The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The selection of one food over another.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
Sexual activities of animals.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (1/3478)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Distinct populations of NMDA receptors at subcortical and cortical inputs to principal cells of the lateral amygdala. (2/3478)

Fear conditioning involves the transmission of sensory stimuli to the amygdala from the thalamus and cortex. These input synapses are prime candidates for sites of plasticity critical to the learning in fear conditioning. Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanisms have been implicated in fear learning, we investigated the contribution of NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission at putative cortical and thalamic inputs using visualized whole cell recording in amygdala brain slices. Whereas NMDA receptors are present at both of these pathways, differences were observed. First, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor-mediated component of the synaptic response, relative to the NMDA component, is smaller at thalamic than cortical input synapses. Second, thalamic NMDA responses are more sensitive to Mg2+. These findings suggest that there are distinct populations of NMDA receptors at cortical and thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala. Differences such as these might underlie unique contributions of the two pathways to fear conditioning.  (+info)

Dose-related effects of single focal irradiation in the medial temporal lobe structures in rats--magnetic resonance imaging and histological study. (3/3478)

The dose-related effects of single focal irradiation on the medial temporal lobe in rats were investigated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination. Irradiation of 200 Gy as a maximum dose using 4 mm collimators with a gamma unit created an area of necrosis consistently at the target site within 2 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of 100 Gy caused necrosis within 10 weeks, and 75 Gy caused necrosis within one year. Irradiation of less than 50 Gy did not induce necrosis consistently, although a restricted area of necrosis was created in the medial temporal structures including the intraparenchymal portion of the optic tract. 75 Gy may be the optimum dose for creating necrosis consistently in the medial temporal lobe structures. However, careful dose planning considering both dose-time and dose-volume relationships in necrosis development is necessary to avoid injury to vulnerable neural structures such as the optic tract when applying radiosurgical techniques to treat functional brain disorders in medial temporal lobe structures such as temporal lobe epilepsy.  (+info)

A quantitative MR study of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in healthy subjects 40 to 90 years of age. (4/3478)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several investigators have defined normal age-specific values for the medial temporal lobe structures in neurologically normal elderly subjects, but, to our knowledge, no one has reported those values for a large sample of healthy volunteers. The purpose of our study was to define normal age-specific values for the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle by age group, ranging from 40 to 90 years, in order to generate a guideline for the quantitative MR diagnosis and differential diagnosis for early Alzheimer disease. METHODS: MR-based volumetric measurements of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn, standardized by total intracranial volume, were obtained from oblique coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in 619 healthy volunteers and two cadaveric specimens. RESULTS: Differences in standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn were significant among the 61- to 70-year-old, 71- to 80-year-old, and 81- to 90-year-old groups, and were not significant between the 40- to 50-year-old and 51- to 60-year-old groups. We found no significant differences in side or sex among the age groups for any of the structures. CONCLUSION: Differences in the mean value and in the 95% normal range of standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn correspond to differences in age among healthy subjects; therefore, age should be considered a factor in correlative research, especially in that involving patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease.  (+info)

The human amygdala plays an important role in gaze monitoring. A PET study. (5/3478)

Social contact often initially depends on ascertaining the direction of the other person's gaze. We determined the brain areas involved in gaze monitoring by a functional neuroimaging study. Discrimination between the direction of gaze significantly activated a region in the left amygdala during eye-contact and no eye-contact tasks to the same extent. However, a region in the right amygdala was specifically activated only during the eye-contact task. Results confirm that the left amygdala plays a general role in the interpretation of eye gaze direction, and that the activity of the right amygdala of the subject increases when another individual's gaze is directed towards him. This suggests that the human amygdala plays a role in reading social signals from the face.  (+info)

Differential regulation of the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) in hypothalamus and amygdala of the immature rat by sensory input and food intake. (6/3478)

The physiological consequences of activating corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) are not fully understood. The neuroanatomic distribution of this CRF receptor family member is consistent with roles in mediating the actions of CRF and similar ligands on food intake control and integrative aspects of stress-related behaviors. However, CRF2 expression in the adult rat is not influenced by stress, corticosterone (CORT), or food intake. In immature rat we have demonstrated striking downregulation of CRF2mRNA in hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) after 24 hr of maternal deprivation, a paradigm consisting of both physiological/psychological stress and food deprivation. The current study aimed to distinguish which element or elements of maternal deprivation govern CRF2mRNA expression by isolating the effects of food intake and discrete maternal sensory cues on CRF2mRNA levels in VMH and in reciprocally communicating amygdala nuclei. In maternally deprived pups, CRF2mRNA levels in VMH and basomedial (BMA) and medial (MEA) amygdala nuclei were 62, 72, and 102% of control levels, respectively. Sensory inputs of grooming and handling as well as of the pups' own suckling activity-but not food intake-fully restored CRF2mRNA expression in VMH. In contrast, all manipulations tended to increase CRF2mRNA levels in BMA of maternally deprived rats, and surrogate grooming increased CRF2mRNA expression significantly above that of nondeprived controls. CRF2mRNA expression was not influenced significantly by plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT levels. Thus, in the immature rat, (1) CRF2 expression is regulated differentially in hypothalamic and amygdala regions, and (2) CRF2mRNA levels in VMH are governed primarily by maternal or suckling-derived sensory input rather than food intake or peripheral stress hormones. These findings indicate a region-specific regulation of CRF2mRNA, supporting the participation of the receptor in neurochemically defined circuits integrating sensory cues to influence specific behavioral and visceral functions.  (+info)

Differential regulation of glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA (GR-mRNA) by maternal deprivation in immature rat hypothalamus and limbic regions. (7/3478)

Maternal deprivation (MDep) of neonatal rats significantly influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study hypothesized that GR-mRNA modulation constituted an early, critical mechanism for the acute effects of MDep on neuroendocrine stress-responses. GR-mRNA hybridization signal in hippocampal CA1, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and frontal cortex was significantly reduced immediately following 24 h MDep. In amygdala, cingulate cortex, PVN and CA1, apparent gender-dependent MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression were observed, without significant differences in absolute levels. Thus, rapid, region-specific MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression in HPA-regulating areas are shown, consistent with involvement of GR-expression in mechanisms of MDep influence on HPA tone.  (+info)

Differential effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on bursting activity in the amygdala. (8/3478)

Differential effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on bursting activity in the amygdala. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are implicated in both the activation and inhibition of epileptiform bursting activity in seizure models. We examined the role of mGluR agonists and antagonists on bursting in vitro with whole cell recordings from neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of amygdala-kindled rats. The broad-spectrum mGluR agonist 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylate (1S,3R-ACPD, 100 microM) and the group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, 20 microM) evoked bursting in BLA neurons from amygdala-kindled rats but not in control neurons. Neither the group II agonist (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (L-CCG-I, 10 microM) nor the group III agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4, 100 microM) evoked bursting. The agonist-induced bursting was inhibited by the mGluR1 antagonists (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine [(+)-MCPG, 500 microM] and (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine [(S)-4C3HPG, 300 microM]. Kindling enhanced synaptic strength from the lateral amygdala (LA) to the BLA, resulting in synaptically driven bursts at low stimulus intensity. Bursting was abolished by (S)-4C3HPG. Further increasing stimulus intensity in the presence of (S)-4C3HPG (300 microM) evoked action potential firing similar to control neurons but did not induce epileptiform bursting. In kindled rats, the same threshold stimulation that evoked epileptiform bursting in the absence of drugs elicited excitatory postsynaptic potentials in (S)-4C3HPG. In contrast (+)-MCPG had no effect on afferent-evoked bursting in kindled neurons. Because (+)-MCPG is a mGluR2 antagonist, whereas (S)-4C3HPG is a mGluR2 agonist, the different effects of these compounds suggest that mGluR2 activation decreases excitability. Together these data suggest that group I mGluRs may facilitate and group II mGluRs may attenuate epileptiform bursting observed in kindled rats. The mixed agonist-antagonist (S)-4C3HPG restored synaptic transmission to control levels at the LA-BLA synapse in kindled animals. The different actions of (S)-4C3HPG and (+)-MCPG on LA-evoked bursting suggests that the mGluR1 antagonist-mGluR2 agonist properties may be the distinctive pharmacology necessary for future anticonvulsant compounds.  (+info)

Title:Morphological and Functional Features of the Sex Steroid-Responsive Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala of Adult Rats. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 11. Author(s):A.A. Rasia-Filho, D. Haas, A.P. de Oliveira, J. de Castilhos, R. Frey, D. Stein, V.M. Lazzari, F. Back, G.N. Pires, E. Pavesi, E.C. Winkelmann-Duarte and M. Giovenardi. Affiliation:UFCSPA/Physiology, R. Sarmento Leite 245, Porto Alegre 90170-050 RS, Brazil.. Keywords:Anxiety, extended amygdala, Fos immunoreacitivity, ibotenic acid, innate fear, neuronal morphology, sexual dimorphism, sexual behavior. Abstract:The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) expresses receptors for gonadal hormones and integrates sex steroid-sensitive subcortical networks. Male-female differences are found in the morphology, connectivity, and local neuropil structure of MePD. For example, dendritic spine density is sexually-dimorphic and changes with the estrous cycle and following gonadal hormones manipulations. Due to its connectivity, the MePD may affect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of adenosine A2A receptor gene expression in a model of binge eating in the amygdaloid complex of female rats. AU - Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria. AU - Pucci, Mariangela. AU - Giusepponi, Maria Elena. AU - Romano, Adele. AU - Lambertucci, Catia. AU - Volpini, Rosaria. AU - Micioni Di Bonaventura, Emanuela. AU - Gaetani, Silvana. AU - Maccarrone, Mauro. AU - DAddario, Claudio. AU - Cifani, Carlo. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background: Pharmacological treatment approaches for eating disorders, such as binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, are currently limited. Methods and aims: Using a well-characterized animal model of binge eating, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of the A2A Adenosine Receptor (A2AAR) and dopaminergic D2 receptor (D2R) genes. Results: Gene expression analysis revealed a selective increase of both receptor mRNAs in the amygdaloid complex of stressed and restricted rats, which exhibited binge-like eating, when compared to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoids enhance the excitability of principal basolateral amygdala neurons. AU - Duvarci, Sevil. AU - Paré, Denis. PY - 2007/4/18. Y1 - 2007/4/18. N2 - A large body of pharmaco-behavioral data implicates the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) in the facilitation of memory consolidation by emotions. Overall, this evidence suggests that stress hormones released during emotional arousal increase the activity of BLA neurons. In turn, this increased BLA activity would facilitate synaptic plasticity elsewhere in the brain, to which the BLA projects. However, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the direct effects of corticosterone (CORT) on principal neurons of the rat BLA in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that application of a stress level of CORT for 20 min caused significant changes in the passive properties and responsiveness of BLA cells measured 1-2 h later. ...
A large body of literature implicates the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning. In this study, we examined the contribution of individual amygdaloid nuclei to contextu
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Intrinsic connections of the rat amygdaloid complex: Projections originating in the lateral nucleus. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mariana Zancan, Aline DallOglio, Taís Malysz Sarzenski, Martin Ian Maher, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Alberto A Rasia-Filho].
We previously analyzed the arborization patterns of rat ventral pallidal (VP) axons that coursed caudally to innervate the thalamus and brainstem (Tripathi et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:1133-1157, 2013). Here, we have reconstructed 16 previously undetected axons from the same tracer deposits that follow a more lateral trajectory. Virtually all 16 axons emanating from the different VP compartments collateralized in the extended amygdala system (EAS) and amygdaloid complex. The most frequent targets of axons from the lateral and medial (VPm) VP compartments were the rostral sublenticular extended amygdala, the extended amygdala (EA), the central nucleus of the amygdala and the posterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. In contrast, axons from the rostral extension of the VP preferentially innervated the anterior amygdaloid area, the magnocellular preoptic nucleus, and the anterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. We additionally found and reconstructed a single corticopetal ...
The amygdala is under inhibitory control from the cortex through the activation of local GABAergic interneurons. This inhibition is greatly diminished during heightened emotional states due to dopamine release. However, dopamine excites most amygdala interneurons, suggesting that this dopaminergic gate may be mediated by an unknown subpopulation of interneurons. We hypothesized that this gate is mediated by paracapsular intercalated cells, a subset of interneurons that are innervated by both cortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic afferents. Using transgenic mice that express GFP in GABAergic interneurons, we show that paracapsular cells form a network surrounding the basolateral complex of the amygdala. We found that they provide feedforward inhibition into the basolateral and the central amygdala. Dopamine hyperpolarized paracapsular cells through D1 receptors and substantially suppressed their excitability, resulting in a disinhibition of the basolateral and central nuclei. Suppression of the ...
Connections between the insular cortex and the amygdaloid complex have been demonstrated using various techniques. Although functionally well connected, the precise anatomical substrate through which the amygdaloid complex and the insula are wired remains unknown. In 1960, Klingler briefly described the fasciculus amygdaloinsularis, a white matter tract connecting the posterior insula with the amygdala. The existence of such a fasciculus seems likely but has not been firmly established, and the reported literature does not include a thorough description and documentation of its anatomy. In this fiber dissection study the authors sought to elucidate the pathway connecting the insular cortex and the mesial temporal lobe. ...
Collectively, our results show that intact Mecp2 function in the BLA is required for normal anxiety behavior as well as some types of learning and memory. Moreover, data from the HDAC inhibitor infusion experiment are consistent with the idea that Mecp2 acting as a transcriptional repressor in the BLA mediates these behavioral processes. Our ability to delete Mecp2 in adult brain and recapitulate behavioral phenotypes of RTT suggests a critical role for Mecp2 in mature neurons after neurodevelopment, in agreement with recent work demonstrating that the loss of MeCP2 in mature neurons produces significant deficits in synaptic transmission (Nelson et al., 2006). Furthermore, these data support the notion that Mecp2 acts in a cell-autonomous manner in that upregulation of genes specifically in the BLA could account for specific phenotypes associated with the disease.. The current study builds on previous work demonstrating that the loss of Mecp2 function is sufficient to recapitulate aspects of RTT ...
Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of abnormal amygdala responses in patients with PD. In comparison with NCs, patients with PD in both the drug-off and drug-on states showed a reduced amygdala response during the perceptual processing of angry and fearful faces. Our results also provide the first in vivodemonstration in human subjects of dopamine modulation of the amygdala. Dopamine repletion appeared to partially restore the response of the amygdala in PD patients, as evidenced by the increased BOLD response in the drug-on state relative to the drug-off state.. The potentiated amygdala response in the dopamine-replete state relative to the hypodopaminergic state may reflect dopamine gating of amygdala inputs and subsequent increased amygdala neuronal activity. Recently, Hariri et al. (2002), using this same BOLD fMRI paradigm in healthy subjects, reported a robust potentiation of the response of the amygdala by dextroamphetamine, a nonspecific monoaminergic agonist that primarily ...
The consequences of acute xylene publicity to the enkephalinergic neuromodulatory technique were studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats have been injected ip with 0 or 1.6 mL/kg xylene every day for three consecutive times. 3 hr following the last dose, they ended up killed and also the brains were being eradicated. The brains ended up dissected in the parietal cortex. caudate putamen, medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, and central amygdaloid nuclei (CA). The assorted Mind components were being analyzed for improvements of their met-enkephalin content by an immunostaining procedure ...
The basolateral nucleus (BLA) of the amygdala contributes to the consolidation of memories for emotional or stressful events. The nucleus contains a high density of CRF1 receptors that are activated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Modulation of the excitability of neurons in the BLA by CRF …
A differential contribution of the right and left amygdalae to affective information processing has been proposed. However, the direction of this lateralization has not been confirmed. In this study, we used a pre- and post-treatment (escitalopram) design to analyze the relative differences between neural activity in the right and left amygdalae during exposure to emotional stimuli in currently depressed patients. To the best of our knowledge, this study is to compare neural activity between the left and right amygdalae in people with depression. Our findings could lead to the development of parameters or biomarkers for depressive symptoms and treatment response. We used a pre-post-test design without a control group. Twenty currently depressed participants underwent an emotion processing task during fMRI. These participants were then treated with an antidepressant for 6 weeks. We used amygdala region-of-interest analysis to evaluate the hemodynamic response during exposure to colored emotional pictures
The occurrence of stress and anxiety disorders has been closely associated with alterations of the amygdala GABAergic system. In these disorders, dysregulation of the serotonergic system, a very important modulator of the amygdala GABAergic system, is also well recognized. The present study, utilizi …
Synonyms for Amygdalar cortices in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Amygdalar cortices. 2 synonyms for amygdala: amygdaloid nucleus, corpus amygdaloideum. What are synonyms for Amygdalar cortices?
The Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (better known as CASEL) describes Social Emotional Learning as the process through which children and adults understand and manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make responsible decisions. CASEL is the leading authority on SEL, and through research, practice, and policy, they are changing the way we think about education, focusing on the whole child. Social and Emotional Learning involves teaching skills that students and adults need in order to be more successful at home, at school, in the workplace, and in life. When people have social and emotional skills, they are self and socially aware, and have the ability to manage themselves both independently and while interacting with others. They can listen to perspectives of others, use positive communication, be aware of cultural issues and differences, set and achieve goals, and take ...
Using in vitro and in vivo data we develop the first large-scale biophysically and anatomically realistic model of the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BL), which reproduces the dynamics of the in vivo local field potential (LFP). Significantly, it predicts that BL intrinsically generates the transient gamma oscillations observed in vivo. The model permitted exploration of the poorly understood synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma genesis in BL, and the models ability to compute LFPs at arbitrary numbers of recording sites provided insights into the characteristics of the spatial properties of gamma bursts. Furthermore, we show how gamma synchronizes principal cells to overcome their low firing rates while simultaneously promoting competition, potentially impacting their afferent selectivity and efferent drive, and thus emotional behavior ...
Using in vitro and in vivo data we develop the first large-scale biophysically and anatomically realistic model of the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BL), which reproduces the dynamics of the in vivo local field potential (LFP). Significantly, it predicts that BL intrinsically generates the transient gamma oscillations observed in vivo. The model permitted exploration of the poorly understood synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma genesis in BL, and the models ability to compute LFPs at arbitrary numbers of recording sites provided insights into the characteristics of the spatial properties of gamma bursts. Furthermore, we show how gamma synchronizes principal cells to overcome their low firing rates while simultaneously promoting competition, potentially impacting their afferent selectivity and efferent drive, and thus emotional behavior ...
The present discussion of SP and associated HHEs is much indebted to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming (Hobson & McCarley, 1977; McCarley & Hobson, 1979). According to that theory, REM is initiated via inhibitory activity of the REM-off cells in reciprocal interaction with REM-on cells (See section on SP and REM for a more detailed discussion). These brain-stem mechanisms inhibit motor output and sensory input and provide the cortex with internally generated activation. The function of the cortical centers is one of synthesizing quasi-random activation into meaningful patterns. Although the activation-synthesis model has not emphasized affective components, the pervasiveness of fear and the sensed presence in the phenomenology of SP indicates that the role of the amygdala may need to be considered central in understanding the SP night-mare. We hypothesize that the experience of a threatening presence during SP is associated with the thalamic projections to the amygdala. During REM, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Basolateral Amygdalae and Frontotemporal Network Functions for Threat Perception. AU - Hortensius, Ruud. AU - Terburg, David. AU - Morgan, Barak. AU - Stein, Dan J.. AU - van Honk, Jack. AU - de Gelder, Beatrice. PY - 2017/4/5. Y1 - 2017/4/5. N2 - Although the amygdalae play a central role in threat perception and reactions, the direct contributions of the amygdalae to specific aspects of threat perception, from ambiguity resolution to reflexive or deliberate action, remain ill understood in humans. Animal studies show that a detailed understanding requires a focus on the different subnuclei, which is not yet achieved in human research. Given the limits of human imaging methods, the crucial contribution needs to come from individuals with exclusive and selective amygdalae lesions. The current study investigated the role of the basolateral amygdalae and their connection with associated frontal and temporal networks in the automatic perception of threat. Functional activation ...
ABSTRACT: Although the amygdala complex is a brain area critical for human behavior, knowledge of its subspecialization is primarily derived from experiments in animals. We here employed methods for large-scale data mining to perform a connectivity-derived parcellation of the human amygdala based on whole-brain coactivation patterns computed for each seed voxel. Voxels within the histologically defined human amygdala were clustered into distinct groups based on their brain-wide coactivation maps. Using this approach, connectivity-based parcellation divided the amygdala into three distinct clusters that are highly consistent with earlier microstructural distinctions. Meta-analytic connectivity modelling then revealed the derived clusters brain-wide connectivity patterns, while meta-data profiling allowed their functional characterization. These analyses revealed that the amygdalas laterobasal nuclei group was associated with coordinating high-level sensory input, whereas its centromedial nuclei ...
Scientists and mental health professionals have made major strides in understanding and treating major depression, including the discovery of the role played by imbalances in brain chemicals such as serotonin and noradrenaline. But there is increasing evidence that there is more to the story: depression also involves structural changes in areas of the brain that are involved in mood, memory, and decision-making. Depression is often precipitated by stressful experiences. The brain interprets our experiences and decides if they are threatening, and then controls our behavioral and physiological responses to them. Data obtained from animal experiments show that harmful physiological changes result from the inability of the brain and body to respond to repeated stress with adaptive modifications in structure and function. Three brain areas - the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala - are particularly susceptible to pathological changes in size and function. These areas are ...
Maybe youre like me, anxious more often than not. Maybe youve read about that pair of panic buttons in the brain called the amygdalae. Troublesome though they may be, wed be lost without them, unable to perceive and react to danger. The amygdalae are the gatekeepers of the limbic system, the brains most primitive region.…
According to a press-release from UCLA, researchers recruited 41 epilepsy patients and monitored activity in their amygdalae, an area located deep within the brain which is believed to regulate emotions, in response to visual stimuli -- photos of people, buildings, and animals, respectively. Since most previous studies into amygdalae focused on reactions to human faces, neuroscientists were surprised to find that they didnt elicit the most profound reaction. Our study shows that neurons in the human amygdala respond preferentially to pictures of animals, meaning that we saw the most amount of activity in cells when the patients looked at cats or snakes versus buildings or people, says Florian Mormann of CalTech, and the studys lead author. This preference extends to cute as well as ugly or dangerous animals and appears to be independent of the emotional contents of th... Full article: ...
The amygdala, a small deep brain structure involved in behavioral processing through interactions with other brain regions, has garnered increased attention in recent years in relation to pain processing. As pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses physical sensation, affect, and cognition, the amygdala is well suited to play a part in this process. Multiple…
Funderstanding is a resource for teachers, parents, and students to stay up to date on education-related issues. The company focuses on innovative and progressive approaches to inspire learning in classrooms as well as homes. Funderstanding is also an ebook publishing partner company, focused on education-related content, which provides complete epublishing services as well as an expertise in ebook marketing and author branding.. ...
Decisions across the tiers are made using a consistent data-based problem-solving process. Teams use data to determine the strength of the core/Tier 1 as well as when supplemental and/or individualized intensive intervention is needed for students. Supports are continually evaluated for effectiveness and fidelity of implementation. Without effective and systematic processes to engage in data-based problem solving, schools and districts may be spending time implementing ineffective practices. ...
This will help to track the use of this data in the literature. In addition, consider also citing the paper related to this collection. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and long-term fear memory. AU - Savonenko, Alena. AU - Werka, Tomasz. AU - Nikolaev, Evgeni. AU - Zieliñski, Kazimierz. AU - Kaczmarek, Leszek. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. During multitrial training in a shuttle box, the APV-injected rats were not different from the controls in sensitivity to shock or in acquisition of freezing to contextual cues. However, APV ...
Looking for online definition of cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? cortical amygdaloid nucleus explanation free. What is cortical amygdaloid nucleus? Meaning of cortical amygdaloid nucleus medical term. What does cortical amygdaloid nucleus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Hulvershorn, Leslie A.. AU - Mennes, Maarten. AU - Castellanos, F. Xavier. AU - Di Martino, Adriana. AU - Milham, Michael P.. AU - Hummer, Tom A.. AU - Roy, Amy Krain. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Objective A substantial proportion of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also display emotion regulation deficits manifesting as chronic irritability, severe temper outbursts, and aggression. The amygdala is implicated in emotion regulation, but its connectivity and relation to emotion regulation in ADHD has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of amygdala circuits and emotion regulation deficits in youth with ADHD. Method Bilateral amygdala iFC was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 63 children with ADHD, aged ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The amygdala is actually several separately functioning nuclei that have been grouped together by their anatomical proximity. Key among these nuclei are the basolateral complex, the centromedial nucleus, and the cortical nucleus. The basolateral complex receives input from the sensory systems and is necessary for fear conditioning. The centromedial nucleus is the main output for the basolateral complex and is involved in emotional arousal. It sends outputs to the hypothalamus for activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the reticular nucleus for increased reflexes, the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve for facial expressions of fear, and the ventral tegmental area, locus ceruleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus for activation of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. The cortical nucleus is involved in olfaction and pheremone processing. It receives input from the olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex. Fear conditioning, which trains animals to associate fear with other (previously ...
The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism, presented by Cogner (1956), theorized that alcoholism was induced by the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, which in turn reinforced intake of ethanol. If this holds true, then it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CNS effects of ethanol may be dominant in the area of the brain that controls or influences anxiety. Given the known role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety-induced responses, we hypothesized that the anxiety reducing effects of ethanol would be observed within the amygdala and may be measured as alterations of neuronal excitability. The first aim of this thesis was to establish an animal model of alcoholism in the laboratory. This was done by introducing a nutritionally complete ethanol containing liquid diet. We compared two liquid diet ...
79 Moreover, the amygdaloid complex contains a moderate density of receptors and the developmental role of u s cholinergic amygdaloid system in passive avoidance learning cymbalta the rat has been described to occur during cymbalta us patent same time period. 25c 1 H 0.
BACKGROUND: A vital component of an organisms response to acute stress is a surge in vigilance that serves to optimize the detection and assessment of threats to its homeostasis. The amygdala is thought to regulate this process, but in humans, acute stress and amygdala function have up to now only been studied in isolation. Hence, we developed an integrated design using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the immediate effects of controlled stress induction on amygdala function. METHODS: In 27 healthy female participants, we studied brain responses to emotional facial stimuli, embedded in an either acutely stressful or neutral context by means of adjoining movie clips. RESULTS: A variety of physiological and psychological measures confirmed successful induction of moderate levels of acute stress. More importantly, this context manipulation shifted the amygdala toward higher sensitivity as well as lower specificity, that is, stress induction augmented amygdala responses to ...
The amygdala is critical for fear processing and fear regulation. The central amygdala (CeA), once viewed as a passive relay between the amygdala complex and do...
Role of Oxytocin in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Network During Social Decision-Makings profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amygdala response and functional connectivity during cognitive emotion regulation of aversive image sequences. AU - Sarkheil, Pegah. AU - Klasen, Martin. AU - Schneider, Frank. AU - Goebel, Rainer. AU - Mathiak, Klaus. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Emotion regulation (ER) is crucial in terms of mental health and social functioning. Attention deployment (AD) and cognitive reappraisal (CR) are both efficient cognitive ER strategies, which are based on partially dissociated neural effects. Our understanding of the neural underpinnings of ER is based on laboratory paradigms that study changes of the brain activation related to isolated emotional stimuli. To track the neural response to ER in the changing and dynamic environment of daily life, we extended the common existing paradigms by applying a sequence of emotionally provocative stimuli involving three aversive images. Eighteen participants completed an ER paradigm, in which they had to either shift their attention away from ...
Specifically, beginning around 8 weeks, and as the medial amygdala begins to mature (Langworthy, 1937; Yakovlev & Lecours, 1967), the infant becomes exceedingly socially oriented, and will coo, goo, phonate, and babble in response to smiling faces, and will selectively search out and focus on the eyes of their caretaker (Sroufe, 1996). These emerging social behaviors can be directly attributed to the amygdala as well as the overlying (partly contiguous) temporal lobe. Both structures contains neurons which selectively respond to smiles, to the eyes, and which differentiate between male and female faces and the emotions they convey (Hasselmo, Rolls, & Baylis, 1989; Morris, Frith, Perett, Rowland, Young, Calder, & Colan, 1996; Rolls, 2014). For example, the left amygdala can determine the direction in which someone else is looking, whereas the right amygdala becomes activated when making eye to eye contact (Kawashima et al., 1999). Moreover, the normal human amygdala typically responds to ...
The Amygdala Diaries. by David Kellem. Mediators are challenged to guide clients through a lot of obstacles along the way to settlement. One physically small but stealthy and strong obstacle is the human amygdala. Amygdalae are almond-shaped organs in the left and right hemispheres of our brains that can subconsciously derail rational negotiation.. The amygdala, it turns out, is the root of some of our less-rational and more problematic behaviors. It has been identified as a primary organ of the paleomamillian mind - the mind of early human beings who spent their days mostly just trying to survive in a hostile world full of beasts of prey and other physical threats. The amygdala is an alarm system and an army all in one. If it senses danger it activates a powerful internal alert. Adrenaline and other hormones surge, muscular systems engage, and the body jumps into self- protective action: stand and fight the danger, or turn fast and flee from it.. Time and evolution eventually relegated the ...
Norepinephrine (NE) raises your level of alertness and arousal. It puts the amygdala on high alert to set off all the alarms in case danger arises. That alarm system is good if youre doing something like hunting, but not helpful if youre public speaking or have developed panic anxiety.
Krzysik-Walker SM, Gonzalez-Mariscal I, Scheibye-Knudsen M, et al. The Biarylpyrazole Compound AM251 Alters Mitochondrial Physiology via Proteolytic Degradation of ERRalpha. Mol. Pharm. 2013. 83:157-166. PMID: 23066093.. Ratano P, Everitt BJ and Milton AL. The CB1 Receptor Antagonis AM251 Impairs Reconsolidation of Pavlovian Fear Memory in the Rat Basolateral Amygdala. Neuropsychopharmoacology. 2014 Oct;39(11):2529-37. PMID: 24801769.. Jenkin KA, OKeefe L, Simcocks AC, et al. Chronic administration of AM251 improves albuminuria and renal tubular structure in obese rats. J Endocrin. 2015 May;225(2)113-24. PMID: 25804605. ...
Stress is known to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and to enhance anxiety. Stress also leads to secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), and the BLA has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors. This raises the possibility that stress-induced elevation in GC secretion might directly affect amygdaloid neurons. To address the possible effects of GC on neurons of amygdala and on anxiety, we used rats treated either acutely with a single dose or chronically with 10 daily doses of high physiological levels of corticosterone (the rat-specific glucocorticoid). Behavior and morphological changes in neurons of BLA were measured 12 days after the initiation of treatment in both groups. A single acute dose of corticosterone was sufficient to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the BLA and heightened anxiety, as measured on an elevated plus maze. Moreover, this form of dendritic hypertrophy after acute treatment was of a magnitude similar to that caused by chronic treatment. ...
Using a mouse model, a pair of UC Riverside researchers demonstrated the formation of fear memory involves the strengthening of neural pathways between two brain areas: the hippocampus, which responds to a particular context and encodes it, and the amygdala, which triggers defensive behavior, including fear responses.
This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to ...
Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an H. Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
Smith, Justin P., Achua, Justin K., Summers, Tangi R., Ronan, Patrick, and Summers, Cliff H.. Neuropeptide S and BDNF gene expression in the amygdala are influenced by decision making under stress. In Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Special edition: Decision-making under stress: the importance of cortico-limbic circuits, 1-13. Vol. 8, Iss. Article 121. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2014. (DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00121) ...
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Social and emotional learning (SEL) enhances students capacity to integrate skills, attitudes, and behaviors to deal effectively and ethically with daily tasks and challenges. There are five core competencies that can be taught in many ways across many settings. Many educators and researchers are also exploring how best to assess these competencies ...
We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
Male and female mice respond differently to the same pheromone signals, and the representation of these sensory stimuli by neurons in the medial amygdala correlates precisely with the differences in behavior.
RESULTS: In the medial subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central amygdala (CeA), the number of pCREB immunoreactive (pCREB-ir) cells in the clean-bedding exposed group was significantly larger than in the home cage group, while the number of pCREB-ir cells in the OVX+E2-bedding exposed group did not differ from that in the home cage group. The bedding soiled by OVX rats was less effective. No significant difference in the number of pCREB-ir cells was detected in the other regions of the extended amygdala among all groups ...
An almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system. (MeSH)
They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... Gosselin, Peretz, Johnsen and Adolphs (2007) studied S.M., a patient with bilateral damage of the amygdala with the rest of the ... Damage to the amygdala has selective emotional impairments on musical recognition. ... It appears that damage specific to the amygdala can selectively impair recognition of scary music. ...
Amygdala[edit]. Associative learning between odors and behavioral responses takes place in the amygdala. The odors serve as the ... The amygdala passes olfactory information on to the hippocampus. The orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and ... Similar to the process in the amygdala, an odor is associated with a particular reward, i.e. the smell of food with receiving ... The main olfactory bulb connects to the amygdala via the piriform cortex of the primary olfactory cortex and directly projects ...
Amygdala neurons[edit]. This theory hypothesizes that an early developmental failure involving the amygdala cascades on the ... Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area. Int J Dev Neurosci. ...
Role of the amygdala[edit]. The amygdala is a complex set of nuclei situated in the anterior temporal lobe and lies beneath the ... The amygdala is involved in the formation of memories of emotional experiences, particularly those associated with fear, flight ... The cat odor induced an inhibition of the endocannabinoid system in the amygdala which has been suggested to induce anxiety- ... Without a properly functioning amygdala, olfactory memories would not be able to form which could put an animal at risk of ...
Amygdala. Article about Conover's interest in science fiction and fantasy, including his correspondence with H. P. Lovecraft. ...
January 2019). "Maternal Cortisol Concentrations During Pregnancy and Sex-Specific Associations With Neonatal Amygdala ... amygdala). During gestation, cortisol concentrations in maternal circulation are up to ten times higher than cortisol ... "Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems". ...
Amygdala Music - Jonathan Miller. Amygdala Music. 2008-12-19. Retrieved on 2009-02-06. "Verminators" (2008) - Full cast and ...
Music by Amygdala. "Pock Jack 6" (Independent Productions), 1997. Directed by Dutch filmmaker Lisette Merenciana. Film features ...
... amygdala Kiener. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 April 2010. Prunum antillanum (Sarasúa, 1992 ...
The basolateral nuclei (or basolateral amygdala) and the hippocampus interact with the amygdala in the storage of memory, which ... The amygdala is an almond-shaped mass of nuclei that is located deep in the brain's medial temporal lobe. It processes the ... The amygdala's role in learned fear includes interactions with other brain regions in the neural circuit of fear. While lesions ... The amygdala's ability to respond to fearful stimuli occurs through the process of fear conditioning. Similar to classical ...
Often a damaged amygdala can cause impairment in the recognition of fear (like the human case of patient S.M.). This impairment ... Each amygdala is part of a circuitry of fear learning. They are essential for proper adaptation to stress and specific ... The amygdala plays an important role in SSDR, such as the ventral amygdalofugal, which is essential for associative learning, ... "The Amygdala and Its Allies". 2002. The Brain. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013. Schmidt, ...
"Bliv ven med hjernens amygdala". Dafolos online-butik. Retrieved 23 November 2017. Schrøder, Malene. "Rejsen til Amygdala (in ... ISBN 978-87-7160-681-2 Bliv ven med hjernens amygdala (2017), Dafolo. ISBN 978-87-7160-680-5 Stierne i hjernen (2017), Dafolo. ... Mehlsen, Camilla (10 October 2015). "Farvel Freud, goddag Amygdala". Dagbladet Information. Retrieved 31 January 2017. "Gør ... Hello Amygdala" in Dagbladet Information. Ansvar (Dafolo, 2020) ISBN 9788771609790 Afledte effekter People'sPress, 2019) ISBN ...
... amygdala (Kiener, 1835). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010. Cronia aurantiaca ( ... Species within the genus Cronia include: Cronia amygdala (Kiener, 1835) Cronia aurantiaca (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1853) Cronia ... synonym of Cronia amygdala (Kiener, 1835) (misspelling) Cronia avenacea (Lesson, 1842): synonym of Usilla avenacea (Lesson, ...
The amygdala appears to have a specific role in attention to emotional stimuli. The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped region ... The amygdala receives information from both the thalamus and the cortex; information from the thalamus is rough in detail and ... In addition, the amygdala is involved in the response to non-facial displays of emotion, including unpleasant auditory, ... In addition, the amygdala's role in attention modulation toward emotion-specific stimuli may occur via projections from the ...
Underdeveloped amygdalae. Two studies found that both the left and especially the right amygdalae are impaired in psychopaths. ... 2014). "Lower Amygdala Volume in Men is Associated with Childhood Aggression, Early Psychopathic Traits, and Future Violence". ... 2013). "Lower Amygdala Volume in Men is Associated with Childhood Aggression, Early Psychopathic Traits, and Future Violence". ... Similarly, Dustin Pardini conducted that which shows that men with a smaller amygdala are three times more likely to commit ...
... in the Amygdala, 1959-1969; and Kinshasa, 1960. The title is taken from The Crystals' 1962 song "He Hit Me (It Felt Like A Kiss ...
Tissue Distribution CNS (region specific) & several peripheral tissues: Stomach > amygdala, kidney, lung, small intestine > ... amygdala, and raphe nucleus. hTAAR1 has also been identified in human astrocytes. Outside of the human central nervous system, ...
Tissue Distribution Kidney, amygdala, hippocampus; Species: Human; Technique: RT-PCR ... Human brain tissues (with the level of ... amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, putamen, caudate, frontal cortex, pons, prostate, stomach, heart, bladder, small intestine, ... expression descending from hippocampus, substantia nigra, amygdala, frontal cortex to basal ganglia), human fetal liver. Not ...
The amygdala is an area in the brain involved in emotion. Studies have found that patients with bilateral amygdala damage, ... Gupta R, Koscik TR, Bechara A, Tranel D (March 2011). "The amygdala and decision-making". Neuropsychologia. 49 (4): 760-6. doi: ... which is damage in both hemispheres of the amygdala region in the brain, are deficient in decision-making. When an initial ... choice is made in decision-making, the result of this choice has an emotional response, which is controlled by the amygdala. ...
Patients with amygdala damage, however, do not show a memory enhancement effect. Hebb distinguished between short-term and long ... This is also true for stimulation of the amygdala. This proves that excitement enhances memory by the stimulation of hormones ... Brain areas involved in the neuroanatomy of memory such as the hippocampus, the amygdala, the striatum, or the mammillary ... For example, the hippocampus is believed to be involved in spatial learning and declarative learning, while the amygdala is ...
PTSD can affect several parts of the brain such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. The amygdala controls ... Maeng, L. Y.; Waddell, J.; Shors, T. J. (2010). "The Prefrontal Cortex Communicates with the Amygdala to Impair Learning after ... In particular, the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are affected. One class of stress hormone responsible for ... Stress hormones influence the processes carried out in the hippocampus and amygdala which are also associated with emotional ...
Wright A. "Limbic System: Amygdala". In Byrne JH (ed.). Homeostasis and Higher Brain Function. Neuroscience Online. University ... Medial prefrontal cortex Central nucleus of the amygdala The orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus innervate ... Other output regions include: the ventromedial hypothalamus, medial and lateral septal nuclei, central medial amygdala, zona ... Reppucci CJ, Petrovich GD (July 2016). "Organization of connections between the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral ...
The domestic cat brain also contains the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal lobes (which comprise 3 to 3.5% of the total brain in ... Marcos, P; Coveñas, R; Narvaez, J.A; Aguirre, J.A; Tramu, G; Gonzalez-Baron, S (1998). "Neuropeptides in the Cat Amygdala". ... Bear, Mark F.; Connors, Barry W.; Paradiso, Michael A. (2007). "Neural Components of Aggression Beyond the Amygdala". ...
Baron-Cohen, S; Ring, H.A.; Bullmore, E.T.; Wheelwright, S.; Ashwin, C.; Williams, S.C.R. (May 2000). "The amygdala theory of ... Brothers, L.; Ring, B; Kling, A (21 December 1990). "Response of neurons in the macaque amygdala to complex social stimuli". ... The interaction between the amygdala, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STG) enables ...
The amygdala, an area of the brain involved in emotional regulation, may be involved in producing remembrance for some aspects ... Roozendaal B.; Mcewen B. S.; Chattarji S. (2009). "Stress, memory and the amygdala". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10 (6): 423- ... it may remain partially encoded in the form of an emotional memory in the amygdala where it can be subsequently recalled in the ...
Another difference is that the amygdala areas have decreased connectivity with the insula and cingulate areas that control ... Another area, the adjacent central nucleus of the amygdala, controls species-specific fear responses in its connections to the ... Generalized anxiety disorder has been linked to disrupted functional connectivity of the amygdala and its processing of fear ... The latter suggests a compensation strategy for dysfunctional amygdala processing of anxiety. This is consistent with cognitive ...
The amygdala is one of the major structures in the limbic system. It is also known to play a role in the processing of memory ... Overall, the research suggests that the amygdala is important for the making and retrieval of social judgements. The ... Adolphs, R.; Tranel, D.; Damasio, A.R. (1998). "The human amygdala in social judgment". Nature. 393 (6684): 470-474. doi: ... Adolphs, R.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Tranel, D. (2002). "Impaired Recognition of Social Emotions following Amygdala Damage". Journal ...
amygdala has been found Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G; Carter, R McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; ... Blaming appears to relate to include brain activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The amygdala has been found to ...
For example, people with amygdala damage seem to exhibit less loss aversion than normal controls. Also, scores from a survey ... De Martino B.; Camerer C.F.; Adolphs R. (2010). "Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion". Proceedings of the ... De Martino B.; Camerer C.; Adolphs R. (2010). "Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion". Proceedings of the National ... ISBN 978-0-07-162339-1 De Martino B, Camerer CF, Adolphs R (February 2010). "Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion ...
doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0325 Seymour, B., & Dolan, R. (2008). Emotion, decision making, and the amygdala. Neuron, 58, 662-671. ...
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A new study shows that anesthetics activate an endogenous analgesia neural ensemble in the central nucleus of the amygdala. ... A new study shows that anesthetics activate an endogenous analgesia neural ensemble in the central nucleus of the amygdala. ... General anesthetics activate a potent central pain-suppression circuit in the amygdala *Thuy Hua ... McCall, N.M., Wojick, J.A. & Corder, G. Anesthesia analgesia in the amygdala. Nat Neurosci (2020). ...
1. The Amygdala and Pain. The amygdala is an almond-shaped limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe and is well ... The amygdala receives multiple lines of input (Figure 1) relevant for pain processing, and multiple nuclei in the amygdala are ... It is now thought that this deficit was likely due to amygdala resection [16, 17], illustrating the importance of the amygdala ... 4. Pain-Related Amygdala-Centered Corticolimbic Interactions. Information processing in the amygdala can be regulated by ...
Linking Amygdala Persistence to Real-World Emotional Experience and Psychological Well-Being Nikki A. Puccetti, Stacey M. ... A Basomedial Amygdala to Intercalated Cells Microcircuit Expressing PACAP and Its Receptor PAC1 Regulates Contextual Fear Abha ... Modular Network between Postrhinal Visual Cortex, Amygdala, and Entorhinal Cortex Andrew M. Meier, Quanxin Wang, Weiqing Ji, ... Correlates of Auditory Decision-Making in Prefrontal, Auditory, and Basal Lateral Amygdala Cortical Areas Julia L. Napoli, ...
Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major ... Fluoxetine Effects on Amygdala FAAH Activity. To examine the effects of fluoxetine on amygdala FAAH activity, mice were treated ... and excitatory currents at lateral amygdala (LA) synapses, alters a range of amygdala plasticity-related proteins, including ... Bukalo O, Pinard C, Silverstein S, Brehm C, Hartley N, Whittle N et al (2015). Prefrontal inputs to the amygdala instruct fear ...
Amygdala connections were more widespread from the right amygdala in homosexual females, as in heterosexual males. Amygdala ... The amygdala (/əˈmɪɡdələ/; plural: amygdalae /əˈmɪɡdəli, -laɪ/ or amygdalas; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ... Frontal and side view of amygdala Amygdala along with other subcortical regions, in glass brain. Dorsal view of the amygdala in ... The right amygdala plays a role in the association of time and places with emotional properties. The amygdala is one of the ...
Intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala. Scheme of coronal section of the rat amygdala where all major internuclear connections ... Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear.. Duvarci S1, Pare D2.. Author information. 1. Institute of Neurophysiology, ... B1) Scheme of coronal section of the rat amygdala with camera lucida drawings of principal cells in LA, CeL, and ICMMV (black ... Physiological and morphological properties of amygdala neurons. (A) LA projection cell at low (A1) and high (A2) magnification ...
Individual amygdala neurons respond to touch, imagery and sounds Individual neurons in the monkey amygdala that respond to ... Veterans, active-duty service members with PTSD and mTBI have larger amygdalas, finds study A new study finds that veterans and ... If functionality of the brains amygdala is impaired, illusory perceptions arise much faster and more pronounced. ... limbic regions including the amygdala and hippocampus), as well as memory and social processing (cortical regions including the ...
The extended amygdala is a macrostructure in the brain that is involved in reward cognition and defined by connectivity and ... The extended amygdala is said to comprise several basal forebrain structures that share similar morphology, immunocytochemical ... It includes the central medial amygdala, sublenticular substantia innominata, the nucleus accumbens shell, and the bed nucleus ... the central medial amygdala, the shell of the NAc, and the sublenticular substantia innominata. Heimer L (1995). The Human ...
amygdala synonyms, amygdala pronunciation, amygdala translation, English dictionary definition of amygdala. n. pl. a·myg·da·lae ... amygdala. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to amygdala: thalamus a·myg·da·la. (ə-mĭg′də-lə). n. pl. a·myg ... The amygdala is involved in handling the emotional information.. The role of the amygdala in the development of sexual arousal ... SOCIAL amygdala - a business and help in the South Moravian Region (AMYGDALA SOCIAL - podnikEime a pomEihEime v Jihomoravskem ...
The amygdala - fear and stress response. Professor Bruce McEwen discusses how the amygdala is involved in processing fear and ... The amygdala is a complex structure adjacent to the hippocampus. The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear- ... The amygdala is a complex structure adjacent to the hippocampus. The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear- ... The Amygdala, the Bodys Alarm Circuit. The amygdala controls autonomic responses associated with fear, arousal, and emotional ...
Warren explains how hypnosis affects the amygdala. When someone is in a hypnotic trance the amygdala normally shuts itself off ... Currently, researchers are studying a possible link between the amygdala and autism (Black, 2001).. The amygdala, the ... Hypnosis Impacts the Amygdala by Steve G. Jones, M.Ed., citizen journalist. See all articles by this author. Email this author ... The amygdala is an almond sized structure in the brain. This structure has a lot to do with a persons emotional state. ...
Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Roger ... Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triu... Roger Clough ... the amygdala) and the triune brain On 11 Sep 2012, at 13:05, Roger Clough wrote: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain ... The amygdala is a small brain organ which is not pictured in the above diagram but is in the center of the reptelian brain in ...
Amygdala (definition). See all of Amygdala, there is 1 more in this node. ...
Der er omkring 12 millioner neuroner i menneskets amygdala.[1] Amygdala er involveret i posttraumatisk belastningsreaktion.[2] ... Amygdala (på dansk mandelkernen) er et lille område i hjernens tindingelap, som blandt andet håndterer frygt og ... Amygdala kan deles op i en basolateral og en kortikomedial del. Den kortikomediale del modtager fra de autonome processer. ... Dette fund medvirkede til konklusionen, at amygdala "spiller en central rolle i at udløse en tilstand af frygt".[9] ...
Title: Amygdala. Product Type: VINYL LP. Tracks:. 1.1 Track Id Anyone 1.2 Nices w Lkchen 1.3 Royal Asscher Cut 1.4 Magical Boy ... 2.5 Amygdala 2.6 Ich Schreib Dir Ein Buch 2013 3.1 Nooooo 3.2 Auroville. ...
Learn from Amygdala experts like Frontiers and Frontiers. Read Amygdala books like tmp3A78 and tmp23B0.tmp with a free trial ... Discover the best Amygdala books and audiobooks. ...
"Height-ened activ-i-ty in the amyg-dala - a region of the brain involved in stress - is asso-ci-at-ed with a greater risk of ... Filed Under: Brain/ Mental Health Tagged With: amygdala, bone marrow, Brain-health, cardiovascular disease, chronic-stress, ... Filed Under: Brain/ Mental Health, Education & Lifelong Learning, Peak Performance Tagged With: amygdala, brain, brain wiring, ... Filed Under: Brain/ Mental Health, Education & Lifelong Learning, Peak Performance Tagged With: amygdala, brain, Cerebral ...
Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression.. Whalen PJ1, Shin LM, Somerville LH, McLean AA, Kim H. ... Furthermore, we suggest that the scope of the amygdalas involvement may go beyond its well-known role in fear to its more ... We begin by reviewing animal and human data concerning the function of the amygdala. We then compare these results with those ... Finally, we discuss functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression in light of the animal and human data. We ...
Almost every study of fear finds that the amygdala is active. But that doesn´t mean every spark of activity in the amygdala ... Instead, the amygdala seems to be doing something more subtle: processing events that are related to what a person cares about ... A lot of people came to the amygdala from the study of fear, says Wil Cunningham of Ohio State University, who co wrote the new ... This link between the amygdala and fear - especially a fear of others unlike us, has gone too far, not only in pop culture, but ...
Based on our data, and on what is known about the amygdalas connectivity, we propose that the amygdala is required to link ... Fear and the human amygdala. R Adolphs, D Tranel, H Damasio and AR Damasio ... We also obtained further data on our subject with bilateral amygdala damage, in order to elucidate possible mechanisms that ... The results show that bilateral, but not unilateral, damage to the human amygdala impairs the processing of fearful facial ...
Reviews for The Key to his Amygdala. Anna Little chapter 1 . 1/20/2018 This is so good. I love Akiyamas thought process I ... At least I know what an amygdala is. I think Akiyama was just showing off to mental-Nao. ...
... Located in brains medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin, corpus amygdaloideum) is believed to ... In language learning, some hypothesize that second language learning for adults may not make ready use of the amygdala in ... narcolepsy and OCD are also suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala owing to damage or developmental ...
One of the most interesting and risk-taking producers from Kompakts stable presents his 2nd full length on his own label.. ... Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Fibromyalgia , Amygdala Retraining Select A Location. ****** Top of the Forum ...
A study found that the larger the amygdala, the greater the amount of anxiety a child was experiencing. The same is true for ... A Larger Amygdala Can Equate to Higher Anxiety in Childhood. The amygdala is an evolutionarily primitive part of the brain ... The Size and Connectivity of the Amygdala Predicts Anxiety A larger amygdala is linked to a higher anxiety risk in children and ... The basolateral amygdala is the specific region that was larger in children with higher anxiety. This is an evolutionarily ...
This particular section of the brain is called the amygdala. The name amygdala originates from the Greek word amygdalē ... This means that the left amygdala is more or less the active one out of the two whenever a person reacts in a way that he or ... The amygdalae both have their own distinct functions. However, they also function separately to induce a common emotion: fear. ... If one is going to look at both amygdalae, it would be clear that they only differ in function and mirror each others location ...
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Amygdala or corpus amygdaloideum is a pair of almond-shaped neurons (nerve cells) located deep in the brains medial temporal ... Amygdala may be best known as the part of the brain that drives the fight-or-flight response. Different nuclei of the amygdala ... Stimulation of the amygdala evokes feelings of anger, violence, anxiety, and fear. Important functions of the amygdala include: ... People with bilateral (involving the amygdalae) destruction of the amygdala exhibit symptoms of a condition termed as Kluver- ...
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  • Patient H.M. was a man that underwent bilateral resection of the temporal lobe including the uncus, amygdala, anterior hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus to correct severe and intractable epilepsy [ 15 - 17 ]. (
  • Compared to alcoholic women, alcoholic men have more diminished brain activity in areas responsible for emotional processing (limbic regions including the amygdala and hippocampus), as well as memory and social processing (cortical regions including the superior frontal and supramarginal regions) among other functions. (
  • The amygdala is a complex structure adjacent to the hippocampus. (
  • The limbic system is a group of brain structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus that are involved in processing and regulating emotions, memory, and sexual arousal. (
  • Professor Kenneth Kosik discusses some of the brain regions specifically associated with Alzheimer's disease, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex. (
  • Researchers are finding out that the amygdala also interacts with other parts of the brain such as the frontal cortical region and the hippocampus. (
  • The amygdala, the hippocampus, and the frontal cortical region all play a role on the body. (
  • For example, decision-making is believed to involve areas of the brain involved in emotion (e.g., amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and memory (e.g., hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). (
  • These studies have indicated that the amygdala can modulate memory-consolidation processes in other brain regions such as the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. (
  • Neuronal oscillations in the amygdala, hippocampus, and perirhinal cortex during this next-day memory test indicated that a neural correlate of the memory enhancement was increased theta and gamma oscillatory interactions between these regions, consistent with the idea that the amygdala prioritizes consolidation by engaging other memory regions. (
  • Along with nearby limbic structures such as the hippocampus, the amygdala is involved in emotion perception and regulation. (
  • The amygdala is a small part of the brain, adjacent to the hippocampus , that is believed to react most directly to emotions. (
  • Animal studies have shown that reinforcement and motivation in relation to administration of a variety of drugs of abuse involve recruitment of brain regions such as the ventral striatum [particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum], ventral tegmental area (VTA), amygdala, hippocampus, VMPF, hypothalamus, and dorsal midbrain areas, such as periaqueductal gray (PAG) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) (15). (
  • In our study we have hypothesized that volume changes of amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are more pronounced in male posttraumatic stress disorder participants. (
  • MRI guided studies revealed reduction of the limbic structures of the brain: hippocampus is believed to be the most frequently reduced structure [ 8 - 10 ], but also anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala are reported as the structures that undergo the volume changes in PTSD [ 11 - 17 ]. (
  • In the present study, we have hypothesized that volume changes in amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are more pronounced in male therapy-naive PTSD participants with headaches. (
  • Citation Query MRI volumes of amygdala and hippocampus in non-mentally retarded autistic adolescents and adults. (
  • on frontal and temporal lobes and the cerebellum) and subcortical regions (focusing on the amygdala and hippocampus), but the results are inconsistent (e.g. (
  • This article describes a neural model, called the iSTART model, which proposes how cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal and temporal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to create and perpetuate autistic symptoms. (
  • In addition, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala shows moderate interconnections with the associative (basomedial) amygdala and with the ventral hippocampus, which may be involved in emotional and spatial learning (respectively) induced by chemical signals. (
  • In one study, electrical stimulations of the right amygdala induced negative emotions, especially fear and sadness. (
  • When an individual is presented with a conditioned, aversive stimulus, it is processed within the right amygdala, producing an unpleasant or fearful response. (
  • The right amygdala plays a role in the association of time and places with emotional properties. (
  • The left amygdala reaches its developmental peak approximately 1.5-2 years prior to the right amygdala. (
  • The right amygdala is associated with response to fearful stimuli as well as face recognition. (
  • If the answer is yes, that's because the right amygdala in your brain - the area associated with emotions - is bigger than average. (
  • The right amygdala however, being responsible for the unconscious process of emotion, is active whenever a person cannot control his or her reaction to a particular stimuli. (
  • This is also because the right amygdala is responsible for episodic memory. (
  • Additionally, we have found evidence for an interaction between sex and laterality of amygdala functioning, such that unilateral damage to the right amygdala results in greater deficits in decision-making and social behavior in men, while left amygdala damage seems to be more detrimental for women. (
  • A) An interaction was found in the right amygdala, indicating greater increase to animal negative valence picture view in omnivores and to human negative valence picture view in vegans. (
  • Roc curve method outlined left amygdala AUC = 0.898 (95% CI = 0.830-0.967) and right amygdala AUC = 0.882 (95% CI = 0.810-0.954) in the group of PTSD participants which makes both variables highly statistically significant. (
  • As compared to the control group, the PTSD group had less of a habituation in the right amygdala to fearful versus happy responses over fMRI runs. (
  • The control group also showed differing responses in social brain areas to varying intensities of fearful expression, including differential activations in the left and right amygdala. (
  • A new study shows that anesthetics activate an endogenous analgesia neural ensemble in the central nucleus of the amygdala. (
  • A pain-related function was first suggested by the discovery of a dedicated nociceptive pathway from the spinal cord through the external lateral parabrachial (PB) nucleus to the central nucleus of the amygdala [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • The fear response, says Emory University behavioral neuroscientist Michael Davis, comes from the central nucleus of the amygdala, the region responsible for commands for bodily responses associated with fear. (
  • Fudge JL, Haber SN (2000): The central nucleus of the amygdala projection to dopamine subpopulations in primates. (
  • Administering oxytocin blocks the enhanced motivation for drinking alcohol that fuels alcohol use disorder by blocking GABA signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala. (
  • Shown to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making and emotional responses (including fear, anxiety, and aggression), the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system. (
  • The amygdala is a limbic brain region that plays a key role in emotional processing, neuropsychiatric disorders, and the emotional-affective dimension of pain. (
  • The amygdala is an almond-shaped limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe and is well known for its role in conveying emotional significance to a sensory stimulus, emotional and affective states, and related behavioral adaptations in response to changes in the internal and external bodily environment [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • The amygdala has also emerged as an important site in the brain for the emotional-affective dimension of pain and pain modulation [ 5 - 12 ]. (
  • The clinical relevance of these findings has been corroborated by human neuroimaging studies that demonstrate amygdala activation in response to experimental noxious stimuli, including mechanical compression, thermal stimulation, and capsaicin application [ 10 ], as well as increased amygdala activity in migraineurs compared to healthy controls when presented with negative but not positive or neutral emotional stimuli [ 45 ]. (
  • More stressed participants also had stronger connections between the amygdala and brain areas linked to emotional distress. (
  • The amygdala controls autonomic responses associated with fear, arousal, and emotional stimulation and has been linked to anxiety disorder and social phobias. (
  • Turning off the amygdala disables a typical "fight, flight, or freeze" response and stops any emotional triggers that may occur. (
  • We addressed the possibility that unilateral amygdala damage might be sufficient to impair recognition of emotional expressions. (
  • Located in brain 's medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin , corpus amygdaloideum ) is believed to have strong connections to the mental and emotional reactions of the person. (
  • In language learning, some hypothesize that second language learning for adults may not make ready use of the amygdala in procedural memory usage and so emotional links to words are slower to form. (
  • The amygdala plays a prominent role in mediating many aspects of emotional learning and behavior. (
  • Decades of research have shown that the amygdala is involved in associating a stimulus with its emotional value. (
  • This tradition has been extended in newer work, which has shown that the amygdala is especially important for decision-making, by triggering autonomic responses to emotional stimuli, including monetary reward and punishment. (
  • We have posited that the amygdala is part of an "impulsive," habit type system that triggers emotional responses to immediate outcomes. (
  • Here we show that brief electrical stimulation to the human amygdala can enhance declarative memory for specific images of neutral objects without eliciting a subjective emotional response, likely by engaging other memory-related brain regions. (
  • The results show the human amygdala has a general capacity to initiate enhancement of specific declarative memories rather than a narrower role limited to indirectly mediating emotional effects on memory. (
  • Here we tested whether brief electrical stimulation to the amygdala could enhance declarative memory for specific images of neutral objects without eliciting a subjective emotional response. (
  • Amygdala stimulation elicited no subjective emotional response but led to reliably improved memory compared with control images when patients were given a recognition-memory test the next day. (
  • Emotional memories are thought to be stored in a central part of the amygdala and may play a role in anxiety disorders and phobias. (
  • Electrophysiologic and lesion studies of animals increasingly implicate the amygdala in aspects of emotional processing. (
  • To examine the contributions of the amygdala and other limbic and paralimbic regions to emotional processing, we exposed healthy subjects to aversive olfactory stimuli while measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with positron emission tomography. (
  • These findings provide evidence that the human amygdala participates in the hedonic or emotional processing of olfactory stimuli. (
  • Studies using electrophysiologic and lesion techniques suggest that the amygdala plays a crucial role in emotional processing in mammals ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Nonhuman primates with amygdala lesions demonstrate abnormal emotional responses to biologically significant stimuli (Kluver-Bucy syndrome), including marked reductions in the expression of fear and aggression ( 4 ). (
  • Such research suggests that the amygdala may play an important role in emotional processing and psychopathology in humans. (
  • The observation that electrical stimulation and seizures focused on the human amygdala frequently produce fear or other emotional responses provides strong evidence implicating the amygdala in emotional processing in humans ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • However, lesions of the amygdala in humans rarely produce the constellation of emotional abnormalities associated with lesions of the amygdala in nonhuman primates, except when amygdala damage occurs in conjunction with diffuse cerebral disease ( 9 ). (
  • Studies of these patients indicate that bilateral amygdala lesions cause impairments in storing or recalling emotional memories, selective impairments in the recognition of fearful (but not positive) facial expressions, and impairments in cross-modal associations of olfactory and visual stimuli ( 10 - 12 ). (
  • Although the amygdala ( LeDoux, 2007 ) is predominantly known for its role in fear conditioning , it is also activated by other emotional responses including disgust (e.g. (
  • The findings are part of a larger longitudinal study at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, examining how amygdala damage within the first month of life affects the development of social and emotional behaviors and neuroendocrine systems in rhesus monkeys from infancy through adulthood. (
  • Despite the increased levels of stress hormones, monkeys with early amygdala damage exhibit a blunted emotional reactivity to threats, including decreased fear and aggression, and reduced anxiety in response to stress. (
  • The amygdala is a cerebral structure of the temporal lobe that plays a critical role in the expression of emotions and the learning of new emotional responses. (
  • During this conference, we will focus on research investigating the role of the amygdala in the formation and extinction of emotional memories, both normal and pathological. (
  • This may be because in addition to being part of the threat alert system, the amygdala also seems to be involved in emotional memories. (
  • The amygdala triggers the fight or flight response when it senses danger due to either emotional or environmental triggers (Calm Clinic, n. d. (
  • Verbal emotional memory in a case with left amygdala damage. (
  • The amygdala nuclei appear to be critically implicated in emotional memory. (
  • We thus studied the verbal emotional memory in a young woman with a ganglioglioma of the left amygdala and analyzed its impact (1) on each step of the memory process (encoding, retrieval, and recognition) (2) on short- and long-term consolidation (1-hour and 1-week delay) and (3) on processing of valence (positive and negative items compared to neutral words). (
  • The iSTART model shows how autistic behavioral symptoms may arise from prescribed breakdowns in these brain processes, notably a combination of underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala and related affective brain regions, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed attentional and motor circuits in the hippocampal system and cerebellum. (
  • The investigators predict that patients with major depressive disorder receiving left amygdala neurofeedback will increase their amygdala response during positive autobiographical memory recall compared to those receiving control feedback from a region not involved in emotional processing and that this ability will be associated with clinically significant improvement. (
  • The amygdala, a region of the brain involved in orchestrating emotion and emotional memory, is affected in individuals with autism. (
  • What's more, they have found that acute suppression of neuroligin-1 in the rodent amygdala leads to a decrease in learning-induced strengthening of the connections between nerve cells and to a deficit in fear conditioning, a form of emotional memory. (
  • The investigators will also explore the relationship between the MDMA-induced mPFC and amygdala activation, and performance on Ekman's Emotional Facial Expression task. (
  • Changes in activation of mPFC, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens upon presentation of emotional faces. (
  • The current study examines alcohol's effects on functional connectivity (i.e., "coupling") between the amygdala and the PFC during the processing of socio-emotional stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (
  • In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects cross-over design, 12 heavy, social drinkers performed an fMRI task designed to probe amygdala response to socio-emotional stimuli (angry, fearful, and happy faces) following acute ingestion of alcohol or placebo. (
  • These preliminary findings suggest that alcohol's effects on social behavior may be mediated by alternations in functional connectivity between the amygdala and OFC during processing of emotional faces. (
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder therapy suggests, for example, that in a secure and trusted environment, we can reduce the traumatic scars and overwrite the amygdala with new emotional information. (
  • Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. (
  • System 1 may be thought of as rooted in the amygdala and emotional centers of the brain. (
  • The use of tempo and mode cues in distinguishing happy from sad music was also spared in S.M. Thus, the amygdala appears to be necessary for emotional processing of music rather than the perceptual processing itself. (
  • Functional imaging has demonstrated an increase in amygdala response to emotional faces in subjects with social anxiety. (
  • Relevant interactions among the emotional face-processing stages exist in the non-clinical range of social anxiety that may ultimately attenuate amygdala responses. (
  • These studies strengthen the connection between the amygdala and the abnormal social-emotional behavior seen in patients with ASDs, said Chris Ashwin, PhD, senior research associate at the Autism Research Centre in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge, UK. (
  • While those with autism activated the amygdala less than controls, they also activated areas of the brain involved in conscious perception of emotional information and in processing dynamic features of the face,' he said. (
  • however, the amygdala would certainly be implicated in what is done in these treatments, since processing social-emotional information is central,' said Ashwin. (
  • What Happens When There Is Damage to the Amygdala? (
  • diseases, conditions and tests a-z list what happens when there is damage to the amygdala? (
  • What causes damage to the amygdala? (
  • In the late 1930s, researchers discovered that monkeys with damage to the amygdala and surrounding areas of the brain showed a dramatic decrease in fearfulness. (
  • The team hypothesized that damage to the amygdala generated changes in the HPA axis: a network of endocrine interactions between the hypothalamus within the brain, the pituitary and the adrenal glands, critical for reactions to stress. (
  • These findings are consistent with reports of human patients with damage to the amygdala, Raper says. (
  • Both groups find that damage to the amygdala produces selective deficits in the perception of facial expression. (
  • David Amaral and Cynthia Mills Schumann of the University of California, Davis conducted a survey on the number of neurons in the amygdala of nine autistic males and 10 nonautistic males ranging from ages 10 to 44. (
  • Counting them painstakingly under a microscope revealed far lower number of neurons in the amygdala which is the area of the brain associated with fear and memory. (
  • Schumann says, "One possibility is that there are always fewer neurons in the amygdala of people with autism. (
  • What we are seeing is hyperexcitability or overarousal of the amygdala, which suggests that neurons in the amygdala are firing more than expected," said Kleinhans, who is associated with the UW Autism Center. (
  • hyperarousal is proposed to cause neurons in the amygdala to fire more frequently. (
  • Here we show that neurons in the amygdala of primates fire differentially when the eyes approach to or fixate behaviorally relevant parts of visual scenes. (
  • Data regarding the role of the amygdala in humans remain scarce and are largely limited to case studies of patients with neurological conditions. (
  • This allows the amygdala to coordinate physiological responses based on cognitive information - the most well-known example being the fight-or-flight response. (
  • The medial nucleus of the amygdala is strongly connected to the olfactory system (related to the sense of smell ), and the central nucleus connects with the brainstem areas that control the expression of innate behavior and associated physiological responses. (
  • Patients with amygdala damage lack these autonomic responses to reward and punishment, and consequently, cannot utilize "somatic marker" type cues to guide future decision-making. (
  • The amygdala is a small structure in the mid-brain responsible for generating fight-or-flight responses. (
  • Focusing on fear conditioning, in which an animal learns to fear a specific stimulus in its environment, LeDoux's team found that the amygdala processes sensory signals and generates a fear response by stimulating autonomic responses such as increased heart rate and blood pressure and involuntary muscle control. (
  • And why would the vegans show greater amygdala responses to human suffering than did the omnivores and vegetarians? (
  • The purpose of the amygdala is relatively simple: it is a brain shortcut to quickly engage automatic brain responses so you correctly respond to threats -- such as seeing a rattlesnake in the middle of your path. (
  • In contrast to evidence that the amygdala stimulates stress responses in adults, researchers at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University have found that the amygdala has an inhibitory effect on stress hormones during the early development of nonhuman primates. (
  • The amygdala is a region of the brain known to be important for responses to threatening situations and learning about threats. (
  • Imaging results revealed that hydrocortisone desensitizes amygdala responsivity rapidly, while it selectively normalizes responses to negative stimuli slowly. (
  • The responses of 3687 neurons in the macaque primary taste cortex in the insula/frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala to oral sensory stimuli reveals principles of representation in these areas. (
  • Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. (
  • Evoked responses recorded from the amygdala of the cat after sequentially pairing neocortical and hypothalamizic stimulation showed consistent suippression or depression of the response evoked by the test shocks, regardless of whether the cortical or subcortical site received the preceding conditioning shock. (
  • The PTSD group's amygdala response was heightened while medial prefrontal cortex responses were reduced when presented with fearful versus happy expressions. (
  • Recent imaging studies have shown that patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who were presented with images of human faces had lower responses in amygdala activity than controls. (
  • The amygdala is essential for decoding emotions, particularly threatening stimuli. (
  • External stimuli reach the amygdala via two different pathways, which complement each other. (
  • Single cell studies of the amygdala in nonhuman primates indicate that the activity of many amygdala cells depends on the hedonic significance of stimuli ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • However, recent evidence supports a role for the amygdala in processing positive emotions as well as negative ones, including learning about the beneficial biological value of stimuli. (
  • Using a combination of tract tracing and conventional and electron microscopy, we are learning how information on aversive, or unexpected stimuli, processed by the extended amygdala can be channeled to specific dopamine output paths. (
  • Consistently, the mean correlations between the representations of the different stimuli provided by the population of OFC neurons were lower (0.71) than for the insula (0.81) and amygdala (0.89). (
  • The insular neurons did not respond to olfactory and visual stimuli, with convergence occurring in the OFC and amygdala. (
  • Specifically, the investigators will measure medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala activation in response to negative stimuli in patients with PTSD. (
  • The investigators hypothesize that MDMA will increase mPFC, but decrease amygdala, activation in response to negative stimuli. (
  • Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. (
  • The role of the amygdala in recognition of danger is well established for visual stimuli such as faces. (
  • The right and left portions of the amygdala have independent memory systems, but work together to store, encode, and interpret emotion. (
  • The right hemisphere of the amygdala is associated with negative emotion. (
  • The amygdala is a section of the brain that involves emotion, creativity, and memory. (
  • In a study released on Nov. 20, 2013, researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine have found that measuring the size and connectivity of the amygdala-a part of the brain associated with processing emotion-can predict the degree of anxiety a young child is experiencing in daily life. (
  • In the breakthrough study , the researchers at Stanford found that the larger the amygdala-and the stronger its connections with other regions of the brain responsible for perception and the regulation of emotion-the greater the amount of anxiety a child was experiencing. (
  • Curiously enough, the amygdala (a limbic structure important for emotion ) was not activated by animal suffering in either the vegetarians or the vegans. (
  • Remarkably, the within-group analysis during animal picture view, showed the absence of signal changes (in terms of activations and deactivations) within the amygdala in vegetarians and vegans, suggesting a down-regulation of amygdala response from areas located in the frontal lobes, in an attempt to regulate emotion through cortical processes in these subjects. (
  • The amygdala -- an almond-shaped group of nuclei at the heart of the telencephalon -- has been associated with a range of cognitive functions, including emotion, learning, memory, attention and perception. (
  • As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. (
  • Citation Query Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. (
  • Indeed, many experiments have found that the amygdala is active when people are afraid. (
  • Hyperactivity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons generates enhanced feedforward inhibition and deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), resulting in pain-related cognitive deficits. (
  • Psychophysiological interaction analyses suggested that this slow normalization is related to an altered coupling of the amygdala with the medial prefrontal cortex. (
  • Exposure to a highly aversive odorant produced strong rCBF increases in both amygdalae and in the left orbitofrontal cortex. (
  • Exposure to less aversive odorants produced rCBF increases in the orbitofrontal cortex but not in the amygdala. (
  • The primary olfactory cortex (POC) is continuous with the anterior portion of the amygdala and projects directly to the amygdala and posterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as perirhinal, entorhinal, and insular cortices ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Relative to placebo, alcohol reduced functional coupling between the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during processing of both angry and fearful faces. (
  • Blackmon K, Barr WB, Carlson C, Devinsky O, Dubois J, Pogash D et al (2011) Structural evidence for involvement of a left amygdala-orbitofrontal network in subclinical anxiety. (
  • The amygdala is one of the best-understood brain regions with regard to differences between the sexes. (
  • It is now thought that this deficit was likely due to amygdala resection [ 16 , 17 ], illustrating the importance of the amygdala in pain processing in the brain. (
  • The extended amygdala is a macrostructure in the brain that is involved in reward cognition and defined by connectivity and neurochemical staining. (
  • A new study finds that veterans and active-duty service members with combat-related PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury had larger amygdalas--the region of the brain that processes such emotions as fear, anxiety, and aggression--than those with only brain injuries. (
  • NaturalNews) Recent research conducted on the brain shows that hypnosis gives a person the ability to control the amygdala. (
  • The amygdala is an almond sized structure in the brain. (
  • The amygdala is an evolutionarily primitive part of the brain located deep in the temporal lobe. (
  • Qin used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the size of the various subregions of the amygdala and functional MRI to measure the connectivity of those regions to other areas of the brain. (
  • This particular section of the brain is called the amygdala. (
  • Amygdala may be best known as the part of the brain that drives the fight-or-flight response. (
  • Amygdala or corpus amygdaloideum is a pair of almond-shaped neurons ( nerve cells) located deep in the brain's medial temporal lobe (the part of the brain situated behind the temples within the skull ). (
  • Earlier brain imaging studies have shown that autistic boys develop adult-size amygdala by they were eight years old, compared to late adolescence for other young males. (
  • If you're looking to finger one particular area of the brain as a prime suspect in bipolar disorder, the amygdala certainly has to be Public Enemy Number One. (
  • Brain scan studies reliably show amygdala over-activation (or sometimes a blunted response) in the affective reactions of bipolar subjects compared to controls, even in stable states. (
  • The amygdala is in dialogue with other areas of the brain, most notably the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC), which, via two networks, plays a role in modulating the limbic response. (
  • Thus, a picture begins to emerge of disruptions in the brain transitioning into adulthood, leading to decreased connectivity between the VPFC and the areas it is meant to modulate, especially the amygdala. (
  • In humans, however, the lateral nucleus occupied a bigger fraction of the amygdala, and was larger compared to overall brain size, than in the other species, the team reports online today in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology . (
  • Change of rCBF within the left amygdala and the left OFC was highly intercorrelated, indicating a strong functional interaction between these brain regions. (
  • From studies using brain scans, it has been shown that events that stimulate the amygdala are remembered better over time. (
  • He literally blew our minds at viewzone with his amazing story of how the function and control of the amygdala -- a pair of almond shaped organs in the brain -- was discovered by and old and eccentric genius who claimed to have discovered the means of mental happiness. (
  • The amygdala is part of a brain circuit that quickly tells you which way to go -- when you need to know it. (
  • Here is a photograph of a real human brain outside its container along with a couple of real amygdalae. (
  • You have two amygdala in your brain, but they both pretty much do the same thing. (
  • When you perceive a threat, the amygdala instantly clicks your brain into fight-or-flight response, faster than you can say "Get me outta here! (
  • Something strange is going on in the amygdala - an almond-shaped structure deep in the human brain - among people with autism. (
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have discovered an increased pattern of brain activity in the amygdalas of adults with autism that may be linked to the social deficits that typically are associated with the disorder. (
  • The scientists were interested in what happened in two brain regions, the amygdala and the fusiform gyrus, when the subjects viewed the faces. (
  • Our findings fit into an emerging theme in neuroscience research: that during childhood, there is a switch in amygdala function and connectivity with other brain regions, particularly the prefrontal cortex," says Mar Sanchez, PhD, neuroscience researcher at Yerkes and associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Emory University School of Medicine. (
  • But neonatal amygdala damage seems more detrimental for the development of stress neuroendocrine circuits in other areas of the brain. (
  • Concerning important functions of the amygdala and her neuroanatomical connections with other brain structures, we need to increase number of participants to clarify the correlation between impared amygdala and possible other different brain structures in participants with PTSD. (
  • The amygdala is believed to be the part of your brain that processes basic feelings. (
  • Two reports - one on page 669 of this issue, the other to appear in Brain next February - provide rare and remarkable evidence that in humans a brain structure called the amygdala participates in the perception of social signals. (
  • The findings suggest that therapeutics targeting the path between two critical brain regions, the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens, represent. (
  • what permits the amygdala to influence the way in which saliency is dynamically defined by the brain. (
  • Given that affective processing involves dynamic interactions between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), alcohol's effects are likely to extend beyond regional changes in brain activity to changes that manifest on a broader functional circuit level. (
  • The amygdala, an oddly named, almond-sized brain structure is central to our threat response, just as it was when we still ran around in animal skins. (
  • Location of the amygdala in the human brain. (
  • Most agreed that the primary brain region involved was the amygdala - without it, people would lead fear-free lives. (
  • The three women, listed as SM, AM and BG, all have Urbach-Wiethe disease - a genetic condition that causes the degeneration of a tiny part of the brain known as the amygdala. (
  • While the researchers can't say for sure why the women were able to experience internal, but not external fear, they suggest other parts of the brain must play a role in fear generation overall, and that perhaps the amygdala doesn't generate the feeling of fear, but instead is involved in the processing of external threats that lead to a fearful response. (
  • Studies using laboratory decision-making tests have found deficient decision-making in patients with bilateral amygdala damage, which resembles their real-world difficulties with decision-making. (
  • We found that inhalation of 35% CO2 evoked not only fear, but also panic attacks, in three rare patients with bilateral amygdala damage. (
  • We have previously reported that bilateral amygdala damage in humans compromises the recognition of fear in facial expressions while leaving intact recognition of face identity (Adolphs et al. (
  • We also obtained further data on our subject with bilateral amygdala damage, in order to elucidate possible mechanisms that could account for the impaired recognition of expressions of fear. (
  • The results show that bilateral, but not unilateral, damage to the human amygdala impairs the processing of fearful facial expressions. (
  • People with bilateral (involving the amygdalae) destruction of the amygdala exhibit symptoms of a condition termed as Kluver-Bucy syndrome . (
  • A woman with bilateral damage relatively restricted to the amygdala is the subject of a case study reported today. (
  • To this aim, we investigated a rare subject, S.M., who has complete bilateral damage relatively restricted to the amygdala and not encompassing other sectors of the temporal lobe. (
  • In contrast, stimulation of the left amygdala was able to induce either pleasant (happiness) or unpleasant (fear, anxiety, sadness) emotions. (
  • Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. (
  • A larger amygdala is linked to a higher anxiety risk in children and adults. (
  • Studies of laboratory animals placed in an environment causing chronic stress have determined that the animals' amygdalae grew additional synapses and that this synaptic connectivity resulted in chronic anxiety. (
  • Studies of adults suffering from anxiety disorders have shown that they also possess enlarged, highly connected amygdalae. (
  • The basolateral amygdala is the specific region that was larger in children with higher anxiety. (
  • The basolateral amygdala had stronger functional connections with multiple areas of the neocortex in children with higher anxiety levels," Qin said. (
  • Menon added that they were surprised that alterations to the structure and connectivity of the amygdala were so significant in the children with higher levels of anxiety, given both the young age of the children and the fact that their anxiety levels were still too low to be considered clinical. (
  • Stimulation of the amygdala evokes feelings of anger , violence, anxiety , and fear. (
  • Structural or functional changes in the amygdala are associated with a wide variety of psychiatric conditions such as various anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), phobia , panic disorders , depression , schizophrenia , and autism . (
  • In addition, fear and anxiety emanate from different regions of the amygdala. (
  • Weinberger has looked at anxiety disorders and the amygdala from a genetic perspective. (
  • Because the amygdala is involved heavily with emotions, it is believed to play a role in conditions such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias. (
  • Alterations in the amygdala have been reported in psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders like PTSD, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. (
  • Much evidence suggests that human anxiety disorders result from anomalies in amygdala function. (
  • In my final unit of Master's study, I have become increasingly aware of the important role that the amygdala plays in stress-management and anxiety-reduction. (
  • Neuro-imaging has shown increased amygdala activation for various anxiety disorders (Shin & Liberzon, 2010). (
  • Dysregulation of the amygdala has been evidenced with regard to anxiety and depression. (
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone drives anandamide hydrolysis in the amygdala to promote anxiety. (
  • A dimensional analysis approach was used involving voxel-wise mapping of the correlation between subjects' social anxiety scores and amygdala activation, before and after controlling for fusiform gyrus activation. (
  • We observed that only after controlling for subjects' level of activation of the fusiform gyrus was there an association between social anxiety ratings and amygdala response to both happy and fearful faces. (
  • Amygdala activation in the processing of neutral faces in social anxiety disorder: is neutral really neutral? (
  • Here we found that in vivo optogenetic activation of the basolateral amygdala-nucleus accumbens (BLA-NAc) glutamatergic circuit reduced SI and increased social avoidance in mice. (
  • Currently, researchers are studying a possible link between the amygdala and autism (Black, 2001). (
  • Conditions such as autism , depression , narcolepsy and OCD are also suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala owing to damage or developmental problems with it. (
  • Several men and boys with autism suffer from poor social and communication skills as well as a diminished number of neurons in their amygdala, according to the findings of a new study. (
  • scientists noted that the amygdalas of patients with autism, which is characterized by decreased social interaction and an inability to understanding the feelings of others, have fewer nerve cells, especially in a subdivision called the lateral nucleus. (
  • Previous research at the UW and elsewhere has shown that abnormal growth patterns in the amygdala are commonly found among young children diagnosed with autism. (
  • Those individuals with autism who had the most social impairment exhibited the highest levels of amygdala arousal. (
  • This is another piece of evidence that there is something wrong with the amygdala in autism that contributes to social impairment. (
  • Fight or Flight in Autism, Amygdala Has Explaining to Do! (
  • When and how the amygdala develops for some within the autism spectrum is a question that has been finding answers. (
  • 1997). Amygdala enlargement has been found among individuals with autism (Howard et al. (
  • Eric Kandel, Yun-Beom Choi, Craig Bailey and their colleagues at Columbia University Medical Center aim to examine the role of an autism-implicated protein, neurexin, at synapses in the amygdala. (
  • Detailed studies of autism-related genes, such as neurexin and neuroligin, are likely to be highly informative about the nature of dysfunction associated with autism, particularly in the amygdala, the researchers say. (
  • Much more work involving different levels of investigation needs to be done to determine the role of the amygdala in ASDs-and, importantly, whether it is causal in nature or merely a consequence of having autism,' he said. (
  • His group previously proposed that the amygdala is one of several neural regions that is abnormal in ASDs, calling this the 'amygdala theory of autism. (
  • The amygdala is roughly the size and shape of an almond nut, and lies deeply buried in the temporal lobe. (
  • Amygdalae are almond-shaped organs in the left and right hemispheres of our brains that can subconsciously derail rational negotiation. (
  • The results show that the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala is strongly interconnected not only with the rest of the vomeronasal system (AOB and its target structures in the amygdala), but also with the olfactory system (piriform cortex, olfactory-recipient nuclei of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex). (
  • Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear. (
  • We review recent work on the role of intrinsic amygdala networks in the regulation of classically conditioned defensive behaviors, commonly known as conditioned fear. (
  • Intra-amygdala interactions supporting expression and extinction of conditioned fear. (
  • The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear-learning. (
  • Professor Karim Nader explains that fear learning, which is mediated by the amygdala, is different from other forms of learning. (
  • Professor Bruce McEwen discusses how the amygdala is involved in processing fear and stress. (
  • In a 2007 episode of the television show Boston Legal, a character claimed to have figured out that a cop was racist because his amygdala activated - displaying fear, when they showed him pictures of black people. (
  • This link between the amygdala and fear - especially a fear of others unlike us, has gone too far, not only in pop culture, but also in psychological science, say the authors of a new paper which will be published in the February issue of Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. (
  • A lot of people came to the amygdala from the study of fear, says Wil Cunningham of Ohio State University, who co wrote the new paper with Tobias Brosch of New York University. (
  • Almost every study of fear finds that the amygdala is active. (
  • Based on our data, and on what is known about the amygdala's connectivity, we propose that the amygdala is required to link visual representations of facial expressions, on the one hand, with representations that constitute the concept of fear, on the other. (
  • Both the left and right amygdalae are able to process fear due to the presence of central nuclei in neurons that are responsible for conditioning fear in a person. (
  • The amygdala plays a key role in detecting fear and preparing emergency events, in addition to controlling aggression. (
  • He found that a receptor for a particular protein called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the amygdala is critical for the extinction of a conditioned fear. (
  • Davis also discovered that a compound called D-cycloserine (DCS) injected into rats' amygdalas enhanced the function of the NMDA receptor and accelerated fear extinction. (
  • Amygdala lesions critically disrupt the development and expression of conditioned fear in rodents ( 3 ). (
  • Most current views of amygdala function emphasize its role in negative emotions, such as fear, and in linking negative emotions with other aspects of cognition, such as learning and memory. (
  • In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. (
  • They also plan to investigate how neurexin is involved in fear memory, a function that is associated with the amygdala. (
  • The human amygdala robustly activates to fear faces. (
  • Medical Xpress)-Researchers at the University of Iowa have found that three volunteer women with defective amygdalas were able to experience internal fear. (
  • Thus, despite a non-functioning amygdala, the women were still able to feel fear, just not the kind associated with external threats. (
  • These results indicate that the amygdala is not required for fear and panic, and make an important distinction between fear triggered by external threats from the environment versus fear triggered internally by CO2. (
  • The goal of the present study was to assess the specific role of the amygdala in the recognition of fear from music. (
  • Different nuclei of the amygdala have unique connections and functions. (
  • For the PTSD group, BOLD signal changes in the amygdala had an inverse relationship with media prefrontal cortex signal changes. (
  • Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression. (
  • Finally, we discuss functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression in light of the animal and human data. (
  • In this article, we will present findings related to the amygdala's role in decision-making, and differentiate the contributions of the amygdala from those of other structurally and functionally connected neural regions. (
  • Fourteen epilepsy patients undergoing monitoring of seizures via intracranial depth electrodes viewed a series of neutral object images, half of which were immediately followed by brief, low-amplitude electrical stimulation to the amygdala. (
  • Approximately 40% of the neurons in the rodent amygdala respond to olfactory stimulation ( 17 ). (
  • I'd like to describe the 'feather' effect, what I experience when I visualize the stimulation of the amygdala, just in case it might be helpful. (
  • The researchers emphasize that "these findings do not mean that every young child with an enlarged and highly connected amygdala will necessarily go on to develop a mood disorder ," said Vinod Menon, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and senior author of the study. (
  • Although the functions of the amygdala's subunits are unclear, the lateral nucleus makes more direct connections with the brain's temporal lobe --which is involved in social behavior and the processing of emotions--than other parts of the amygdala make, the researchers note. (
  • During the 2009 Gordon Research Conference on the amygdala, internationally renowned basic and clinical researchers will present their latest findings on the amygdala. (
  • UCLA researchers reveal the amygdala has much greater cell diversity than previously believed. (
  • Some researchers have suggested that the amygdala may also be the neurological seat of human prejudice. (
  • Amygdala neurofeedback - attempt to upregulate the left amygdala during positive autobiographical memory recall via real time fMRI neurofeedback from the amygdala. (
  • The present study explored amygdala hyperresponsivity for individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (
  • The serotonin transporter gene may affect neural circuits connecting the amygdala and the cingulate and cause depression. (
  • The flow of information through amygdala circuits is modulated by various neurotransmitter systems involving various chemicals such as norepinephrine , dopamine , and serotonin . (
  • This topography has implications for which DA-striatal paths are influenced by extended amygdala, or 'stress-related' circuits. (
  • Intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala. (
  • The authors also note that an over-active amygdala and a failure in connectivity is hardly exclusive to bipolar. (
  • Functional connectivity between the amygdala and PFC was examined and compared between alcohol and placebo sessions using a conventional generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis. (
  • This project investigated the effects of oxytocin on social behavior and amygdala activity in a ketamine model of schizophrenia. (
  • Other evidence suggests that the left amygdala plays a role in the brain's reward system. (
  • Here we review human functional neuroimaging studies suggesting that the amygdala may play a key role in depression. (
  • Past studies have pointed to a central role for the amygdala in mediating this endogenous memory enhancement. (
  • Despite the amygdala's diminishing role in olfaction during evolution ( 18 - 20 ), primates retain direct projections from the lateral olfactory tract to the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, and the medial nucleus of the amygdala remains intimately connected with the POC ( 15 ). (
  • With a $63,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation in 2006, Dr. Joseph LeDoux and his team at New York University studied the role of the amygdala in Fragile X syndrome using mouse models. (
  • The amygdala plays a big role in sounding an alert for threatening situations and triggers fight or flight behaviors. (
  • We now focus on the microcircuitry of the extended amygdala-dopamine path, particularly the role of afferent inputs containing corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). (
  • Lesion studies support a role for the amygdala in detecting saliency. (
  • Still, monkeys with neonatal amygdala damage remain competent in interacting with others in their large social groups. (
  • Mechanisms of abnormal amygdala activity in pain with particular focus on loss of cortical control mechanisms as well as new strategies to correct pain-related amygdala dysfunction will be discussed in the present review. (
  • Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is currently no clear evidence for abnormal amygdala volumes in PTSD. (
  • Similarly, the ability of acute stress to modulate amygdala FAAH and AEA in both rats and mice is also mediated through CRHR1 activation. (
  • But hungry people have increased amygdala activity in response to pictures of food and people who are very empathetic have an amygdala response to seeing other people. (
  • During times of sadness or depression, mindfulness is effective and healing, and will calm your amygdala response. (
  • The amygdala is popularly associated with the "fight-or-flight response" in dangerous situations. (
  • CRF is abundant in the extended amygdala and is a co-transmitter that potently modulates the stress response. (
  • If we perceive a threat, a small but very influential part of our brains called the amygdala, or limbic system, triggers a fight, flight or freeze response before we have a chance to process whether the threat is real or not. (
  • Flere undersøgelser har fundet, at amygdala kan være ansvarlig for de følelsesmæssige reaktioner på PTSD patienter. (
  • En undersøgelse fandt specifikt, at når PTSD patienter får vist billeder af ansigter med frygtsomme udtryk, har deres amygdalae tendens til, at have en højere aktivitet end en person uden PTSD. (
  • We found that left amygdala is the most significant parameter for distinction between PTSD participants and participants without PTSD. (
  • The present investigation revealed significant volume decrease of left amygdala in PTSD patients. (
  • One study reported smaller amygdala volumes in a cohort of breast cancer survivors with intrusive recollections compared to survivors without intrusive recollections, but none of the participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD [ 18 ]. (
  • The Effects of MDMA on Prefrontal and Amygdala Activation in PTSD. (
  • This study aims to investigate the effects of MDMA on prefrontal and amygdala activation, and to explore the relationship between these MDMA-induced neural changes and the acute behavioral effects of the drug in patients with PTSD. (
  • The investigators intend to utilize state-of-the-art validated Human Connectome Project (HCP) style approaches to determine the effects of MDMA on prefrontal and amygdala activation, and to explore the relationship between these MDMA-induced neural changes and the acute behavioral effects of the drug in patients with PTSD. (
  • This task is modulated by the mPFC and amygdala and as well as trauma severity in participants with PTSD. (
  • Reevaluation of an historical example of reduced pain sensitivity also suggests amygdala involvement in pain processing. (
  • Together, this work suggests that rapid reductions in amygdala AEA signaling following stress may prime the amygdala and facilitate the generation of downstream stress-linked behaviors. (
  • This new research suggests such a conclusion may have been at least partially flawed, as the three women in the study all suffered from a genetic disease that leads over time to degeneration of the amygdala. (
  • Anatomically, the amygdala, and more particularly its central and medial nuclei, have sometimes been classified as a part of the basal ganglia. (
  • Ashwin believes these findings do more than show that the amygdala is activated less in people with ASDs: 'It may show that they are processing different aspects of the face in different ways,' he said. (
  • Nevertheless, it is unclear to what extent visual areas processing faces influence amygdala reactivity in different socially anxious individuals. (
  • Neuroscience has shown that these people may be victims of an over- developed amygdala or an underdeveloped or damaged pre-frontal cortex. (
  • Further, the encoding was more sparse in the OFC (0.67) than in the insula (0.74) and amygdala (0.79). (
  • output nucleus) and serve gating functions for amygdala output. (
  • It includes the central medial amygdala, sublenticular substantia innominata, the nucleus accumbens shell, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. (
  • these include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central medial amygdala, the shell of the NAc, and the sublenticular substantia innominata. (
  • Fudge JL, Haber SN (2001): Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and extended amygdala inputs to dopamine subpopulations in primates. (
  • Vomeronasal information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), whose unique cortical target is the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. (
  • In the present work, we describe the afferent and efferent connections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in female mice, using anterograde (biotinylated dextranamines) and retrograde (Fluorogold) tracers, and zinc selenite as a tracer specific for zinc-enriched (putative glutamatergic) projections. (
  • Therefore, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala probably integrates olfactory and vomeronasal information. (
  • Finally, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala gives rise to zinc-enriched projections to the ventrolateral septum and the ventromedial striatum (including the medial islands of Calleja). (
  • Because thoughts and memories trigger your amygdala, you are also stuck with bodily sensations you don't like. (
  • Participants are shown activity from their left amygdala in real time and are instructed to increase the level of activity in that region by thinking of positive autobiographical memories. (
  • In a nutshell, an underperforming VPFC combined with an over-performing amygdala may form the "neuroanatomic" basis for affective symptoms. (
  • We begin by reviewing animal and human data concerning the function of the amygdala. (
  • We then compare these results with those of neuroimaging studies of normal human amygdala function. (
  • Yet, the functions of the human amygdala remain poorly understood. (
  • However, an understanding of the functions of the human amygdala has proven elusive. (
  • An interaction between "human pictures" and "vegan group" was also found in the left amygdala. (
  • Here, we describe a novel method for volumetric segmentation of the amygdala from MRI images collected from 35 human subjects. (
  • One physically small but stealthy and strong obstacle is the human amygdala. (
  • Time and evolution eventually relegated the amygdala to a lower station in maintaining human life. (
  • The regions described as amygdala nuclei encompass several structures of the cerebrum with distinct connectional and functional characteristics in humans and other animals. (
  • Here, we investigated the effects of corticosteroids on amygdala processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • Alcohol also reduced functional coupling between the amygdala and left OFC during processing of happy faces. (
  • The possibility that functional interaction of neocortical and hypothalamic signals occurs in the amygdala is proved and an active inhibitory process is suggested. (
  • Recently, several cases of selective amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome have been reported. (
  • It was found that although the amygdala volumes in all the brains was about the same, the autistic males as a group had almost 1.5 million fewer neurons than their peers. (
  • The great cosmic joke is that the amygdala and what it does has been a non-secret since amygdala started appearing in the brains of mammals over 65 million years ago. (
  • Previous investigations at Yerkes found that as infants, monkeys with amygdala damage showed higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol. (
  • In the current paper, the authors demonstrated that in contrast with adult animals with amygdala damage, juvenile monkeys with early amygdala damage had increased levels of cortisol in the blood, compared to controls. (