Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kindling, Neurologic: The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Subliminal Stimulation: Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mice, Inbred C57BLAfferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Flupenthixol: A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Synaptic Potentials: The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Parahippocampal Gyrus: A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Kinesics: Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.GABA-A Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (1/3478)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Distinct populations of NMDA receptors at subcortical and cortical inputs to principal cells of the lateral amygdala. (2/3478)

Fear conditioning involves the transmission of sensory stimuli to the amygdala from the thalamus and cortex. These input synapses are prime candidates for sites of plasticity critical to the learning in fear conditioning. Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanisms have been implicated in fear learning, we investigated the contribution of NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission at putative cortical and thalamic inputs using visualized whole cell recording in amygdala brain slices. Whereas NMDA receptors are present at both of these pathways, differences were observed. First, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor-mediated component of the synaptic response, relative to the NMDA component, is smaller at thalamic than cortical input synapses. Second, thalamic NMDA responses are more sensitive to Mg2+. These findings suggest that there are distinct populations of NMDA receptors at cortical and thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala. Differences such as these might underlie unique contributions of the two pathways to fear conditioning.  (+info)

Dose-related effects of single focal irradiation in the medial temporal lobe structures in rats--magnetic resonance imaging and histological study. (3/3478)

The dose-related effects of single focal irradiation on the medial temporal lobe in rats were investigated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination. Irradiation of 200 Gy as a maximum dose using 4 mm collimators with a gamma unit created an area of necrosis consistently at the target site within 2 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of 100 Gy caused necrosis within 10 weeks, and 75 Gy caused necrosis within one year. Irradiation of less than 50 Gy did not induce necrosis consistently, although a restricted area of necrosis was created in the medial temporal structures including the intraparenchymal portion of the optic tract. 75 Gy may be the optimum dose for creating necrosis consistently in the medial temporal lobe structures. However, careful dose planning considering both dose-time and dose-volume relationships in necrosis development is necessary to avoid injury to vulnerable neural structures such as the optic tract when applying radiosurgical techniques to treat functional brain disorders in medial temporal lobe structures such as temporal lobe epilepsy.  (+info)

A quantitative MR study of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in healthy subjects 40 to 90 years of age. (4/3478)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several investigators have defined normal age-specific values for the medial temporal lobe structures in neurologically normal elderly subjects, but, to our knowledge, no one has reported those values for a large sample of healthy volunteers. The purpose of our study was to define normal age-specific values for the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle by age group, ranging from 40 to 90 years, in order to generate a guideline for the quantitative MR diagnosis and differential diagnosis for early Alzheimer disease. METHODS: MR-based volumetric measurements of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn, standardized by total intracranial volume, were obtained from oblique coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in 619 healthy volunteers and two cadaveric specimens. RESULTS: Differences in standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn were significant among the 61- to 70-year-old, 71- to 80-year-old, and 81- to 90-year-old groups, and were not significant between the 40- to 50-year-old and 51- to 60-year-old groups. We found no significant differences in side or sex among the age groups for any of the structures. CONCLUSION: Differences in the mean value and in the 95% normal range of standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn correspond to differences in age among healthy subjects; therefore, age should be considered a factor in correlative research, especially in that involving patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease.  (+info)

The human amygdala plays an important role in gaze monitoring. A PET study. (5/3478)

Social contact often initially depends on ascertaining the direction of the other person's gaze. We determined the brain areas involved in gaze monitoring by a functional neuroimaging study. Discrimination between the direction of gaze significantly activated a region in the left amygdala during eye-contact and no eye-contact tasks to the same extent. However, a region in the right amygdala was specifically activated only during the eye-contact task. Results confirm that the left amygdala plays a general role in the interpretation of eye gaze direction, and that the activity of the right amygdala of the subject increases when another individual's gaze is directed towards him. This suggests that the human amygdala plays a role in reading social signals from the face.  (+info)

Differential regulation of the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) in hypothalamus and amygdala of the immature rat by sensory input and food intake. (6/3478)

The physiological consequences of activating corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) are not fully understood. The neuroanatomic distribution of this CRF receptor family member is consistent with roles in mediating the actions of CRF and similar ligands on food intake control and integrative aspects of stress-related behaviors. However, CRF2 expression in the adult rat is not influenced by stress, corticosterone (CORT), or food intake. In immature rat we have demonstrated striking downregulation of CRF2mRNA in hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) after 24 hr of maternal deprivation, a paradigm consisting of both physiological/psychological stress and food deprivation. The current study aimed to distinguish which element or elements of maternal deprivation govern CRF2mRNA expression by isolating the effects of food intake and discrete maternal sensory cues on CRF2mRNA levels in VMH and in reciprocally communicating amygdala nuclei. In maternally deprived pups, CRF2mRNA levels in VMH and basomedial (BMA) and medial (MEA) amygdala nuclei were 62, 72, and 102% of control levels, respectively. Sensory inputs of grooming and handling as well as of the pups' own suckling activity-but not food intake-fully restored CRF2mRNA expression in VMH. In contrast, all manipulations tended to increase CRF2mRNA levels in BMA of maternally deprived rats, and surrogate grooming increased CRF2mRNA expression significantly above that of nondeprived controls. CRF2mRNA expression was not influenced significantly by plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT levels. Thus, in the immature rat, (1) CRF2 expression is regulated differentially in hypothalamic and amygdala regions, and (2) CRF2mRNA levels in VMH are governed primarily by maternal or suckling-derived sensory input rather than food intake or peripheral stress hormones. These findings indicate a region-specific regulation of CRF2mRNA, supporting the participation of the receptor in neurochemically defined circuits integrating sensory cues to influence specific behavioral and visceral functions.  (+info)

Differential regulation of glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA (GR-mRNA) by maternal deprivation in immature rat hypothalamus and limbic regions. (7/3478)

Maternal deprivation (MDep) of neonatal rats significantly influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study hypothesized that GR-mRNA modulation constituted an early, critical mechanism for the acute effects of MDep on neuroendocrine stress-responses. GR-mRNA hybridization signal in hippocampal CA1, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and frontal cortex was significantly reduced immediately following 24 h MDep. In amygdala, cingulate cortex, PVN and CA1, apparent gender-dependent MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression were observed, without significant differences in absolute levels. Thus, rapid, region-specific MDep effects on GR-mRNA expression in HPA-regulating areas are shown, consistent with involvement of GR-expression in mechanisms of MDep influence on HPA tone.  (+info)

Differential effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on bursting activity in the amygdala. (8/3478)

Differential effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on bursting activity in the amygdala. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are implicated in both the activation and inhibition of epileptiform bursting activity in seizure models. We examined the role of mGluR agonists and antagonists on bursting in vitro with whole cell recordings from neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of amygdala-kindled rats. The broad-spectrum mGluR agonist 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylate (1S,3R-ACPD, 100 microM) and the group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, 20 microM) evoked bursting in BLA neurons from amygdala-kindled rats but not in control neurons. Neither the group II agonist (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (L-CCG-I, 10 microM) nor the group III agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4, 100 microM) evoked bursting. The agonist-induced bursting was inhibited by the mGluR1 antagonists (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine [(+)-MCPG, 500 microM] and (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine [(S)-4C3HPG, 300 microM]. Kindling enhanced synaptic strength from the lateral amygdala (LA) to the BLA, resulting in synaptically driven bursts at low stimulus intensity. Bursting was abolished by (S)-4C3HPG. Further increasing stimulus intensity in the presence of (S)-4C3HPG (300 microM) evoked action potential firing similar to control neurons but did not induce epileptiform bursting. In kindled rats, the same threshold stimulation that evoked epileptiform bursting in the absence of drugs elicited excitatory postsynaptic potentials in (S)-4C3HPG. In contrast (+)-MCPG had no effect on afferent-evoked bursting in kindled neurons. Because (+)-MCPG is a mGluR2 antagonist, whereas (S)-4C3HPG is a mGluR2 agonist, the different effects of these compounds suggest that mGluR2 activation decreases excitability. Together these data suggest that group I mGluRs may facilitate and group II mGluRs may attenuate epileptiform bursting observed in kindled rats. The mixed agonist-antagonist (S)-4C3HPG restored synaptic transmission to control levels at the LA-BLA synapse in kindled animals. The different actions of (S)-4C3HPG and (+)-MCPG on LA-evoked bursting suggests that the mGluR1 antagonist-mGluR2 agonist properties may be the distinctive pharmacology necessary for future anticonvulsant compounds.  (+info)

Title:Morphological and Functional Features of the Sex Steroid-Responsive Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala of Adult Rats. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 11. Author(s):A.A. Rasia-Filho, D. Haas, A.P. de Oliveira, J. de Castilhos, R. Frey, D. Stein, V.M. Lazzari, F. Back, G.N. Pires, E. Pavesi, E.C. Winkelmann-Duarte and M. Giovenardi. Affiliation:UFCSPA/Physiology, R. Sarmento Leite 245, Porto Alegre 90170-050 RS, Brazil.. Keywords:Anxiety, extended amygdala, Fos immunoreacitivity, ibotenic acid, innate fear, neuronal morphology, sexual dimorphism, sexual behavior. Abstract:The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) expresses receptors for gonadal hormones and integrates sex steroid-sensitive subcortical networks. Male-female differences are found in the morphology, connectivity, and local neuropil structure of MePD. For example, dendritic spine density is sexually-dimorphic and changes with the estrous cycle and following gonadal hormones manipulations. Due to its connectivity, the MePD may affect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of adenosine A2A receptor gene expression in a model of binge eating in the amygdaloid complex of female rats. AU - Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria. AU - Pucci, Mariangela. AU - Giusepponi, Maria Elena. AU - Romano, Adele. AU - Lambertucci, Catia. AU - Volpini, Rosaria. AU - Micioni Di Bonaventura, Emanuela. AU - Gaetani, Silvana. AU - Maccarrone, Mauro. AU - DAddario, Claudio. AU - Cifani, Carlo. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background: Pharmacological treatment approaches for eating disorders, such as binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, are currently limited. Methods and aims: Using a well-characterized animal model of binge eating, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of the A2A Adenosine Receptor (A2AAR) and dopaminergic D2 receptor (D2R) genes. Results: Gene expression analysis revealed a selective increase of both receptor mRNAs in the amygdaloid complex of stressed and restricted rats, which exhibited binge-like eating, when compared to ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mariana Zancan, Aline DallOglio, Taís Malysz Sarzenski, Martin Ian Maher, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Alberto A Rasia-Filho].
We previously analyzed the arborization patterns of rat ventral pallidal (VP) axons that coursed caudally to innervate the thalamus and brainstem (Tripathi et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:1133-1157, 2013). Here, we have reconstructed 16 previously undetected axons from the same tracer deposits that follow a more lateral trajectory. Virtually all 16 axons emanating from the different VP compartments collateralized in the extended amygdala system (EAS) and amygdaloid complex. The most frequent targets of axons from the lateral and medial (VPm) VP compartments were the rostral sublenticular extended amygdala, the extended amygdala (EA), the central nucleus of the amygdala and the posterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. In contrast, axons from the rostral extension of the VP preferentially innervated the anterior amygdaloid area, the magnocellular preoptic nucleus, and the anterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus. We additionally found and reconstructed a single corticopetal ...
The amygdala is under inhibitory control from the cortex through the activation of local GABAergic interneurons. This inhibition is greatly diminished during heightened emotional states due to dopamine release. However, dopamine excites most amygdala interneurons, suggesting that this dopaminergic gate may be mediated by an unknown subpopulation of interneurons. We hypothesized that this gate is mediated by paracapsular intercalated cells, a subset of interneurons that are innervated by both cortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic afferents. Using transgenic mice that express GFP in GABAergic interneurons, we show that paracapsular cells form a network surrounding the basolateral complex of the amygdala. We found that they provide feedforward inhibition into the basolateral and the central amygdala. Dopamine hyperpolarized paracapsular cells through D1 receptors and substantially suppressed their excitability, resulting in a disinhibition of the basolateral and central nuclei. Suppression of the ...
Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of abnormal amygdala responses in patients with PD. In comparison with NCs, patients with PD in both the drug-off and drug-on states showed a reduced amygdala response during the perceptual processing of angry and fearful faces. Our results also provide the first in vivodemonstration in human subjects of dopamine modulation of the amygdala. Dopamine repletion appeared to partially restore the response of the amygdala in PD patients, as evidenced by the increased BOLD response in the drug-on state relative to the drug-off state.. The potentiated amygdala response in the dopamine-replete state relative to the hypodopaminergic state may reflect dopamine gating of amygdala inputs and subsequent increased amygdala neuronal activity. Recently, Hariri et al. (2002), using this same BOLD fMRI paradigm in healthy subjects, reported a robust potentiation of the response of the amygdala by dextroamphetamine, a nonspecific monoaminergic agonist that primarily ...
The consequences of acute xylene publicity to the enkephalinergic neuromodulatory technique were studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats have been injected ip with 0 or 1.6 mL/kg xylene every day for three consecutive times. 3 hr following the last dose, they ended up killed and also the brains were being eradicated. The brains ended up dissected in the parietal cortex. caudate putamen, medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, and central amygdaloid nuclei (CA). The assorted Mind components were being analyzed for improvements of their met-enkephalin content by an immunostaining procedure ...
The basolateral nucleus (BLA) of the amygdala contributes to the consolidation of memories for emotional or stressful events. The nucleus contains a high density of CRF1 receptors that are activated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Modulation of the excitability of neurons in the BLA by CRF …
A differential contribution of the right and left amygdalae to affective information processing has been proposed. However, the direction of this lateralization has not been confirmed. In this study, we used a pre- and post-treatment (escitalopram) design to analyze the relative differences between neural activity in the right and left amygdalae during exposure to emotional stimuli in currently depressed patients. To the best of our knowledge, this study is to compare neural activity between the left and right amygdalae in people with depression. Our findings could lead to the development of parameters or biomarkers for depressive symptoms and treatment response. We used a pre-post-test design without a control group. Twenty currently depressed participants underwent an emotion processing task during fMRI. These participants were then treated with an antidepressant for 6 weeks. We used amygdala region-of-interest analysis to evaluate the hemodynamic response during exposure to colored emotional pictures
The occurrence of stress and anxiety disorders has been closely associated with alterations of the amygdala GABAergic system. In these disorders, dysregulation of the serotonergic system, a very important modulator of the amygdala GABAergic system, is also well recognized. The present study, utilizi …
Synonyms for Amygdalar cortices in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Amygdalar cortices. 2 synonyms for amygdala: amygdaloid nucleus, corpus amygdaloideum. What are synonyms for Amygdalar cortices?
Using in vitro and in vivo data we develop the first large-scale biophysically and anatomically realistic model of the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BL), which reproduces the dynamics of the in vivo local field potential (LFP). Significantly, it predicts that BL intrinsically generates the transient gamma oscillations observed in vivo. The model permitted exploration of the poorly understood synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma genesis in BL, and the models ability to compute LFPs at arbitrary numbers of recording sites provided insights into the characteristics of the spatial properties of gamma bursts. Furthermore, we show how gamma synchronizes principal cells to overcome their low firing rates while simultaneously promoting competition, potentially impacting their afferent selectivity and efferent drive, and thus emotional behavior ...
Using in vitro and in vivo data we develop the first large-scale biophysically and anatomically realistic model of the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BL), which reproduces the dynamics of the in vivo local field potential (LFP). Significantly, it predicts that BL intrinsically generates the transient gamma oscillations observed in vivo. The model permitted exploration of the poorly understood synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma genesis in BL, and the models ability to compute LFPs at arbitrary numbers of recording sites provided insights into the characteristics of the spatial properties of gamma bursts. Furthermore, we show how gamma synchronizes principal cells to overcome their low firing rates while simultaneously promoting competition, potentially impacting their afferent selectivity and efferent drive, and thus emotional behavior ...
The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at low frequencies (≤1Hz) evoked a short-latency excitation of BA interneurons (INs) that was depressed at higher frequencies. Pharmacological analysis revealed this effect was mediated by glutamate and not 5-HT since it was abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at higher frequencies (10-20Hz) ...
The present discussion of SP and associated HHEs is much indebted to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming (Hobson & McCarley, 1977; McCarley & Hobson, 1979). According to that theory, REM is initiated via inhibitory activity of the REM-off cells in reciprocal interaction with REM-on cells (See section on SP and REM for a more detailed discussion). These brain-stem mechanisms inhibit motor output and sensory input and provide the cortex with internally generated activation. The function of the cortical centers is one of synthesizing quasi-random activation into meaningful patterns. Although the activation-synthesis model has not emphasized affective components, the pervasiveness of fear and the sensed presence in the phenomenology of SP indicates that the role of the amygdala may need to be considered central in understanding the SP night-mare. We hypothesize that the experience of a threatening presence during SP is associated with the thalamic projections to the amygdala. During REM, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Basolateral Amygdalae and Frontotemporal Network Functions for Threat Perception. AU - Hortensius, Ruud. AU - Terburg, David. AU - Morgan, Barak. AU - Stein, Dan J.. AU - van Honk, Jack. AU - de Gelder, Beatrice. PY - 2017/4/5. Y1 - 2017/4/5. N2 - Although the amygdalae play a central role in threat perception and reactions, the direct contributions of the amygdalae to specific aspects of threat perception, from ambiguity resolution to reflexive or deliberate action, remain ill understood in humans. Animal studies show that a detailed understanding requires a focus on the different subnuclei, which is not yet achieved in human research. Given the limits of human imaging methods, the crucial contribution needs to come from individuals with exclusive and selective amygdalae lesions. The current study investigated the role of the basolateral amygdalae and their connection with associated frontal and temporal networks in the automatic perception of threat. Functional activation ...
ABSTRACT: Although the amygdala complex is a brain area critical for human behavior, knowledge of its subspecialization is primarily derived from experiments in animals. We here employed methods for large-scale data mining to perform a connectivity-derived parcellation of the human amygdala based on whole-brain coactivation patterns computed for each seed voxel. Voxels within the histologically defined human amygdala were clustered into distinct groups based on their brain-wide coactivation maps. Using this approach, connectivity-based parcellation divided the amygdala into three distinct clusters that are highly consistent with earlier microstructural distinctions. Meta-analytic connectivity modelling then revealed the derived clusters brain-wide connectivity patterns, while meta-data profiling allowed their functional characterization. These analyses revealed that the amygdalas laterobasal nuclei group was associated with coordinating high-level sensory input, whereas its centromedial nuclei ...
Scientists and mental health professionals have made major strides in understanding and treating major depression, including the discovery of the role played by imbalances in brain chemicals such as serotonin and noradrenaline. But there is increasing evidence that there is more to the story: depression also involves structural changes in areas of the brain that are involved in mood, memory, and decision-making. Depression is often precipitated by stressful experiences. The brain interprets our experiences and decides if they are threatening, and then controls our behavioral and physiological responses to them. Data obtained from animal experiments show that harmful physiological changes result from the inability of the brain and body to respond to repeated stress with adaptive modifications in structure and function. Three brain areas - the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala - are particularly susceptible to pathological changes in size and function. These areas are ...
Maybe youre like me, anxious more often than not. Maybe youve read about that pair of panic buttons in the brain called the amygdalae. Troublesome though they may be, wed be lost without them, unable to perceive and react to danger. The amygdalae are the gatekeepers of the limbic system, the brains most primitive region.…
According to a press-release from UCLA, researchers recruited 41 epilepsy patients and monitored activity in their amygdalae, an area located deep within the brain which is believed to regulate emotions, in response to visual stimuli -- photos of people, buildings, and animals, respectively. Since most previous studies into amygdalae focused on reactions to human faces, neuroscientists were surprised to find that they didnt elicit the most profound reaction. Our study shows that neurons in the human amygdala respond preferentially to pictures of animals, meaning that we saw the most amount of activity in cells when the patients looked at cats or snakes versus buildings or people, says Florian Mormann of CalTech, and the studys lead author. This preference extends to cute as well as ugly or dangerous animals and appears to be independent of the emotional contents of th... Full article: http://www.treehugger.com/files/2011/09/humans-are-hardwi... ...
The amygdala, a small deep brain structure involved in behavioral processing through interactions with other brain regions, has garnered increased attention in recent years in relation to pain processing. As pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses physical sensation, affect, and cognition, the amygdala is well suited to play a part in this process. Multiple…
This will help to track the use of this data in the literature. In addition, consider also citing the paper related to this collection. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and long-term fear memory. AU - Savonenko, Alena. AU - Werka, Tomasz. AU - Nikolaev, Evgeni. AU - Zieliñski, Kazimierz. AU - Kaczmarek, Leszek. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. During multitrial training in a shuttle box, the APV-injected rats were not different from the controls in sensitivity to shock or in acquisition of freezing to contextual cues. However, APV ...
Looking for online definition of cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? cortical amygdaloid nucleus explanation free. What is cortical amygdaloid nucleus? Meaning of cortical amygdaloid nucleus medical term. What does cortical amygdaloid nucleus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Hulvershorn, Leslie A.. AU - Mennes, Maarten. AU - Castellanos, F. Xavier. AU - Di Martino, Adriana. AU - Milham, Michael P.. AU - Hummer, Tom A.. AU - Roy, Amy Krain. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Objective A substantial proportion of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also display emotion regulation deficits manifesting as chronic irritability, severe temper outbursts, and aggression. The amygdala is implicated in emotion regulation, but its connectivity and relation to emotion regulation in ADHD has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of amygdala circuits and emotion regulation deficits in youth with ADHD. Method Bilateral amygdala iFC was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 63 children with ADHD, aged ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism, presented by Cogner (1956), theorized that alcoholism was induced by the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, which in turn reinforced intake of ethanol. If this holds true, then it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CNS effects of ethanol may be dominant in the area of the brain that controls or influences anxiety. Given the known role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety-induced responses, we hypothesized that the anxiety reducing effects of ethanol would be observed within the amygdala and may be measured as alterations of neuronal excitability. The first aim of this thesis was to establish an animal model of alcoholism in the laboratory. This was done by introducing a nutritionally complete ethanol containing liquid diet. We compared two liquid diet ...
79 Moreover, the amygdaloid complex contains a moderate density of receptors and the developmental role of u s cholinergic amygdaloid system in passive avoidance learning cymbalta the rat has been described to occur during cymbalta us patent same time period. 25c 1 H 0.
BACKGROUND: A vital component of an organisms response to acute stress is a surge in vigilance that serves to optimize the detection and assessment of threats to its homeostasis. The amygdala is thought to regulate this process, but in humans, acute stress and amygdala function have up to now only been studied in isolation. Hence, we developed an integrated design using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the immediate effects of controlled stress induction on amygdala function. METHODS: In 27 healthy female participants, we studied brain responses to emotional facial stimuli, embedded in an either acutely stressful or neutral context by means of adjoining movie clips. RESULTS: A variety of physiological and psychological measures confirmed successful induction of moderate levels of acute stress. More importantly, this context manipulation shifted the amygdala toward higher sensitivity as well as lower specificity, that is, stress induction augmented amygdala responses to ...
The amygdala is critical for fear processing and fear regulation. The central amygdala (CeA), once viewed as a passive relay between the amygdala complex and do...
Role of Oxytocin in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Network During Social Decision-Makings profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amygdala response and functional connectivity during cognitive emotion regulation of aversive image sequences. AU - Sarkheil, Pegah. AU - Klasen, Martin. AU - Schneider, Frank. AU - Goebel, Rainer. AU - Mathiak, Klaus. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Emotion regulation (ER) is crucial in terms of mental health and social functioning. Attention deployment (AD) and cognitive reappraisal (CR) are both efficient cognitive ER strategies, which are based on partially dissociated neural effects. Our understanding of the neural underpinnings of ER is based on laboratory paradigms that study changes of the brain activation related to isolated emotional stimuli. To track the neural response to ER in the changing and dynamic environment of daily life, we extended the common existing paradigms by applying a sequence of emotionally provocative stimuli involving three aversive images. Eighteen participants completed an ER paradigm, in which they had to either shift their attention away from ...
The Amygdala Diaries. by David Kellem. Mediators are challenged to guide clients through a lot of obstacles along the way to settlement. One physically small but stealthy and strong obstacle is the human amygdala. Amygdalae are almond-shaped organs in the left and right hemispheres of our brains that can subconsciously derail rational negotiation.. The amygdala, it turns out, is the root of some of our less-rational and more problematic behaviors. It has been identified as a primary organ of the paleomamillian mind - the mind of early human beings who spent their days mostly just trying to survive in a hostile world full of beasts of prey and other physical threats. The amygdala is an alarm system and an army all in one. If it senses danger it activates a powerful internal alert. Adrenaline and other hormones surge, muscular systems engage, and the body jumps into self- protective action: stand and fight the danger, or turn fast and flee from it.. Time and evolution eventually relegated the ...
Stress is known to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and to enhance anxiety. Stress also leads to secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), and the BLA has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors. This raises the possibility that stress-induced elevation in GC secretion might directly affect amygdaloid neurons. To address the possible effects of GC on neurons of amygdala and on anxiety, we used rats treated either acutely with a single dose or chronically with 10 daily doses of high physiological levels of corticosterone (the rat-specific glucocorticoid). Behavior and morphological changes in neurons of BLA were measured 12 days after the initiation of treatment in both groups. A single acute dose of corticosterone was sufficient to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the BLA and heightened anxiety, as measured on an elevated plus maze. Moreover, this form of dendritic hypertrophy after acute treatment was of a magnitude similar to that caused by chronic treatment. ...
Using a mouse model, a pair of UC Riverside researchers demonstrated the formation of fear memory involves the strengthening of neural pathways between two brain areas: the hippocampus, which responds to a particular context and encodes it, and the amygdala, which triggers defensive behavior, including fear responses.
This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to ...
Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an "H". Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
Smith, Justin P., Achua, Justin K., Summers, Tangi R., Ronan, Patrick, and Summers, Cliff H.. Neuropeptide S and BDNF gene expression in the amygdala are influenced by decision making under stress. In Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Special edition: Decision-making under stress: the importance of cortico-limbic circuits, 1-13. Vol. 8, Iss. Article 121. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2014. (DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00121) ...
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We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
Male and female mice respond differently to the same pheromone signals, and the representation of these sensory stimuli by neurons in the medial amygdala correlates precisely with the differences in behavior.
RESULTS: In the medial subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central amygdala (CeA), the number of pCREB immunoreactive (pCREB-ir) cells in the clean-bedding exposed group was significantly larger than in the home cage group, while the number of pCREB-ir cells in the OVX+E2-bedding exposed group did not differ from that in the home cage group. The bedding soiled by OVX rats was less effective. No significant difference in the number of pCREB-ir cells was detected in the other regions of the extended amygdala among all groups ...
An almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system. (MeSH)
see also amygdalohippocampotomy Amygdalohippocampectomy is a neurosurgical procedure for the treatment of epilepsy. see selective amygdalohippocampectomy. Surgical approaches for medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) that previously have been reported include anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy, transsylvian amygdalohippocampectomy, and subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy. Each approach has its advantages and potential pitfalls Minimally Invasive Transpalpebral Endoscopic-Assisted Amygdalohippocampectomy 1). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neonatal amygdala lesions alter responsiveness to objects in juvenile macaques. AU - Bliss-Moreau, E.. AU - Toscano, J. E.. AU - Bauman, Melissa D. AU - Mason, W. A.. AU - Amaral, David G. PY - 2011/3/31. Y1 - 2011/3/31. N2 - The amygdala is widely recognized to play a central role in emotional processing. In nonhuman primates, the amygdala appears to be critical for generating appropriate behavioral responses in emotionally salient contexts. One common finding is that macaque monkeys that receive amygdala lesions as adults are behaviorally uninhibited in the presence of potentially dangerous objects. While control animals avoid these objects, amygdala-lesioned animals readily interact with them. Despite a large literature documenting the role of the amygdala in emotional processing in adult rhesus macaques, little research has assessed the role of the amygdala across the macaque neurodevelopmental trajectory. We assessed the behavioral responses of 3-year-old (juvenile) rhesus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Time-dependent and regional expression of GABA transporter mRNAs following amygdala-kindled seizures in rats. AU - Hirao, Toru. AU - Morimoto, Kiyoshi. AU - Yamamoto, Yoshitaka. AU - Watanabe, Takemi. AU - Sato, Hitoshi. AU - Sato, Keiko. AU - Sato, Soichiro. AU - Yamada, Norihito. AU - Tanaka, Koichi. AU - Suwaki, Hiroshi. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - To investigate the role played by GABA transporters in epileptic seizures, we examined time-dependent and regional changes in expression of GAT-1 and GAT-3 GABA transporter mRNA in amygdala-kindled rat brain using an in situ hybridization method. GAT-1 mRNA was significantly increased bilaterally in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (111-116%) at 1 h after kindled generalized seizures. GAT-1 mRNA was also significantly increased bilaterally in the hippocampal subfields (CA1-4 and dentate gyrus [110-117%]) at 4 h after kindled seizures. There were no significant changes in GAT-1 mRNA level in the amygdalar nuclei, pyriform cortex ...
Read "N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-mediated corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) release in cultured rat amygdala neurons 1 1 Abbreviations used: CRF, corticotropin-releasing factor; NMDA, N -methyl- d -aspartate; AP-5, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid; LC, locus coeruleus; DIC, days in culture., Peptides" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
logical experiments have demonstrated the human amygdalas role in recognition of certain emotions signaled by sensory stimuli, notably, fear and anger in facial expressions. We examined recognition of two emotional dimensions, arousal and valence, in a rare subject with complete, bilateral damage restricted to the amygdala. Recognition of emotional arousal was impaired for facial expressions, words, and sentences that depicted unpleasant emotions, especially in regard to fear and anger. However, recognition of emotional valence was nor-mal. The findings suggest that the amygdala plays a critical role in knowledge concerning the arousal of negative emotions, a function that may explain the impaired recognition of fear and anger in patients with bilateral amygdala damage, and one that is consistent with the amygdalas role in processing stimuli related to threat and danger. Studies in humans provide strong evidence for neural systems that are specialized for the recognition of certain emotions. ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... Gosselin, Peretz, Johnsen and Adolphs (2007) studied S.M., a patient with bilateral damage of the amygdala with the rest of the ... Damage to the amygdala has selective emotional impairments on musical recognition. ... It appears that damage specific to the amygdala can selectively impair recognition of scary music. ...
Amygdala[edit]. Associative learning between odors and behavioral responses takes place in the amygdala. The odors serve as the ... The amygdala passes olfactory information on to the hippocampus. The orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and ... Similar to the process in the amygdala, an odor is associated with a particular reward, i.e. the smell of food with receiving ... The main olfactory bulb connects to the amygdala via the piriform cortex of the primary olfactory cortex and directly projects ...
Amygdala neurons[edit]. This theory hypothesizes that an early developmental failure involving the amygdala cascades on the ... Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area. Int J Dev Neurosci. ...
Role of the amygdala[edit]. The amygdala is a complex set of nuclei situated in the anterior temporal lobe and lies beneath the ... The amygdala is involved in the formation of memories of emotional experiences, particularly those associated with fear, flight ... The cat odor induced an inhibition of the endocannabinoid system in the amygdala which has been suggested to induce anxiety- ... Without a properly functioning amygdala, olfactory memories would not be able to form which could put an animal at risk of ...
Amygdala. Article about Conover's interest in science fiction and fantasy, including his correspondence with H. P. Lovecraft. ...
Amygdala Music - Jonathan Miller. Amygdala Music. 2008-12-19. Retrieved on 2009-02-06. "Verminators" (2008) - Full cast and ...
"Limbic System: Amygdala". In Byrne, John H. Homeostasis and Higher Brain Function. Neuroscience Online. University of Texas ... Medial prefrontal cortex Central nucleus of the amygdala The orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus innervate ... Other output regions include: the ventromedial hypothalamus, medial and lateral septal nuclei, central medial amygdala, zona ... Reppucci, Christina J.; Petrovich, Gorica D. (2015-07-14). "Organization of connections between the amygdala, medial prefrontal ...
... amygdala Kiener. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 April 2010. Prunum antillanum (Sarasúa, 1992 ...
... almond and amygdala (ἀμυγδάλη); dram and drachma (δραχμή), also dirhem via Arabic; paper and papyrus (πάπυρος); carat and ...
"Bliv ven med hjernens amygdala". Dafolos online-butik. Retrieved 23 November 2017. Schrøder, Malene. "Rejsen til Amygdala (in ... ISBN 978-87-7160-681-2 Bliv ven med hjernens amygdala (2017), Dafolo. ISBN 978-87-7160-680-5 Stierne i hjernen (2017), Dafolo. ... Mehlsen, Camilla (10 October 2015). "Farvel Freud, goddag Amygdala". Dagbladet Information. Retrieved 31 January 2017. "Gør ... Hello Amygdala" in Dagbladet Information. Gør hjernen til en medspiller (2017), Dafolo. ...
... amygdala (Kiener, 1835). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010. Cronia aurantiaca ( ... Species within the genus Cronia include: Cronia amygdala (Kiener, 1835) Cronia aurantiaca (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1853) Cronia ...
Underdeveloped amygdalae. Two studies found that both the left and especially the right amygdalae are impaired in psychopaths. ... 2014). "Lower Amygdala Volume in Men is Associated with Childhood Aggression, Early Psychopathic Traits, and Future Violence". ... 2013). "Lower Amygdala Volume in Men is Associated with Childhood Aggression, Early Psychopathic Traits, and Future Violence". ... Similarly, Dustin Pardini conducted that which shows that men with a smaller amygdala are three times more likely to commit ...
Tissue Distribution CNS (region specific) & several peripheral tissues: Stomach > amygdala, kidney, lung, small intestine > ... amygdala, and raphe nucleus. TAAR1 has also been identified in human astrocytes. TAAR1 is the only TAAR subtype not found in ...
The amygdala is an area in the brain involved in emotion. Studies have found that patients with bilateral amygdala damage, ... doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.05.021 Retrieved on 10/4/12 Gupta, R., Koscik, T. R., Bechara, A., & Tranel, D. (2011). The amygdala and ... which is damage in both hemispheres of the amygdala region in the brain, are deficient in decision-making. When an initial ... choice is made in decision-making, the result of this choice has an emotional response, which is controlled by the amygdala. ...
PTSD can affect several parts of the brain such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. The amygdala controls ... Maeng, L. Y.; Waddell, J.; Shors, T. J. (2010). "The Prefrontal Cortex Communicates with the Amygdala to Impair Learning after ... In particular, the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are affected. One class of stress hormone responsible for ... Stress hormones influence the processes carried out in the hippocampus and amygdala which are also associated with emotional ...
The domestic cat brain also contains the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal lobes (which comprise 3 to 3.5% of the total brain in ... Marcos, P; Coveñas, R; Narvaez, J.A; Aguirre, J.A; Tramu, G; Gonzalez-Baron, S (1998). "Neuropeptides in the Cat Amygdala". ... Bear, Mark F.; Connors, Barry W.; Paradiso, Michael A. (2007). "Neural Components of Aggression Beyond the Amygdala". ...
Baron-Cohen, S; Ring, H.A.; Bullmore, E.T.; Wheelwright, S.; Ashwin, C.; Williams, S.C.R. (May 2000). "The amygdala theory of ... Brothers, L.; Ring, B; Kling, A (21 December 1990). "Response of neurons in the macaque amygdala to complex social stimuli". ... The interaction between the amygdala, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STG) enables ...
The amygdala, an area of the brain involved in emotional regulation, may be involved in producing remembrance for some aspects ... Roozendaal B.; Mcewen B. S.; Chattarji S. (2009). "Stress, memory and the amygdala". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10 (6): 423- ... it may remain partially encoded in the form of an emotional memory in the amygdala where it can be subsequently recalled in the ...
Another difference is that the amygdala areas have decreased connectivity with the insula and cingulate areas that control ... Another area, the adjacent central nucleus of the amygdala, controls species-specific fear responses in its connections to the ... Generalized anxiety disorder has been linked to disrupted functional connectivity of the amygdala and its processing of fear ... The latter suggests a compensation strategy for dysfunctional amygdala processing of anxiety. This is consistent with cognitive ...
The amygdala is one of the major structures in the limbic system. It is also known to play a role in the processing of and ... Overall, the research suggests that the amygdala is important for the making and retrieval of social judgements. The ... Adolphs, R.; Tranel, D.; Damasio, A.R. (1998). "The human amygdala in social judgment". Nature. 393: 470-474. doi:10.1038/30982 ... Adolphs, R.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Tranel, D. (2002). "Impaired Recognition of Social Emotions following Amygdala Damage". Journal ...
amygdala has been found Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G; Carter, R McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; ... Blaming appears to relate to include brain activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The amygdala has been found to ...
Specifically, amygdala fear conditioning was lost. This is a type of trace conditioning which is a form of learning that ...
For example, people with amygdala damage seem to exhibit less loss aversion than normal controls. Also, scores from a survey ... De Martino B.; Camerer C.F.; Adolphs R. (2010). "Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion". Proceedings of the ... ISBN 978-0-07-162339-1 De Martino B, Camerer CF, Adolphs R (February 2010). "Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion ... related to negative emotional reactions in response to loss aversion another found that individuals with damaged amygdalas had ...
... as well as to the amygdala. Using various photoreceptor knockout mice, researchers have identified the role of ipRGCs in both ...
doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0325 Seymour, B., & Dolan, R. (2008). Emotion, decision making, and the amygdala. Neuron, 58, 662-671. ...
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A new study shows that anesthetics activate an endogenous analgesia neural ensemble in the central nucleus of the amygdala. ... A new study shows that anesthetics activate an endogenous analgesia neural ensemble in the central nucleus of the amygdala. ... General anesthetics activate a potent central pain-suppression circuit in the amygdala *Thuy Hua ... McCall, N.M., Wojick, J.A. & Corder, G. Anesthesia analgesia in the amygdala. Nat Neurosci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/ ...
1. The Amygdala and Pain. The amygdala is an almond-shaped limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe and is well ... The amygdala receives multiple lines of input (Figure 1) relevant for pain processing, and multiple nuclei in the amygdala are ... It is now thought that this deficit was likely due to amygdala resection [16, 17], illustrating the importance of the amygdala ... 4. Pain-Related Amygdala-Centered Corticolimbic Interactions. Information processing in the amygdala can be regulated by ...
Intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala. Scheme of coronal section of the rat amygdala where all major internuclear connections ... Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear.. Duvarci S1, Pare D2.. Author information. 1. Institute of Neurophysiology, ... B1) Scheme of coronal section of the rat amygdala with camera lucida drawings of principal cells in LA, CeL, and ICMMV (black ... Physiological and morphological properties of amygdala neurons. (A) LA projection cell at low (A1) and high (A2) magnification ...
Definition of amygdala cerebelli. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
Individual amygdala neurons respond to touch, imagery and sounds Individual neurons in the monkey amygdala that respond to ... Veterans, active-duty service members with PTSD and mTBI have larger amygdalas, finds study A new study finds that veterans and ... If functionality of the brains amygdala is impaired, illusory perceptions arise much faster and more pronounced. ... limbic regions including the amygdala and hippocampus), as well as memory and social processing (cortical regions including the ...
amygdala synonyms, amygdala pronunciation, amygdala translation, English dictionary definition of amygdala. n. pl. a·myg·da·lae ... amygdala. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to amygdala: thalamus a·myg·da·la. (ə-mĭg′də-lə). n. pl. a·myg ... The amygdala is involved in handling the emotional information.. The role of the amygdala in the development of sexual arousal ... SOCIAL amygdala - a business and help in the South Moravian Region (AMYGDALA SOCIAL - podnikEime a pomEihEime v Jihomoravskem ...
The amygdala - fear and stress response. Professor Bruce McEwen discusses how the amygdala is involved in processing fear and ... The amygdala is a complex structure adjacent to the hippocampus. The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear- ... The amygdala is a complex structure adjacent to the hippocampus. The amygdala is involved in processing emotions, and fear- ... The Amygdala, the Bodys Alarm Circuit. The amygdala controls autonomic responses associated with fear, arousal, and emotional ...
The extended amygdala is a macrostructure in the brain that is involved in reward cognition and defined by connectivity and ... The extended amygdala is said to comprise several basal forebrain structures that share similar morphology, immunocytochemical ... It includes the central medial amygdala, sublenticular substantia innominata, the nucleus accumbens shell, and the stria ... the central medial amygdala, the shell of the NAc, and the sublenticular substantia innominata. Heimer L (1995). The Human ...
Batman subdued Amygdala, but was then forced to face more inmates. Amygdala later appeared in Part 2 of the year-long story arc ... Amygdala is killed and then beheaded by the vampire Batman. Amygdala is briefly referenced in an article by Joseph LeDoux, a ... Amygdala survived, but he was heavily traumatized by the death of his friends. In the Infinite Crisis storyline, Amygdala was ... Alongside Killer Croc and King Shark, Amygdala attacks Batman on a train. Amygdala is a huge man with the strength and ...
Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Roger ... Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triu... Roger Clough ... the amygdala) and the triune brain On 11 Sep 2012, at 13:05, Roger Clough wrote: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain ... The amygdala is a small brain organ which is not pictured in the above diagram but is in the center of the reptelian brain in ...
Amygdala (definition). See all of Amygdala, there is 1 more in this node. ...
The authors identify two genetic markers defining non-overlapping populations of principal cells in the amygdala that respond ... What is the amygdala?. Trends Neurosci. 21, 323-331 (1998).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*4.. Hall, E. The amygdala of ... Amygdala microcircuits controlling learned fear. . Neuron 82, 966-980 (2014).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*37.. Tovote ... Antagonistic negative and positive neurons of the basolateral amygdala. *Joshua Kim1. *, Michele Pignatelli ORCID: orcid.org/ ...
Der er omkring 12 millioner neuroner i menneskets amygdala.[1] Amygdala er involveret i posttraumatisk belastningsreaktion.[2] ... Amygdala (på dansk mandelkernen) er et lille område i hjernens tindingelap, som blandt andet håndterer frygt og ... Amygdala kan deles op i en basolateral og en kortikomedial del. Den kortikomediale del modtager fra de autonome processer. ... Dette fund medvirkede til konklusionen, at amygdala "spiller en central rolle i at udløse en tilstand af frygt".[9] ...
Title: Amygdala. Product Type: VINYL LP. Tracks:. 1.1 Track Id Anyone 1.2 Nices w Lkchen 1.3 Royal Asscher Cut 1.4 Magical Boy ... 2.5 Amygdala 2.6 Ich Schreib Dir Ein Buch 2013 3.1 Nooooo 3.2 Auroville. ...
Home » amygdala amygdala. PBS interview with Karen. By Karen Pryor on 08/13/2009 Interesting PBS radio interview with Karen ...
Learn from Amygdala experts like Frontiers and Frontiers. Read Amygdala books like tmp3A78 and tmp23B0.tmp with a free trial ... Discover the best Amygdala books and audiobooks. ...
Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression.. Whalen PJ1, Shin LM, Somerville LH, McLean AA, Kim H. ... Furthermore, we suggest that the scope of the amygdalas involvement may go beyond its well-known role in fear to its more ... We begin by reviewing animal and human data concerning the function of the amygdala. We then compare these results with those ... Finally, we discuss functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression in light of the animal and human data. We ...
Almost every study of fear finds that the amygdala is active. But that doesn´t mean every spark of activity in the amygdala ... Instead, the amygdala seems to be doing something more subtle: processing events that are related to what a person cares about ... A lot of people came to the amygdala from the study of fear, says Wil Cunningham of Ohio State University, who co wrote the new ... This link between the amygdala and fear - especially a fear of others unlike us, has gone too far, not only in pop culture, but ...
... Located in brains medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin, corpus amygdaloideum) is believed to ... In language learning, some hypothesize that second language learning for adults may not make ready use of the amygdala in ... narcolepsy and OCD are also suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala owing to damage or developmental ...
One of the most interesting and risk-taking producers from Kompakts stable presents his 2nd full length on his own label.. ...
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2008) Basolateral amygdala neurons facilitate reward-seeking behavior by exciting nucleus accumbens neurons. Neuron 59:648-661. ... The amygdala is important for mediating emotional responses and related memories (for review, Ledoux, 2000, Baxter and Murray, ... 2005) Distinct neural signatures for safety and danger in the amygdala and striatum of the mouse. Neuron 46:309-320. ... 2011) The fear circuit revisited: contributions of the basal amygdala nuclei to conditioned fear. J Neurosci 31:15481-15489. ...
You came this way: Home , Happy Puppy Records , The Electric Amygdala , Lion on the Beach , Currents. Currents by The Electric ... Currents by The Electric Amygdala is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial License. ...
... boys with autism suffer from poor social and communication skills as well as a diminished number of neurons in their amygdala. ... It was found that although the amygdala volumes in all the brains was about the same, the autistic males as a group had almost ... Counting them painstakingly under a microscope revealed far lower number of neurons in the amygdala which is the area of the ... Amaral notes "This is the first quantitative evidence of an abnormal number of neurons in the autistic amygdala. We were able ...
  • The amygdala is an almond-shaped limbic structure located in the medial temporal lobe and is well known for its role in conveying emotional significance to a sensory stimulus, emotional and affective states, and related behavioral adaptations in response to changes in the internal and external bodily environment [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Located in brain 's medial temporal lobe, the almond-shaped amygdala (in Latin , corpus amygdaloideum ) is believed to have strong connections to the mental and emotional reactions of the person. (fact-index.com)
  • He literally blew our minds at viewzone with his amazing story of how the function and control of the amygdala -- a pair of almond shaped organs in the brain -- was discovered by and old and eccentric genius who claimed to have discovered the means of mental happiness. (viewzone.com)
  • Something strange is going on in the amygdala - an almond-shaped structure deep in the human brain - among people with autism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Amygdalae are almond-shaped organs in the left and right hemispheres of our brains that can subconsciously derail rational negotiation. (mcfm.org)
  • According to a interesting study, led by Dr Lisa Feldman Barrett of the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, US, people with bigger amygdala - a small almond-shaped body buried deep within the temporal lobe of the brain - have wider and more complex networks of friends and colleagues. (topnews.us)
  • Researchers have long believed that the amygdala, an almond-shaped structure in the brain, is central to the experience and perception of fear. (massgeneral.org)
  • By assuming a sparse neural coding, we show it is possible, at an individual subject level, to discriminate responses to conditioned (CS+ and CS−) stimuli in both basolateral and centro-cortical amygdala nuclei. (jneurosci.org)
  • LA projects to other amygdala nuclei including the central nucleus of the amygdala (CE). (frontiersin.org)
  • The results show that the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala is strongly interconnected not only with the rest of the vomeronasal system (AOB and its target structures in the amygdala), but also with the olfactory system (piriform cortex, olfactory-recipient nuclei of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex). (wiley.com)
  • Change of rCBF within the left amygdala and the left OFC was highly intercorrelated, indicating a strong functional interaction between these brain regions. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, the activity within the left amygdala was associated significantly with subjective ratings of perceived aversiveness. (pnas.org)
  • Amygdala neurofeedback - attempt to upregulate the left amygdala during positive autobiographical memory recall via real time fMRI neurofeedback from the amygdala. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants are shown activity from their left amygdala in real time and are instructed to increase the level of activity in that region by thinking of positive autobiographical memories. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blackmon K, Barr WB, Carlson C, Devinsky O, Dubois J, Pogash D et al (2011) Structural evidence for involvement of a left amygdala-orbitofrontal network in subclinical anxiety. (springer.com)
  • Participants in the experimental group were provided with ongoing information about the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity in the left amygdala (LA) and were instructed to raise the BOLD rtfMRI signal by contemplating positive autobiographical memories. (dericbownds.net)
  • The amygdala is essential for decoding emotions, particularly threatening stimuli. (dana.org)
  • External stimuli reach the amygdala via two different pathways, which complement each other. (dana.org)
  • Single cell studies of the amygdala in nonhuman primates indicate that the activity of many amygdala cells depends on the hedonic significance of stimuli ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Imaging results revealed that hydrocortisone desensitizes amygdala responsivity rapidly, while it selectively normalizes responses to negative stimuli slowly. (uva.nl)
  • The responses of 3687 neurons in the macaque primary taste cortex in the insula/frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala to oral sensory stimuli reveals principles of representation in these areas. (psu.edu)
  • Consistently, the mean correlations between the representations of the different stimuli provided by the population of OFC neurons were lower (0.71) than for the insula (0.81) and amygdala (0.89). (psu.edu)
  • The insular neurons did not respond to olfactory and visual stimuli, with convergence occurring in the OFC and amygdala. (psu.edu)
  • Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. (springer.com)
  • In auditory FC information about the CS and US is transferred to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) from thalamus and cortex and the CS or US leads to responses in LA cells and some cells are activated by both stimuli (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • The role of the amygdala in recognition of danger is well established for visual stimuli such as faces. (caltech.edu)
  • These findings raise the possibility that the rhinal cortex and amygdala have distinct, interactive, functions in normal behavioral adaptation to affective stimuli. (cogprints.org)
  • Psychophysiological interaction analyses suggested that this slow normalization is related to an altered coupling of the amygdala with the medial prefrontal cortex. (uva.nl)
  • The PTSD group's amygdala response was heightened while medial prefrontal cortex responses were reduced when presented with fearful versus happy expressions. (rwjf.org)
  • For the PTSD group, BOLD signal changes in the amygdala had an inverse relationship with media prefrontal cortex signal changes. (rwjf.org)
  • However, in both the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, the development of such "tolerance" was somewhat delayed in comparison, occurring only after a 22-day treatment schedule. (springer.com)
  • These data suggest that if neurochemical tolerance is a prerequisite for functional DA receptor blockade and hence therapeutic efficacy, then both the prefrontal cortex and amygdala should be considered as potential therapeutic targets of haloperidol and perhaps antipsychotic drugs in general. (springer.com)
  • 1998) Aspiration lesions of the amygdala interrupt connections between prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex in rhesus monkeys. (cogprints.org)
  • Indeed, many experiments have found that the amygdala is active when people are afraid. (redorbit.com)
  • Focusing on fear conditioning, in which an animal learns to fear a specific stimulus in its environment, LeDoux's team found that the amygdala processes sensory signals and generates a fear response by stimulating autonomic responses such as increased heart rate and blood pressure and involuntary muscle control. (dana.org)
  • In contrast to evidence that the amygdala stimulates stress responses in adults, researchers at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University have found that the amygdala has an inhibitory effect on stress hormones during the early development of nonhuman primates. (innovations-report.com)
  • This allows the amygdala to coordinate physiological responses based on cognitive information - the most well-known example being the fight-or-flight response. (dnalc.org)
  • The fear response, says Emory University behavioral neuroscientist Michael Davis, comes from the central nucleus of the amygdala, the region responsible for commands for bodily responses associated with fear. (dana.org)
  • Evoked responses recorded from the amygdala of the cat after sequentially pairing neocortical and hypothalamizic stimulation showed consistent suippression or depression of the response evoked by the test shocks, regardless of whether the cortical or subcortical site received the preceding conditioning shock. (sciencemag.org)
  • As compared to the control group, the PTSD group had less of a habituation in the right amygdala to fearful versus happy responses over fMRI runs. (rwjf.org)
  • The flight and fear responses may be obtained from the rostral regions of the amygdala, including the lateral nucleus, the periamygdaloid area, and the central nucleus. (avsabonline.org)
  • The changes produced by rhinal damage took mainly the form of heightened defensiveness, and attenuated submission and approach responses, that is, just the opposite of some of the most distinctive symptoms following amygdala damage. (cogprints.org)
  • The medial amygdala (MeA) occupies a central position in the vomeronasal pathway, upstream of hypothalamic centers dedicated to defensive and social responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • This is diametrically opposite to the generality of rodent data and reinforces the view that the primate and human amygdala is concerned solely with initial learning, and not with storage of a stable CS+/unconditioned stimulus (US) association. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recently, several cases of selective amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome have been reported. (pnas.org)
  • However, understanding of the amygdala's role started to change around that time when a team at the University of Iowa College of Medicine began to publish a series of studies of a woman known in the literature as S.M. with rare bilateral lesions of the amygdala resulting from a condition known as Urbach-Wiethe disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • 1999) in monkeys with either neurotoxic or aspiration lesions of the neighboring amygdala. (cogprints.org)
  • Aggleton JP and Passingham RE (1981) Syndrome produced by lesions of the amygdala in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). (cogprints.org)
  • Emery NJ, Capitanio JP, Mason WA, Machado CJ, Mendoza SP, Amaral DG (2001) The effects of bilateral lesions of the amygdala on dyadic social interactions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). (cogprints.org)
  • Goulet S, Doré FY, Murray EA (1998) Aspiration lesions of the amygdala disrupt the rhinal corticothalamic projection system in rhesus monkeys. (cogprints.org)
  • David Amaral and Cynthia Mills Schumann of the University of California, Davis conducted a survey on the number of neurons in the amygdala of nine autistic males and 10 nonautistic males ranging from ages 10 to 44. (medindia.net)
  • Schumann says, "One possibility is that there are always fewer neurons in the amygdala of people with autism. (medindia.net)
  • What we are seeing is hyperexcitability or overarousal of the amygdala, which suggests that neurons in the amygdala are firing more than expected," said Kleinhans, who is associated with the UW Autism Center. (eurekalert.org)
  • A new study shows that anesthetics activate an endogenous analgesia neural ensemble in the central nucleus of the amygdala. (nature.com)
  • A pain-related function was first suggested by the discovery of a dedicated nociceptive pathway from the spinal cord through the external lateral parabrachial (PB) nucleus to the central nucleus of the amygdala [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the amygdala's diminishing role in olfaction during evolution ( 18 - 20 ), primates retain direct projections from the lateral olfactory tract to the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, and the medial nucleus of the amygdala remains intimately connected with the POC ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Administering oxytocin blocks the enhanced motivation for drinking alcohol that fuels alcohol use disorder by blocking GABA signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Vomeronasal information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), whose unique cortical target is the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. (wiley.com)
  • In the present work, we describe the afferent and efferent connections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in female mice, using anterograde (biotinylated dextranamines) and retrograde (Fluorogold) tracers, and zinc selenite as a tracer specific for zinc-enriched (putative glutamatergic) projections. (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala probably integrates olfactory and vomeronasal information. (wiley.com)
  • Finally, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala gives rise to zinc-enriched projections to the ventrolateral septum and the ventromedial striatum (including the medial islands of Calleja). (wiley.com)
  • DNA methylation in the central nucleus of the amygdala contributes to anxious temperament in young primates. (ashg.org)
  • A validated non-human primate model of AT revealed that the critical neural components underlying AT (e.g. the central nucleus of the amygdala, CeA) differ in their level of heritability, suggesting a role for epigenetics in the expression of this at risk phenotype. (ashg.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the signaling mechanisms that might underlie the loss of anorectic response to insulin injections into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) within 3 days of feeding a high fat diet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The findings, which substantiate the earlier studies highlighting the importance of the amygdala for social behaviour, suggest that the amygdala might have evolved partly to help deal with the increasingly complex social life of humans. (topnews.us)
  • The proposed research is directed toward the study of synaptic alterations in inhibitory transmission in the amygdala in the Fmr1 mutant animal model of FXS with two goals: 1) determination of the mechanism of altered inhibitory neurotransmission and 2) correction of these defects. (autismspeaks.org)
  • In another line of experiments, the valproic acid (VPA) animal model of autism was used to investigate a possible contribution of the amygdala towards the autistic pathology. (epfl.ch)
  • The amygdala receives projections from frontal cortex, association cortex, temporal lobe, olfactory system and other parts of the limbic system. (avsabonline.org)
  • The amygdala is considered to be the key component to the limbic system, a term that has also been regarded with much recent controversy by researchers in the field of emotions. (avsabonline.org)
  • Weinberger has looked at anxiety disorders and the amygdala from a genetic perspective. (dana.org)
  • Because the amygdala is involved heavily with emotions, it is believed to play a role in conditions such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias. (braingle.com)
  • Alterations in the amygdala have been reported in psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders like PTSD, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. (innovations-report.com)
  • Much evidence suggests that human anxiety disorders result from anomalies in amygdala function. (grc.org)
  • In my final unit of Master's study, I have become increasingly aware of the important role that the amygdala plays in stress-management and anxiety-reduction. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone drives anandamide hydrolysis in the amygdala to promote anxiety. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A dimensional analysis approach was used involving voxel-wise mapping of the correlation between subjects' social anxiety scores and amygdala activation, before and after controlling for fusiform gyrus activation. (cambridge.org)
  • We observed that only after controlling for subjects' level of activation of the fusiform gyrus was there an association between social anxiety ratings and amygdala response to both happy and fearful faces. (cambridge.org)
  • Amygdala activation in the processing of neutral faces in social anxiety disorder: is neutral really neutral? (cambridge.org)
  • Based on my own observation I am convinced that those of us who are prone to exaggerated episodes of anxiety appear to be particularly susceptible to amygdala highjacking. (counselormagazine.com)
  • As previously mentioned, people who are prone to episodes of exaggerated anxiety (a group that includes many, if not most, substance abusers) are particularly susceptible to amygdala highjacking. (counselormagazine.com)
  • Later, scientists found that rats with targeted amygdala damage would snuggle with cats, their natural enemy. (dana.org)
  • Similarly, the ability of acute stress to modulate amygdala FAAH and AEA in both rats and mice is also mediated through CRHR1 activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Protein samples from amygdala and hypothalamus of rats fed high or low fat diets were subjected to a phosphorylation screening assay. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: The level of pMARCKS (Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate), a major substrate of PKCθ, was increased 116% in amygdala of high fat diet fed rats but reduced in the hypothalamus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In a nutshell, an underperforming VPFC combined with an over-performing amygdala may form the "neuroanatomic" basis for affective symptoms. (healthcentral.com)
  • The amygdala was then thought to contain the circuitry for negative emotions, for emotions in general, and eventually, for anything broadly affective, such as threat. (massgeneral.org)
  • Neuroscience has shown that these people may be victims of an over- developed amygdala or an underdeveloped or damaged pre-frontal cortex. (mcfm.org)
  • This allows us to reject the strong claim that the amygdala is neither a structural nor a functional unit, and demonstrates the importance of evolutionary analysis in resolving such issues in systems neuroscience. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The researchers wrote: "We found that amygdala volume correlates with the size and complexity of social networks in adult humans," they write in Nature Neuroscience. (topnews.us)
  • During the 2009 Gordon Research Conference on the amygdala, internationally renowned basic and clinical researchers will present their latest findings on the amygdala. (grc.org)
  • UCLA researchers reveal the amygdala has much greater cell diversity than previously believed. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Some researchers have suggested that the amygdala may also be the neurological seat of human prejudice. (mcfm.org)
  • The amygdala receives multi-modal sensory inputs and projects to virtually all levels of the central nervous system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Physiological and morphological properties of amygdala neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The investigators plan to follow the animals into adulthood to investigate the long-term effects of early amygdala damage on stress hormones, behavior and physiological systems possibly affected by chronically high cortisol levels, such as immune, growth and reproductive functions. (innovations-report.com)
  • CONCLUSION: The data suggest that insulin may have a physiological role within the amygdala to regulate energy balance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Such methods afford consistent quantification of medial temporal lobe structures, however the validity and accuracy of automated segmentation of the amygdala may be inconsistent. (frontiersin.org)
  • To this aim, we investigated a rare subject, S.M., who has complete bilateral damage relatively restricted to the amygdala and not encompassing other sectors of the temporal lobe. (caltech.edu)
  • Horel JA, Keating EG, Misantone LJ (1975) Partial Klüver-Bucy syndrome produced by destroying temporal neocortex or amygdala. (cogprints.org)
  • Electrophysiological in vitro recordings in the amygdala revealed hyper-reactivity towards stimulation and enhanced activity-induced synaptic plasticity. (epfl.ch)
  • Stress-induced modulation of endocannabinoid signaling leads to delayed strengthening of synaptic connectivity in the amygdala. (ncbs.res.in)
  • However, little is known about the synaptic signaling mechanisms during stress that eventually culminate in its delayed impact on the amygdala. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Thus, oral administration of an FAAH inhibitor during a brief stress prevents the early synaptic changes that eventually build up to hyperexcitability in the amygdala. (ncbs.res.in)
  • The present study explored amygdala hyperresponsivity for individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (rwjf.org)
  • Approximately 40% of the neurons in the rodent amygdala respond to olfactory stimulation ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Post-surprise perturbation of central amygdala activity prevents surprise-induced enhancements in learning. (ovid.com)
  • Still, monkeys with neonatal amygdala damage remain competent in interacting with others in their large social groups. (innovations-report.com)
  • Social enterprise amygdala SOCIAL, sro offers these target groups friendly working environment tailored to the specific needs of each employee, working and long-term psychosocial support, education, participation in decision-making processes and compliance with all other principles of social entrepreneurship. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • hypertrophied cytoplasm, and highly ramified and retracted processes of astrocytes and microglia in the amygdala at 3 days after MI, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala. (nih.gov)
  • The authors also note that an over-active amygdala and a failure in connectivity is hardly exclusive to bipolar. (healthcentral.com)
  • Functional connectivity between the amygdala and PFC was examined and compared between alcohol and placebo sessions using a conventional generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis. (springer.com)
  • Mechanisms of abnormal amygdala activity in pain with particular focus on loss of cortical control mechanisms as well as new strategies to correct pain-related amygdala dysfunction will be discussed in the present review. (hindawi.com)
  • Conditions such as autism , depression , narcolepsy and OCD are also suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala owing to damage or developmental problems with it. (fact-index.com)
  • Amaral notes "This is the first quantitative evidence of an abnormal number of neurons in the autistic amygdala. (medindia.net)
  • Previous research at the UW and elsewhere has shown that abnormal growth patterns in the amygdala are commonly found among young children diagnosed with autism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fourteen epilepsy patients undergoing monitoring of seizures via intracranial depth electrodes viewed a series of neutral object images, half of which were immediately followed by brief, low-amplitude electrical stimulation to the amygdala. (pnas.org)
  • Overexpressing rat PKCθ either unilaterally or bilaterally into the CeA inhibited insulin stimulation of Akt signaling and blocked the anorectic response to insulin injected into the amygdala. (biomedsearch.com)
  • More specifically, the Dynamic Neural Retraining System TM (DNR) by Annie Hopper and the Gupta Amygdala Retraining TM program by Ashok Gupta. (holistichelp.net)
  • We will first explore the basic concepts used in the programs and then I will provide an in-depth review of the Dynamic Neural Retraining System TM and the Amygdala Retraining TM program. (holistichelp.net)
  • The purpose of this pilot study is to gather preliminary data on the efficacy and feasibility of the Amygdala Retraining Program (ARP), a mind-body practice versus a control (C) on fatigue, quality of life and sleep in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Chronic Fatigue (CF) and Fibromyalgia (FM). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Nevertheless, it is unclear to what extent visual areas processing faces influence amygdala reactivity in different socially anxious individuals. (cambridge.org)
  • Several men and boys with autism suffer from poor social and communication skills as well as a diminished number of neurons in their amygdala, according to the findings of a new study. (medindia.net)
  • The findings demonstrate that healthy subjects can learn to regulate their amygdala activation using rtfMRI neurofeedback, suggesting possible applications of rtfMRI neurofeedback training in the treatment of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. (dericbownds.net)
  • The serotonin transporter gene may affect neural circuits connecting the amygdala and the cingulate and cause depression. (dnalc.org)