A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.
Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A plant genus of the family BERBERIDACEAE which is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL. Members contain flavonol glycosides including epimedins, icariin and noricariin.
Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.

Effects of single administration of a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor during cardiopulmonary bypass: comparison of milrinone and amrinone. (1/66)

The effects of phosphodiesterase III (PDE III) inhibitors administered after aortic declamping during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for open heart surgery were investigated. Ten patients (group M) were administered milrinone (50 microg/kg) after aortic declamping during CPB, 10 patients were administered amrinone (1 mg/kg) at the same time during their surgery (group A), and 10 patients served as controls with no drug administered (group C). Soon after bolus infusion of the PDE III inhibitor, perfusion pressure dropped significantly in groups M and A. However, after release of CPB and at the end of surgery, there was no difference in aortic pressure between the 3 groups. There were also no differences between the groups in heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. After weaning from CPB, the cardiac index was high and systemic vascular resistance index was low in groups M and A. There were no significant differences in the need for additional catecholamines and time for rewarming between groups. No adverse reactions were observed. A single administration of a PDE III inhibitor during CPB was useful for post-CPB management of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Amrinone reduced perfusion pressures more than milrinone, but cardiac indices and aortic pressures after weaning from CPB showed no differences between group M and group A patients.  (+info)

Effects of amrinone on ischaemia-reperfusion injury in cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy: a comparative study with prostaglandin E1. (2/66)

The effects of amrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, on liver ischaemia reperfusion injury have not yet been clarified. Forty-five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent partial liver resection using Pringle's manoeuvre were studied. Patients were divided into three groups: those given amrinone, those given prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and those not treated (controls). An indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test was performed before the operation and three times during surgery: just before induction of liver ischaemia, just after liver resection and 60 min after reperfusion. Blood lactate and base excess were measured at the same times. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac index and oesophageal temperature were monitored. Aminotransferase levels were recorded the day before surgery, 1 h after operation and on the first and third postoperative days. These data were compared between groups. The ICG elimination rate, lactate and base excess in the amrinone group differed significantly from those in controls during the observation period (P = 0.03, P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). The differences between the PGE1 and control groups were not significant. There were no significant differences between the groups in perioperative vital signs, cardiac index or postoperative aminotransferase. Amrinone enhanced intraoperative ICG elimination in cirrhotic patients who underwent liver resection.  (+info)

Effects of the specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit cavernous tissue in vitro. (3/66)

An experimental study was done to examine a potential role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction. Relaxant effect of specific PDE inhibitors were measured in strips of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle taken from control and diabetic groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in New Zealand white rabbits using alloxan. Penises excised from diabetic rabbits 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes mellitus. In the organ bath strips from control and diabetic rabbit corpus cavernosum were precontracted and increasing doses of several PDE inhibitors were added. In the precontracted rabbit cavernous tissue, sulmazole and zaprinast specific PDE V inhibitors were equally potent and efficacious in vitro but amrinone, a specific PDE III inhibitor, exhibits low relaxant effects. All PDE inhibitors tested showed a similar relaxation effect on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle from control and 8-week diabetic rabbits. The present study provides the possibility of using selective PDE III and V inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic impotence.  (+info)

Lack of role for nitric oxide in cholinergic modulation of myocardial contractility in vivo. (4/66)

Despite intensive investigation, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cholinergic modulation of myocardial contractility remains unresolved. The left anterior descending coronary artery of 34 anesthetized, open-chest dogs was perfused via an extracorporeal circuit. Segmental shortening (SS) was measured with ultrasonic crystals and coronary blood flow (CBF) was measured with an ultrasonic flow transducer. An intracoronary infusion of ACh (20 microg/min) was performed, with CBF held constant, under baseline and during dobutamine, CaCl(2), or amrinone at doses increasing SS by approximately 50% (10 microg/min, 15 mg/min, and 300 microg/min ic, respectively). ACh-induced responses during dobutamine were also assessed following treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microg/min ic for 15 min). The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 80 microg/min ic), an exogenous NO donor, bradykinin (2.5 microg/min ic), a nonmuscarinic releaser of endothelial NO, and bilateral vagal stimulation (before and after L-NAME) were evaluated during dobutamine. ACh had no effect on SS under baseline or during CaCl(2), but it decreased SS during dobutamine or amrinone (-23 +/- 4% and -30 +/- 5%, respectively). Vagal stimulation also reduced SS during dobutamine. L-NAME did not alter the ACh- or vagal-induced decreases in SS during dobutamine. Neither SNP nor bradykinin affected SS during dobutamine. In conclusion, ACh and vagal stimulation have a negative inotropic effect during stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors that is independent of NO. The persistence of this effect during amrinone suggests that a mechanism downstream from adenylate cyclase is involved.  (+info)

In contrast to forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, amrinone stimulates the cardiac voltage-sensitive release mechanism without increasing calcium-induced calcium release. (5/66)

The objective of this study was to determine whether the voltage-sensitive release mechanism (VSRM) can be stimulated independently from Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) by drugs that elevate intracellular cAMP. Contractions were measured in voltage-clamped guinea pig ventricular myocytes at 37 degrees C. Na(+) current was blocked. We compared effects of agents that elevate cAMP through activation of adenylyl cyclase (1 microM forskolin), nonspecific inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) [100 microM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)], and selective inhibition of PDE III (100-500 microM amrinone) on contractions initiated by the VSRM and CICR. Forskolin and IBMX significantly increased peak Ca(2+) current and CICR. In addition, these agents also markedly increased contractions elicited by test steps from -65 to -40 mV, which activate the VSRM. However, because these steps also induced inward current in the presence of forskolin or IBMX, CICR could not be excluded. In contrast, amrinone caused a large, concentration-dependent increase in VSRM contractions but had no effect on CICR contractions or Ca(2+) current. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+), assessed by rapid application of caffeine (10 mM), was increased only modestly by all three drugs. Normalization of contractions to caffeine contractures indicated that amrinone increased fractional release by the VSRM, but not CICR. Forskolin and IBMX increased fractional release elicited by steps to -40 mV. Increases in CICR induced by forskolin and IBMX were proportional to caffeine contractures. Thus, positive inotropic effects of cAMP on VSRM contractions may be compartmentalized separately from effects on Ca(2+) current and CICR.  (+info)

Amrinone can accelerate the cooling rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures. (6/66)

We investigated the effects of i.v. amrinone on intraoperative changes of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgery. The patients in a control group (n=10) did not receive amrinone and patients in the amrinone group (n=10) received amrinone 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) after a loading dose of 1.0 mg kg(-1). Anaesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen, propofol and fentanyl. After the induction of anaesthesia, patients were cooled and tympanic membrane temperature was maintained at 34.5 degrees C. After completion of the main surgical procedures, patients were rewarmed in the operating room. Tympanic membrane temperatures between 30 and 90 min after cooling were significantly lower in the amrinone group than in the control group. During cooling, the times taken to cool to 35 degrees C and to the lowest temperature were significantly shorter in the amrinone group than in the control group. These results suggest that i.v. amrinone can accelerate the cooling rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures.  (+info)

High-dose amrinone is required to accelerate rewarming from deliberate mild intraoperative hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures. (7/66)

BACKGROUND: Since the time available to provide the cooling and rewarming is limited during deliberate mild hypothermia, the technique to accelerate the cooling and rewarming rate of core temperature has been studied. Amrinone has been reported to accelerate the cooling rate but not the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia. The failure of amrinone effect on the rewarming rate might be due to an insufficient dose of amrinone during hypothermic conditions. The authors therefore tested whether higher doses of amrinone can accelerate the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia for neurosurgery. METHODS: After institutional approval and informed consent, 30 patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the control group (n = 10) did not receive amrinone; patients in the AMR 15 group (n = 10) received 15 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) amrinone with a 1.0-mg/kg loading dose of amrinone at the beginning of cooling; and patients in the ReAMR group (n = 10) received 5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) amrinone with 1.0-mg/kg loading and reloading doses of amrinone at the beginning of cooling and rewarming, respectively. Administration of amrinone was started just after the induction of cooling and continued until the end of anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen, propofol, and fentanyl. After induction of anesthesia, patients were cooled, and tympanic membrane temperature was maintained at 34.5 degrees C. After completion of the main surgical procedures, patients were actively rewarmed and extubated in the operating room. RESULTS: The cooling and rewarming rates of core temperature were both significantly faster in both amrinone groups than in the control group. During the cooling and rewarming periods, forearm minus fingertip temperature gradient was significantly smaller in both amrinone groups than in the control group. During the rewarming period, heart rate and mean arterial pressure in the AMR 15 group were significantly faster and lower, respectively, than in the control group. Systemic vascular resistance in the AMR 15 group was smaller than in the control group throughout the study; on the other hand, only the value after the start of rewarming in the ReAMR group was smaller than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Amrinone at an infusion rate of 15 or 5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) with a reloading at the beginning of rewarming accelerated the rewarming rate of core temperature during deliberate mild hypothermia. This suggests that high-dose amrinone is required to accelerate rewarming from deliberate mild intraoperative hypothermia for neurosurgical procedures.  (+info)

Differential effects of amrinone and milrinone upon myocardial inflammatory signaling. (8/66)

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence links systemic and local inflammatory cytokine production to myocardial dysfunction and injury occurring during ischemia-reperfusion, cardiopulmonary bypass, and heart failure. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), used frequently in these states, can modulate inflammatory signaling. The mechanisms for these effects are unclear. We therefore examined the effects of 2 commonly used PDEIs, amrinone and milrinone, on cardiac cell inflammatory responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary rat cardiomyocyte cultures were treated with endotoxin (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), alone or in the presence of clinically relevant concentrations of amrinone or milrinone. Regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB), nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase isoforms, and cytokine production were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, Western immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunoassays, respectively. Both LPS and TNF-alpha induced significant NFkappaB activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cytokine production; with the exception of COX-2 expression, all were significantly reduced by amrinone, beginning at concentrations of 10 to 50 micro mol/L. In contrast, milrinone increased nuclear NFkappaB translocation, iNOS and COX-2 expression, and cardiomyocyte production of interleukin-1beta. Cell-permeable cAMP increased inflammatory gene expression, whereas cell-permeable cGMP had no effect, indicating that the effects of amrinone were not due to phosphodiesterase inhibition. Similar results were seen in macrophages and coronary vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Both amrinone and milrinone have significant effects on cardiac inflammatory signaling. Overall, amrinone reduces activation of the key transcription factor NFkappaB and limits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas milrinone does not.  (+info)

Amrinone is a pharmacological agent, specifically a positive inotrope, that is used in the treatment of heart failure. It works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and improving cardiac output. Amrinone belongs to a class of drugs called phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which increase cyclic AMP levels in the heart, leading to increased contractility.

Here is the medical definition of 'Amrinone':

Amrinone: A synthetic cardiac drug that acts as a positive inotrope and vasodilator. It works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and reducing afterload, which improves cardiac output. Amrinone inhibits phosphodiesterase III, leading to increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels and enhanced calcium sensitivity in myocardial cells. It is used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and is administered intravenously.

Aminopyridines are a group of organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) attached to a pyridine ring, which is a six-membered aromatic heterocycle containing one nitrogen atom. Aminopyridines have various pharmacological properties and are used in the treatment of several medical conditions.

The most commonly used aminopyridines in medicine include:

1. 4-Aminopyridine (also known as Fampridine): It is a potassium channel blocker that is used to improve walking ability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurological disorders. It works by increasing the conduction of nerve impulses in demyelinated nerves, thereby improving muscle strength and coordination.
2. 3,4-Diaminopyridine: It is a potassium channel blocker that is used to treat Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness. It works by increasing the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings, thereby improving muscle strength and function.
3. 2-Aminopyridine: It is an experimental drug that has been studied for its potential use in treating various neurological disorders, including MS, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. It works by increasing the release of neurotransmitters from nerve endings, thereby improving neuronal communication.

Like all medications, aminopyridines can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms, headache, dizziness, and in rare cases, seizures. It is important to use these drugs under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their dosage instructions carefully.

Cardiotonic agents are a type of medication that have a positive inotropic effect on the heart, meaning they help to improve the contractility and strength of heart muscle contractions. These medications are often used to treat heart failure, as they can help to improve the efficiency of the heart's pumping ability and increase cardiac output.

Cardiotonic agents work by increasing the levels of calcium ions inside heart muscle cells during each heartbeat, which in turn enhances the force of contraction. Some common examples of cardiotonic agents include digitalis glycosides (such as digoxin), which are derived from the foxglove plant, and synthetic medications such as dobutamine and milrinone.

While cardiotonic agents can be effective in improving heart function, they can also have potentially serious side effects, including arrhythmias, electrolyte imbalances, and digestive symptoms. As a result, they are typically used under close medical supervision and their dosages may need to be carefully monitored to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Milrinone is a type of medication known as an inotrope and vasodilator. It works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and relaxing the blood vessels, which leads to improved pumping ability of the heart and increased blood flow. Milrinone is primarily used in the treatment of heart failure, either in the hospital setting or after discharge, to improve symptoms and help the heart work more efficiently. It is given intravenously (through an IV) and its effects are closely monitored by healthcare professionals due to the potential for serious side effects such as irregular heart rhythms.

Rewarming, in a medical context, refers to the process of gradually increasing the body temperature of a person who is experiencing hypothermia. Hypothermia is a condition in which the core body temperature drops below 95°F (35°C), which can be caused by exposure to cold environments or certain medical conditions.

Rewarming can be accomplished through various methods, including:

1. Passive rewarming: This involves removing wet clothing and covering the person with warm blankets to allow their body to naturally increase its temperature.
2. Active external rewarming: This involves using warming devices such as heating pads or warm water bottles to apply heat to the skin surface.
3. Active core rewarming: This involves using more invasive methods, such as warmed intravenous fluids, warm air insufflation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with a heat exchanger, to directly warm the internal organs and blood.

The choice of rewarming method depends on the severity of hypothermia, the presence of other medical conditions, and the resources available. It is important to monitor the person's vital signs and core temperature during rewarming to avoid complications such as rewarming shock or arrhythmias.

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE inhibitors) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of phosphodiesterase enzymes, which are responsible for breaking down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), two crucial intracellular signaling molecules.

By inhibiting these enzymes, PDE inhibitors increase the concentration of cAMP and cGMP in the cells, leading to a variety of effects depending on the specific type of PDE enzyme that is inhibited. These drugs have been used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and heart failure.

Examples of PDE inhibitors include sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra) for erectile dysfunction, and iloprost, treprostinil, and sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. It's important to note that different PDE inhibitors have varying levels of selectivity for specific PDE isoforms, which can result in different therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Amiodarone is a Class III antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent various types of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). It works by stabilizing the electrical activity of the heart and slowing down the nerve impulses in the heart tissue. Amiodarone is available in oral tablet and injection forms.

The medical definition of 'Amiodarone' is:

A benzofuran derivative with Class III antiarrhythmic properties, used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. It has a relatively slow onset of action and is therefore not useful in acute situations. Additionally, it has negative inotropic effects and may exacerbate heart failure. The most serious adverse effect is pulmonary fibrosis, which occurs in approximately 1-2% of patients. Other important side effects include corneal microdeposits, hepatotoxicity, thyroid dysfunction, and photosensitivity. Amiodarone has a very long half-life (approximately 50 days) due to its extensive tissue distribution. It is metabolized by the liver and excreted in bile and urine.


1. UpToDate - Amiodarone use in adults: Indications, dosing, and adverse effects.
2. Micromedex - Amiodarone.
3. Drugs.com - Amiodarone.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Epimedium is a genus of plants in the family Berberidaceae, also known as barberry family. It is commonly known as Horny Goat Weed due to its traditional use as an aphrodisiac in Chinese medicine. The active compound of Epimedium, icariin, has been studied for its potential effects on improving sexual function and treating erectile dysfunction. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish the safety and efficacy of this herb as a treatment for sexual dysfunction.

It's important to note that natural does not always mean safe, and it's crucial to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, including Epimedium, to ensure safety and avoid potential interactions with other medications.

Aphrodisiacs are substances that are believed to stimulate sexual desire or increase sexual pleasure. They can come in various forms, including foods, drinks, and medications. Some claimed aphrodisiacs include oysters, chocolate, certain herbs like ginseng and gingko biloba, as well as drugs such as Viagra. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of most aphrodisiacs is not supported by scientific evidence, and some may even have harmful side effects if misused or taken in large quantities.

It's always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before taking any substances for sexual purposes.

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a system of medicine that has been developed in China over thousands of years. It is based on the philosophy that the body's vital energy (Qi) circulates through a network of channels called meridians, and that disease results from an imbalance or blockage in this flow of Qi.

TCM uses a variety of treatments to restore balance and promote health, including acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion (the burning of herbs near the skin), cupping, dietary therapy, and tuina (Chinese massage). The use of Chinese herbal medicines is a major component of TCM, with formulas often consisting of combinations of several different herbs tailored to the individual patient's needs.

In addition to these treatments, TCM practitioners may also use diagnostic techniques such as pulse diagnosis and tongue examination to assess a person's overall health and determine the underlying cause of their symptoms. The goal of TCM is not only to treat specific symptoms or diseases but to address the root causes of illness and promote overall wellness.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

Flavonols are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant and fungal metabolites. They are characterized by the presence of a 3-hydroxyflavone skeleton. Flavonols are found in a variety of plants and are known for their antioxidant properties. Some common dietary sources of flavonols include onions, kale, broccoli, apples, tea, and red wine. They have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Flavonols are also known to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial properties.

Penile erection is a physiological response that involves the engagement of the corpus cavernosum and spongiosum (erectile tissue) of the penis with blood, leading to its stiffness and rigidity. This process is primarily regulated by the autonomic nervous system and is influenced by factors such as sexual arousal, emotional state, and certain medications or medical conditions. A penile erection may also occur in non-sexual situations, such as during sleep (nocturnal penile tumescence) or due to other physical stimuli.

There is a net decrease in myocardial wall tension, and O2 consumption when using amrinone. Amrinone also has beneficial ... Both inotropic and lusitropic effects justify the use of amrinone to treat heart failure. Amrinone decreases the pulmonary ... Amrinone is the INN, while inamrinone is the United States Adopted Name, which was adopted in 2000 in an attempt to avoid ... Amrinone, also known as inamrinone, and sold as Inocor, is a pyridine phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor. It is a drug that may ...
Amrinone, milrinone and enoximone are used clinically for short-term treatment of cardiac failure in the presence of ... Approved PDE3 inhibitors include the following: amrinone cilostazol milrinone enoximone pimobendan (approved for human use in ...
Fludrocortisone Positive inotropic agents Cardiac glycosides Strophantin K Convallatoxin Digoxin PDE3 inhibitors Amrinone ...
... amrinone MeSH D03.383.725.050.085.543 - milrinone MeSH D03.383.725.050.440 - methapyrilene MeSH D03.383.725.050.610 - ...
... combinations C01CE01 Amrinone C01CE02 Milrinone C01CE03 Enoximone C01CE04 Bucladesine QC01CE90 Pimobendane C01CX06 ...
... amrinone MeSH D02. - milrinone MeSH D02.092.146.100 - aminophenols MeSH D02. - phenetidine MeSH ...
Amrinone amrinone (INN) amrubicin (INN) amsacrine (INN) amsilarotene (USAN) amtolmetin guacil (INN) amustaline dihydrochloride ...
Angiotensin II Eicosanoids Prostaglandins Phosphodiesterase inhibitors Enoximone Milrinone Amrinone Theophylline Glucagon ...
... approached The Guardian newspaper with a substantial dossier detailing alleged misconduct in the development of Amrinone, a ...
Amrinone, milrinone and enoximone are used clinically for short-term treatment of cardiac failure. These drugs mimic ...
There is a net decrease in myocardial wall tension, and O2 consumption when using amrinone. Amrinone also has beneficial ... Both inotropic and lusitropic effects justify the use of amrinone to treat heart failure. Amrinone decreases the pulmonary ... Amrinone is the INN, while inamrinone is the United States Adopted Name, which was adopted in 2000 in an attempt to avoid ... Amrinone, also known as inamrinone, and sold as Inocor, is a pyridine phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor. It is a drug that may ...
Use of amrinone and glucagon in a case of calcium channel blocker overdose. Ann Emerg Med. 1993 Jul. 22(7):1225-8. [QxMD ... Amrinone as an antidote in experimental verapamil overdose. Acad Emerg Med. 1996 Aug. 3(8):762-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Tuncok Y, Apaydin S, Kalkan S, Ates M, Guven H. The effects of amrinone and glucagon on verapamil-induced cardiovascular ...
Y-site: Amiodarone, amrinone, famotidine, haloperidol. IV Preparation. Concentrated solution (ie, 10 mg/mL) requires dilution ...
Aktuelle API Auditberichte • GMP-Audits der Herstelung pharmazeutischer Ausgangs- und Wirkstoffe nach ICH Q7 / EU GMP Guide Part II • Diapharm
You should not use this medicine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to amrinone or sulfites. How to Use This Medicine: ...
InChI=1S/C33H40O15/c1-13(2)5-10-17-19(45-33-28(42)26(40)23(37)20(12-34)46-33)11-18(35)21-24(38)31(48-32-27(41)25(39)22(36)14(3)44-32)29(47-30(17)21)15-6-8-16(43-4)9-7-15/h5-9,11,14,20,22-23,25-28,32-37,39-42H,10,12H2,1-4H3/t14-,20+,22-,23+,25+,26-,27+,28+,32-,33+/m0/s1 ...
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Amrinone in heart failure.. *Pharmacokinetics of flecainide in heart failure.. *Enalapril in heart failure. ...
... amrinone, milrinone). Antiarrythmic drugs are usually indicated. Treatment would vary dependant on diagnosis, but they are ...
Amrinone+LPS (Amrinone infusion with LPS). Either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle was injected via the jugular vein and the ... In septic animals the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, amrinone, preserved the tissue cAMP level, renal structural changes, and ... which metabolizes cAMP and that amrinone an inhibitor of PDE3 would prevent the renal injury. METHODS: Animals were divided ...
Other medications, such as amrinone and milrinone (phosphodiesterase inhibitors) improve contractility and reduce afterload. ...
Inocor (Amrinone Lactate) * Intal Nebulizer (Sodium Cromoglycate) * Intal (Sodium Cromoglycate) * Intralipid (Fat Emulsions) ...
Formerly known as amrinone, inamrinone is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with positive inotropic and vasodilator activity. It ...
The different administration of the output is the Amrinone catheter, and relates the cancer of this body. It is single pdf The ...
Additive effects of dobutamine and amrinone on myocardial contractility and ventricular performance in patients with severe ...
shows that Viagra Is able to amrinone and milrinone, and plays a- upper range (vigorous activity) online viagra prescription. ...
Mark Cardiotonic bipyridine amrinone slows myosin-induced actin filament sliding at saturating [MgATP] Klinth, J ; Arner, ...
Packer, M.; Medina, N.; Yushak, M. 1984: Hemodynamic and clinical limitations of long term amrinone therapy in patients with ... Verma, S.P.; Silke, B.; Taylor, S.H. 1985: Hemodynamic dose response effects of amrinone in left ventricular failure ... Hemodynamic dose response effects of dobutamine and amrinone in acute heart failure. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ... Hemodynamic and inotropic responses of normal and depressed dog hearts to amrinone. Federation Proceedings 39(3): Abstract 3719 ...
Joseph G, Zhao Y, Klaus W. Pharmacologic action profile of crataegus extract in comparison to epinephrine, amrinone, milrinone ...
Hemodynamic effects of amrinone, dobutamine and dopamine in the cardiac low output syndrome following open-heart surgery]. ...
Fresh-Frozen Plasma (FFP) is the component that is prepared by freezing various plasma factors from whole blood or from the plasma collected through aphaeresis at the temperature and duration at which they can … Read More. ...
Amrinone. *6-(4-{[2-(3-iodobenzyl)-3-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl]amino}phenyl)-5-methyl-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H)-one ...
Amrinone. *Anribiotic Switching Service. *Anti GFP (Rat IgG2a) 200µg. *Anti PAR Monoclonal Antibody ...
A big list of terminal disease words. Weve compiled all the words related to terminal disease and organised them in terms of their relevance and association with terminal disease.
Descritores em Ciências da Saúde
C01CE01: amrinona - amrinone *C01CE02: milrinona - milrinone» *C01CE03: enoximona - enoximone *C01CE04: bucladesina - ...
  • During myocardial failure and congestion treatment would be ramped up and may include diuretics, mixed veno and arteriodilator (sodium nitroprusside), and positive inotropes (dobutamine, amrinone, milrinone). (dvm360.com)
  • Other medications, such as amrinone and milrinone (phosphodiesterase inhibitors) improve contractility and reduce afterload. (doctorlib.info)
  • shows that Viagra Is able to amrinone and milrinone, and plays a- upper range (vigorous activity) online viagra prescription . (hitplayrecords.com)
  • Additive effects of dobutamine and amrinone on myocardial contractility and ventricular performance in patients with severe heart failure. (medics4medics.com)
  • Amrinone, also known as inamrinone, and sold as Inocor, is a pyridine phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formerly known as amrinone, inamrinone is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with positive inotropic and vasodilator activity. (medscape.com)
  • There is a net decrease in myocardial wall tension, and O2 consumption when using amrinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The positive inotropic effect of amrinone is mediated by the selective enhancement of high-gain CICR, which contributes to the contraction of myocytes by phosphorylation through cAMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+ calmodulin kinase pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both inotropic and lusitropic effects justify the use of amrinone to treat heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amrinone also has beneficial effects during diastole in the left ventricle, including relaxation, compliance and filling in patients with congestive heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies in patients with heart failure showed that amrinone produced short-term hemodynamic improvement, but had limited long-term clinical benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amrinone in heart failure. (cecon.com)
  • An increase in cAMP with the administration of amrinone in vascular smooth muscle produces vasodilation by facilitating calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (a special type of smooth ER) and decreasing the calcium available for contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • An IV administration of amrinone has been shown to increase cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV), while concurrently reducing the filling pressure of the left ventricle and decreasing the resistance in the peripheral vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different administration of the output is the Amrinone catheter, and relates the cancer of this body. (siriuspixels.com)