Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Dictionaries, MedicalDura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Dictionaries, ChemicalVocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dens in Dente: Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Dictionaries, ChemicalTemporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DictionaryFibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Glycosuria, Renal: An autosomal inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of GLUCOSE by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The urinary loss of glucose can reach beyond 50 g/day. It is attributed to the mutations in the SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 encoded by the SLC5A2 gene.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Education, Professional, Retraining: Educational programs for individuals who have been inactive in their profession, or who wish to regain unused skills.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Lip DiseasesImmobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.ButylaminesPhysical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.HumanitiesParanoid Behavior: Behavior exhibited by individuals who are overly suspicious, but without the constellation of symptoms characteristic of paranoid personality disorder or paranoid type of schizophrenia.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Religion and SexPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (1/3478)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Distinct populations of NMDA receptors at subcortical and cortical inputs to principal cells of the lateral amygdala. (2/3478)

Fear conditioning involves the transmission of sensory stimuli to the amygdala from the thalamus and cortex. These input synapses are prime candidates for sites of plasticity critical to the learning in fear conditioning. Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanisms have been implicated in fear learning, we investigated the contribution of NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission at putative cortical and thalamic inputs using visualized whole cell recording in amygdala brain slices. Whereas NMDA receptors are present at both of these pathways, differences were observed. First, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor-mediated component of the synaptic response, relative to the NMDA component, is smaller at thalamic than cortical input synapses. Second, thalamic NMDA responses are more sensitive to Mg2+. These findings suggest that there are distinct populations of NMDA receptors at cortical and thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala. Differences such as these might underlie unique contributions of the two pathways to fear conditioning.  (+info)

Dose-related effects of single focal irradiation in the medial temporal lobe structures in rats--magnetic resonance imaging and histological study. (3/3478)

The dose-related effects of single focal irradiation on the medial temporal lobe in rats were investigated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination. Irradiation of 200 Gy as a maximum dose using 4 mm collimators with a gamma unit created an area of necrosis consistently at the target site within 2 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of 100 Gy caused necrosis within 10 weeks, and 75 Gy caused necrosis within one year. Irradiation of less than 50 Gy did not induce necrosis consistently, although a restricted area of necrosis was created in the medial temporal structures including the intraparenchymal portion of the optic tract. 75 Gy may be the optimum dose for creating necrosis consistently in the medial temporal lobe structures. However, careful dose planning considering both dose-time and dose-volume relationships in necrosis development is necessary to avoid injury to vulnerable neural structures such as the optic tract when applying radiosurgical techniques to treat functional brain disorders in medial temporal lobe structures such as temporal lobe epilepsy.  (+info)

A quantitative MR study of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in healthy subjects 40 to 90 years of age. (4/3478)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several investigators have defined normal age-specific values for the medial temporal lobe structures in neurologically normal elderly subjects, but, to our knowledge, no one has reported those values for a large sample of healthy volunteers. The purpose of our study was to define normal age-specific values for the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle by age group, ranging from 40 to 90 years, in order to generate a guideline for the quantitative MR diagnosis and differential diagnosis for early Alzheimer disease. METHODS: MR-based volumetric measurements of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn, standardized by total intracranial volume, were obtained from oblique coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in 619 healthy volunteers and two cadaveric specimens. RESULTS: Differences in standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn were significant among the 61- to 70-year-old, 71- to 80-year-old, and 81- to 90-year-old groups, and were not significant between the 40- to 50-year-old and 51- to 60-year-old groups. We found no significant differences in side or sex among the age groups for any of the structures. CONCLUSION: Differences in the mean value and in the 95% normal range of standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn correspond to differences in age among healthy subjects; therefore, age should be considered a factor in correlative research, especially in that involving patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease.  (+info)

The human amygdala plays an important role in gaze monitoring. A PET study. (5/3478)

Social contact often initially depends on ascertaining the direction of the other person's gaze. We determined the brain areas involved in gaze monitoring by a functional neuroimaging study. Discrimination between the direction of gaze significantly activated a region in the left amygdala during eye-contact and no eye-contact tasks to the same extent. However, a region in the right amygdala was specifically activated only during the eye-contact task. Results confirm that the left amygdala plays a general role in the interpretation of eye gaze direction, and that the activity of the right amygdala of the subject increases when another individual's gaze is directed towards him. This suggests that the human amygdala plays a role in reading social signals from the face.  (+info)

Differential regulation of the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) in hypothalamus and amygdala of the immature rat by sensory input and food intake. (6/3478)

The physiological consequences of activating corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) are not fully understood. The neuroanatomic distribution of this CRF receptor family member is consistent with roles in mediating the actions of CRF and similar ligands on food intake control and integrative aspects of stress-related behaviors. However, CRF2 expression in the adult rat is not influenced by stress, corticosterone (CORT), or food intake. In immature rat we have demonstrated striking downregulation of CRF2mRNA in hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) after 24 hr of maternal deprivation, a paradigm consisting of both physiological/psychological stress and food deprivation. The current study aimed to distinguish which element or elements of maternal deprivation govern CRF2mRNA expression by isolating the effects of food intake and discrete maternal sensory cues on CRF2mRNA levels in VMH and in reciprocally communicating amygdala nuclei. In maternally deprived pups, CRF2mRNA levels in VMH and basomedial (BMA) and medial (MEA) amygdala nuclei were 62, 72, and 102% of control levels, respectively. Sensory inputs of grooming and handling as well as of the pups' own suckling activity-but not food intake-fully restored CRF2mRNA expression in VMH. In contrast, all manipulations tended to increase CRF2mRNA levels in BMA of maternally deprived rats, and surrogate grooming increased CRF2mRNA expression significantly above that of nondeprived controls. CRF2mRNA expression was not influenced significantly by plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT levels. Thus, in the immature rat, (1) CRF2 expression is regulated differentially in hypothalamic and amygdala regions, and (2) CRF2mRNA levels in VMH are governed primarily by maternal or suckling-derived sensory input rather than food intake or peripheral stress hormones. These findings indicate a region-specific regulation of CRF2mRNA, supporting the participation of the receptor in neurochemically defined circuits integrating sensory cues to influence specific behavioral and visceral functions.  (+info)

Differential regulation of glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA (GR-mRNA) by maternal deprivation in immature rat hypothalamus and limbic regions. (7/3478)

Maternal deprivation (MDep) of neonatal rats significantly influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study hypothesized that GR-mRNA modulation constituted an early, critical mechanism for the acute effects of MDep on neuroendocrine stress-responses. GR-mRNA hybridization signal in hippocampal CA1, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and frontal cortex was significantly reduced immediately following 24 h MDep. In amygdala, cingulate cortex, PVN and CA1, apparent gender-dependent MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression were observed, without significant differences in absolute levels. Thus, rapid, region-specific MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression in HPA-regulating areas are shown, consistent with involvement of GR-expression in mechanisms of MDep influence on HPA tone.  (+info)

Differential effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on bursting activity in the amygdala. (8/3478)

Differential effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on bursting activity in the amygdala. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are implicated in both the activation and inhibition of epileptiform bursting activity in seizure models. We examined the role of mGluR agonists and antagonists on bursting in vitro with whole cell recordings from neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of amygdala-kindled rats. The broad-spectrum mGluR agonist 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylate (1S,3R-ACPD, 100 microM) and the group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, 20 microM) evoked bursting in BLA neurons from amygdala-kindled rats but not in control neurons. Neither the group II agonist (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (L-CCG-I, 10 microM) nor the group III agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4, 100 microM) evoked bursting. The agonist-induced bursting was inhibited by the mGluR1 antagonists (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine [(+)-MCPG, 500 microM] and (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine [(S)-4C3HPG, 300 microM]. Kindling enhanced synaptic strength from the lateral amygdala (LA) to the BLA, resulting in synaptically driven bursts at low stimulus intensity. Bursting was abolished by (S)-4C3HPG. Further increasing stimulus intensity in the presence of (S)-4C3HPG (300 microM) evoked action potential firing similar to control neurons but did not induce epileptiform bursting. In kindled rats, the same threshold stimulation that evoked epileptiform bursting in the absence of drugs elicited excitatory postsynaptic potentials in (S)-4C3HPG. In contrast (+)-MCPG had no effect on afferent-evoked bursting in kindled neurons. Because (+)-MCPG is a mGluR2 antagonist, whereas (S)-4C3HPG is a mGluR2 agonist, the different effects of these compounds suggest that mGluR2 activation decreases excitability. Together these data suggest that group I mGluRs may facilitate and group II mGluRs may attenuate epileptiform bursting observed in kindled rats. The mixed agonist-antagonist (S)-4C3HPG restored synaptic transmission to control levels at the LA-BLA synapse in kindled animals. The different actions of (S)-4C3HPG and (+)-MCPG on LA-evoked bursting suggests that the mGluR1 antagonist-mGluR2 agonist properties may be the distinctive pharmacology necessary for future anticonvulsant compounds.  (+info)

*Cronia amygdala

... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails ... Cronia amygdala (Kiener, 1835). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 April 2010.. ...

*Basolateral amygdala

The amygdala has several different nuclei and internal pathways; the basolateral complex (or basolateral amygdala), the central ... The basolateral amygdala (BLA) or basolateral complex, consists of the lateral, basal and accessory-basal nuclei of the ... The information is then processed by the basolateral complex and is sent as output to the central nucleus of the amygdala. This ... Each of these has a unique function and purpose within the amygdala. Baars, B. J, Gage, N. M. (2010). Cognition, Brain, and ...

*Amygdala (disambiguation)

Amygdala (from Ancient Greek: ἀμυγδαλή amygdálē) is a Latin word meaning "almond". It can refer to: Amygdala, part of the human ... brain Amygdalin, a compound in almonds Amygdalum, a genus of mussel Amygdala (comics), a comic book character Amygdala Music, ... the music composition arm of TV production company Original Productions Amygdule or amygdale, infilled vesicles in rocks ... a biofeedback-based art project by the artist Massimiliano Peretti Amygdala, a boss in Bloodborne. ...

*Amygdala hijack

"Conflict and Your Brain aka The Amygdala Hijacking" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-06. Freedman, Joshua. "Hijacking of the Amygdala ... If the amygdala perceives a match to the stimulus, i.e., if the record of experiences in the hippocampus tells the amygdala ... the amygdala acts before any possible direction from the neocortex can be received. If, however, the amygdala does not find any ... Amygdala hijack is a term coined by Daniel Goleman in his 1996 book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. ...

*Extended amygdala

The extended amygdala is a macrostructure in the brain that is involved in reward cognition and defined by connectivity and ... The extended amygdala is said to comprise several basal forebrain structures that share similar morphology, immunocytochemical ... It includes the central medial amygdala, sublenticular substantia innominata, the nucleus accumbens shell, and the stria ... the central medial amygdala, the shell of the NAc, and the sublenticular substantia innominata. Heimer L (1995). The Human ...

*Amygdala (comics)

Batman subdued Amygdala, but was then forced to face more inmates. Amygdala later appeared in Part 2 of the year-long story arc ... Amygdala is killed and then beheaded by the vampire Batman. Amygdala is briefly referenced in an article by Joseph LeDoux, a ... Amygdala survived, but he was heavily traumatized by the death of his friends. In the Infinite Crisis storyline, Amygdala was ... Alongside Killer Croc and King Shark, Amygdala attacks Batman on a train. Amygdala is a huge man with the strength and ...

*Intercalated cells of the amygdala

ITC cells are thought to play a role as the 'off switch' for the amygdala, inhibiting the amygdala's central nucleus output ... cells of the amygdala are a group of GABAergic neurons situated between the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala that ... Amygdala Medial prefrontal cortex Quirk, G. J.; Mueller, D (2008). "Neural mechanisms of extinction learning and retrieval". ... Some researchers speculate that ITC cells, via their extensive local inhibition within the amygdala, could serve as a substrate ...

*Central nucleus of the amygdala

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA or aCeN) is a nucleus within the amygdala. It "serves as the major output nucleus of ... is one of the three principal pathways by which fibers leave the amygdala. The other main efferent pathways from the amygdala ... "Limbic System: Amygdala". In Byrne, John H. Homeostasis and Higher Brain Function. Neuroscience Online. University of Texas ... Kalin, Ned H.; Shelton, Steven E.; Davidson, Richard J. (2004). "The Role of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala in Mediating ...

*Willis Conover

Amygdala. Article about Conover's interest in science fiction and fantasy, including his correspondence with H. P. Lovecraft. ...

*Verminators

Amygdala Music - Jonathan Miller. Amygdala Music. 2008-12-19. Retrieved on 2009-02-06. "Verminators" (2008) - Full cast and ...

*Lateral hypothalamus

"Limbic System: Amygdala". In Byrne, John H. Homeostasis and Higher Brain Function. Neuroscience Online. University of Texas ... Medial prefrontal cortex Central nucleus of the amygdala The orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus innervate ... Other output regions include: the ventromedial hypothalamus, medial and lateral septal nuclei, central medial amygdala, zona ... Reppucci, Christina J.; Petrovich, Gorica D. (2015-07-14). "Organization of connections between the amygdala, medial prefrontal ...

*Prunum

... amygdala Kiener. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 April 2010. Prunum antillanum (Sarasúa, 1992 ...

*English words of Greek origin

... almond and amygdala (ἀμυγδάλη); dram and drachma (δραχμή), also dirhem via Arabic; paper and papyrus (πάπυρος); carat and ...

*Anette Prehn

"Bliv ven med hjernens amygdala". Dafolos online-butik. Retrieved 23 November 2017. Schrøder, Malene. "Rejsen til Amygdala (in ... ISBN 978-87-7160-681-2 Bliv ven med hjernens amygdala (2017), Dafolo. ISBN 978-87-7160-680-5 Stierne i hjernen (2017), Dafolo. ... Mehlsen, Camilla (10 October 2015). "Farvel Freud, goddag Amygdala". Dagbladet Information. Retrieved 31 January 2017. "Gør ... Hello Amygdala" in Dagbladet Information. Gør hjernen til en medspiller (2017), Dafolo. ...

*Cronia

... amygdala (Kiener, 1835). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010. Cronia aurantiaca ( ... Species within the genus Cronia include: Cronia amygdala (Kiener, 1835) Cronia aurantiaca (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1853) Cronia ...

*Neurocriminology

Underdeveloped amygdalae. Two studies found that both the left and especially the right amygdalae are impaired in psychopaths. ... 2014). "Lower Amygdala Volume in Men is Associated with Childhood Aggression, Early Psychopathic Traits, and Future Violence". ... 2013). "Lower Amygdala Volume in Men is Associated with Childhood Aggression, Early Psychopathic Traits, and Future Violence". ... Similarly, Dustin Pardini conducted that which shows that men with a smaller amygdala are three times more likely to commit ...

*TAAR1

Tissue Distribution CNS (region specific) & several peripheral tissues: Stomach > amygdala, kidney, lung, small intestine > ... amygdala, and raphe nucleus. TAAR1 has also been identified in human astrocytes. TAAR1 is the only TAAR subtype not found in ...

*Emotional bias

The amygdala is an area in the brain involved in emotion. Studies have found that patients with bilateral amygdala damage, ... doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.05.021 Retrieved on 10/4/12 Gupta, R., Koscik, T. R., Bechara, A., & Tranel, D. (2011). The amygdala and ... which is damage in both hemispheres of the amygdala region in the brain, are deficient in decision-making. When an initial ... choice is made in decision-making, the result of this choice has an emotional response, which is controlled by the amygdala. ...

*Effects of stress on memory

PTSD can affect several parts of the brain such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. The amygdala controls ... Maeng, L. Y.; Waddell, J.; Shors, T. J. (2010). "The Prefrontal Cortex Communicates with the Amygdala to Impair Learning after ... In particular, the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are affected. One class of stress hormone responsible for ... Stress hormones influence the processes carried out in the hippocampus and amygdala which are also associated with emotional ...

*Cat intelligence

The domestic cat brain also contains the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal lobes (which comprise 3 to 3.5% of the total brain in ... Marcos, P; Coveñas, R; Narvaez, J.A; Aguirre, J.A; Tramu, G; Gonzalez-Baron, S (1998). "Neuropeptides in the Cat Amygdala". ... Bear, Mark F.; Connors, Barry W.; Paradiso, Michael A. (2007). "Neural Components of Aggression Beyond the Amygdala". ...

*Autism and working memory

Baron-Cohen, S; Ring, H.A.; Bullmore, E.T.; Wheelwright, S.; Ashwin, C.; Williams, S.C.R. (May 2000). "The amygdala theory of ... Brothers, L.; Ring, B; Kling, A (21 December 1990). "Response of neurons in the macaque amygdala to complex social stimuli". ... The interaction between the amygdala, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STG) enables ...

*Post-traumatic amnesia

The amygdala, an area of the brain involved in emotional regulation, may be involved in producing remembrance for some aspects ... Roozendaal B.; Mcewen B. S.; Chattarji S. (2009). "Stress, memory and the amygdala". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10 (6): 423- ... it may remain partially encoded in the form of an emotional memory in the amygdala where it can be subsequently recalled in the ...

*Memory and social interactions

The amygdala is one of the major structures in the limbic system. It is also known to play a role in the processing of and ... Overall, the research suggests that the amygdala is important for the making and retrieval of social judgements. The ... Adolphs, R.; Tranel, D.; Damasio, A.R. (1998). "The human amygdala in social judgment". Nature. 393: 470-474. doi:10.1038/30982 ... Adolphs, R.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Tranel, D. (2002). "Impaired Recognition of Social Emotions following Amygdala Damage". Journal ...

*Blame

amygdala has been found Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G; Carter, R McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; ... Blaming appears to relate to include brain activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The amygdala has been found to ...

*PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

Specifically, amygdala fear conditioning was lost. This is a type of trace conditioning which is a form of learning that ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mariana Zancan, Aline DallOglio, Taís Malysz Sarzenski, Martin Ian Maher, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Alberto A Rasia-Filho].
We previously analyzed the arborization patterns of rat ventral pallidal (VP) axons that coursed caudally to innervate the thalamus and brainstem (Tripathi et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:1133-1157, 2013). Here, we have reconstructed 16 previously undetected axons from the same tracer deposits that follow a more lateral trajectory. Virtually all 16 axons emanating from the different VP compartments collateralized in the extended amygdala system (EAS) and amygdaloid complex. The most frequent targets of axons from the lateral and medial (VPm) VP compartments were the rostral sublenticular extended amygdala, the extended amygdala (EA), the central nucleus of the amygdala and the posterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. In contrast, axons from the rostral extension of the VP preferentially innervated the anterior amygdaloid area, the magnocellular preoptic nucleus, and the anterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. We additionally found and reconstructed a single corticopetal ...
Apply for the 3 Year Postdoctoral Position on a Research Project to Investigate the Role of GABAergic Neurons of the Mouse Amygdala on Behaviour Job, Aarhus University - Dandrite, Aarhus, Denmark. Research Scientist Jobs or Postdocs in Europe from EuroScienceJobs.com
Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of abnormal amygdala responses in patients with PD. In comparison with NCs, patients with PD in both the drug-off and drug-on states showed a reduced amygdala response during the perceptual processing of angry and fearful faces. Our results also provide the first in vivodemonstration in human subjects of dopamine modulation of the amygdala. Dopamine repletion appeared to partially restore the response of the amygdala in PD patients, as evidenced by the increased BOLD response in the drug-on state relative to the drug-off state.. The potentiated amygdala response in the dopamine-replete state relative to the hypodopaminergic state may reflect dopamine gating of amygdala inputs and subsequent increased amygdala neuronal activity. Recently, Hariri et al. (2002), using this same BOLD fMRI paradigm in healthy subjects, reported a robust potentiation of the response of the amygdala by dextroamphetamine, a nonspecific monoaminergic agonist that primarily ...
The ability of the pancreatic hormone amylin to inhibit food intake relies on a direct activation of the area postrema (AP). This activation is synaptically transmitted to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB), the central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTL). Interestingly, neurons of the rostro-dorsal lateral hypothalamic area (dLHA), which are activated during fasting, are inhibited by peripheral amylin, although they lack amylin receptors. Using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin-B (Ctb) we analyzed whether the dLHA receives neuronal projections from amylin-activated brain areas. The anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) was used to confirm the projections and to identify further neuronal pathways potentially involved in amylin signaling. We identified dense projections from the amylin activated neurons in the LPB and sparse projections from the NTS to the dLHA. LPB fiber efferents were found ...
The consequences of acute xylene publicity to the enkephalinergic neuromodulatory technique were studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats have been injected ip with 0 or 1.6 mL/kg xylene every day for three consecutive times. 3 hr following the last dose, they ended up killed and also the brains were being eradicated. The brains ended up dissected in the parietal cortex. caudate putamen, medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, and central amygdaloid nuclei (CA). The assorted Mind components were being analyzed for improvements of their met-enkephalin content by an immunostaining procedure ...
Elsewhere, Koze finds time to recline in the idiosyncratic minimalism of yesteryear. "Royal Asscher Cut" stitches strange, off-pitched samples into a whirling bit of house. "Marilyn Whirlwind" combines dark, almost acidic squelches with itchy guitar stretches to form one of the records few after-dark moments. For my money though, Amygdalas most overtly joyous moment comes on "Das Wort," which begins on a tubby, almost inaudible beat before live bass introduces the tracks central chime-like motif. And yet, just as you settle into this sunny little groove, theres that Marvin Gaye nod: "were all sensitive people / soooo much to give." Its infectious and almost a little too odd, yet its totally at ease. In other words, its DJ Koze doing what hes done for well over a decade. ...
A differential contribution of the right and left amygdalae to affective information processing has been proposed. However, the direction of this lateralization has not been confirmed. In this study, we used a pre- and post-treatment (escitalopram) design to analyze the relative differences between neural activity in the right and left amygdalae during exposure to emotional stimuli in currently depressed patients. To the best of our knowledge, this study is to compare neural activity between the left and right amygdalae in people with depression. Our findings could lead to the development of parameters or biomarkers for depressive symptoms and treatment response. We used a pre-post-test design without a control group. Twenty currently depressed participants underwent an emotion processing task during fMRI. These participants were then treated with an antidepressant for 6 weeks. We used amygdala region-of-interest analysis to evaluate the hemodynamic response during exposure to colored emotional pictures
Recognizing motivationally salient information is critical to guiding behaviour. The amygdala and hippocampus are thought to support this operation, but the circuit-level mechanism of this interaction is unclear. We used direct recordings in the amygdala and hippocampus from human epilepsy patients to examine oscillatory activity during processing of fearful faces compared with neutral landscapes. We report high gamma (70-180 Hz) activation for fearful faces with earlier stimulus evoked onset in the amygdala compared with the hippocampus. Attending to fearful faces compared with neutral landscape stimuli enhances low-frequency coupling between the amygdala and the hippocampus. The interaction between the amygdala and hippocampus is largely unidirectional, with theta/alpha oscillations in the amygdala modulating hippocampal gamma activity. Granger prediction, phase slope index and phase lag analysis corroborate this directional coupling. These results demonstrate that processing emotionally ...
Synonyms for Amygdalar cortices in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Amygdalar cortices. 2 synonyms for amygdala: amygdaloid nucleus, corpus amygdaloideum. What are synonyms for Amygdalar cortices?
The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at low frequencies (≤1Hz) evoked a short-latency excitation of BA interneurons (INs) that was depressed at higher frequencies. Pharmacological analysis revealed this effect was mediated by glutamate and not 5-HT since it was abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at higher frequencies (10-20Hz) ...
The present discussion of SP and associated HHEs is much indebted to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming (Hobson & McCarley, 1977; McCarley & Hobson, 1979). According to that theory, REM is initiated via inhibitory activity of the REM-off cells in reciprocal interaction with REM-on cells (See section on SP and REM for a more detailed discussion). These brain-stem mechanisms inhibit motor output and sensory input and provide the cortex with internally generated activation. The function of the cortical centers is one of synthesizing quasi-random activation into meaningful patterns. Although the activation-synthesis model has not emphasized affective components, the pervasiveness of fear and the sensed presence in the phenomenology of SP indicates that the role of the amygdala may need to be considered central in understanding the SP night-mare. We hypothesize that the experience of a threatening presence during SP is associated with the thalamic projections to the amygdala. During REM, ...
Social Emotional Learning is a new trend in whole child education thats gaining traction. Heres what you need to know about Social Emotional Learning.
ABSTRACT: Although the amygdala complex is a brain area critical for human behavior, knowledge of its subspecialization is primarily derived from experiments in animals. We here employed methods for large-scale data mining to perform a connectivity-derived parcellation of the human amygdala based on whole-brain coactivation patterns computed for each seed voxel. Voxels within the histologically defined human amygdala were clustered into distinct groups based on their brain-wide coactivation maps. Using this approach, connectivity-based parcellation divided the amygdala into three distinct clusters that are highly consistent with earlier microstructural distinctions. Meta-analytic connectivity modelling then revealed the derived clusters brain-wide connectivity patterns, while meta-data profiling allowed their functional characterization. These analyses revealed that the amygdalas laterobasal nuclei group was associated with coordinating high-level sensory input, whereas its centromedial nuclei ...
Scientists and mental health professionals have made major strides in understanding and treating major depression, including the discovery of the role played by imbalances in brain chemicals such as serotonin and noradrenaline. But there is increasing evidence that there is more to the story: depression also involves structural changes in areas of the brain that are involved in mood, memory, and decision-making. Depression is often precipitated by stressful experiences. The brain interprets our experiences and decides if they are threatening, and then controls our behavioral and physiological responses to them. Data obtained from animal experiments show that harmful physiological changes result from the inability of the brain and body to respond to repeated stress with adaptive modifications in structure and function. Three brain areas - the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala - are particularly susceptible to pathological changes in size and function. These areas are ...
According to a press-release from UCLA, researchers recruited 41 epilepsy patients and monitored activity in their amygdalae, an area located deep within the brain which is believed to regulate emotions, in response to visual stimuli -- photos of people, buildings, and animals, respectively. Since most previous studies into amygdalae focused on reactions to human faces, neuroscientists were surprised to find that they didnt elicit the most profound reaction. Our study shows that neurons in the human amygdala respond preferentially to pictures of animals, meaning that we saw the most amount of activity in cells when the patients looked at cats or snakes versus buildings or people, says Florian Mormann of CalTech, and the studys lead author. This preference extends to cute as well as ugly or dangerous animals and appears to be independent of the emotional contents of th... Full article: http://www.treehugger.com/files/2011/09/humans-are-hardwi... ...
Looking for online definition of cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? cortical amygdaloid nucleus explanation free. What is cortical amygdaloid nucleus? Meaning of cortical amygdaloid nucleus medical term. What does cortical amygdaloid nucleus mean?
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
The present study demonstrates the ability of aversively experienced, concentrated QHCL to activate the human amygdala. This finding converges with our previous report of amygdala activation during gustatory stimulation with aversive saline (Zald et al. 1998a) and a similar finding by ODoherty et al. (2001) using fMRI.. Several caveats are necessary in interpreting the amygdala response (as well as responses in other brain regions). First, these data cannot tease apart the extent to which the perception of bitterness or the aversive nature of the stimulus led to the response. Single-cell recordings in nonhuman primates suggest that the patterns of firing in the amygdala are too nonspecific to provide much information about taste quality (bitter vs. sour for instance) but instead primarily reflect the emotional valence of the stimulus (Scott et al. 1993). Previous observations of amygdala activation during exposure to a different aversive taste (saline) clearly indicate that other aversive ...
The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism, presented by Cogner (1956), theorized that alcoholism was induced by the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, which in turn reinforced intake of ethanol. If this holds true, then it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CNS effects of ethanol may be dominant in the area of the brain that controls or influences anxiety. Given the known role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety-induced responses, we hypothesized that the anxiety reducing effects of ethanol would be observed within the amygdala and may be measured as alterations of neuronal excitability. The first aim of this thesis was to establish an animal model of alcoholism in the laboratory. This was done by introducing a nutritionally complete ethanol containing liquid diet. We compared two liquid diet ...
79 Moreover, the amygdaloid complex contains a moderate density of receptors and the developmental role of u s cholinergic amygdaloid system in passive avoidance learning cymbalta the rat has been described to occur during cymbalta us patent same time period. 25c 1 H 0.
The amygdala is critical for fear processing and fear regulation. The central amygdala (CeA), once viewed as a passive relay between the amygdala complex and do...
Role of Oxytocin in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Network During Social Decision-Makings profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Learning theory suggests that animals attend to pertinent environmental cues when reward contingencies unexpectedly change so that learning can occur. We have previously shown that activity in basolateral nucleus of amygdala (ABL) responds to unexpected changes in reward value, consistent with unsigned prediction error signals theorized by Pearce and Hall. However, changes in activity were present only at the time of unexpected reward delivery, not during the time when the animal needed to attend to conditioned stimuli that would come to predict the reward. This suggested that a different brain area must be signaling the need for attention necessary for learning. One likely candidate to fulfill this role is the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). To test this hypothesis, we recorded from single neurons in ACC as rats performed the same behavioral task that we have used to dissociate signed from unsigned prediction errors in dopamine and ABL neurons. In this task, rats chose between two fluid wells ...
The human amygdala is known to be involved in processing social, emotional, and reward-related information. Previous reports have indicated that the amygdala is involved in extracting trustworthiness information from faces. Interestingly, functional
Stress is known to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and to enhance anxiety. Stress also leads to secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), and the BLA has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors. This raises the possibility that stress-induced elevation in GC secretion might directly affect amygdaloid neurons. To address the possible effects of GC on neurons of amygdala and on anxiety, we used rats treated either acutely with a single dose or chronically with 10 daily doses of high physiological levels of corticosterone (the rat-specific glucocorticoid). Behavior and morphological changes in neurons of BLA were measured 12 days after the initiation of treatment in both groups. A single acute dose of corticosterone was sufficient to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the BLA and heightened anxiety, as measured on an elevated plus maze. Moreover, this form of dendritic hypertrophy after acute treatment was of a magnitude similar to that caused by chronic treatment. ...
Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an "H". Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
Evidence suggests that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signalling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is involved in pain, fear, and fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA). In this study, we investigated the effects of intra-BLA ...
We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
RESULTS: In the medial subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central amygdala (CeA), the number of pCREB immunoreactive (pCREB-ir) cells in the clean-bedding exposed group was significantly larger than in the home cage group, while the number of pCREB-ir cells in the OVX+E2-bedding exposed group did not differ from that in the home cage group. The bedding soiled by OVX rats was less effective. No significant difference in the number of pCREB-ir cells was detected in the other regions of the extended amygdala among all groups ...
see also amygdalohippocampotomy Amygdalohippocampectomy is a neurosurgical procedure for the treatment of epilepsy. see selective amygdalohippocampectomy. Surgical approaches for medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) that previously have been reported include anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy, transsylvian amygdalohippocampectomy, and subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy. Each approach has its advantages and potential pitfalls Minimally Invasive Transpalpebral Endoscopic-Assisted Amygdalohippocampectomy 1). ...
BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with neural abnormalities in emotional processing. AIMS: This study explored whether these abnormalities underlie risk for depression. METHOD: We compared the neural responses of volunteers who were at high and low-risk for the development of depression (by virtue of high and low neuroticism scores; high-N group and low-N group respectively) during the presentation of fearful and happy faces using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). RESULTS: The high-N group demonstrated linear increases in response in the right fusiform gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus to expressions of increasing fear, whereas the low-N group demonstrated the opposite effect. The high-N group also displayed greater responses in the right amygdala, cerebellum, left middle frontal and bilateral parietal gyri to medium levels of fearful v. happy expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for depression is associated with enhanced neural responses to fearful facial expressions similar to those
This study followed a 52-year-old male patient, who had suffered from severe impairment in recent memory due to se- quelae of herpes encephalitis, for 20 years. He returned to his highly intellectual work and performed well despite his doctors prediction. While the patient showed consistently poor results on various neuropsychological memory tests, he demonstrated incredible performance at work. This case exemplifies an extreme case that declarative memory is formed with the support of semantic memory, procedural memory, and his strong interests. Additionally, it offers lessons that results on memory tests do not necessarily correspond to the actual level of competence. The focal sites were found on both sides of the medial temporal lobe, predominantly on the left side. The T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained 9 years after the onset confirmed widespread damage to the left brain including parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, spindle gyrus, and amygdaloid complex, with microlesions
Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala - a subcortical center for emotion perception - are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may
Appropriate responses to an imminent threat brace us for adversities. The ability to sense and predict threatening or stressful events is essential for such adaptive behaviour. In the mammalian brain, one putative stress sensor is the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), an area that is readily activated by both physical and psychological stressors. However, the role of the PVT in the establishment of adaptive behavioural responses remains unclear. Here we show in mice that the PVT regulates fear processing in the lateral division of the central amygdala (CeL), a structure that orchestrates fear learning and expression. Selective inactivation of CeL-projecting PVT neurons prevented fear conditioning, an effect that can be accounted for by an impairment in fear-conditioning-induced synaptic potentiation onto somatostatin-expressing (SOM+) CeL neurons, which has previously been shown to store fear memory. Consistently, we found that PVT neurons preferentially innervate SOM+ neurons in ...
Imaging data were preprocessed and analysed using FEAT (FMRI Expert Analysis Tool) version 5.43, part of FSL (FMRIBs Software Library, www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). The following pre-statistics processing was applied: motion correction using FMIRBs linear image registration tool (MCFLIRT);18 non-brain removal using the Brain Extraction Tool;19 spatial smoothing using a Gaussian kernel of full width half maximum 5 mm; mean-based intensity normalisation of all volumes by the same factor; highpass temporal filtering (Gaussian-weighted least-squares straight line fitting, with sigma = 50.0 s). Registration to high resolution images and to a standard template (Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) 152 stereotactic template) was carried out using FLIRT.18,20. Six experimental conditions were modelled: maskedunmasked fear, masked/unmasked happy and masked/unmasked neutral. Each condition was modelled separately by convolving trials with a canonical haemodynamic response function. Temporal derivatives were ...
Locality and stratigraphy: Herefordshire, England; Wenlock Series, Silurian.. The carapace is large (maximum length, height, width: 5900, 3200, 3500 μm), slightly gaping, with a straight dorsal margin and otherwise an almost evenly curved lateral outline (figure 1d). The carapace is inflated posteriorly and narrows evenly in front of mid-length (figure 1g). A narrow gape extends from above anterior mid-height to behind mid-length. At mid-length, a narrow shallow adductorial sulcus extends to mid-height. A faint short preadductorial sulcus outlines an indistinct preadductorial node. The postadductorial lobate area is gently curved dorsally, ending in a slender posterodorsal spine. Both cardinal corners have a small acroidal spine. The free margin is narrow, flat and defined abaxially by an admarginal ridge (figure 1a,d).. The first antenna (figure 1c,d,f,h,j,k) has an elongate, subtriangular-shaped, tapering proximal part (=a podomere?) bearing two slender subparallel setae distally. Its distal ...
The amygdala has an established role in fear conditioning (Blair et al., 2001; Schafe et al., 2001; Maren and Quirk, 2004; Johansen et al., 2010), with information for these events being stored in the amygdala as a result of synaptic plasticity (Rogan et al., 1997; Fanselow and LeDoux, 1999; Blair et al., 2001). However, a less well defined, yet highly important role, of the amygdala is its ability to influence other forms of memory, particularly when the learning episode has a degree of emotional salience (Paz et al., 2006). The mechanisms by which the lateral amygdala modulates LTP in the perirhinal cortex have only recently been described (Laing and Bashir, 2014), and this paper expands our understanding of these mechanistic processes by studying the receptor mechanisms required for amygdala−perirhinal LTD.. We observed that LTD between the lateral amygdala and layer II/III of the perirhinal cortex is NMDAR-dependent and does not rely on β-ADRs or VGCCs. This is in contrast to LTP between ...
Shadows formed under my eyes as I spent nights inputting the results of the Myers-Briggs tests--which measure introversion and extroversion--and comparing them to the masses of saliva I collected. Would there even be any relationship between the two? As drowsiness shuffled in, so did many forms of lucidity: modest drool suddenly transformed into a product of amygdala stimulation! I started seeing happiness measured in endorphin levels and temperature measured in neurons firing in the hypothalamus. After all, I was weighing personality in grams of spit--anything was possible! It was an exciting yet humbling experience--to feel so much like a scientist but still be so far from one ...
Our immunohistochemical studies suggest that similar populations of local and pcs interneurons may also be present in the rat BLA. GAD immunostaining revealed sparsely distributed local interneurons throughout the BLA as well as dense clusters localized to the lateral and medial borders of this brain region. It is noteworthy that PV staining was observed among the local interneurons but was not detected in the GAD-positive cells located within the dense clusters along the border of the BLA. Moreover, in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, GABAA IPSCs onto BLA pyramidal neurons could be evoked by stimulating electrodes placed distally, within the external capsule or locally, proximal to the cell being recorded. In addition, using a dual stimulation protocol, we demonstrated that a locally evoked conditioning IPSC significantly depressed the amplitude of a subsequent local test IPSC, evoked 250 ms later. In contrast, a distal conditioning IPSC, evoked by stimulating within the external ...
An Amygdala Hijack lasts around 18 minutes, but a total of around 4-5 hours to completely leave the body. So a sufferer needs to at least perceive the unpleasant sensations as discomfort for those first 18 minutes of a hijack. Once the 18 minutes have passed the sufferer may start to feel much more comfortable with the stimulus. However, if the sufferer decides to avoid the stimulus using safety behaviours the Amygdala emotional memory will be even greater the next exposure occurs. This is due to operant conditioning (reward based). By avoiding the feared stimulus the physical discomfort lessens, causing the sufferer to continue avoidance... Which only leads to a increase amygdala response the next time the feared stimulus is encountered ...
The researchers found significant evidence that PTSD among study participants was associated with smaller volume in both the left and right amygdala, and confirmed previous studies linking the disorder to a smaller left hippocampus. The differences in brain volumes between the two groups were not due to the extent of depression, substance abuse, trauma load or PTSD severity - factors the researchers took into account in their statistical model ...
Researchers have confirmed that the central amygdala, located deep within the brain, is connected with fear and responses to unpleasant events. The team has also detected a circuit within this structure that reacts to rewarding events.
Wang P, Fang M, Zha Y, Lai J, Li Z. Dopamine inhibits excitatory neurotransmission in basolateral amygdala during development via pre-synaptic mechanism. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014 Jan; 35(5): 385-392 ...
Scientists have long believed that the central amygdala, a structure located deep within the brain, is linked with fear and responses to unpleasant events. However, a team of MIT neuroscientists has now discovered a circuit in this structure that responds to rewarding events.. Read more in MIT News.. ...
Looking for online definition of basal nuclei in the Medical Dictionary? basal nuclei explanation free. What is basal nuclei? Meaning of basal nuclei medical term. What does basal nuclei mean?
Our previous study found volume reduction of the amygdala when we estimated regional GM volume using optimized VBM for the PD patients.37 The present study showed volume reduction of amygdala in PD patients, confirmed on both manual tracing and optimized VBM with small-volume correction. Furthermore, smaller amygdala was associated with anxiety, suggesting that the amygdala, especially the corticomedial nuclear group, is a crucial area of the neurobiological pathway underlying PD.. The amygdala is a heterogeneous collection of nuclear groups located in the temporal lobe.38 A variety of different functions has been attributed to the amygdaloid complex, including memory, attention, interpretation of emotional significance of sensory stimuli, perception of body movements and generation of emotional aspects of dreams.39-41 The amygdala consists of anterior nucleus (AN), LA, BA, CE, ME, CO and ABA. Notably, LA, BA and CE are candidate nuclei related to PD pathophysiology.42,43 The LA and BA receive ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
The valence of memories is malleable because of their intrinsic reconstructive property1. This property of memory has been used clinically to treat maladaptive behaviours2. However, the neuronal mechanisms and brain circuits that enable the switching of the valence of memories remain largely unknown. Here we investigated these mechanisms by applying the recently developed memory engram cell- manipulation technique3, 4. We labelled with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) a population of cells in either the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus or the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) that were specifically activated during contextual fear or reward conditioning. Both groups of fear-conditioned mice displayed aversive light-dependent responses in an optogenetic place avoidance test, whereas both DG- and BLA-labelled mice that underwent reward conditioning exhibited an appetitive response in an optogenetic place preference test. Next, in an attempt to reverse the valence of memory within a ...
Gillihan, S. J., Rao, H., Wang, J., Detre, J., Breland, J., … Farah, M. J. (2010). Serotonin transporter genotype modulates amygdala activity during mood recovery. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 1-10.. ...
The effects of stress on memory include interference with a persons capacity to encode memory and the ability to retrieve information. During times of stress, the body reacts by secreting stress hormones into the bloodstream. Stress can cause acute and chronic changes in certain brain areas which can cause long-term damage. Over-secretion of stress hormones most frequently impairs memory, but in a few cases can enhance it. In particular, the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are affected. One class of stress hormone responsible for negatively affecting memory is the glucocorticoids (GCs), the most notable of which is cortisol. Glucocorticoids facilitate and impair the actions of stress in the brain memory process. Cortisol is a known biomarker for stress. Under normal circumstances, the hippocampus regulates the production of cortisol through negative feedback because it has many receptors that are sensitive to these stress hormones. However, an excess of cortisol can impair the ...
The valence of memories is malleable because of their intrinsic reconstructive property1. This property of memory has been used clinically to treat maladaptive behaviours. However, the neuronal mechanisms and brain circuits that enable the switching of the valence of memories remain largely unknown. Here we investigated these mechanisms by applying the recently developed memory engram cellmanipulation technique. We labelled with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) a population of cells in either the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus or the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) that were specifically activated during contextual fear or reward conditioning. Both groups of fear-conditioned mice displayed aversive light-dependent responses in an optogenetic place avoidance test, whereas both DGand BLA-labelled mice that underwent reward conditioning exhibited an appetitive response in an optogenetic place preference test. Next, in an attempt to reverse the valence of memory within a subject, ...
PTSD is associated with a number of distinctive neurobiological and physiological changes. PTSD may be associated with stable neurobiological alterations in both the central and autonomic nervous systems, such as altered brainwave activity, decreased volume of the hippocampus, and abnormal activation of the amygdala. Both the hippocampus and the amygdala are involved in the processing and integration of memory. The amygdala has also been found to be involved in coordinating the bodys fear response.. Psychophysiological alterations associated with PTSD include hyper-arousal of the sympathetic nervous system, increased sensitivity of the startle reflex, and sleep abnormalities.. People with PTSD tend to have abnormal levels of key hormones involved in the body s response to stress. Thyroid function also seems to be enhanced in people with PTSD. Some studies have shown that cortisol levels in those with PTSD are lower than normal and epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are higher than normal. ...
Merrells Strong Start Pre-K: a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum, Second Edition. Sara Whitcomb & Danielle Parisi Damico, $53.50 (Preschool to Kindergarten). Merrells Strong Start-Grades K-2: a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum, Second Edition. Sara Whitcomb & Danielle Parisi Damico, $53.50. Merrells Strong Kids Grades 3-5: a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum, Second Edition. Dianna Carrizales-Engelmann, Laura Feuerborn, Barbara Gueldner & Oanh Tran, $53.50. Merrells Strong Kids Grades 6-8: a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum, Second Edition. Dianna Carrizales-Engelmann, Laura Feuerborn, Barbara Gueldner & Oanh Tran, $53.50 Merrells Strong Teens Grades 9-12: a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum, Second Edition. Dianna Carrizales-Engelmann, Laura Feuerborn, Barbara Gueldner & Oanh Tran, $53.50. Teach social-emotional competence the foundation of school and social success with the NEW editions of the Strong Kids curriculum! Strong Kids is the fun and easy way ...
Health Survey Reports 2017. This week data from representative surveys on health behaviours have been made available by the the Department of Health (ROI) and the Department of Health (NI). Northern Ireland. First results from Health Survey Northern Ireland 2016/17 are now available. This annual survey collects information on the health behaviours of the population in Northern Ireland age 16 and older. Prevalence of smoking has fallen to 20%, with 62% of smokers reporting that they wanted to quit and 75% reporting that they had tried to stop smoking. The proportion of the population eating 5 or more portions of fruit or vegetables in a day rose from 37% to 43% over the last two survey years. 36% of the adult population are overweight, and 27% are obese, with no increase on last year but a general upward trend in obesity over the decade.. Republic of Ireland. The publication of the Northern Ireland data coincides with the publication of data from the Healthy Ireland Survey 2017 in the Republic of ...
Four emotionally arousing stimuli were used to probe the behavior of monkeys with bilateral ablations of the entorhinal and perirhinal cortex. The animals behavioral changes were then contrasted with those observed earlier (Meunier et al., 1999) in monkeys with either neurotoxic or aspiration lesions of the neighboring amygdala. Rhinal cortex ablations yielded several subtle behavioral changes, but none of them resembled any of the disorders typically seen after amygdalectomies. The changes produced by rhinal damage took mainly the form of heightened defensiveness, and attenuated submission and approach responses, that is, just the opposite of some of the most distinctive symptoms following amygdala damage. These findings raise the possibility that the rhinal cortex and amygdala have distinct, interactive, functions in normal behavioral adaptation to affective stimuli. ...
The fear circuitry orchestrates defense mechanisms in response to environmental threats. This circuitry is evolutionarily crucial for survival, but its dysregulation is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions in humans. The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT input to the amygdala has drawn particular interest because genetic and pharmacological alterations of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) affect amygdala activation in response to emotional stimuli. Nonetheless, the impact of 5-HT on fear processing remains poorly understood.The aim of this review is to elucidate the physiological role of 5-HT in fear learning via its action on the neuronal circuits of the amygdala. Since 5-HT release increases in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) during both fear memory acquisition and expression, we examine whether and how 5-HT neurons encode aversive
Experiments on mice conducted by Emory University researchers have revealed that a protein required for the earliest steps in embryonic development, beta-catenin, also plays a key
Fear is a graded central motive state ranging from mild to intense. As threat intensity increases, fear transitions from discriminative to generalized. The circuit mechanisms that process threats of different intensity are not well resolved. Here, we isolate a unique population of locally projecting neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that produce the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). CRF-producing neurons and CRF in the CeA are required for discriminative fear, but both are dispensable for generalized fear at high US intensities.
This chapter represents the neural circuits that underlie fear responses in animals and explores the possible implications for understanding fear and shyness in humans. It is shown in recent data that contextual and punctate auditory stimuli use different intra-amygdala pathways to access the central nucleus. There are two variables, similarity of a response to an animals species-typical defensive behavior and degree of fear, that present two dimensions along which the reactive and active systems may interact. The amygdala appears to be the place where both learning and expression of fear responses take place. ...
© 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. Objectives: Brain imaging is now used to inform hypotheses relating not just to brain function but also the actions of drugs for depression. It can identify the relevant functional neuroanatomy of drug action and its relation to hot and cold cognition. Patients: Patients with acute major depression or in recovery from same, in comparison with healthy controls. Results: In the case of drugs for depression, we are limited by our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms involved. However, it has already been possible to show improved memory for positive descriptors for a range of drugs for depression and these are aligned in both healthy controls and patients. Brain imaging has shown corresponding early effects of drug treatment on how the amygdala responds to negative emotional stimuli. Study of cold cognition, while less developed, has attracted interest from the development of vortioxetine. Imaging studies in recovered patients and controls suggest cognitive enhancing
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between the behavioural triad of hyper-religiosity, hypergraphia and hyposexuality in epilepsy, and volumes of the mesial temporal structures. METHOD: Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 33 patients with
http://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0039-2499&volume=27&spage=191&epage=&date=1996&atitle=Colchicine+enhances+the+local+neuropeptide+Y+increase+but+prevents+the+amygdalar+neuropeptide+changes+after+middle+cerebral+artery+occlusion ...
In examining the role of the amygdala, Feinstein observed and recorded the patients responses during exposure to snakes and spiders (two of the most commonly feared animals), during a visit to one of the worlds scariest haunted houses, and while watching a series of horror films. Feinstein also measured the patients experience of fear with a large number of standardized questionnaires that probed different aspects of fear, ranging from the fear of death to the fear of public speaking. Additionally, over a three-month period, the patient carried a computerized emotion diary that randomly asked her to rate her current fear level throughout the day.. Across all of the scenarios, the patient failed to experience fear. Moreover, in everyday life, she has encountered numerous traumatic events that have threatened her very existence, yet, by her report, have caused no fear.. "Taken together, these findings suggest that the human amygdala is a pivotal area of the brain for triggering a state of ...
Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. Given that affective processing involves dynamic interactions b
The amygdaloid nucleus and lower part of the lentiform nucleus have been removed to demonstrate the entire extent of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. Note the hippocampal digitations bulging upward into the opened cavity. The anterior commissure and striate arteries are also visible ...
We know that the amygdala contains, instinctive and intuitive fears, but also that it can learn. Combat affects soldiers violently, and they must be conditioned to deal with their fear. If training can condition a warrior to kill, then training can condition him to cope with fear. The key is not desensitization, but sensitization. Soldiers need to know how their minds and bodies will react to fear and develop a combative mindset that mitigates the psychological and physiological effects of fear. Experiential learning is critical in sensitizing soldiers to the bedlam of combat. Numerous experiments have shown that while it is virtually impossible without radical brain surgery to completely eliminate the instinctive amygdalic response to danger, it is possible, through training, to modify the flinch response. The amygdalic receives INPUT from every sensory system of the body. Thus the amygdala can create responses to danger signals represented in the visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile or ...
From toddlerhood to adulthood, big feeling can create big reactions. In this brilliant article, discover 5 ways to teach your child emotional regulation.
In contrast with previous studies, individuals with amygdala damage remembered faces looking to the side more than those looking towards them.
Amygdala responses to the facial signals of others predict both normal and abnormal emotional states. An understanding of the brain chemistry underlying these responses will lead to new strategies for treating and predicting psychopathology.. 0 Comments. ...
Amygdala responses to the facial signals of others predict both normal and abnormal emotional states. An understanding of the brain chemistry underlying these responses will lead to new strategies for treating and predicting psychopathology.. 0 Comments. ...
Clinicians can offer little hope to people addicted to psychostimulants. Recovering addicts are driven to relapse by the motivation and amygdala activation elic...
Recent news has reported several developments in sensors that detect and report human emotional responses. The applications are varied and intriguing-and do a good job of evoking emotional response themselves.
See our Handbook on Social and Emotional Learning and download our Guide to SEL programs and other resources. More Resources. ...
When equipped with an understanding of how the body manages the emotional system, we can easily outsmart it into emotional balance and controlling fear.
About Limbic System, MSN, RN - Welcome to my allnursesPage! You can learn all about me here. Together, we can learn, share, and network with nurses and nursing students from all around the world.
NO. 1 SOOT-RYEN: THE FAMILY MYTILIDAE 63 Modiolus rectus (Conrad) 1837 Plate 7, figs. 33-35 Modiola recta Conrad, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 7, 1837, p. 243, Pl. 19, fig. I Syn.: Mytilus (Modiola) flabellatus Gould 1850. Holotype: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Type loc: Santa Barbara, California. Remarks: This slender, elongate species is, in its typical form, easily known from other west coast Modiolus; but it has been confused with M. neglectus, which some authors have supposed to be the form or variety M. flabellatus (Gould). M. rectus is always more elongate and never shows the distinct posterodorsal angle of M. neglectus. The straight dorsal margin extends over to the posterior margin in a long arch without angulation. The color of the shell and the periostracum, and the posterodorsal hairs on the periostracum, are very like M. neglectus. The adductors are strong and so are the posterior byssal retractors, while the retractor of the foot and the anterior retractor are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accumulation of polyribosomes in dendritic spine heads, but not bases and necks, during memory consolidation depends on cap-dependent translation initiation. AU - Ostroff,Linnaea E.. AU - Botsford,Benjamin. AU - Gindina,Sofya. AU - Cowansage,Kiriana K.. AU - Ledoux,Joseph E.. AU - Klann,Eric. AU - Hoeffer,Charles. PY - 2017/2/15. Y1 - 2017/2/15. N2 - Translation in dendrites is believed to support synaptic changes during memory consolidation. Although translational control mechanisms are fundamental mediators of memory, little is known about their role in local translation. We previously found that polyribosomes accumulate in dendritic spines of the adult rat lateral amygdala (LA) during consolidation of aversive pavlovian conditioning and that this memory requires cap-dependent initiation, a primary point of translational control in eukaryotic cells. Here we used serial electron microscopy reconstructions to quantify polyribosomes in LA dendrites when consolidation was blocked ...
Stress. Its something that everyone deals with in their lives, but too much of it can be very unhealthy. It can lead to heart disease, insomnia, high blood pressure, and more.. "The stress response, in and of itself, is not a bad thing," explained Dr. Darshan Mehta, Medical Director at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. "It was important for our survival as the human species. If there was an imminent danger in front of us, we were able to muster up resources in a short amount of time. This became known as the fight or flight response.". "Over the past 40 years, weve learned that when that response is chronically activated, the consequences are contributing factors to a whole host of conditions, such as hypertension, respiratory conditions like asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease," he stipulated. Patients managing chronic illnesses, such as blood clots, are especially at risk for being stressed and anxious. They are often balancing the ...
Contextual and Auditory Fear Conditioning Continue to Emerge during the Periweaning Period in Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Define limbic brain. limbic brain synonyms, limbic brain pronunciation, limbic brain translation, English dictionary definition of limbic brain. Noun 1. limbic brain - a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior limbic system, visceral brain...
Emotions play a pivotal role in guiding our behaviour within society and our environment. In particular, emotions enable interpersonal social interactions through non-verbal communication that may be below conscious awareness. However, when there is some disruption to normal emotional processing, such as in anxiety disorders, quality of life of the individual can be severely disrupted. Anxiety disorders account for nearly a quarter of all mental health diagnoses, however the aetiology and underpinning neural correlates of anxiety are still not fully understood. This thesis sought to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of emotion processing, specifically in the amygdala, in a healthy sub-clinical cohort. Six different studies are presented using quantitative methodology to explore amygdala activation and connectivity during emotion processing, and structural differences, as modulated by gender and sub-clinical anxiety. Overall results reveal a modulating effect of sub-clinical anxiety on ...
Acute stress is associated with a sensitized amygdala. Corticosteroids, released in response to stress, are suggested to restore homeostasis by normalizing/desensitizing brain processing in the aftermath of stress. Here, we investigated the effects of corticosteroids on amygdala processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Since corticosteroids exert rapid nongenomic and slow genomic effects, we administered hydrocortisone either 75 min (rapid effects) or 285 min (slow effects) before scanning in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Seventy-two healthy males were scanned while viewing faces morphing from a neutral facial expression into fearful or happy expressions. Imaging results revealed that hydrocortisone desensitizes amygdala responsivity rapidly, while it selectively normalizes responses to negative stimuli slowly. Psychophysiological interaction analyses suggested that this slow normalization is related to an altered coupling of the amygdala with the medial ...
UC BERKELEY (US) - When faced with a fearful situation, newborn neurons are able to produce a blank slate to create a strong imprint of the memory.. The findings have implications for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other problems caused by faulty regulation of emotional memory.. "We remember emotional events much more strongly than daily experiences, and for a long time we have known that connections between the amygdala and hippocampus help to encode this emotional information," says Daniela Kaufer, assistant professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley.. "Our research shows that amygdala input actually pushes the hippocampus to make new neurons from a unique population of neural stem cells. This provides completely new cells that get activated in response to emotional input.". The research is published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.. "Many affective disorders involve disordered emotional memories like PTSD, depression, and anxiety. We think that ...
The survival of any living organism is crucially dependent on the actions it takes when faced with fearful situations. Fear responses are likewise important to the social well-being of human beings, where its malfunction has been linked to a variety of mental disorders. Yet while numerous brain regions have been connected to the memory of fearful experiences, the neural pathways governing how such experiences are translated into the selection of behavior remain a mystery.. To unravel this mystery, the researchers analyzed neural pathways of the zebrafish, a model organism with a simple brain, focusing on an evolutionarily-conserved region called the habenula nucleus present in all vertebrate species. Using fluorescent tracers, they identified a specific pathway connecting the lateral nuclei of the habenula (HbL), via the dorsal interpeduncular nucleus (dIPN), to a structure likely to correspond to regions in the mammalian brain implicated in the modulation of fear behaviors. Transgenic zebrafish ...
The survival of any living organism is crucially dependent on the actions it takes when faced with fearful situations. Fear responses are likewise important to the social well-being of human beings, where its malfunction has been linked to a variety of mental disorders. Yet while numerous brain regions have been connected to the memory of fearful experiences, the neural pathways governing how such experiences are translated into the selection of behavior remain a mystery.. To unravel this mystery, the researchers analyzed neural pathways of the zebrafish, a model organism with a simple brain, focusing on an evolutionarily-conserved region called the habenula nucleus present in all vertebrate species. Using fluorescent tracers, they identified a specific pathway connecting the lateral nuclei of the habenula (HbL), via the dorsal interpeduncular nucleus (dIPN), to a structure likely to correspond to regions in the mammalian brain implicated in the modulation of fear behaviors. Transgenic zebrafish ...
Mary Gilliam, Erika E. Forbes, Peter J. Gianaros, Kirk I. Erickson, Lauretta M. Brennan, Daniel S. Shaw, Maternal depression in childhood and aggression in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by offspring amygdala-hippocampal volume ratio, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2015, 56, 10, ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results when individuals are exposed to a life threatening event, assault, serious injury, or other traumatic incident. Individuals with PTSD are impaired in their ability to extinguish fear memories, resulting in intrusive symptoms that impair their ability to live otherwise healthy lives. It remains unclear why some individuals exposed to traumatic events develop PTSD while others do not. Acetylcholine has been shown to play a critical role in fear learning, but its role in fear extinction is not well understood. This study utilized a rat model of fear learning and extinction to determine if individual differences in fear and extinction learning are correlated with markers of cholinergic signaling. This study examined M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), both heavily expressed in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region that has been heavily implicated in the acquisition, consolidation, and recall of fear and extinction
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 1461-1457, E-ISSN 1469-5111, Vol. 15, no S1, 230-230 p ...
In certain studies, researchers have directly stimulated the amygdalae of patients who were undergoing brain surgery, and asked them to report their impressions. The subjective experience that these patients reported most often was one of imminent danger and fear. In studies of the very small number of patients who have had had only their amygdala destroyed (as the result of a stroke, for example), they recognized the facial expressions of every emotion except fear.. In fact, the amygdala seems to modulate all of our reactions to events that are very important for our survival. Events that warn us of imminent danger are therefore very important stimuli for the amygdala, but so are events that signal the presence of food, sexual partners, rivals, children in distress, and so on. That is why the amygdala has so many connections with several other structures in the brain. ...
BackgroundAutism is a syndrome of unknown cause, marked by abnormal development of social behavior. Attempts to link pathological features of the amygdala, whic
To better understand the relationship between mindfulness and depression, we studied normal young adults (n = 27) who completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and depressive symptomatology, which were then correlated with (a) rest: resting neural activity during passive viewing of a fixation cross, relative to a simple goal-directed task (shape-matching); and (b) reactivity: neural reactivity during viewing of negative emotional faces, relative to the same shape-matching task. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in self-referential processing areas, whereas depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with resting activity in similar areas. In addition, dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in the amygdala, bilaterally, whereas depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with activity in the right amygdala. Similarly, when viewing emotional faces, amygdala reactivity was positively correlated with ...
The role of the amygdala in regulating emotional neural processing has been well acknowledged by both animal and clinical studies (Sehlmeyer et al., 2009; Morrison and Salzman, 2010; LeDoux, 2007), particularly those relating to aversive stimuli that characterize fear behavior. Anxiety and fear disorders (DSM IV, 2000) constitute a subset of mental disorders characterized by feelings of uneasiness and apprehension, rumination and excessive worrying about real or imaginary threats. The clinical spectrum ranges from generalized anxiety disorder to specific phobias. While sharing many behavioral features these disorders are distinguishable by the specificity of the cues that elicit symptoms (DSM IV, 2000). Much of the knowledge that we have about fear and anxiety stems from several animal models using fear-conditioning paradigms (Shekhar et al., 2001; Mechiel Korte and De Boer, 2003). Typically an unconditioned and clearly aversive stimulus (e.g. footshock) is associated to a conditioned neutral stimulus
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis - 28 images - why ssris may increase anxiety term gateway, position of the limbic basal ganglia centromedial, reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of the stria, ch 12 at of arlington studyblue, articles journal of neurophysiology
Explore a curated list of blogs, articles, and videos for parents about fostering skills like kindness, empathy, gratitude, resilience, perseverance, and focus in children.
We explain Limbic System with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will identify, explore and describe the role and functions of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Also, explored is the role of the amygdala and hippocampus within the limbic system. The limbic system as the conduction and switching center will be explained.|/p|
Fear memories, here defined as learned associations between a stimulus and a physiological fear reaction, are formed through fear conditioning. In animals, fear memories, present in the lateral amygdala, undergo reconsolidation after recall. Moreover, this reconsolidation process can be disrupted both pharmacologically and behaviourally, resulting in a reduced fear response to the stimulus. This thesis examines the attenuation of fear memories by disrupting reconsolidation in humans, using measures of both the central and peripheral nervous system activity. Serotonergic and dopaminergic genes have previously been tied to both fear conditioning and anxiety disorders, where fear conditioning mechanisms are important. In order to evaluate the possible role of fear memory reconsolidation mechanims in the effect on fear and anxiety by these genes, this thesis also compare the reconsolidation disruption effect between different serotonergic and dopaminergic genotypes.. Study I examined the ...
Numerous research reports show that social and emotional learning (SEL) can have a positive impact on students academic performance. Edutopias SEL research review explores those reports and helps make sense of the results.
Differences in skin conductance response (SCR) between the active vs. placebo conditions trials will be used to assess for the impact of oxytocin on fear acquisition and extinction. We will take a mean of the first two extinction trials to get this measure. Data was gathered in micro-Siemens and then underwent a square root transformation ...
Background: Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect). It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1) amygdala over-activity and 2) reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. Methods: Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF) and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal) of one subregion of the amygdala ...
In this episode of the Wise Counsel Podcast, Bruce Ecker describes the core treatment method of Coherence Therapy. Ecker relates this method to emerging neuropsychological research on memory reconsolidation, a naturally occurring phenomena through which emotional memories can be dissolved and erased. Reconsolidation studies by brain scientists have shown that under special circumstances, the physical storage of emotional memories is unlocked by reactivation of the stored knowledge and is then reconsolidated back into a stable condition after a few hours. During that window, it is possible for new learnings to revise and even erase the existing emotional knowledge and the behavioral responses that it drives. Ecker maintains that the same reconsolidation process demonstrated in contemporary neuroscience research seems to be at work in coherence therapy and accounts for clinical observations of profound change and lasting relief from longstanding symptoms of many kinds.

amygdala - Scientific...'amygdala' - Scientific...

Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/search/?page=23&i=1&options=0&q=amygdala&tmpl=proxy&u1=q&x=0&y=0

Amygdala Plasticity and PainAmygdala Plasticity and Pain

1. The Amygdala and Pain. The amygdala is an almond-shaped limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe and is well ... The amygdala receives multiple lines of input (Figure 1) relevant for pain processing, and multiple nuclei in the amygdala are ... It is now thought that this deficit was likely due to amygdala resection [16, 17], illustrating the importance of the amygdala ... 4. Pain-Related Amygdala-Centered Corticolimbic Interactions. Information processing in the amygdala can be regulated by ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2017/8296501/

AmygdalaAmygdala

... Located in brains medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin, corpus amygdaloideum) is believed to ... In language learning, some hypothesize that second language learning for adults may not make ready use of the amygdala in ... narcolepsy and OCD are also suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala owing to damage or developmental ...
more infohttp://www.fact-index.com/a/am/amygdala.html

Amygdala cerebelli definition | Drugs.comAmygdala cerebelli definition | Drugs.com

Definition of amygdala cerebelli. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/amygdala-cerebelli.html

Amygdala :: DNA Learning CenterAmygdala :: DNA Learning Center

The amygdala - fear and stress response. Professor Bruce McEwen discusses how the amygdala is involved in processing fear and ... The amygdala is a complex structure adjacent to the hippocampus. The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear- ... The amygdala is a complex structure adjacent to the hippocampus. The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear- ... The Amygdala, the Bodys Alarm Circuit. The amygdala controls autonomic responses associated with fear, arousal, and emotional ...
more infohttps://www.dnalc.org/view/2104-Amygdala-.html

Amygdala - Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædiAmygdala - Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi

Der er omkring 12 millioner neuroner i menneskets amygdala.[1] Amygdala er involveret i posttraumatisk belastningsreaktion.[2] ... Amygdala (på dansk mandelkernen) er et lille område i hjernens tindingelap, som blandt andet håndterer frygt og ... Amygdala kan deles op i en basolateral og en kortikomedial del. Den kortikomediale del modtager fra de autonome processer. ... Dette fund medvirkede til konklusionen, at amygdala "spiller en central rolle i at udløse en tilstand af frygt".[9] ...
more infohttps://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amygdala

Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear.  - PubMed - NCBIAmygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear. - PubMed - NCBI

Intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala. Scheme of coronal section of the rat amygdala where all major internuclear connections ... Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear.. Duvarci S1, Pare D2.. Author information. 1. Institute of Neurophysiology, ... B1) Scheme of coronal section of the rat amygdala with camera lucida drawings of principal cells in LA, CeL, and ICMMV (black ... Physiological and morphological properties of amygdala neurons. (A) LA projection cell at low (A1) and high (A2) magnification ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24908482?dopt=Abstract

AmygdalaAmygdala

the level-headed Amygdala blog.... -- Geitner Simmons The only trouble with reading Amygdala is that it makes me feel like such ... Donate to support Gary Farbers Amygdala: Please consider showing your support for Amygdala by clicking below and subscribing ... Amygdala continues to have smart commentary on an incredible diversity of interesting links.... -- Judith Weiss Amygdala has ... Scroll down for Amygdala archives! You know you want to. [Temporarily rather borked, along with rest of template.] Amygdalas ...
more infohttp://amygdalagf.blogspot.com/2006/06/returns-on-superman.html

AmygdalaAmygdala

the level-headed Amygdala blog.... -- Geitner Simmons The only trouble with reading Amygdala is that it makes me feel like such ... Donate to support Gary Farbers Amygdala: Please consider showing your support for Amygdala by clicking below and subscribing ... Amygdala continues to have smart commentary on an incredible diversity of interesting links.... -- Judith Weiss Amygdala has ... Scroll down for Amygdala archives! You know you want to. [Temporarily rather borked, along with rest of template.] Amygdalas ...
more infohttp://amygdalagf.blogspot.com/2006/10/were-not-there-for-iraqis.html

Amygdala (definition) by Webster 1913 - Everything2.comAmygdala (definition) by Webster 1913 - Everything2.com

Amygdala (definition). See all of Amygdala, there is 1 more in this node. ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/user/Webster+1913/writeups/Amygdala

Amygdala - definition of amygdala by The Free DictionaryAmygdala - definition of amygdala by The Free Dictionary

amygdala synonyms, amygdala pronunciation, amygdala translation, English dictionary definition of amygdala. n. pl. a·myg·da·lae ... amygdala. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to amygdala: thalamus a·myg·da·la. (ə-mĭg′də-lə). n. pl. a·myg ... The amygdala is involved in handling the emotional information.. The role of the amygdala in the development of sexual arousal ... SOCIAL amygdala - a business and help in the South Moravian Region (AMYGDALA SOCIAL - podnikEime a pomEihEime v Jihomoravskem ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/amygdala

Braingle: Amygdala Mentalrobics ArticleBraingle: 'Amygdala' Mentalrobics Article

The amygdala is a small part of the brain, adjacent to the hippocampus, that is believed to react most directly to emotions. Fr ... Amygdala. The amygdala is a small part of the brain, adjacent to the hippocampus, that is believed to react most directly to ... Because the amygdala is involved heavily with emotions, it is believed to play a role in conditions such as anxiety, depression ... From studies using brain scans, it has been shown that events that stimulate the amygdala are remembered better over time. This ...
more infohttps://www.braingle.com/mind/652/amygdala.html

Amygdala Retraining - Fibromyalgia - HealingWell.com ForumAmygdala Retraining - Fibromyalgia - HealingWell.com Forum

HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Fibromyalgia , Amygdala Retraining Select A Location. ****** Top of the Forum ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=24&m=1763203

Free Music Archive: The Electric Amygdala - CurrentsFree Music Archive: The Electric Amygdala - Currents

You came this way: Home , Happy Puppy Records , The Electric Amygdala , Lion on the Beach , Currents. Currents by The Electric ... Currents by The Electric Amygdala is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial License. ...
more infohttp://freemusicarchive.org/music/The_Electric_Amygdala/Lion_on_the_Beach/The_Electric_Amygdala_-_Lion_On_The_Beach_-_01_Currents

Fewer Neurons in Amygdala of Autistic MalesFewer Neurons in Amygdala of Autistic Males

... boys with autism suffer from poor social and communication skills as well as a diminished number of neurons in their amygdala. ... It was found that although the amygdala volumes in all the brains was about the same, the autistic males as a group had almost ... Counting them painstakingly under a microscope revealed far lower number of neurons in the amygdala which is the area of the ... Amaral notes "This is the first quantitative evidence of an abnormal number of neurons in the autistic amygdala. We were able ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/view_news_main.asp?x=12537

Gene Expression: <i>Homo...Gene Expression: <i>Homo...

Homo amygdala? posted by Razib @ 7/27/2007 04:54:00 PM Homo amygdala? ... The amygdala, a small, almond-shaped area deep within our brains, appears to be essential in helping us read the emotions of ... Although the functions of the amygdalas subunits are unclear, the lateral nucleus makes more direct connections with the ... In humans, however, the lateral nucleus occupied a bigger fraction of the amygdala, and was larger compared to overall brain ...
more infohttp://www.gnxp.com/blog/2007/07/homo-amygdala.php

The Amygdala: The Bodys Alarm CircuitThe Amygdala: The Body's Alarm Circuit

The amygdala is essential for decoding emotions, particularly threatening stimuli. External stimuli reach the amygdala via two ... The Amygdala: The Bodys Alarm Circuit by Scott P. Edwards May, 2005 ... The amygdala responds to fear by lighting up in this positron emission tomography brain scan. Wellcome Dept. of Cognitive ... Emotional memories are thought to be stored in a central part of the amygdala and may play a role in anxiety disorders and ...
more infohttp://www.dana.org/Publications/Brainwork/Details.aspx?id=43615

Re: The self (the amygdala)  and the triune brainRe: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain

Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Roger ... Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triu... Roger Clough ... the amygdala) and the triune brain On 11 Sep 2012, at 13:05, Roger Clough wrote: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain ... The amygdala is a small brain organ which is not pictured in the above diagram but is in the center of the reptelian brain in ...
more infohttps://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg29559.html

The Amygdala And Fear Are Not The Same Thing - RedorbitThe Amygdala And Fear Are Not The Same Thing - Redorbit

Almost every study of fear finds that the amygdala is active. But that doesn´t mean every spark of activity in the amygdala ... Instead, the amygdala seems to be doing something more subtle: processing events that are related to what a person cares about ... A lot of people came to the amygdala from the study of fear, says Wil Cunningham of Ohio State University, who co wrote the new ... This link between the amygdala and fear - especially a fear of others unlike us, has gone too far, not only in pop culture, but ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112463664/the-amygdala-and-fear-are-not-the-same-thing/

Amygdala - Bowen McCauley DanceAmygdala - Bowen McCauley Dance

Music: Tone, Guitar - Geordie Grindle, Doug Wandell & Steve Willett, Percussion - Gregory Hudson & Andy Meyers, Bass - Boris Skalsky, Guitar & monotone - Norm Veenstra, Guitar & baritone - Jim ...
more infohttp://www.bmdc.org/archives/645

Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression.  - PubMed - NCBIFunctional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression. - PubMed - NCBI

Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression.. Whalen PJ1, Shin LM, Somerville LH, McLean AA, Kim H. ... Furthermore, we suggest that the scope of the amygdalas involvement may go beyond its well-known role in fear to its more ... We begin by reviewing animal and human data concerning the function of the amygdala. We then compare these results with those ... Finally, we discuss functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression in light of the animal and human data. We ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12382206

Antagonistic negative and positive neurons of the basolateral amygdala | Nature NeuroscienceAntagonistic negative and positive neurons of the basolateral amygdala | Nature Neuroscience

The authors identify two genetic markers defining non-overlapping populations of principal cells in the amygdala that respond ... What is the amygdala?. Trends Neurosci. 21, 323-331 (1998).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*4.. Hall, E. The amygdala of ... Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear. . Neuron 82, 966-980 (2014).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*37.. Tovote ... Antagonistic negative and positive neurons of the basolateral amygdala. *Joshua Kim1. *, Michele Pignatelli ORCID: orcid.org/ ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/nn.4414?error=cookies_not_supported&code=d451df87-8b87-48d7-97cd-bd0382424c7f

Interview with Neil Slade: Tickle your amygdalaInterview with Neil Slade: Tickle your amygdala

It is your amygdala.. The Amygdala.. The great cosmic joke is that the amygdala and what it does has been a non-secret since ... A mouse is ruled by its amygdala.. Your frontal lobes can control your amygdala.. When your amygdala is biting and indicating ... Tickles Your Amygdala:. Imagine a FEATHER tickling your amygdala. ANY TIME. ANY PLACE. ANY WAY. Hee hee hee!. Ha ha ha!. ... When your amygdala gets bitten you feel like you are going down the drain.. AMYGDALA TICKLE:. FEELING GOOD EMOTIONS show Energy ...
more infohttp://www.viewzone.com/amygdala2012/index.html

spectral and temporal processing  | Reward System | Amygdalaspectral and temporal processing | Reward System | Amygdala

amygdala. right amygdala. *t values were significant at P 0.. T. Damsma. R. We are grateful to Dr.. J. A. Neurosci. M. 32. ... left hippocampus amygdala.41 3. amygdala 21 M. 27). and is involved in opioid-mediated reward (32) as well as analgesia (33). ... and in left amygdala and VMPF to decrease. rCBF decreases were observed in right amygdala. bilateral neocortical regions. 2001 ... left hippocampus amygdala. and SMA. and in widespread. 6). and hippocampus amygdala. also AC). 20. thalamus. animal studies ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/116818263/spectral-and-temporal-processing

The Amygdala: Bipolar Public Enemy Number One - Causes - Bipolar | HealthCentralThe Amygdala: Bipolar Public Enemy Number One - Causes - Bipolar | HealthCentral

... the amygdala certainly has to be Public Enemy Number One. But its not that simple. Lets get start ... Introducing the amygdala …. The amygdala is a small structure in the mid-brain responsible for generating fight-or-flight ... Networking the amygdala …. The amygdala is in dialogue with other areas of the brain, most notably the ventral prefrontal ... If youre looking to finger one particular area of the brain as a prime suspect in bipolar disorder, the amygdala certainly has ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/article/the-amygdala-bipolar-public-enemy-number-one
  • The clinical relevance of these findings has been corroborated by human neuroimaging studies that demonstrate amygdala activation in response to experimental noxious stimuli, including mechanical compression, thermal stimulation, and capsaicin application [ 10 ], as well as increased amygdala activity in migraineurs compared to healthy controls when presented with negative but not positive or neutral emotional stimuli [ 45 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • But hungry people have increased amygdala activity in response to pictures of food and people who are very empathetic have an amygdala response to seeing other people. (redorbit.com)
  • As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. (scribd.com)
  • Intra-amygdala interactions supporting expression and extinction of conditioned fear. (nih.gov)
  • He found that a receptor for a particular protein called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the amygdala is critical for the extinction of a conditioned fear. (dana.org)
  • Davis also discovered that a compound called D-cycloserine (DCS) injected into rats' amygdalas enhanced the function of the NMDA receptor and accelerated fear extinction. (dana.org)
  • During this conference, we will focus on research investigating the role of the amygdala in the formation and extinction of emotional memories, both normal and pathological. (grc.org)
  • Specifically, there is reduced FAAH expression associated with the variant allele that selectively enhances fronto-amygdala connectivity and fear extinction learning, and decreases anxiety-like behaviours. (nature.com)
  • Since the initial discovery of nociceptive pathways to the amygdala, preclinical [ 5 , 7 , 8 ] and clinical [ 10 , 11 , 18 , 19 ] studies have provided direct support for amygdala involvement in pain. (hindawi.com)
  • This allows the amygdala to coordinate physiological responses based on cognitive information - the most well-known example being the fight-or-flight response. (dnalc.org)
  • The investigators plan to follow the animals into adulthood to investigate the long-term effects of early amygdala damage on stress hormones, behavior and physiological systems possibly affected by chronically high cortisol levels, such as immune, growth and reproductive functions. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thus, a picture begins to emerge of disruptions in the brain transitioning into adulthood, leading to decreased connectivity between the VPFC and the areas it is meant to modulate, especially the amygdala. (healthcentral.com)
  • The serotonin transporter gene may affect neural circuits connecting the amygdala and the cingulate and cause depression. (dnalc.org)
  • The findings are part of a larger longitudinal study at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, examining how amygdala damage within the first month of life affects the development of social and emotional behaviors and neuroendocrine systems in rhesus monkeys from infancy through adulthood. (innovations-report.com)
  • Previous investigations at Yerkes found that as infants, monkeys with amygdala damage showed higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the current paper, the authors demonstrated that in contrast with adult animals with amygdala damage, juvenile monkeys with early amygdala damage had increased levels of cortisol in the blood, compared to controls. (innovations-report.com)
  • Despite the increased levels of stress hormones, monkeys with early amygdala damage exhibit a blunted emotional reactivity to threats, including decreased fear and aggression, and reduced anxiety in response to stress. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mechanisms of abnormal amygdala activity in pain with particular focus on loss of cortical control mechanisms as well as new strategies to correct pain-related amygdala dysfunction will be discussed in the present review. (hindawi.com)
  • Conditions such as autism , depression , narcolepsy and OCD are also suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala owing to damage or developmental problems with it. (fact-index.com)
  • A neurobiological implication that our species' amygdala is more "hooked in" with our "higher cognitive functions" seems to lend some credence to that viewpoint. (gnxp.com)
  • The great cosmic joke is that the amygdala and what it does has been a non-secret since amygdala started appearing in the brains of mammals over 65 million years ago. (viewzone.com)
  • The amygdala is an almond-shaped limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe and is well known for its role in conveying emotional significance to a sensory stimulus, emotional and affective states, and related behavioral adaptations in response to changes in the internal and external bodily environment [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Located in brain 's medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin , corpus amygdaloideum ) is believed to have strong connections to the mental and emotional reactions of the person. (fact-index.com)
  • He literally blew our minds at viewzone with his amazing story of how the function and control of the amygdala -- a pair of almond shaped organs in the brain -- was discovered by and old and eccentric genius who claimed to have discovered the means of mental happiness. (viewzone.com)
  • However, the premise that the amygdala causally enhances declarative memory has not been directly tested in humans. (pnas.org)
  • Social enterprise amygdala SOCIAL, sro offers these target groups friendly working environment tailored to the specific needs of each employee, working and long-term psychosocial support, education, participation in decision-making processes and compliance with all other principles of social entrepreneurship. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The amygdala is believed to be the part of your brain that processes basic feelings. (psychcentral.com)
  • The amygdala is a limbic brain region that plays a key role in emotional processing, neuropsychiatric disorders, and the emotional-affective dimension of pain. (hindawi.com)
  • The amygdala has also emerged as an important site in the brain for the emotional-affective dimension of pain and pain modulation [ 5 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Brain scan studies reliably show amygdala over-activation (or sometimes a blunted response) in the affective reactions of bipolar subjects compared to controls, even in stable states. (healthcentral.com)
  • In a nutshell, an underperforming VPFC combined with an over-performing amygdala may form the "neuroanatomic" basis for affective symptoms. (healthcentral.com)
  • This may be because in addition to being part of the threat alert system, the amygdala also seems to be involved in emotional memories. (psychcentral.com)
  • During the 2009 Gordon Research Conference on the amygdala, internationally renowned basic and clinical researchers will present their latest findings on the amygdala. (grc.org)
  • Preclinical and clinical studies have identified amygdala hyperactivity as well as impairment of cortical control mechanisms in pain states. (hindawi.com)
  • Impairment of these cortical control mechanisms allows the development of amygdala pain plasticity. (hindawi.com)
  • Later, scientists found that rats with targeted amygdala damage would snuggle with cats, their natural enemy. (dana.org)
  • Here we show that brief electrical stimulation to the human amygdala can enhance declarative memory for specific images of neutral objects without eliciting a subjective emotional response, likely by engaging other memory-related brain regions. (pnas.org)
  • Here we tested whether brief electrical stimulation to the amygdala could enhance declarative memory for specific images of neutral objects without eliciting a subjective emotional response. (pnas.org)
  • Fourteen epilepsy patients undergoing monitoring of seizures via intracranial depth electrodes viewed a series of neutral object images, half of which were immediately followed by brief, low-amplitude electrical stimulation to the amygdala. (pnas.org)
  • Amygdala stimulation elicited no subjective emotional response but led to reliably improved memory compared with control images when patients were given a recognition-memory test the next day. (pnas.org)
  • Emotional memories are thought to be stored in a central part of the amygdala and may play a role in anxiety disorders and phobias. (dana.org)
  • The results show the human amygdala has a general capacity to initiate enhancement of specific declarative memories rather than a narrower role limited to indirectly mediating emotional effects on memory. (pnas.org)
  • scientists noted that the amygdalas of patients with autism, which is characterized by decreased social interaction and an inability to understanding the feelings of others, have fewer nerve cells, especially in a subdivision called the lateral nucleus. (gnxp.com)
  • In humans, however, the lateral nucleus occupied a bigger fraction of the amygdala, and was larger compared to overall brain size, than in the other species, the team reports online today in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology . (gnxp.com)
  • Here we review human functional neuroimaging studies suggesting that the amygdala may play a key role in depression. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we discuss functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression in light of the animal and human data. (nih.gov)
  • Here is a photograph of a real human brain outside its container along with a couple of real amygdalae. (viewzone.com)
  • Weinberger has looked at anxiety disorders and the amygdala from a genetic perspective. (dana.org)
  • Alterations in the amygdala have been reported in psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders like PTSD, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. (innovations-report.com)
  • When you perceive a threat, the amygdala instantly clicks your brain into fight-or-flight response, faster than you can say "Get me outta here! (viewzone.com)
  • Cronia amygdala is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amygdala is in dialogue with other areas of the brain, most notably the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC), which, via two networks, plays a role in modulating the limbic response. (healthcentral.com)
  • In language learning, some hypothesize that second language learning for adults may not make ready use of the amygdala in procedural memory usage and so emotional links to words are slower to form. (fact-index.com)
  • However, much of what is known about the amygdala comes from research on adults. (innovations-report.com)
  • This surprising result contrasted with previous research on adults, which showed that amygdala damage results in lower levels of cortisol. (innovations-report.com)
  • In studies of adults, the amygdala and its connections are fully formed at the time of the manipulation, but here neither the amygdala or its connections were fully matured when the damage occurred. (innovations-report.com)
  • Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression. (nih.gov)
  • Flere undersøgelser har fundet, at amygdala kan være ansvarlig for de følelsesmæssige reaktioner på PTSD patienter. (wikipedia.org)
  • En undersøgelse fandt specifikt, at når PTSD patienter får vist billeder af ansigter med frygtsomme udtryk, har deres amygdalae tendens til, at have en højere aktivitet end en person uden PTSD. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you're looking to finger one particular area of the brain as a prime suspect in bipolar disorder, the amygdala certainly has to be Public Enemy Number One. (healthcentral.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Amygdala" applicable to this article? (plos.org)