: Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Mice, Inbred C57BLOncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Panic: A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
Nader K, Schafe GE, LeDoux JE (2000) Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after ... However, only organisms that can be conscious of their own brain's activities can feel fear. Fear is a conscious experience and ... "fear circuits" implies that these circuits are responsible for feelings of fear. LeDoux has argued that so-called Pavlovian ... an update on prefrontal-amygdala interactions in fear extinction. Learn Mem 11:525-535. ...
"Essential role for TRPC5 in amygdala function and fear-related behavior". Cell. 137 (4): 761-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.03.039 ...
Nasally administered oxytocin has been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be ... There is consensus that oxytocin modulates fear and anxiety; that is, it does not directly elicit fear or anxiety. Two ... "Oxytocin selectively gates fear responses through distinct outputs from the central amygdala". Science. 333 (6038): 104-7. ... Fear and anxiety. Oxytocin is typically remembered for the effect it has on prosocial behaviors, such as its role in ...
"Amygdala and hippocampal activity during acquisition and extinction of human fear conditioning". Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 4 ... Initial results show there is more inflow than consumption of glucose in regions such as the amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus ... Remembering a similar event may take a few seconds, and emotional or physiological changes such as fear arousal may last ...
The amygdala is responsible for threat detection and the conditioned and unconditioned fear responses that are carried out as a ... The amygdala is strongly involved in forming emotional memories, especially fear-related memories. During high stress, the ... The BLA activates the central nucleus (CeA) of the amygdala, which elaborates the fear response, (including behavioral response ... which is hypothesized to play a role in the extinction of conditioned fear responses. While as a whole, amygdala ...
Specifically, amygdala fear conditioning was lost. This is a type of trace conditioning which is a form of learning that ... Long-term fear conditioning training was affected in rats but there was no effect in short term conditioning. ... the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of the rapamycin signaling pathway in long-term potentiation and trace fear ... the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of the rapamycin signaling pathway in long-term potentiation and trace fear ...
Bauer EP; LeDoux JE; Nader K (2001). "Fear conditioning and LTP in the lateral amygdala are sensitive to the same stimulus ...
Individuals show right amygdala activity in response to subliminal fear, and greater left amygdala response to supraliminal ... Furthermore, supraliminal fear showed more sustained cortical activity, suggesting that subliminal fear may not entail ... "Amygdala-prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear". Human Brain Mapping. 27 (8): 652-661. doi:10.1002/hbm. ... February 2012). "Exposure to subliminal arousing stimuli induces robust activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior ...
... and fear-associated behaviors, while the amygdala has been strongly implicated in the extinction of conditioned fear. The ... Amano, T; Unal, CT; Paré, D (2010). "Synaptic correlates of fear extinction in the amygdala". Nature Neuroscience. 13: 489-494 ... of a conditioned fear response is correlated with synaptic inhibition in the fear output neurons of the central amygdala that ... "The Effect of Temporary Amygdala Inactivation on Extinction and Reextinction of Fear in the Developing Rat: Unlearning as a ...
doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(08)61880-4. Davis, M. (1992). "The role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety". Annual Review of ... Fear-Conditioning. Over time, individuals learn that a stimulus is not benign through personal experience. Implicitly, a fear ... Cells that project from the lateral amygdala to the central amygdala allow for the initiation of an emotional response if a ... allowing for the creation of associations that regulate fear-conditioning; Cells in the superior dorsal lateral amygdala are ...
For example, the amygdala is the locus of fear. The amygdala senses fear and it orchestrates physical actions and emotions. ... For example, Silvan Tomkins (1962) concluded that there are eight basic emotions: surprise, interest, joy, rage, fear, disgust ... surprise and fear. Researchers found that the people of New Guinea could in fact point out the different emotions and ... Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt (as measured via his Differential Emotions Scale or DES-IV). Discrete emotion theory states ...
Another area, the adjacent central nucleus of the amygdala, controls species-specific fear responses in its connections to the ... 11) Fear of losing control, going crazy, or passing out.. (12) Fear of dying.. General symptoms. (13) Hot flashes or cold ... Generalized anxiety disorder has been linked to disrupted functional connectivity of the amygdala and its processing of fear ... Another difference is that the amygdala areas have decreased connectivity with the insula and cingulate areas that control ...
Kalin, N. H.; Shelton, S.; Davidson, R. (2004). "The Role of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala in Mediating Fear and Anxiety ... In 2004 the same group published further results on the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala in mediating fear and ...
Feinstein J, Adolphs R, Damasio A, Tranel D (2011). "The human amygdala and the induction and experience of fear". Current ... in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. He also demonstrated that while the insular cortex plays a major role in ... "Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala". Nature. 372 (6507): ...
Optogenetic approaches have been used to map neural circuits in the amygdala that contribute to fear conditioning. One such ... "Thy1-expressing neurons in the basolateral amygdala may mediate fear inhibition". J. Neurosci. 33 (25): 10396-404. doi:10.1523/ ... "Genetic dissection of an amygdala microcircuit that gates conditioned fear". Nature. 468 (7321): 270-276. doi:10.1038/ ... "Optical activation of lateral amygdala pyramidal cells instructs associative fear learning". Proceedings of the National ...
... akin to fear response) than did light skinned white males. The amygdala is associated with fear, threat and emotion processing ... This also suggests that as fear conditioned stimuli, individuals are taught to have a pre-established instinct to associate the ... Non-prototypic individuals (ex: dark skinned white males) caused greater amygdala activation ( ... of Blacks in association with danger stereotypes of Blacks in association with danger that leads Black faces to b seen as fear ...
Pavlovian conditioning tests have shown the active role of the amygdala in fear conditioning in rats. Research involving ... Located above the hippocampus in the medial temporal lobes are two amygdalae (singular "amygdala"). The amygdalae are ... Rabinak, CA; Maren S (2008). "Associative Structure of Fear Memory After Basolateral Amygdala Lesions in Rats". Behavioral ... Lesions to the amygdalae in monkeys have been shown to impair motivation, as well as the processing of emotions. ...
... the amygdala, associated with emotional responses and fears; the spinal cord, associated with peripheral sensations like pain; ... fear on medical marijuana". The Herald News. Retrieved 2013-01-08. "Driving stoned: safer than driving drunk?". Abcnews.go.com ...
... usually fear based, activates the amygdala and results in the modulation of memory storage occurring in other brain regions. ... The forebrain is one of the targets of the amygdala. The forebrain receives input from amygdala and calculates the emotional ... Effects of stress-related hormones, such as epinephrine and glucocorticoids are mediated by influences involving the amygdala.[ ... There is extensive evidence that the amygdala is involved in effectively influencing memory. Emotional arousal, ...
Most studies to date use the amygdala as a model circuit, and fear-related memory traces in the amygdala are mediated by CREB ... Once spines were added after fear extinction had a similar orientation to the spines lost during the original fear conditioning ... and it is likely that the mechanisms of fear-based memory allocation found in the amygdala will also be similarly present for ... Opposite effects of fear conditioning and extinction on dendritic spine remodelling. Nature 483, 87-91 (2012). Cai DJ, Aharoni ...
"Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval", examining fear conditioning in ... Nader, Karim; Schafe, Glenn E.; Le Doux, Joseph E. (2000). "Fear Memories Require Protein Synthesis In The Amygdala For ... rats failed to recall a rapidly learned fear memory. Hippocampal lesions formed post-retrieval affected the rats' fear ...
Nader, K., Schafe, G. E., & Le Doux, J. E. (2000). Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation ...
"Conditioned Fear Inhibits c-fos mRNA Expression in the Central Extended Amygdala". Brain Res. 1229: 137-46. doi:10.1016/j. ... Singewald N, Salchner P, Sharp T (February 2003). "Induction of c-Fos expression in specific areas of the fear circuitry in rat ... The NAc integrates processed information about the environment from basolateral amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex ( ...
Nader, K.; Schafe, G. E.; LeDoux, J. E. (2000). "Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation ... wherein fear memories had been established in rats through Pavlovian fear conditioning, found that a consolidated fear memory ... The opposite effect was also seen when the amygdala was inactivated using lidocane. Studies appear to suggest that the amygdala ... Specifically, NMDA-receptor antagonists appear to block the induction of both LTP and fear conditioning and that fear ...
Different types of fear-conditioned behaviour mediated by separate nuclei within amygdala. Nature, 388(6640), 377-380.. ... while antecedents that have been paired with punishing consequences activate brain centers involved in fear. Yin, Henry H., ...
"Disruption of Reconsolidation Erases a Fear Memory Trace in the Human Amygdala". Science. 337 (6101): 1550-2. doi:10.1126/ ... They then proceeded to train mice using auditory fear training to produce a fear memory. They proceeded to check which of the ... In a paper published in 2009, authors showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala that had a higher level of cyclic adenosine ... This indicated to them that these neurons were directly involved in the making of the memory trace for that fear memory. ...
Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the amygdala's central nucleus ... which then projects out to several parts of the brain involved in responses to fear. At the hypothalamus, fear-signaling ... Macrì S, Würbel H (December 2006). "Developmental plasticity of HPA and fear responses in rats: a critical review of the ... Anatomical connections between brain areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus facilitate ...
"The Effect of Temporary Amygdala Inactivation on Extinction and Reextinction of Fear in the Developing Rat: Unlearning as a ... "Prefrontal-Amygdala Connectivity and State Anxiety during Fear Extinction Recall in Adolescents". Frontiers in Human ... "Living Without Fear: Dr Jee Hyun Kim". YouTube. TEDx. City of Melbourne. "Science City - Has Melbourne got what it takes?". ... "Fear extinction in 17 day old rats is dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling". Behavioural Brain Research. ...
Keywords: Anxiety, extended amygdala, Fos immunoreacitivity, ibotenic acid, innate fear, neuronal morphology, sexual dimorphism ... Keywords:Anxiety, extended amygdala, Fos immunoreacitivity, ibotenic acid, innate fear, neuronal morphology, sexual dimorphism ... Morphological and Functional Features of the Sex Steroid-Responsive Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala of Adult Rats. Author(s): A.A ... Abstract:The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) expresses receptors for gonadal hormones and integrates sex steroid- ...
Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about ... N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known ... AB - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known ... abstract = "Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is ...
... found that the fear reaction system could explain this direct pathway for information from the thalamus to the amygdala. A fear ... found that the fear reaction system could explain this direct pathway for information from the thalamus to the amygdala. A fear ... LeDouxs (1996) exploration of both animal and human fear conditioning revealed the amygdalas central role in the experience ... LeDouxs (1996) exploration of both animal and human fear conditioning revealed the amygdalas central role in the experience ...
Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear.. Duvarci S1, Pare D2.. Author information. 1. Institute of Neurophysiology, ... 3, *4) Currently, there is no data available on the connections of fear and extinction neurons with other amygdala neurons. The ... Intra-amygdala interactions supporting expression and extinction of conditioned fear. The model includes known pathways and ... Intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala. Scheme of coronal section of the rat amygdala where all major internuclear connections ...
... displaying fear, when they showed him pictures of black people. This link between the amygdala and fear - especially a fear of ... Almost every study of fear finds that the amygdala is active. But that doesn´t mean every spark of activity in the amygdala ... A lot of people came to the amygdala from the study of fear, says Wil Cunningham of Ohio State University, who co wrote the new ... Instead, the amygdala seems to be doing something more subtle: processing events that are related to what a person cares about ...
Amygdala EphB2 Signaling Regulates Glutamatergic Neuron Maturation and Innate Fear. Xiao-Na Zhu, Xian-Dong Liu, Hanyi Zhuang, ... Amygdala EphB2 Signaling Regulates Glutamatergic Neuron Maturation and Innate Fear. Xiao-Na Zhu, Xian-Dong Liu, Hanyi Zhuang, ... 2008) Amygdala intercalated neurons are required for expression of fear extinction. Nature 454:642-645, doi:10.1038/nature07167 ... 2003) The emotional brain, fear, and the amygdala. Cell Mol Neurobiol 23:727-738, doi:10.1023/A:1025048802629, pmid:14514027. ...
... which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼170-200 ms) amygdala responses during the stimulus ... We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, ... as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical ... automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in ...
... www.intechopen.com/embed/the-amygdala-a-discrete-multitasking-manager/the-role-of-norepinephrine-in-amygdala-dependent-fear- ... www.intechopen.com/embed/the-amygdala-a-discrete-multitasking-manager/the-role-of-norepinephrine-in-amygdala-dependent-fear- ... The Role of Norepinephrine in Amygdala Dependent Fear Learning and Memory, The Amygdala Barbara Ferry, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772 ... The Role of Norepinephrine in Amygdala Dependent Fear Learning and Memory, The Amygdala Barbara Ferry, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772 ...
2005) Tracking the fear engram: the lateral amygdala is an essential locus of fear memory storage. J Neurosci 25:10010-10014. ... 1997) Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala. Nature 390:604-607. ... 1999) Why we think plasticity underlying Pavlovian fear conditioning occurs in the basolateral amygdala. Neuron 23:229-232. ... 1997) Neurobiology of fear responses: the role of the amygdala. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 9:382-402. ...
The Role of the Amygdala in Fear and Panic The definition of fear has proved to be an elusive ... ... Free essay on The Role Of The Amygdala In Fear And Panic. ... Other Essays Like The Role Of The Amygdala In Fear And Panic. ... The amygdala has up to 22 distinct regions and only two so far have been clearly implicated in fear (2). The flight and fear ... The Fear Of The Unknown In The Sufi Tale And Lord Of The Flies. 729 words - 3 pages The fear of the unknown Alina Liu The fear ...
... ... release in the amygdala are thought to be crucial for the acquisition and expression of fear memories, but the time course of ... "Dynamic amino acid increases in the basolateral amygdala during acquisition and expression of conditioned fear." European ... Expression of conditioned fear to either a white noise or the context previously paired with shock produced similar rapid and ...
In the central nucleus of the amygdala, c-Fos immunoreactivity was increased in the fear extinction group compared to the no- ... Finally, c-Fos and 5-mC levels were correlated with the prelimbic PFC, but not amygdala. In the amygdala, DNA demethylation, ... and/or amygdala. 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats were subjected to fear extinction. 2 hours after the extinction session, the ... fear extinction group, regardless of genotype. 5-hmC levels were unaltered in the PFC, but reduced in the amygdala of ...
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related ... Hoban et al. show interaction between the gut microbes and expression of anxiety and fear regulated by the amygdala. Their ... However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the ... host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm. We also assessed changes ...
Our findings suggest that, because of their remarkably functional hippocampus, C57 mice might engage this region in any fear ... Our findings suggest that, because of their remarkably functional hippocampus, C57 mice might engage this region in any fear ... mice 24h after they were trained for tone and contextual fear conditioning (TFC and CFC). Although TFC and CFC are amenable to ... how the peculiarity of memory in certain individuals impacts on the components of the fear circuitry. It is suggested that ...
Extinction of fear-memory is essential for emotional and mental changes. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of fear- ... injection of calpain inhibitors could eliminate extinction of fear-memory in mice. Moreover, extinction of fear-memory paradigm ... In this study, we investigated the pivotal role of calpain in extinction of fear-memory in mice, and assessed its mechanism. ... Together, our data confirmed the function of BLA calpain in extinction of fear-memory, likely via degrading PTEN and activating ...
The effect of TMRK electro-acupuncture method on the regression of fear memory of PTSD rats may be through its repair of ... synaptic plasticity in amygdala and hippocampus. PMID: 31045558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]... ... Study on the mechanism of TMRK Electroacupuncture in repairing synaptic plasticity in amygdala and hippocampus to relieve fear ... method on the regression of fear memory of PTSD rats may be through its repair of synaptic plasticity in amygdala and ...
This is what I had in mind when I proposed calling the amygdala circuit a defensive survival circuit instead of a fear circuit ... I now only use fear to refer to the experience of fear. It is common these days to argue that folk psychological ideas will ... I was often described in both lay and scientific contexts as having shown how feelings of fear emerge from the amygdala. Even ... freeze in fear. A naïve reader naturally thinks of frightened rats as feeling fear. As noted above, using mental state terms ...
On the Temporary Nature of Disruption of Fear-Potentiated Startle Following PKMζ Inhibition in the Amygdale ... Temporary disruption of fear-potentiated startle following PKMzeta inhibition in the amygdala. by Parsons, R. G., and Davis, M ... On the temporary nature of disruption of fear-potentiated startle following PKMζ inhibition in the amygdale. Karim Nader* ... On the temporary nature of disruption of fear-potentiated startle following PKMζ inhibition in the amygdale. Front. Behav. ...
... the expression of fear reflects normal neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, not stress-induced hyperactivity in the ... When the fear-enhancing effects of prior exposure to stress are absent, ... Extinction recall of fear memories formed before stress is not affected despite higher theta activity in the amygdala. ... Stress enhances fear by forming new synapses with greater capacity for long-term potentiation in the amygdala * A Suvrathan ...
FRAT: An amygdala-centered model of fear conditioning (Krasne et al. 2011). ... occur in amygdala and contextual representations are learned in hippocampus. Many properties of fear conditioning are accounted ... In order to make this problem tractable for the students, the amygdala of frat.m, unlike that of FRATx.m, has only a single LA- ... 1 . Krasne FB, Fanselow MS, Zelikowsky M (2011) Design of a neurally plausible model of fear learning. Front Behav Neurosci 5: ...
Anesthesia, Amnesia, and the Amygdala: Reducing the Fear of Intraoperative Awareness Joseph F. Antognini, M.D.; Earl E. ... The amygdala is strongly implicated in learning under emotionally charged settings such as fear. An inhibitory avoidance ... Anesthesia, Amnesia, and the Amygdala: Reducing the Fear of Intraoperative Awareness You will receive an email whenever this ... Anesthesia, Amnesia, and the Amygdala: Reducing the Fear of Intraoperative Awareness. Anesthesiology 4 2005, Vol.102, 711-712. ...
RESULTS: Increased 5-HTT expression impaired, but did not prevent, fear learning and significantly reduced amygdala hemodynamic ... Human neuroimaging studies suggest modulation of the amygdala by 5-HTT variation, but this hypothesis is controversial and ... CONCLUSIONS: Direct experimental manipulation of 5-HTT expression levels throughout the brain markedly altered fear learning, ... and local field potentials during Pavlovian fear conditioning. ... Amygdala, Animals, Fear, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, ...
The lateral amygdala (LA) is critical for the formation of associative fear memories, such as those formed by fear conditioning ... The lateral amygdala is a critical brain region for the formation of associative fear memories, including Pavlovian fear ... The lateral amygdala is a critical brain region for the formation of associative fear memories, including Pavlovian fear ... For this, FTL mice were context fear-conditioned and then tested for context-associated fear 3 h later. Mice trained in fear ...
Effects of chronic stress on the amygdala have been linked to a facilitation of fear conditioning. Although the underlying ... Together, our results strongly support the involvement of NCAM in the amygdala in the consolidation of auditory fear ... in the amygdala, as well as enhanced auditory fear conditioning and anxiety-like behavior. Strikingly, forebrain-specific ... whose amygdala NCAM expression levels are reduced, displayed impaired auditory fear conditioning which was not altered ...
... *Thalamus and extended pathways - sleep/wake cycle and ... Cell type-specificity of endocannabinoid signaling in amygdala-BNST projections regulating sustained fear. Pape Lutz ... Distinct circuits of the extended amygdala regulating fear generalization and extinction. Pape ... The BDNF system as mediator for stress impaired fear acquisition, extinction and late fear. Lange. Andreatta ...
BasolateralAversiveReceptorsCentral amygdalaHuman AmygdalaNeuralNucleiBasalExtinctionEmotionsActivity in the Basolateral AmygdalaProcessesMemoriesBasolateral complex of the amygdalaPavlovianFunctions of the amygdalaRegions of the amygdalaNeuroscienceFound that the amygdalaDamage to the amygdalaFunction of the amygdalaAuditoryAutonomicStrongly implicatedNeuronalStimulusContextual fearMediateDifferences in amygdalaSocial behaviorSerotoninLimbicLong-Term PotentiPlasticityPrimate amygdalaFindingsConnectivityMiceLateral nucleusMediatesBilateralInhibitionMemoryBehavioralTemporalInhibitorySensory
- In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. (elsevier.com)
- These data indicate that normal functioning of NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala is required during acquisition of adaptive instrumental responses in a shuttle box but is not necessary for acquisition of short-term contextual fear in this situation. (elsevier.com)
- 5-mC levels were stable in central amygdala in both wild-type and 5-HTT-/- extinction rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The central amygdala (CeA), once viewed as a passive relay between the amygdala complex and downstream fear effectors, has emerged as an active participant in fear learning. (grantome.com)
- The objective of the proposed project is to elucidate the mechanisms by which the central amygdala contributes to fear learning and orchestrates fear expression in Pavlovian fear conditioning. (grantome.com)
- In the proposed research program, we will determine the synaptic and circuit mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates fear learning and fear expression in auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. (grantome.com)
- Here we show in mice that the PVT regulates fear processing in the lateral division of the central amygdala (CeL), a structure that orchestrates fear learning and expression. (cshl.edu)
- The two main sub-divisions of the Central amygdala (CeA), the lateral-capsular (CeA-LC) and the medial (CeA-M), contain extensive networks of inhibitory interneurons. (edu.au)
- Threat intensity matters: Graded fear processing in a central amygdala CRF circuit. (duke.edu)
- Thus, the loss of fear behavior when US-triggered reconsolidation is disrupted may conceivably result from the disruption of either CS or US neural representation. (jneurosci.org)
- While there is much agreement as to the physiological effects of fear, the neural pathways and connections that bring upon these effects are not well understood. (avsabonline.org)
- From the evolutionary standpoint, the theory is that fear is a neural circuit that has been designed to keep the organism alive in dangerous situations (1). (avsabonline.org)
- The student program is designed to allow students to do standard types of behavioral neuroscience experiments to try to arrive at an understanding of the neural circuitry that underlies fear learning in the automaton. (yale.edu)
- Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule is involved in induction of long-term potentiation and memory acquisition and consolidation in a fear-conditioning paradigm. (semanticscholar.org)
- Our experimental studies, focusing at the neural mechanisms of fear memory and extinction, will be performed using a wide spectrum of behavioral, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and optogenetical methods and techniques. (uni-muenster.de)
- However, the neural substrate for negative and positive behaviors and relationship between negative and positive representations in the basolateral amygdala are unknown. (nature.com)
- The neural mechanisms of fear processing and fear regulation remain unclear. (grantome.com)
- The aim of this paper will be to make a comprehensive overview of internal neural processes of both the amygdala and hippocampus and the interaction between the two structures during fear conditioning, to see how the structures separately work to overlap emotion and memory processes. (diva-portal.org)
- PD), altered neural plasticity and abnormal fear memory processing. (uibk.ac.at)
- The serotonin transporter gene may affect neural circuits connecting the amygdala and the cingulate and cause depression. (dnalc.org)
- Despite a wealth of evidence emphasizing the importance of FOM in cLBP, to date, no related neural correlates in patients were found and this therefore has initiated a debate about the precise contribution of fear in the FA model. (chiro.org)
- These ideas and their implications for understanding the neural foundations of pathological fear and anxiety are explained in his 2015 book, Anxious. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies in rodent substrains and subpopulations are providing new insights into neural system dysfunctions associated with impaired fear extinction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In recent years, the field has seen rapid advances in elucidating neural systems and circuits that are dysfunctional in patients with anxiety disorders, including PTSD [ 5 ], and recruited in rodent and human subjects during impaired processes, such as fear extinction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, a collaborative study by American and Japanese researchers, published in the December issue of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , provides evidence that the neural response to fear is fine-tuned by culture. (scienceblogs.com)
- Scientists have recently discovered keys to the neural mechanisms behind the brain's response to fear, including its extinction, which may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders and other neuropsychiatric conditions. (dana.org)
- Much of the knowledge about the neural circuitry involved in fear processing comes from research conducted by neuroscientist Joseph E. LeDoux and his colleagues at New York University. (dana.org)
- The neural circuitry which processes information about fear is well mapped, but otherwise, little else is known about the biological basis of this emotion. (scienceblogs.com)
- In order to make this problem tractable for the students, the amygdala of frat.m, unlike that of FRATx.m, has only a single LA-like nucleus (the x in FRATx, refers to the 'extra' nuclei of the program's amydala over and beyond those of the mono-nucleate frat program). (yale.edu)
- The Amygdala is the name of the collection of nuclei found in the frontal portions of the temporal lobes within the brain. (articlealley.com)
- Using an optogenetic tool, in this paper we show that the acute activation of DRN serotonin neuron terminals in the amygdala, but not in nuclei involved in regulating rapid eye-movement sleep and atonia, suppressed CLEs. (pnas.org)
- The nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) and the subpallial amygdaloid nuclei are considered to be comparable to the mammalian medial amygdala (6,7). (scielo.br)
- Studies that analyze molecular mechanisms underlying the amygdala-dependent learning and memory processes indicate that immediate-early gene expression [e.g., c-fos and zif268 ( zenk )] is increased in the nuclei of the amygdala following fear conditioning (3,11). (scielo.br)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate amygdala-related fear and anxiety in two inbred rat lines differing in emotionality (RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh), and to relate the behaviour of the animals to neuronal types in different nuclei of the amygdala. (elsevier.com)
- The body's alarm circuit for fear lies in an almond-shaped mass of nuclei deep in the brain's temporal lobe. (dana.org)
- We assessed Arc mRNA expression within the basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), ventral hippocampus (VH), prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL). (tamu.edu)
- Both the basal amygdala (BA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) can participate in contextual fear, but it is unclear if contextual fear engrams involve a direct interaction between these two brain regions. (eneuro.org)
- Safety encoding in the basal amygdala. (purdue.edu)
- Indeed, multiple parallel inhibitory and excitatory circuits are differentially recruited during the expression versus extinction of conditioned fear. (nih.gov)
- Intra-amygdala interactions supporting expression and extinction of conditioned fear. (nih.gov)
- Evidence shows that DNA methylation/demethylation is crucial for fear extinction in these brain areas and is associated with neuronal activation marker c-Fos expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In the central nucleus of the amygdala, c-Fos immunoreactivity was increased in the fear extinction group compared to the no-fear extinction group, regardless of genotype. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of fear-memory are largely unknown. (ovid.com)
- Whether calpain functions in extinction of fear-memory is unknown, as are the molecular mechanisms. (ovid.com)
- In this study, we investigated the pivotal role of calpain in extinction of fear-memory in mice, and assessed its mechanism. (ovid.com)
- Our data demonstrated that intraperitoneal or intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) injection of calpain inhibitors could eliminate extinction of fear-memory in mice. (ovid.com)
- Moreover, extinction of fear-memory paradigm-activated BLA calpain activity, which degraded suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), subsequently contributing to activation of a protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTor) signaling pathway. (ovid.com)
- Additionally, cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation was also augmented following extinction of fear-memory. (ovid.com)
- Calpain inhibitor blocked the signaling pathway activation induced by extinction of fear-memory. (ovid.com)
- Additionally, intra-BLA injection of rapamycin or cycloheximide also blocked the extinction of fear-memory. (ovid.com)
- Conversely, intra-BLA injection of PTEN inhibitor, bpV, reversed the effect of calpeptin on extinction of fear-memory. (ovid.com)
- Together, our data confirmed the function of BLA calpain in extinction of fear-memory, likely via degrading PTEN and activating AKT-mTor-dependent protein synthesis. (ovid.com)
- Stress is known to exert its detrimental effects not only by enhancing fear, but also by impairing its extinction. (elifesciences.org)
- Here, we dissociate the two processes to examine if stress specifically impairs the acquisition and recall of fear extinction. (elifesciences.org)
- Strikingly, when fear memories were formed before stress exposure, thereby allowing animals to initiate extinction from comparable levels of fear, recall of fear extinction was unaffected. (elifesciences.org)
- Thus, in the absence of the fear-enhancing effects of stress, the expression of fear during and after extinction reflects normal regulation of theta activity in the mPFC, not theta hyperactivity in the amygdala. (elifesciences.org)
- Model of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction (due to neuromodulator-controlled LTP on principal cells and inhibory interneurons)occur in amygdala and contextual representations are learned in hippocampus. (yale.edu)
- Specifically, there is reduced FAAH expression associated with the variant allele that selectively enhances fronto-amygdala connectivity and fear extinction learning, and decreases anxiety-like behaviours. (nature.com)
- fear is suppressed in the extinction context, but renews in any other context. (tamu.edu)
- Collectively, these findings suggest that extinction learning results in pattern separation, particularly within the BA, in which unique neuronal ensembles represent fear memories after extinction. (tamu.edu)
- In addition, we propose that enhanced phasic DAergic transmission during fear extinction training facilitates extinction learning and the concurrent plasticity. (uibk.ac.at)
- Intolerance of uncertainty predicts psychophysiology during fear extinction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Normal fear and safety cue discrimination but alterations in fear regulation after extinction in an animal model of schizophrenia. (purdue.edu)
- Scientists have learned that inhibiting a protein called NMDA (N-methyl D-asparate) in the amygdala inhibits fear extinction. (howstuffworks.com)
- They reasoned, then, that stimulating that protein might stimulate fear extinction. (howstuffworks.com)
- Studies show that the antibiotic D-cycloserine (well-known for treating tuberculosis) might be helpful in fear extinction by assisting the action of NMDA [ ref ]. (howstuffworks.com)
- This type of approach would be beneficial when paired with behavioral therapies that attempt to create fear-extinction memories. (howstuffworks.com)
- Fear extinction offers a tractable and translatable behavioral readout of individual differences in learned recovery from trauma. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Rapid progress is also being made in identifying key molecular circuits, epigenetic mechanisms, and gene variants associated with differences in fear extinction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Here, we discuss how a growing body of evidence from studies in rodent and human subjects that utilize fear extinction as a readout of recovery from learned trauma is rapidly informing understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of individual differences in risk for PTSD and other trauma-related conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- One assay that meets this criterion is fear extinction (for illustration, see Box 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Extinction, recognized by Pavlov almost 100 years ago [ 8 ], occurs when 'a fear conditioned organism exposed to a fear-eliciting cue in the absence of any aversive event. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Under most conditions (with exceptions, such as juvenile rodents [ 10 ]), the behavioral manifestation of fear extinction likely reflects the emergence of a new, inhibitory form of learning that successfully competes with the trauma memory to reduce fear expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In his lab at Emory, Davis has studied another fear process called extinction, in which fear is reduced after repeated exposure to a fearful event without adverse consequences (see "Have No Fear," January-February 2004 BrainWork). (dana.org)
- He found that a receptor for a particular protein called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the amygdala is critical for the extinction of a conditioned fear. (dana.org)
- Cunningham also thinks many scientists have gotten too attached to a rigid definition of emotions-anger, fear, sadness, happiness, and so on. (redorbit.com)
- Our work thus indicates an essential synaptic molecular signaling within amygdala that controls synapse development and helps bring about innate fear emotions in the postnatal developing brain. (jneurosci.org)
- The amygdala is considered to be the key component to the limbic system, a term that has also been regarded with much recent controversy by researchers in the field of emotions. (avsabonline.org)
- Although our conclusions may not apply equally well to all emotions, we maintain that the lessons from fear provide general principles that can at least be used as a starting point for theorizing about many emotions. (pnas.org)
- Emotions like fear are often said to have been inherited from animal ancestors ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 6 ). (pnas.org)
- A new study finds that veterans and active-duty service members with combat-related PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury had larger amygdalas--the region of the brain that processes such emotions as fear, anxiety, and aggression--than those with only brain injuries. (news-medical.net)
- Humans can sniff out fear and disgust and the emotions are contagious, states study. (medindia.net)
- The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear-learning. (dnalc.org)
- The limbic system is a group of brain structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus that are involved in processing and regulating emotions, memory, and sexual arousal. (dnalc.org)
- Fear didn't make an appearance in the list of emotions. (wired.com)
- In Experiment 1, S.M. and four matched controls were asked to rate the intensity of fear, peacefulness, happiness, and sadness from computer-generated instrumental music purposely created to express those emotions. (caltech.edu)
- The amygdala is responsible for processing base emotions that come from sensory inputs, like anger, avoidance, defensiveness and fear. (wired.com)
- This section of the brain is also involved in emotions, specifically fear and anxiety. (wikihow.com)
- Joseph E. LeDoux (born December 7, 1949) is an American neuroscientist whose research is primarily focused on survival circuits, including their impacts on emotions such as fear and anxiety . (wikipedia.org)
- He differentiated between the defence system, which has evolved over time, and emotions such as fear and anxiety . (wikipedia.org)
- The function of the amygdala has been studied intensively, and it is now well established that this part of the brain is critical for the recognition of emotions in others. (scienceblogs.com)
- Despite the common perception that anxiety and fear are linked, they are distinctly different emotions. (dana.org)
- Fear, that most primitive of emotions, is good, at least when it is kept under control. (scienceblogs.com)
- The amygdala, a small, almond-shaped part of the brain, is known to be involved in emotions, including fear. (scienceblogs.com)
- 2) Reasons for his assertations center around the investigations of the mechanisms by which the amygdala processes information regarding threats and fear. (avsabonline.org)
- Social enterprise amygdala SOCIAL, sro offers these target groups friendly working environment tailored to the specific needs of each employee, working and long-term psychosocial support, education, participation in decision-making processes and compliance with all other principles of social entrepreneurship. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Previous researches have shown that the way brain processes fear impacts our other body functions like heart rate. (medindia.net)
- We have developed a novel behavioral paradigm explicitly designed to assess reward, fear and safety cue learning together in order to investigate the multiple circuitries that regulate these learning processes. (purdue.edu)
- This study provides new information about the sub-cellular basis of conditioned fear, and highlights the pivotal role played by NO in processes associated with conditioned fear. (canterbury.ac.nz)
- CFL depends on NMDA, AMPA and dopaminergic receptor-mediated processes and enhanced amygdaloidal synaptic transmission facilitates fear-memory retrieval and makes the expression of conditioned fear possible. (canterbury.ac.nz)
- It is speculated that these drugs may have interfered with excitatory synaptic transmission processes and neurobiological intracellular cascades within the amygdala and thus prevented FPS reinstatement from occurring. (canterbury.ac.nz)
- Consolidated long-term fear memories become labile and can be disrupted after being reactivated by the presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (US). (jneurosci.org)
- Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the amygdala are thought to be crucial for the acquisition and expression of fear memories, but the time course of amino acid changes during conditioning is unknown. (umich.edu)
- These experiments demonstrate glutamate and GABA levels in the amygdala are differentially modulated during auditory and contextual fear learning, and are transiently increased during the expression of fear memories. (umich.edu)
- Thus, compared to unstressed animals, stressed animals had to extinguish fear memories that were strengthened by prior exposure to stress. (elifesciences.org)
- These and other studies have led scientists to believe that stress causes people to both form stronger fear memories and then have difficulties getting rid of such memories. (elifesciences.org)
- address this problem by exploring how the timing of chronic stress affects how well an animal can overcome fear memories. (elifesciences.org)
- The lateral amygdala (LA) plays a critical role in the formation of fear-conditioned associative memories. (eneuro.org)
- The lateral amygdala (LA) is critical for the formation of associative fear memories, such as those formed by fear conditioning. (eneuro.org)
- FENS 2020: can exciting the amygdala diminish traumatic memories? (neuro-central.com)
- Where the amygdala stores the memories of stimulus related to fear, the hippocampus seems to hold all the fear memories in relation to contextual information about the stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
- These findings suggest a direct interaction between the BA and dBNST during the initial encoding, but not the subsequent storage of contextual fear memories. (eneuro.org)
- The amygdala is continuous with the anterior (front) of the hippocampus, and plays an important role in the formation of fearful memories. (scienceblogs.com)
- Thus, the anxiogenic systems in the central nucleus and anxiolytic systems in the basolateral complex of the amygdala might be differentially involved in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm and exploratory tests in the Roman rat lines. (elsevier.com)
- N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptors located within the basolateral complex of the amygdala are required for the consolidation and expression of Pavlovian conditioned fear. (canterbury.ac.nz)
- The team trained a strain of mice to respond in a Pavlovian manner to auditory cues, in order to examine the behavior of the animals undergoing a fear test. (blogspot.com)
- Long-term potentiation (LTP) occurs in the amygdale during Pavlovian fear conditioning and is associated with fear-memory storage. (canterbury.ac.nz)
- He chose to focus on a simple behavioral model, Pavlovian fear conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
- Neuroscience: Inside the fear factor. (springer.com)
- Interactions between the vmPFC and the amygdala are believed to underlie aspects of emotion regulation, aggression and stimulus reinforced associations, the researchers write in an article published in the most recent issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. (livescience.com)
- During auditory fear conditioning, large, rapid and transient increases in glutamate and GABA were detected, but only during the first noise-shock pairing. (umich.edu)
- The role of NCAM in auditory fear conditioning and its modulation by stress: a focus on the amygdala. (semanticscholar.org)
- Utilizing anatomical, electrophysiological, imaging and optogenetics approaches the authors of the study were able to analyze individual neuronal cells connecting the auditory cortex and the lateral amygdala in the brains of mice. (neuro-central.com)
- The amygdala receives its main inputs from the visual, auditory and somatosensory cortices, and its main outputs are to the hypothalamus, which controls hormone production and homeostasis, and autonomic centres in the brainstem. (scienceblogs.com)
- PANIC DISORDER (PD) is a complex anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of sudden and uncontrollable fear (panic attack) and autonomic imbalance such as palpitation, perspiration, trembling, shortness of breath, a sense of suffocation, chest pain or discomfort, nausea or gastrointestinal discomfort, and dizziness. (wiley.com)
- When the CE recognizes input information as 'fear', it activates the autonomic nervous system. (wiley.com)
- The fear response is almost entirely autonomic: We don't consciously trigger it or even know what's going on until it has run its course. (howstuffworks.com)
- We also assessed changes in neuronal transcription and post-transcriptional regulation in the amygdala of naive and stimulated germ-free (GF) mice, using a genome-wide transcriptome profiling approach. (dericbownds.net)
- Together, our data demonstrates a unique transcriptional response in GF animals, likely because of already elevated levels of immediate-early gene expression and the potentially underlying neuronal hyperactivity that in turn primes the amygdala for a different transcriptional response. (dericbownds.net)
- Changes in neuronal connectivity occurring upon the formation of aversive memory were examined in C57BL/6 (C57) mice 24 h after they were trained for tone fear conditioning (TFC) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC). (frontiersin.org)
- In birds, the arcopallium includes several neuronal populations that are considered to be homologous to the regions that constitute the mammalian amygdala. (scielo.br)
- Whether this is due to an alteration of the conditioned stimulus (CS) representation in the lateral amygdala (LA) is not known. (jneurosci.org)
- T-he process of creating fear begins with a scary stimulus and ends with the fight-or-flight response. (howstuffworks.com)
- 2012) . In addition to pain as an unconditioned stimulus, FOM can also be triggered by fear inducing information and vicarious exposure, such as observations, regardless of the presence and intensity of back pain (Buchbinder et al. (chiro.org)
- Fear is generated by a specific stimulus. (dana.org)
- Conditioned fear is the process by which an insignificant and otherwise harmless stimulus becomes, by association, a sign of danger. (scienceblogs.com)
- The association between an innocuous stimulus and a fear response can easily be induced by classical conditioning , in which the stimulus is repeatedly associated with something scary, until the stimulus itself is feared. (scienceblogs.com)
- However, the anterodorsal BNST subdivision (adBNST) was not activated during either contextual fear conditioning or retrieval, underscoring the divergent functionality of these two dBNST subdivisions. (eneuro.org)
- To examine the impact of GABA B -receptors in the CeA on contextual fear-conditioning, we infused baclofen into the CeA immediately prior to training. (edu.au)
- Serotonin, Amygdala and Fear: Assembling the Puzzle. (ox.ac.uk)
- We therefore propose that the orexin neuron-DRN serotonin neuron-amygdala pathway is a critical circuit for preventing cataplexy. (pnas.org)
- Not only did stimulating serotonin nerve terminals reduce amygdala activity, but the chemogenetic inhibition of the amygdala using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs also drastically decreased CLEs, whereas chemogenetic activation increased them. (pnas.org)
- The amygdala receives projections from frontal cortex, association cortex, temporal lobe, olfactory system and other parts of the limbic system. (avsabonline.org)
- The classic model of the limbic system encompasses the hippocampus, the amygdala, and a few other small structures. (avsabonline.org)
- While the fear circuit does indeed appear to incorporate the amygdala, the hippocampus and the other limbic structures are not involved. (avsabonline.org)
- The amygdala is part of the limbic system, and it particularly handles fear. (extremetech.com)
- The amygdala is part of the limbic system, a complex set of structures that includes the thalamus (or "deep chamber"), the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb. (scienceblogs.com)
- Our findings suggest that, because of their remarkably functional hippocampus, C57 mice might engage this region in any fear situation they face. (frontiersin.org)
- It should be noted that the absence of amnesia in the amygdala-lesioned animals reported by Alkire and Nathan is at odds with the findings of other groups. (asahq.org)
- To examine the amygdala volume in 2-5-year-old preschool children with autism and explore the relationship between amygdala volumes based on MRI findings and clinical features. (springer.com)
- These findings suggested that the smaller volume of the amygdala may be associated with anxiety in panic disorder. (wiley.com)
- During the 2009 Gordon Research Conference on the amygdala, internationally renowned basic and clinical researchers will present their latest findings on the amygdala. (grc.org)
- Current findings support the Fear of movement (FOM) component of the Fear Avoidance (FA) model in cLBP. (chiro.org)
- Intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala. (nih.gov)
- and (2) differential effects of Fear of movement (FOM) between patients with cLBP and pain-free subjects were found in the extended amygdala and in its connectivity to the anterior insula. (chiro.org)
- They also developed an equation that reliably predicted the children's anxiety level from the MRI measurements of amygdala volume and amygdala functional connectivity. (elsevier.com)
- It is a bit surprising that alterations to the structure and connectivity of the amygdala were so significant in children with higher levels of anxiety, given both the young age of the children and the fact that their anxiety levels were too low to be observed clinically," commented Dr. Shaozheng Qin, first author on this study. (elsevier.com)
- Alternatively, stored first-order CS-US association in the LA could permit the CS representation to be rendered labile after US reactivation and produce a sensory-specific fear memory loss. (jneurosci.org)
- Thus, we demonstrate for what is to our knowledge the first time that the presence of the host microbiome is crucial for the appropriate behavioural response during amygdala-dependent memory retention. (dericbownds.net)
- One problem with many of these studies is that the animals were repeatedly stressed before the fear memory was formed. (elifesciences.org)
- This made it hard to tease apart whether the strength of the fear memory itself or a problem extinguishing the fear memory were to blame for the animals' difficulties overcoming their fear. (elifesciences.org)
- The report by Alkire and Nathan 4 in this issue of Anesthesiology provides interesting data supporting the amygdala as a site at which inhaled anesthetics exert an amnestic effect on fear conditioning, one form of memory. (asahq.org)
- These data suggest that, at least for this type of learning, the basolateral amygdala is not the critical site for memory storage and that sevoflurane (and propfol 5 and diazepam 6 ) acts in that structure to block this learning. (asahq.org)
- The effect of chronic corticosterone on fear learning and memory depends on dose and the testing protocol. (semanticscholar.org)
- Amygdala involved in memory, emotion, and fear. (prezi.com)
- The amygdala itself is associated with emotion, memory and fear. (livescience.com)
- Results suggest etiologically distinct behavioral patterns of social fear in preschoolers with elevated ASD symptoms. (springer.com)
- provides] a tremendous way to do translational research between the best understood behavioral circuit--the fear reaction--and fear-related disorders,' said Ressler, who, as an M.D.-Ph.D., is also co-director of the post-traumatic stress disorder clinic at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta. (nsf.gov)