Amrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.Aminopyridines: Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Rewarming: Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Enoximone: A selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor with vasodilating and positive inotropic activity that does not cause changes in myocardial oxygen consumption. It is used in patients with CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Advanced Cardiac Life Support: The use of sophisticated methods and equipment to treat cardiopulmonary arrest. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) includes the use of specialized equipment to maintain the airway, early defibrillation and pharmacological therapy.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Life Support Systems: Systems that provide all or most of the items necessary for maintaining life and health. Provisions are made for the supplying of oxygen, food, water, temperature and pressure control, disposition of carbon dioxide and body waste. The milieu may be a spacecraft, a submarine, or the surface of the moon. In medical care, usually under hospital conditions, LIFE SUPPORT CARE is available. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary)Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Clopenthixol: A thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.Acebutolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist with little effect on the bronchial receptors. The drug has stabilizing and quinidine-like effects on cardiac rhythm, as well as weak inherent sympathomimetic action.Aclarubicin: An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.IndiaAppendix: A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Triamterene: A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Vaginismus: Recurrent or persistent involuntary SPASM of the outer muscles of the VAGINA, occurring during vaginal penetration.Vulvitis: Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.Vulvar Vestibulitis: Inflammation of the vulvar vestibular region at the entrance of the VAGINA, generally involving surface mucosa and submucosal vestibular glands. It is characterized by ERYTHEMA and chronic recurrent pain in this area.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Enzyme Activators: Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological: Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.

Effects of single administration of a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor during cardiopulmonary bypass: comparison of milrinone and amrinone. (1/66)

The effects of phosphodiesterase III (PDE III) inhibitors administered after aortic declamping during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for open heart surgery were investigated. Ten patients (group M) were administered milrinone (50 microg/kg) after aortic declamping during CPB, 10 patients were administered amrinone (1 mg/kg) at the same time during their surgery (group A), and 10 patients served as controls with no drug administered (group C). Soon after bolus infusion of the PDE III inhibitor, perfusion pressure dropped significantly in groups M and A. However, after release of CPB and at the end of surgery, there was no difference in aortic pressure between the 3 groups. There were also no differences between the groups in heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. After weaning from CPB, the cardiac index was high and systemic vascular resistance index was low in groups M and A. There were no significant differences in the need for additional catecholamines and time for rewarming between groups. No adverse reactions were observed. A single administration of a PDE III inhibitor during CPB was useful for post-CPB management of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Amrinone reduced perfusion pressures more than milrinone, but cardiac indices and aortic pressures after weaning from CPB showed no differences between group M and group A patients.  (+info)

Effects of amrinone on ischaemia-reperfusion injury in cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy: a comparative study with prostaglandin E1. (2/66)

The effects of amrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, on liver ischaemia reperfusion injury have not yet been clarified. Forty-five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent partial liver resection using Pringle's manoeuvre were studied. Patients were divided into three groups: those given amrinone, those given prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and those not treated (controls). An indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test was performed before the operation and three times during surgery: just before induction of liver ischaemia, just after liver resection and 60 min after reperfusion. Blood lactate and base excess were measured at the same times. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac index and oesophageal temperature were monitored. Aminotransferase levels were recorded the day before surgery, 1 h after operation and on the first and third postoperative days. These data were compared between groups. The ICG elimination rate, lactate and base excess in the amrinone group differed significantly from those in controls during the observation period (P = 0.03, P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). The differences between the PGE1 and control groups were not significant. There were no significant differences between the groups in perioperative vital signs, cardiac index or postoperative aminotransferase. Amrinone enhanced intraoperative ICG elimination in cirrhotic patients who underwent liver resection.  (+info)

Effects of the specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit cavernous tissue in vitro. (3/66)

An experimental study was done to examine a potential role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction. Relaxant effect of specific PDE inhibitors were measured in strips of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle taken from control and diabetic groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in New Zealand white rabbits using alloxan. Penises excised from diabetic rabbits 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes mellitus. In the organ bath strips from control and diabetic rabbit corpus cavernosum were precontracted and increasing doses of several PDE inhibitors were added. In the precontracted rabbit cavernous tissue, sulmazole and zaprinast specific PDE V inhibitors were equally potent and efficacious in vitro but amrinone, a specific PDE III inhibitor, exhibits low relaxant effects. All PDE inhibitors tested showed a similar relaxation effect on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle from control and 8-week diabetic rabbits. The present study provides the possibility of using selective PDE III and V inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic impotence.  (+info)

Lack of role for nitric oxide in cholinergic modulation of myocardial contractility in vivo. (4/66)

Despite intensive investigation, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cholinergic modulation of myocardial contractility remains unresolved. The left anterior descending coronary artery of 34 anesthetized, open-chest dogs was perfused via an extracorporeal circuit. Segmental shortening (SS) was measured with ultrasonic crystals and coronary blood flow (CBF) was measured with an ultrasonic flow transducer. An intracoronary infusion of ACh (20 microg/min) was performed, with CBF held constant, under baseline and during dobutamine, CaCl(2), or amrinone at doses increasing SS by approximately 50% (10 microg/min, 15 mg/min, and 300 microg/min ic, respectively). ACh-induced responses during dobutamine were also assessed following treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microg/min ic for 15 min). The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 80 microg/min ic), an exogenous NO donor, bradykinin (2.5 microg/min ic), a nonmuscarinic releaser of endothelial NO, and bilateral vagal stimulation (before and after L-NAME) were evaluated during dobutamine. ACh had no effect on SS under baseline or during CaCl(2), but it decreased SS during dobutamine or amrinone (-23 +/- 4% and -30 +/- 5%, respectively). Vagal stimulation also reduced SS during dobutamine. L-NAME did not alter the ACh- or vagal-induced decreases in SS during dobutamine. Neither SNP nor bradykinin affected SS during dobutamine. In conclusion, ACh and vagal stimulation have a negative inotropic effect during stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors that is independent of NO. The persistence of this effect during amrinone suggests that a mechanism downstream from adenylate cyclase is involved.  (+info)

In contrast to forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, amrinone stimulates the cardiac voltage-sensitive release mechanism without increasing calcium-induced calcium release. (5/66)

The objective of this study was to determine whether the voltage-sensitive release mechanism (VSRM) can be stimulated independently from Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) by drugs that elevate intracellular cAMP. Contractions were measured in voltage-clamped guinea pig ventricular myocytes at 37 degrees C. Na(+) current was blocked. We compared effects of agents that elevate cAMP through activation of adenylyl cyclase (1 microM forskolin), nonspecific inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) [100 microM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)], and selective inhibition of PDE III (100-500 microM amrinone) on contractions initiated by the VSRM and CICR. Forskolin and IBMX significantly increased peak Ca(2+) current and CICR. In addition, these agents also markedly increased contractions elicited by test steps from -65 to -40 mV, which activate the VSRM. However, because these steps also induced inward current in the presence of forskolin or IBMX, CICR could not be excluded. In contrast, amrinone caused a large, concentration-dependent increase in VSRM contractions but had no effect on CICR contractions or Ca(2+) current. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+), assessed by rapid application of caffeine (10 mM), was increased only modestly by all three drugs. Normalization of contractions to caffeine contractures indicated that amrinone increased fractional release by the VSRM, but not CICR. Forskolin and IBMX increased fractional release elicited by steps to -40 mV. Increases in CICR induced by forskolin and IBMX were proportional to caffeine contractures. Thus, positive inotropic effects of cAMP on VSRM contractions may be compartmentalized separately from effects on Ca(2+) current and CICR.  (+info)

Amrinone can accelerate the cooling rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures. (6/66)

We investigated the effects of i.v. amrinone on intraoperative changes of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgery. The patients in a control group (n=10) did not receive amrinone and patients in the amrinone group (n=10) received amrinone 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) after a loading dose of 1.0 mg kg(-1). Anaesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen, propofol and fentanyl. After the induction of anaesthesia, patients were cooled and tympanic membrane temperature was maintained at 34.5 degrees C. After completion of the main surgical procedures, patients were rewarmed in the operating room. Tympanic membrane temperatures between 30 and 90 min after cooling were significantly lower in the amrinone group than in the control group. During cooling, the times taken to cool to 35 degrees C and to the lowest temperature were significantly shorter in the amrinone group than in the control group. These results suggest that i.v. amrinone can accelerate the cooling rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures.  (+info)

High-dose amrinone is required to accelerate rewarming from deliberate mild intraoperative hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures. (7/66)

BACKGROUND: Since the time available to provide the cooling and rewarming is limited during deliberate mild hypothermia, the technique to accelerate the cooling and rewarming rate of core temperature has been studied. Amrinone has been reported to accelerate the cooling rate but not the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia. The failure of amrinone effect on the rewarming rate might be due to an insufficient dose of amrinone during hypothermic conditions. The authors therefore tested whether higher doses of amrinone can accelerate the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgery. METHODS: After institutional approval and informed consent, 30 patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the control group (n = 10) did not receive amrinone; patients in the AMR 15 group (n = 10) received 15 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) amrinone with a 1.0-mg/kg loading dose of amrinone at the beginning of cooling; and patients in the ReAMR group (n = 10) received 5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) amrinone with 1.0-mg/kg loading and reloading doses of amrinone at the beginning of cooling and rewarming, respectively. Administration of amrinone was started just after the induction of cooling and continued until the end of anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen, propofol, and fentanyl. After induction of anesthesia, patients were cooled, and tympanic membrane temperature was maintained at 34.5 degrees C. After completion of the main surgical procedures, patients were actively rewarmed and extubated in the operating room. RESULTS: The cooling and rewarming rates of core temperature were both significantly faster in both amrinone groups than in the control group. During the cooling and rewarming periods, forearm minus fingertip temperature gradient was significantly smaller in both amrinone groups than in the control group. During the rewarming period, heart rate and mean arterial pressure in the AMR 15 group were significantly faster and lower, respectively, than in the control group. Systemic vascular resistance in the AMR 15 group was smaller than in the control group throughout the study; on the other hand, only the value after the start of rewarming in the ReAMR group was smaller than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Amrinone at an infusion rate of 15 or 5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) with a reloading at the beginning of rewarming accelerated the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia. This suggests that high-dose amrinone is required to accelerate rewarming from deliberate mild intraoperative hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures.  (+info)

Differential effects of amrinone and milrinone upon myocardial inflammatory signaling. (8/66)

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence links systemic and local inflammatory cytokine production to myocardial dysfunction and injury occurring during ischemia-reperfusion, cardiopulmonary bypass, and heart failure. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), used frequently in these states, can modulate inflammatory signaling. The mechanisms for these effects are unclear. We therefore examined the effects of 2 commonly used PDEIs, amrinone and milrinone, on cardiac cell inflammatory responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary rat cardiomyocyte cultures were treated with endotoxin (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), alone or in the presence of clinically relevant concentrations of amrinone or milrinone. Regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB), nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase isoforms, and cytokine production were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, Western immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunoassays, respectively. Both LPS and TNF-alpha induced significant NFkappaB activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cytokine production; with the exception of COX-2 expression, all were significantly reduced by amrinone, beginning at concentrations of 10 to 50 micro mol/L. In contrast, milrinone increased nuclear NFkappaB translocation, iNOS and COX-2 expression, and cardiomyocyte production of interleukin-1beta. Cell-permeable cAMP increased inflammatory gene expression, whereas cell-permeable cGMP had no effect, indicating that the effects of amrinone were not due to phosphodiesterase inhibition. Similar results were seen in macrophages and coronary vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Both amrinone and milrinone have significant effects on cardiac inflammatory signaling. Overall, amrinone reduces activation of the key transcription factor NFkappaB and limits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas milrinone does not.  (+info)

Amrinone is a nonglycosidic, non-catecholamine-dependent, inotropic vasodilator agent that has recently been made available for intravenous use in patients with severe heart failure. Because other agents, such as dopamine, dobutamine, and nitroprusside, are available and have actions similar to those of amrinone in patients with heart failure, the usefulness of this newer agent must be put in perspective.. Amrinone is advertised as a "major advance" in inotropic therapy because of its alleged advantages of more sustained action than dopamine or dobutamine and reduction of myocardial oxygen demand. The evidence for these claims and their importance appears minimal. Recent reports indicate ...
In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with refractory cardiac failure. The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone concentration. Platelet survival was significantly reduced in those cases studied. No evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or intravascular platelet deposition was observed and the reduced platelet survival was not considered to be the result of an immunological process. Evidence of a marrow response to the reduced platelet count and survival was seen. Although no haemorrhagic symptoms were observed in the patients, the haematological side-effects were considered to be of such severity as to limit the use of this drug in clinical practice ...
Amrinone (INN) or inamrinone (USAN, changed in 2000 to prevent confusion with amiodarone), trade name Inocor, is a pyridine phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor. It is a drug that may improve the prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure. Amrinone has been shown to increase the contractions initiated in the heart by high gain calcium induced calcium release (CICR). The positive inotropic effect of amrinone is mediated by the selective enhancement of high gain CICR which contributes to the contraction of myocytes by phosphorylation through cAMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+ calmodulin kinase pathways. Increases cardiac contractility, vasodilator. Acts by inhibiting the breakdown of both cAMP and cGMP by the phosphodiesterase (PDE3) enzyme. There is a long-standing controversy regarding whether the drug actually increases cardiac contractility in diseased myocardium (and therefore whether it is of any clinical use). The issue has been reviewed extensively by Dr Peter Wilmshurst, one ...
Acute kidney injury frequently accompanies sepsis. Endotoxin is known to reduce tissue levels of cAMP and low levels of cAMP have been associated with renal injury. We, therefore, hypothesized that endotoxin induced renal injury by activating phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) which metabolizes cAMP and that amrinone an inhibitor of PDE3 would prevent the renal injury. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 7/group): 1) Control (0.9% NaCl infusion without LPS); 2) LPS (0.9% NaCl infusion with LPS); 3) Amrinone+LPS (Amrinone infusion with LPS). Either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle was injected via the jugular vein and the rats followed for 3 hours. We explored the expression of PDE3 isoenzymes and the concentrations of cAMP in the tissue. The PDE3B gene but not PDE3A was upregulated in the kidney of LPS group. Immunohistochemistry also showed that PDE3B was expressed in the distal tubule in the controls and LPS caused PDE3B expression in the proximal as well. However, PDE3A was not expressed in the
Integrated lens antennas (ILAs) are essentially high-gain (sub)millimeter-wave radiating structures. They often have a moderate (or even poor) aperture eff
In mice, injected fragments of a naturally occurring protein boost memory in young and old animals and improve cognition and mobility in a model of neurodegenerative disease. 0 Comments. ...
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Pirbuterol (trade name Maxair) is a short-acting β2 adrenoreceptor agonist with bronchodilating action used in the treatment of asthma, available (as pirbuterol acetate) as a breath-activated metered-dose inhaler (Maxair Autohaler). Pirbuterol is used in asthma for reversal of acute bronchospasm, and also as a maintenance medication to prevent future attacks. It should be used in patients 12 years of age and older with or without concurrent theophylline and/or inhaled corticosteroid. After inhalation of doses up to 800 μg (twice the maximum recommended dose) systemic blood levels of pirbuterol are below the limit of assay sensitivity (2-5 ng/ml). A mean of 51% of the dose is recovered in urine as pirbuterol plus its sulfate conjugate following administration by aerosol. Pirbuterol is not metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase. The plasma half-life measured after oral administration is about two hours. "Maxair Autohaler (pirbuterol acetate inhalation aerosol) For Oral Inhalation Only. U.S. ...
Defined as RVH (and subsequent ventricular dysfunction) secondary to chronic pulmonary hypertension. The key to management in these patients is to avoid increasing PVR (precipitants include hypoxemia, hypercarbia, acidosis, nitrous oxide [Hilgenberg JC et al. Anesth Analg 59: 323, 1980]). In severe cases, beta-agonists may be required to overcome PVH, but with the concomitant risk of myocardial ischemia. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (amrinone, milrinone) may be needed as they can both improve ventricular function and induce vasodilation (thus reducing afterload).. ...
Pirbuterol is a beta-2 adrenergic bronchodilator. In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that pirbuterol has a preferential effect on beta-2 Adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. While it is recognized that beta-2 adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, data indicate that there is a population of beta-2 receptors in the human heart, existing in a concentration between 10-50%. The precise function of these receptors has not been established. The pharmacologic effects of beta adrenergic agonist drugs, including pirbuterol, are at least in proof attributable to stimulation through beta adrenergic receptors of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (AlP) to cyclic-3† ,5†-adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP). Increased c-AMP levels are associated with relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells,
Web: ewh.ieee.org/r6/scv/emc Choosing the right antenna for radiated immunity measurements can be quite challenging, especially above 1 GHz.? On the one hand, a high-gain antenna is desired to reduce the amplifier power needed.? On the other hand, the 3-dB-beamwidth needs to be taken into account to maximize the illuminated area.? This is especially true for measurements according to IEC61000-4-3, MIL-STD 461 or full-vehicle testing according to MIL-STD 464 ...
We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3) doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser systems and allows the high-repetition rate operation in 2 μm mode-locked fiber lasers. To evaluate the feasibility of extracting high gain-per-unit-length from this gain medium, we measure several key material properties of the silicate fiber, including the absorption/emission cross-sections, upper-state lifetime, fiber background loss, and photodarkening resistance. We show through numerical simulations that a signal gain-per-unit-length of 3.78 dB/cm at 1950 nm can be achieved in a watt-level core-pumped Tm3+-doped silicate fiber amplifier. In addition, an 18-dB 2013-nm amplifier is demonstrated in a 50-cm 7 wt% Tm3+-doped double-clad silicate fiber. Finally, we experimentally confirm that the reported silicate host exhibits no observable photodarkening.
Bupivacaine-induced myocardial depression and pulmonary edema: a case report.: Central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity are well-known side effects of
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Rongrong Li, He Ma, Xiaojin Zhang, Chuanfu Li, Jingwei Xiong, Ting Lu, Yu Mao, Juncheng Dai, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding].
J.B. Michael, M.R. Edwards, A. Dogariu and R.B. Miles, "Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging for quantitative velocimetry imaging in air," Applied Optics 50, 5158 (2011). doi:10.1364/AO.50.005158 Dogariu, J.B. Michael, M.O. Scully and R.B. Miles, "High-gain backward lasing in air," Science 331, 442 (2011). doi:10.1126/science. ...
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Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
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Looking for thermal agitation? Find out information about thermal agitation. Random movements of the free electrons in a conductor, producing noise signals that may become noticeable when they occur at the input of a high-gain... Explanation of thermal agitation
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The complex cation ligand [Ru(pytpy)2]2+ (pytpy = 4′-(4-pyridyl)-2,2′∶6′,2″-terpyridine) is an expanded 4,4′-bipyridine; we describe the first example of a coordination polymer in which [Ru(pytpy)2]2+ plays the role of a bridging bidentate ligand. RACI100: Celebrating Australian Chemistry
Opioids are considered the "golden standard" in pain management for both humans and small animals, but is used less often in equine medicine - probably for fear of side effects. Are there any studies that suggest that side effects are a major problem, or is it lack of experience which is the greatest obstacle to use? As early as 1937 it was shown that morphine and morphine derivatives provide analgesia in horses. For species other than horses used opioids often both pre-, intra-and postoperatively. They relieve pain effectively and are often included in the anesthesia protocol. That way you can reduce the need for anesthetic gases and thus the risk of cardiovascular depression. In horses, it seems that there is a fine line between analgesia and excitation, which must be taken into account when used. There are also a number of side effects, mainly gastrointestinal, that makes people reluctant to use opioids. There is also a concern that the pain relief will mask a progressive disease state. This ...
SF 349, an analogue of milrinone, was being developed at a number of universities in Italy as a cardiotonic agent. It was in preclinical investigation and
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2,2′-Bipyridine (2,2′-bipy) is a chelating ligand that forms complexes with most transition metal ions that are of broad academic interest. Many of these complexes have distinctive optical properties, and some are of interest for analysis. Its complexes are used in studies of electron and energy transfer, supramolecular and materials chemistry, and catalysis.. 2,2′-Bipyridine is used in the manufacture of diquat.. ...
The spacecraft provides the power, pointing and telemetry for the photometer. Other than the four reaction wheels used to maintain the precision pointing and an ejectable cover, there are no other moving or deployable parts on the spacecraft. Image Credit: NASA Ames/Ball Aerospace.. In the second stage, testing will investigate RW2s ability to help control the spacecraft pointing with enough accuracy to transmit science data to the ground using NASAs Deep Space Network. If RW2 can sustain coarse-point in stage 1, the second stage of the test will be to point the high-gain antenna to Earth and downlink the data currently stored aboard. This requires that the pointing be controlled more tightly than simply avoiding safe mode, yet does not require the very fine control needed to return to science data collection.. The final stage of the test will determine if RW2 can achieve and maintain fine-point, the operating mode for collecting science data. During fine-point the fine-guidance sensors ...
50525-27-4 - UUSPGQXHSZVVNL-UHFFFAOYSA-L - Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride hexahydrate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
... is a vasodilator that works by relaxing the muscles in your blood vessels to help them dilate (widen). This lowers blood pressure and allows blood to flow more easily through your veins and arteries. Milrinone is used as a short-term treatment for life-threatening heart failure. Milrinone may also be used for...
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We report on the design and fabrication of ZnO-based integrated inverters consisting of normally-on metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and AgxO Schottky diodes as level shifters. The inverters show high gain values up to 197 at 3 V operating voltage and low uncertainty levels in the range of 0.13 V. The influence of the level shifter and the channel material/thickness on the performance of the inverters has been investigated. Using Zn0.997Mg0.003O for the channel thin film leads to high reproducibility (90%) of the devices. A logic NOR-gate has been implemented showing the possibility to fabricate a complete logic ...
If all goes according to plan, within about 10 minutes after separation from the Centaur, each MarCO will begin to deploy its solar panels. Each MarCO generates electric power with a pair of photovoltaic panels, and each panel has an area of about 12 inches by 12 inches (30 centimeters by 30 centimeters). Combined, these panels can provide each spacecraft about 35 watts when near Earth and 17 watts when near Mars. The power system also will use rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells, crucial for operations when spacecraft orientation for communication prevents the solar arrays from facing the Sun.. After the solar arrays are deployed, the MarCO control team will acquire radio contact with each CubeSat, one at a time, via NASAs Deep Space Network. Early tasks will be to establish that the spacecraft are healthy, stable and commandable. During the flight to Mars, the MarCO twins will each attempt to deploy a high-gain X-band antenna that is a flat "reflectarray" panel engineered to direct radio ...
The bupivacaine-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was initiated within 5 hrs and preceded the activation of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) degradation, was suggested to trigger apoptosis, exhibited by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and DNA fragmentation ...
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... Systematic (IUPAC) name 6-methyl-2-oxo-5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyridine-3-carbonitrile Identifiers CAS number 78415-72-2 ATC code C01CE02 PubChem
Several new iridium(iii) and rhodium(iii) complexes bearing 5-methyltetrazolate (MeCN4−) have been prepared, and their structures in the crystals and in solution have been determined by X-ray analysis and by NMR spectroscopy, respectively. In the crystals of the mononuclear complexes, κN2-coordination of MeCN4− was
Sometime tomorrow, the plan is to discontinue Pattys milrinone transfusion, at least temporarily. Im nervous about the effect on Patty, as I was when the dose was halved. With the reduced dose, she seems to have less energy than when she was receiving the full amount. Well keep you posted about what happens. On the plus side, she wont have to lug around the big bag with the pump, so shell at least enjoy a modicum of freedom ...
A new dinuclear RuII polypyridyl complex, [(bpy)2Ru(H2bpip)Ru(bpy)2]4+ (RuH2bpip, bpy=2,2‐bipyridine, H2bpip=2,6‐pyridyl(imidazo[4,5‐f][1,10]phenanthroline ...
Vetmedin (Pimobendan) is in a class of heart treatments named inodilators used in the management of certain types of congestive heart failure in dogs.
article{877c87ba-990d-4d23-aaaf-30f37c47b19c, abstract = {The antilipolytic effect of insulin on human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle during local inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterases (PDEs) was investigated in vivo, by combining microdialysis with a euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp. During hyperinsulinaemia, the glycerol concentration decreased by 40% in fat and by 33% in muscle. Addition of the selective PDE3-inhibitor amrinone abolished the insulin-induced decrease in adipose glycerol concentration, but did not influence the glycerol concentration in skeletal muscle. Nor did the PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram or the PDE5-selective inhibitor dipyridamole influence the insulin-induced decrease in muscle tissue glycerol. However, the non-selective PDE-inhibitor theophylline counteracted the antilipolytic action of insulin at both sites. The specific activity of PDEs was also determined in both tissues. PDE3-activity was 36.8+/-6.4 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) in ...
Looking for online definition of Neurosurgical procedures in the Medical Dictionary? Neurosurgical procedures explanation free. What is Neurosurgical procedures? Meaning of Neurosurgical procedures medical term. What does Neurosurgical procedures mean?
Alcoholic depression of left ventricular function was produced in normal hamsters by the administration of increasing concentrations of alcohol in drinking water (up to 50%) for 6 months. The result was assessed by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance of isolated perfused hearts and high-pressure liquid chromatography of freeze-clamped tissues. Hemodynamic data and myocardial oxygen consumption were also monitored. Alcoholic hamsters had significantly higher inorganic phosphate and lower ATP levels, while maintaining normal intracellular pH, phosphocreatine, and creatine. Although coronary flow and oxygen consumption were maintained at normal levels, hamsters ingesting 50% ethanol had significantly lower left ventricular developed pressure and dP/dt. Treatment with verapamil during long-term ethanol consumption prevented the development of these metabolic and functional abnormalities. It is hypothesized that alcohol produces membrane abnormalities leading to adverse ion flux, and that these ...
Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
Key non-adrenergic cardiovascular drugs include vasopressin (and its analogues, teripressin and ornipressin), phosphodiesterase III inhibitors such as milrinone, and calcium sensitisers such as levosimendan.. ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Global and Chinese Bipyridine (CAS 366-18-7) Industry Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Bipyridine Industry, 2011-2021 Market Research...
What if you combine the ruthless sustain of a silver box Big Muff with the harmonic signature of a Tone Bender MkII and the unrivaled touch dynamics of a germanium Fuzz Face? Would you get the ultimate vintage Fuzz pedal? At Supro USA, they think so. The Supro Fuzz takes this best-of-all-worlds approach to old-school fuzz using an N.O.S. Germanium transistor in the first stage, followed by secondary, silicon-based gain and a dash of our special sauce to create a low-noise, high-gain fuzz box that will leave you deaf and breathless.Whether youre looking for a touch-sensitive, vintage 60s flavor or a full-on wall of modern sonic destruction, the Supro Fuzz delivers the goods while keeping your noise floor amazingly low. The Supro Fuzz pedal sports a simple control layout with Volume, Gain, Treble and Bass knobs. The independent EQ found on this pedal is drawn from the award-winning tone stack found in our flagship tube amplifiers, offering a huge range of adjustability without the frustrating
This invention provides an electrically plastic device in which an electron conjugated polymeric semiconductor layer containing a mobile dopant is formed across a pair of electrodes and at least one gate electrode is provided between said pair of electrodes with an insulating layer or a high-resistance layer interposed along said electron conjugated polymeric semiconductor layer, so that the dopant distribution in said electron conjugate polymeric semiconductor layer is controlled through said gate electrode, thereby controlling the electrical conductivity of said electron conjugated polymeric semiconductor layer. The device utilizes the substantially large variation in the electrical conductivity of an electrically conductive polymer depending on its dopant concentration, thus allowing a high-gain neurochip to be constructed. The control method of the electrically plastic device in accordance with this invention is carried out in such a way that a positive or negative pulse voltage is applied to the
your post is particularly ironic to me, because i discovered that fact to my great grief last week. i had a 20 yr old girl, who had a minor argument with her mother and had taken rat poison(which most often has al. phosphide).she presented about twelve hours before the end of my shift, and when i was leaving after my shift, she was looking forward to go back to work, worrying about her boss and all that. no medical complications at all, save for an improving met. acidosis. i told her mother that she was ok and would be better by the next day. when i returned 24 hrs later, she was being resuscitated after having developed pulmonary edema following rapidly developing renal failure, with the met. acidosis leading to cardiac depression and ultimately death, all in a matter of six hours. declaring her was the most difficult thing for me to do, even though i spent practically the whole of the past five years in an ICU and was no stranger to traumatic deaths. ...
Cocaine overdoses can apparently be reversed by a drug called dexmedetomidine. They did a study in 2007 that showed the drug can revert the effects of small doses of cocaine, both in the nervous system and in the cardiovascular system. Apparently they have yet to determine whether it works on larger doses, but it seems likely that it should (im saying that, the researchers didnt say that). A good thing about dexmedetomidine is that it doesnt cause respiratory depression. I assume that that makes it a better candidate for treating cocaine overdoses (than other depressants) because when the coke has been mixed with depressants, it wont cause the person to die of respiratory depression (although cardiovascular depression might still happen i guess. any doctors out there or anyone who knows, id be happy to hear if you think that makes sense). Anyway, if all this makes sense, this drug should also be available by prescription to cocaine users. I dont know about over the counter (at least not ...
AMRINONE LACTATE 30. ANALGIN 31. ANDROGENIC ANABOLIC, OESTROGENIC & PROGESTATIONAL SUBSTANCES 32. ANTIBIOTICS ...
Amrinone. Molimo Vas, obratite pažnju na važno upozorenje. u vezi sa temama iz oblasti medicine (zdravlja). ...
Amrinone, milrinone and enoximone are used clinically for short-term treatment of cardiac failure in the presence of ... Approved PDE3 inhibitors include the following: amrinone cilostazol milrinone enoximone pimobendane (approved for use in dogs) ...
Reboxetine Venlafaxine Positive inotropic agents Cardiac glycosides Strophantin K Corglycon Digoxin Others Amrinone Milrinone " ...
... amrinone MeSH D03.383.725.050.085.543 --- milrinone MeSH D03.383.725.050.440 --- methapyrilene MeSH D03.383.725.050.610 --- ...
... combinations C01CE01 Amrinone C01CE02 Milrinone C01CE03 Enoximone C01CE04 Bucladesine QC01CE90 Pimobendane C01CX06 ...
... amrinone MeSH D02.092.080.085.543 --- milrinone MeSH D02.092.146.100 --- aminophenols MeSH D02.092.146.100.700 --- phenetidine ...
Amrinone amrinone (INN) amrubicin (INN) amsacrine (INN) amsilarotene (USAN) amtolmetin guacil (INN) amustaline dihydrochloride ...
Angiotensin II Eicosanoids Prostaglandins Phosphodiesterase inhibitors Enoximone Milrinone Amrinone Theophylline Glucagon ...
... approached The Guardian newspaper with a substantial dossier detailing alleged misconduct in the development of Amrinone, a ...
Both inotropic and lusitropic effects are the reason why amrinone is used to treat heart failure. Amrinone decreases the ... There is a net decrease in myocardial wall tension, and O2 consumption when using amrinone. Amrinone also has beneficial ... Amrinone has been shown to increase the contractions initiated in the heart by high gain calcium induced calcium release (CICR ... Amrinone should only be diluted with normal saline or 1/2 normal saline; no dextrose solutions should be used. Furosemide ...
... (trade names Daxas, Daliresp) is a drug that acts as a selective, long-acting inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4). It has anti-inflammatory effects and is used as an orally administered drug for the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the lungs such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[5][6][7][8] In June 2010, it was approved in the EU for severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis.[9] In March 2011, it gained FDA approval in the US for reducing COPD exacerbations.[10] ...
... is not produced by plants[citation needed] and is only observed in nature as a metabolite of caffeine in animals. Paraxanthine is also a natural metabolite of caffeine in some species of bacteria.[1] After intake, roughly 84% of caffeine is demethylated at the 3-position to yield paraxanthine, making it the chief metabolite of caffeine in the body.[2] Paraxanthine is also a major metabolite of caffeine in humans and other animals, such as mice.[3] Shortly after ingestion, caffeine is metabolized into paraxanthine by hepatic cytochrome P450,[4] which removes a methyl group from the N3 position of caffeine.[5] After formation, paraxanthine can be broken down to 7-methylxanthine by demethylation of the N1 position,[6] which is subsequently demethylated into xanthine or oxidized by CYP2A6 and CYP1A2 into 1,7-dimethylaric acid.[5] In another pathway, paraxanthine is broken down into 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil through N-acetyl-transferase 2, which is then broken down into ...
Molostvov G, Morris A, Rose P, Basu S, Muller G (February 2004). "The effects of selective cytokine inhibitory drugs (CC-10004 and CC-1088) on VEGF and IL-6 expression and apoptosis in myeloma and endothelial cell co-cultures". British Journal of Haematology. 124 (3): 366-75. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04777.x. PMID 14717786 ...
... has been shown to inhibit TGF-beta-mediated conversion of pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in COPD and asthma via cAMP-PKA pathway and suppresses COL1 mRNA, which codes for the protein collagen.[24] It has been shown that theophylline may reverse the clinical observations of steroid insensitivity in patients with COPD and asthmatics who are active smokers (a condition resulting in oxidative stress) via a distinctly separate mechanism. Theophylline in vitro can restore the reduced HDAC (histone deacetylase) activity that is induced by oxidative stress (i.e., in smokers), returning steroid responsiveness toward normal.[25] Furthermore, theophylline has been shown to directly activate HDAC2.[25] (Corticosteroids switch off the inflammatory response by blocking the expression of inflammatory mediators through deacetylation of histones, an effect mediated via histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2). Once deacetylated, DNA is repackaged so that the promoter regions of inflammatory genes ...
Reports of recreational use of glaucine have recently been published, and effects include dissociative-type symptoms; feeling detached and 'in another world', as well as nausea, vomiting and dilated pupils. These reports mirror those about the effects of clinical use, which state dissociative-type symptoms as well as lethargy, fatigue, hallucinations.[8][9] Investigation of side effects in a clinical setting also reports that the hallucinatory effects manifest as bright and colorful visualizations. They also report that patients perceive their environments clearly yet feel detached from it; "the patient sees and understands everything and is oriented well enough, but cannot take a clear and adequate action".[8]. One particular report of recreational use gone awry described the form of distribution as tablets being marketed as a 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP)-free "herbal high" which the patient referred to as "head candy".[9]. ...
The common, adverse drug reactions (side effects) are the same as with other PDE5 inhibitors. The frequent vardenafil-specific side-effect is nausea; the infrequent side effects are abdominal pain, back pain, photosensitivity, abnormal vision, eye pain, facial edema, hypotension, palpitation, tachycardia, arthralgia, myalgia, rash, itch, and priapism. One possibly serious, but rare, side effect with vardenafil is heart attack. Also, in rare cases, vardenafil use may cause priapism, a very painful emergency condition that can cause impotence if left untreated.[4] On 18 October 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that a warning about possible deafness (sudden hearing loss) would be added to the drug labels of vardenafil, and other PDE5 inhibitors.[5] ...
Lunell E, Svedmyr N, Andersson KE, Persson CG (1982). "Effects of enprofylline, a xanthine lacking adenosine receptor antagonism, in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 22 (5): 395-402. doi:10.1007/bf00542541. PMID 6288396 ...
Animals that metabolize theobromine (found in chocolate) more slowly, such as dogs,[26] can succumb to theobromine poisoning from as little as 50 grams (1.8 oz) of milk chocolate for a smaller dog and 400 grams (14 oz), or around nine 44-gram (1.55 oz) small milk chocolate bars, for an average-sized dog. The concentration of theobromine in dark chocolates (approximately 10 g/kg (0.16 oz/lb)) is up to 10 times that of milk chocolate (1 to 5 g/kg (0.016 to 0.080 oz/lb)) - meaning dark chocolate is far more toxic to dogs per unit weight or volume than milk chocolate. The same risk is reported for cats as well,[27] although cats are less likely to ingest sweet food, with most cats having no sweet taste receptors.[28] Complications include digestive issues, dehydration, excitability, and a slow heart rate. Later stages of theobromine poisoning include epileptic-like seizures and death. If caught early on, theobromine poisoning is treatable.[29] Although not common, the effects of theobromine ...
The FDA's approval of sildenafil in 1998[16] was a ground-breaking commercial event for the treatment of ED, with sales exceeding US$1 billion. Subsequently, the FDA approved vardenafil in 2003,[17] and tadalafil in 2003. It initially was developed by the biotechnology company ICOS, and then again developed and marketed worldwide by Lilly ICOS, LLC, the joint venture of ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company. Tadalafil was approved in 2009 in the United States for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension[18] and is under regulatory review in other regions for this condition. In late November 2008, Eli Lilly sold the exclusive rights to commercialize tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States to United Therapeutics for an upfront payment of $150 million. Tadalafil was discovered by Glaxo Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline) under a partnership between Glaxo and ICOS to develop new drugs that began in August 1991.[19][20] In 1993, the Bothell, Washington biotechnology ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Kindling models in rats has shown vinpocetine to exhibit anticonvulsant properties. The most pronounced anticonvulsant effects were observed in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats although there was also an effect on amygdala-kindled and neocortically-kindled rats.[8] Vinpocetine has also been shown to abolish [3H]Glu release after in vivo exposure to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) which suggests an important mechanism for vinpocetine anticonvulsant activity.[9] Vinpocetine has been investigated in animal models as a potential anti-inflammatory agent.[10] [11] Vinpocetine inhibits the up-regulation of NF-κB by TNFα in various cell tests. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction also shows that it reduced the TNFα-induced expression of the mRNA of proinflammatory molecules such as interleukin-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). In mice, vinpocetine reduced lipopolysaccharide inoculation induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil ...
Both inotropic and lusitropic effects are the reason why amrinone is used to treat heart failure. Amrinone decreases the ... There is a net decrease in myocardial wall tension, and O2 consumption when using amrinone. Amrinone also has beneficial ... Amrinone has been shown to increase the contractions initiated in the heart by high gain calcium induced calcium release (CICR ... Amrinone should only be diluted with normal saline or 1/2 normal saline; no dextrose solutions should be used. Furosemide ...
amrinone synonyms, amrinone pronunciation, amrinone translation, English dictionary definition of amrinone. Noun 1. amrinone - ... amrinone. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to amrinone: Inocor. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonyms ... Amrinone - definition of amrinone by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/amrinone ... amrinone - a drug (trade name Inocor) used intravenously in heart failure; increases strength of contraction of myocardium. ...
In these patients, amrinones ability to augment cardiac performance without increasing heart rate or myocardial oxygen ... A bipyridine derivative, amrinone is a noncatecholamine, nonglycoside alternative in the treatment of perioperative myocardial ... A type-3 phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor, amrinone combines positive inotropic support with systemic and pulmonary ...
Amrinone (or inamrinone) is a type 3 pyridine phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is used in the treatment of congestive heart ... Amrinone. Accession Number. DB01427. Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Approved. Description. Amrinone (or inamrinone) is a type 3 ... Amrinone. ATC Codes. C01CE01 - Amrinone*C01CE - Phosphodiesterase inhibitors. *C01C - CARDIAC STIMULANTS EXCL. CARDIAC ... Amrinone lactate. I229274Y5B. 75898-90-7. DOSIONJFGDSKCQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Prescription Products. Name. Dosage. Strength. Route. ...
Amrinone lactate 5-Amino-(3,4-bipyridin)-6(1H)-one;an inotropic agent with vasodilator activity, used in management of ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Amrinone_lactate&oldid=38748" ...
Amrinone is advertised as a "major advance" in inotropic therapy because of its alleged advantages of more sustained action ... Intravenous Amrinone: An Advance or a Wrong Step?. Ann Intern Med. 1985;102:399-400. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-102-3-399 ... Amrinone is a nonglycosidic, non-catecholamine-dependent, inotropic vasodilator agent that has recently been made available for ... Intravenous Amrinone: An Advance or a Wrong Step? JOSEPH A. FRANCIOSA, M.D. ...
Tachyphylaxis with Amrinone Therapy: Association with Sequestration and Down-Regulation of Lymphocyte Beta-Adrenergic Receptors ... Tachyphylaxis with Amrinone Therapy: Association with Sequestration and Down-Regulation of Lymphocyte Beta-Adrenergic Receptors ... Interventions: A bolus of intravenous amrinone followed by a continuous infusion at 10 µg/kg · min for 72 hours. ... Study Objective: To determine whether intravenous therapy with amrinone changes number, location or function of the β- ...
AMR 15 (open circle) = a group of patients who re-ceived 15 μg · kg−1· min−1amrinone with a 1.0-mg/kg loading dose of amrinone ... AMR 15 (open circle) = a group of patients who re-ceived 15 μg · kg−1· min−1amrinone with a 1.0-mg/kg loading dose of amrinone ... AMR 15 (open circle) = a group of patients who re-ceived 15 μg · kg−1· min−1amrinone with a 1.0-mg/kg loading dose of amrinone ... AMR 15 (open circle) = a group of patients who re-ceived 15 μg · kg−1· min−1amrinone with a 1.0-mg/kg loading dose of amrinone ...
Amrinone Lactate. Home remedies and modern drug information. Rate: Efficacy, Side Effects, Danger. Read about medicines that ... Amrinone Lactate FDA Approved Drugs. AMRINONE LACTATE [Inamrinone LactateC10H9N3OC3H6O3]. RX ...
DRUG INTERACTIONS. Taking multiple drugs may affect how medications work and/or cause unwanted side effects. List down all the medications you are taking and inform your physician and pharmacist. Do not take, discontinue, or alter any dose of medications without prior approval of your physician.. ...
Amrinone and Milrinone. Amrinone and milrinone are phosphodiesterase III inhibitors that have inotropic and vasodilatory ... Amrinone is administered as a dose of 0.75 mg/kg given initially over 2 to 3 minutes, followed by an infusion of 5 to 15 μg/kg ... Amrinone has a more significant effect on preload than catecholamines, and the hemodynamic effects are similar to those of ... Like amrinone, milrinone has a relatively long plasma half-life, which makes dose titration more difficult. Milrinone may also ...
AMRINONE LACTATE 30. ANALGIN 31. ANDROGENIC ANABOLIC, OESTROGENIC & PROGESTATIONAL SUBSTANCES 32. ANTIBIOTICS ...
Amrinone and Verapamil-propranolol Induced Cardiac Depression during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Dogs. Anesthesiology 6 1987, Vol. ... Amrinone and Verapamil-propranolol Induced Cardiac Depression during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Dogs ... Amrinone and Verapamil-propranolol Induced Cardiac Depression during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Dogs ... Virve H. M. Makela, Patricia A. Kapur; Amrinone and Verapamil-propranolol Induced Cardiac Depression during Isoflurane ...
... ... The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone ... In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with ...
The Cardiotonic Agent Amrinone Does Not Increase Anatomic Infarct Size. Campbell, Colin A.; Mehta, Prabodh M.; Wynne, Joshua; ...
The present invention provides methods for treating a variety of urogenital disorders, such as, for example, vaginismus, dyspareunia, vulvodynia (including vulvar vestibulitis), interstitial cystitis, nonspecific urethriris (i.e., nonspecific pain and/or burning of the urinary tract) and sexual dysfunctions, such as, for example, female sexual arousal disorders and female sexual orgasmic disorders, using a variety of compounds, including, but not limited to, NO donors, calcium channel blockers, cholinergic modulators, α-adrenergic receptor antagonists, β-adrenergic receptor agonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activators (e.g., cAMP mimetics), superoxide scavengers, potassium channel activators, estrogen-like compounds, testosterone-like compounds, benzodiazepines, adrenergic nerve inhibitors, antidiarrheal agents, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, smooth muscle relaxants, adenosine receptor modulators, adenylyl cyclase activators, endothelin receptor antagonists,
kg of amrinone correct quickly and completely the tensional decrease. The amrinone seems as a therapeutics not without interest ... Can the amrinone struggle against myocardial depression induced by propanolol in narcotized dog Bouzoubaa A.; Sariri, A.; ... Keywords: Amrinone / Pharmacology Board Subjects: Heart ,Drug Effects ,Myocardium ,Propranolol ,Dogs ,Narcotics ,Cardiotonic ... Kg[-1] , the amrinone increases significantly the LD 100 of propranolol from 33.4 +/- 2 mg. Kg[-1] to 44.14 +/- 4.21 mg. Kg[-1 ...
BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene Regulation, Signal Transduction, etc. BioVisions products are currently being sold in more than 60 countries worldwide.
Amrinone. Antiarrhythmic Agent Dobutamine Antiarrhythmic Agent Digoxin Antiarrhythmic Agent Dopamine Antiarrhythmic Agent ...
Do not confuse name with amrinone; potential fatal complications if drugs or dosages are interchanged. ...
Amrinone. Molimo Vas, obratite pažnju na važno upozorenje. u vezi sa temama iz oblasti medicine (zdravlja). ...
DR DrugBank; DB01427; Amrinone. DR DrugBank; DB05676; Apremilast. DR DrugBank; DB05066; AV411. DR DrugBank; DB08904; ...
IV milrinone, amrinone, dobutamine, or nesiritide. *Isolated ultrafiltration therapy. *Intra-aortic balloon pump ...
  • Amrinone also has beneficial effects during diastole in the left ventricle including relaxation, compliance and filling in patients with congestive heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amrinone in severe congestive heart failure: another look at an intriguing new cardioactive drug. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The positive inotropic effect of amrinone is mediated by the selective enhancement of high gain CICR which contributes to the contraction of myocytes by phosphorylation through cAMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+ calmodulin kinase pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, possible reasons could be that 5 μg · kg −1 · min −1 amrinone may be not enough to improve thermoregulatory vasoconstriction or that the inotropic or vasodilatory effect of amrinone might be modified under mild hypothermic condition. (asahq.org)
  • An increase in cAMP with the administration of amrinone in vascular smooth muscle produces vasodilation by facilitating calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (a special type of smooth ER) and decreasing the calcium available for contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amrinone decreases the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure while increasing cardiac output because it functions as an arterial vasodilator and increases venous capacitance while decreasing venous return. (wikipedia.org)
  • An IV administration of amrinone has been shown to increase cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) while concurrently reducing the filling pressure of the left ventricle and decreasing the resistance in the peripheral vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amrinone-Amrinone is a rapid-acting inotropic agent that increases cardiac output following IV administration. (powershow.com)
  • In the anesthetic dog, it has been researched if the amrinone, new positive inotropic agent, was able to face or to correct the depressor effect induced by propranolol. (who.int)
  • Kg[-, the amrinone increases significantly the LD 100 of propranolol from 33.4 +/- 2 mg. (who.int)
  • This partial cardiovascular tolerance to amrinone was accompanied by a 126% increase in the plasma epinephrine, a 182% increase in norepinephrine, a 31% decrease in the number of β-adrenergic receptors on lymphocytes, and a 36% decrease in isoproterenol-stimulated cyclicadenosine monophosphate on lymphocytes. (annals.org)
  • We suggest that these receptor changes also occur in cardiovascular tissues and may in part account for the tolerance to amrinone. (annals.org)
  • Amrinone has been shown to increase the contractions initiated in the heart by high gain calcium induced calcium release (CICR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both inotropic and lusitropic effects are the reason why amrinone is used to treat heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharrnacologic action profile of Cratciegus extract in comparison to epinephrine, amrinone , mirinone and digoxin in the isolated perfnsed guinea pig heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amrinone is a nonglycosidic, non-catecholamine-dependent, inotropic vasodilator agent that has recently been made available for intravenous use in patients with severe heart failure. (annals.org)
  • Because other agents, such as dopamine, dobutamine, and nitroprusside, are available and have actions similar to those of amrinone in patients with heart failure, the usefulness of this newer agent must be put in perspective. (annals.org)
  • Additive effects of dobutamine and amrinone on myocardial contractility and ventricular performance in patients with severe heart failure. (springer.com)
  • The present study was therefore conducted to investigate whether higher-dose amrinone can accelerate the rewarming rate of core temperature by 0.3-0.4°C/h during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgery. (asahq.org)
  • 8 Thus, temperature management under mild hypothermic conditions might require higher-dose amrinone. (asahq.org)
  • A. Bouzoubaa ,A. Sariri ,N. Chraibi , Can the amrinone struggle against myocardial depression induced by propanolol in narcotized dog, Rev. Marocaine Med. (who.int)
  • Patients who routinely are seeking a favourable transfer from trimazosin to amrinone should be carefully evaluated and advised about what to expect during the induction processes and maintenance periods. (bestwesternpaysoninn.com)
  • In an animal study, it was shown that glucagon was superior to isoproterenol and amrinone treatment (13). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7 In our previous study, we investigated whether 5 μg · kg −1 · min −1 amrinone could affect temperature management during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgery. (asahq.org)
  • The phase I study of Win 40680 (Amrinone). (nii.ac.jp)
  • The study found that in seizures induced by Isoniazid (INH), Amrinone at 0.5. (ebscohost.com)