The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.
The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
'Amputee' is a medical term used to describe an individual who has undergone the surgical removal of a limb or extremity, such as an arm, leg, foot, or hand, due to various reasons like trauma, disease, or congenital defects.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)
An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Amputation or separation at a joint. (Dorland, 28th ed)
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
A specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of foot disorders and injuries and anatomic defects of the foot.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.
The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
Amputation of a lower limb through the sacroiliac joint.
'Osteomyelitis' is a medical condition defined as an inflammation or infection of the bone or marrow, often caused by bacteria or fungi, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected area, and may require antibiotics or surgical intervention for treatment.
A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.
The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
In anatomical terms, "tail" is not used as a medical definition to describe any part of the human body; it is however used in veterinary medicine to refer to the distal portion of the spine in animals possessing tails.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
A tibial fracture is a medical term that describes a break or crack in the shinbone, one of the two bones in the lower leg, which can occur anywhere along its length due to various traumatic injuries or stresses.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations.
The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Former members of the armed services.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.

Source of inappropriate receptive fields in cortical somatotopic maps from rats that sustained neonatal forelimb removal. (1/1348)

Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these animals revealed few sites in the forelimb-stump representation where responses to hindlimb stimulation also could be recorded. Recently we reported that hindlimb inputs to the SI forelimb-stump representation are suppressed functionally in neonatally amputated rats and that GABAergic inhibition is involved in this process. The present study was undertaken to assess the role that intracortical projections from the SI hindlimb representation may play in the functional reorganization of the SI forelimb-stump field in these animals. The SI forelimb-stump representation was mapped during gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor blockade, both before and after electrolytic destruction of the SI hindlimb representation. Analysis of eight amputated rats showed that 75.8% of 264 stump recording sites possessed hindlimb receptive fields before destruction of the SI hindlimb. After the lesions, significantly fewer sites (13.2% of 197) were responsive to hindlimb stimulation (P < 0.0001). Electrolytic destruction of the SI lower-jaw representation in four additional control rats with neonatal forelimb amputation did not significantly reduce the percentage of hindlimb-responsive sites in the SI stump field during GABA-receptor blockade (P = 0.98). Similar results were obtained from three manipulated rats in which the SI hindlimb representation was silenced temporarily with a local cobalt chloride injection. Analysis of response latencies to sciatic nerve stimulation in the hindlimb and forelimb-stump representations suggested that the intracortical pathway(s) mediating the hindlimb responses in the forelimb-stump field may be polysynaptic. The mean latency to sciatic nerve stimulation at responsive sites in the GABA-receptor blocked SI stump representation of neonatally amputated rats was significantly longer than that for recording sites in the hindlimb representation [26.3 +/- 8.1 (SD) ms vs. 10.8 +/- 2.4 ms, respectively, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that hindlimb input to the SI forelimb-stump representation detected in GABA-blocked cortices of neonatally forelimb amputated rats originates primarily from the SI hindlimb representation.  (+info)

Age-related outcome for peripheral thrombolysis. (2/1348)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the age-related outcome of peripheral thrombolysis and determine for which patient group this treatment is worthwhile. DESIGN AND METHODS: A combined retrospective and prospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing thrombolysis for acute lower-limb ischaemia was made with respect to age-related outcome and other risk factors. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients underwent thrombolysis for acute limb ischaemia. In the under 60 age group there was a 40% amputation rate. Seventy-three per cent of this group smoked. In the over 80 age group, the amputation rate was 15% and only 8% were smokers. CONCLUSION: Advancing age is not an adverse risk factor for thrombolysis which appears to be safe and effective in this patient group. There is a high incidence of smoking in the younger age group (< 60 years), in whom failed thrombolysis frequently leads to amputation.  (+info)

Association between age and survival following major amputation. The Scottish Vascular Audit Group. (3/1348)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether age is associated with survival following major amputation and whether this association is independent or simply reflects selection bias in amputation level. DESIGN AND MATERIALS: Computer linkage of routine discharge and death data on the 2759 patients undergoing major amputation in Scotland between 1989 and 1993 for peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Cox's proportional hazards model and multivariate logistic regression analysis using death as the outcome variable and age, sex, urgency, amputation level and recent arterial reconstructive surgery as predictor variables. RESULTS: Proximal amputation was more common in older patients. Survival was associated with both age (p < 0.001) and amputation level (p < 0.001). Age was an independent predictor of death at 30 days (p < 0.0001), 6 months (p < 0.001), 12 months (p < 0.0001) and 2 years (p < 0.0001) postoperation. CONCLUSIONS: Survival following amputation was poor, with only half the patients alive at 2 years. Above-knee amputation was associated with poorer survival, presumably due to the presence of more severe and widespread disease, and was undertaken more commonly in older patients. However, age remained a predictor of survival after adjustment for amputation level. Higher early mortality suggest that a worse prognosis in elderly patients cannot be attributed wholly to actuarial considerations.  (+info)

Long-term functional status and quality of life after lower extremity revascularization. (4/1348)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the longer term (up to 7 years) functional status and quality of life outcomes from lower extremity revascularization. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey and chart review at the University of Minnesota Hospital. The subjects were patients who underwent their first lower extremity revascularization procedure or a primary amputation for vascular disease between January 1, 1989, and January 31, 1995, who had granted consent or had died. The main outcome measures were ability to walk, SF-36 physical function, SF-12, subsequent amputation, and death. RESULTS: The medical records for all 329 subjects were reviewed after the qualifying procedures for details of the primary procedure (62.6% arterial bypass graft, 36.8% angioplasty, 0.6% atherectomy), comorbidities (64% diabetics), severity of disease, and other vascular risk factors. All 166 patients who were living were surveyed by telephone between June and August 1996. At 7 years after the qualifying procedure, 73% of the patients who were alive still had the qualifying limb, although 63% of the patients had died. Overall, at the time of the follow-up examination (1 to 7.5 years after the qualifying procedure), 65% of the patients who were living were able to walk independently and 43% had little or no limitation in walking several blocks. In a multiple regression model, patients with diabetes and patients who were older were less likely to be able to walk at follow-up examination and had a worse functional status on the SF-36 and a lower physical health on the SF-12. Number of years since the procedure was not a predictor in any of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term mortality rate is high in the population that undergoes lower limb revascularization, the survivors are likely to retain their limb over time and have good functional status.  (+info)

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (5/1348)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Level of amputation following failed arterial reconstruction compared to primary amputation--a meta-analysis. (6/1348)

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the level of amputation after failed vascular reconstruction was comparable to the level of amputation after primary amputation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Medline literature search (1975-1996), meta-analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio of transtibial to transfemoral (TT/TF) amputations was 927/657 = 1.41 (95% confidence limits: 1.278-1.561) in postrevascularisation amputation (PRVA) and 1590/1162 = 1.37 (95% confidence limits: 1.269-1.477) in primary amputation (PA) (p = 0.65). The pooled data show that the number of conversions from transtibial (TT) to transfemoral (TF) amputations due to amputation stump complications were 85/369 (23%) in PRVA against 93/752 (12.4%) in PA (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect any difference in TT/TF ratio between PRVA and PA. However, the risk of conversion i.e. reamputation to a higher level is higher after PRVA compared to PA. The chance of having a successful transtibial amputation is approximately 58% for postrevascularisation amputation as well as for primary amputations. An aggressive approach towards vascular reconstruction seems justified.  (+info)

Relationship of femorodistal bypass patency to clinical outcome. Iloprost Bypass International Study Group. (7/1348)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between bypass patency, limb survival and clinical symptoms after femorodistal bypass procedures. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospectively planned 12-month postoperative follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred and seventeen patients undergoing femorodistal bypass surgery for severe ischaemia. Clinical symptoms, bypass patency were recorded at regular intervals up to 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Complete follow-up data was obtained on 498 patients (96%). Fifty-six (17%) of the 341 patients with patent bypasses had either rest pain or ulcers or had undergone major amputation at 12 months. Of the 167 patients with an occluded bypass, 22 patients (13%) had improved clinical symptoms and a total of 59 patients (35%) had avoided major amputation at 12 months. The clinical outcome for patients classified preoperatively as Fontaine stage IV was significantly worse than for those in stage III preoperatively despite similar bypass patency rates. CONCLUSIONS: There is a fair correlation between technical and clinical outcome after femorodistal bypass surgery at 12 months, but there are significant numbers of patients with occluded bypasses who have a good clinical outcome and of patients with patent bypasses who have a poor clinical outcome. The reporting of symptoms in addition to bypass patency would aid the interpretation of surgical results.  (+info)

A case of a malignant melanoma with late metastases 16 years after the initial surgery. (8/1348)

We report a case of a pulmonary metastasis 16 years after the initial surgery for a malignant melanoma. The patient was a 58-year-old Japanese man. In 1976, he had a pigmented skin lesion with a diameter of 8 mm on his right third finger. He received an amputation of the finger and a dissection of the right axillary. Histological examinations of the tumor revealed a feature of a malignant melanoma with infiltration of the papillary layers of the dermis, 1.5 mm in thickness. The histological subtype was considered to be an acral lentiginous melanoma with a mixed spindle-epithelioid cell pattern. There was no regional lymph node metastasis. In December 1992, when he was 74-years-old, a round tumor in the left lower lung was discovered by chest radiography. In February 1993, he received a left lower lobectomy of the lung. Histological examination revealed a feature of a malignant melanoma with predominantly epithelioid cells and this was considered to be a metastasis from the initial skin lesion. Five months after the lobectomy, he died from a hemorrhage of a metastatic brain tumor. This case indicated the importance of periodic, life-long follow-up in treating malignant melanomas.  (+info)

Amputation is defined as the surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity such as an arm, leg, foot, hand, toe, or finger. This procedure is typically performed to remove damaged or dead tissue due to various reasons like severe injury, infection, tumors, or chronic conditions that impair circulation, such as diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. The goal of amputation is to alleviate pain, prevent further complications, and improve the patient's quality of life. Following the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation and prosthetic devices to help them adapt to their new physical condition.

Traumatic amputation is the accidental or spontaneous separation of a limb or body part due to trauma or severe injury. This can occur as a result of motor vehicle accidents, industrial incidents, agricultural mishaps, or military combat, among other causes. The severed portion may or may not be recoverable for reattachment depending on various factors such as the extent of damage, ischemia time, and conditions during transportation. Immediate medical attention is required to control bleeding, manage shock, prevent infection, and initiate appropriate wound care and potential reconstructive surgery.

Amputation stumps, also known as residual limbs, refer to the remaining part of a limb after it has been amputated. The stump includes the soft tissue and bone that were once part of the amputated limb. Proper care and management of the amputation stump are essential for optimal healing, reducing the risk of complications such as infection or delayed wound healing, and promoting successful prosthetic fitting and use. This may involve various treatments such as wound care, pain management, physical therapy, and the use of specialized medical devices.

Artificial limbs, also known as prosthetics, are artificial substitutes that replace a part or all of an absent extremity or limb. They are designed to restore the function, mobility, and appearance of the lost limb as much as possible. Artificial limbs can be made from various materials such as wood, plastic, metal, or carbon fiber, and they can be custom-made to fit the individual's specific needs and measurements.

Prosthetic limbs can be categorized into two main types: cosmetic and functional. Cosmetic prosthetics are designed to look like natural limbs and are primarily used to improve the appearance of the person. Functional prosthetics, on the other hand, are designed to help the individual perform specific tasks and activities. They may include features such as hooks, hands, or specialized feet that can be used for different purposes.

Advances in technology have led to the development of more sophisticated artificial limbs, including those that can be controlled by the user's nervous system, known as bionic prosthetics. These advanced prosthetic devices can provide a greater degree of mobility and control for the user, allowing them to perform complex movements and tasks with ease.

The term "diabetic foot" refers to a condition that affects the feet of people with diabetes, particularly when the disease is not well-controlled. It is characterized by a combination of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation (peripheral artery disease) in the feet and lower legs.

Neuropathy can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet, making it difficult for people with diabetes to feel injuries, cuts, blisters, or other foot problems. Poor circulation makes it harder for wounds to heal and increases the risk of infection.

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetic neuropathy and can lead to serious infections, hospitalization, and even amputation if not treated promptly and effectively. Preventive care, including regular foot exams, proper footwear, and good blood glucose control, is essential for people with diabetes to prevent or manage diabetic foot problems.

The term "lower extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the human body that includes the structures below the hip joint. This includes the thigh, lower leg, ankle, and foot. The lower extremities are responsible for weight-bearing and locomotion, allowing individuals to stand, walk, run, and jump. They contain many important structures such as bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

An amputee is a person who has had a limb or extremity removed by trauma, medical illness, or surgical intervention. Amputation may affect any part of the body, including fingers, toes, hands, feet, arms, and legs. The level of amputation can vary from partial loss to complete removal of the affected limb.

There are several reasons why a person might become an amputee:
- Trauma: Accidents, injuries, or violence can result in amputations due to severe tissue damage or irreparable vascular injury.
- Medical illness: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, and cancer may require amputation if the affected limb cannot be saved through other treatments.
- Infection: Severe infections that do not respond to antibiotics or other treatments may necessitate amputation to prevent the spread of infection.
- Congenital defects: Some individuals are born with missing or malformed limbs, making them congenital amputees.

Amputees face various challenges, including physical limitations, emotional distress, and social adjustment. However, advancements in prosthetics and rehabilitation have significantly improved the quality of life for many amputees, enabling them to lead active and fulfilling lives.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Phantom limb is a condition where an individual experiences sensations in a limb or appendage that has been amputated. These sensations can include feelings of pain, warmth, cold, itching, or tingling in the area where the limb used to be. The exact cause of phamtom limb is not fully understood, but it's believed to be related to mixed signals from the brain and nervous system.

Phantom limb sensations are relatively common among amputees, with some studies suggesting that up to 80% of individuals who have undergone an amputation may experience these sensations to some degree. While phantom limb can be a challenging condition to live with, there are various treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include medications, physical therapy, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or mirror box therapy.

Limb salvage is a medical term used to describe the surgical procedures and treatments aimed at preserving and restoring the functionality of a severely injured or diseased limb, rather than amputating it. The goal of limb salvage is to improve the patient's quality of life by maintaining their mobility, independence, and overall well-being.

Limb salvage may involve various surgical techniques such as vascular reconstruction, bone realignment, muscle flap coverage, and external fixation. These procedures aim to restore blood flow, stabilize bones, cover exposed tissues, and prevent infection. Additionally, adjuvant therapies like hyperbaric oxygen treatment, physical therapy, and pain management may be employed to support the healing process and improve functional outcomes.

Limb salvage is typically considered when a limb is threatened by conditions such as severe trauma, tumors, infections, or peripheral arterial disease. The decision to pursue limb salvage over amputation depends on factors like the patient's overall health, age, and personal preferences, as well as the extent of the injury or disease, potential for recovery, and likelihood of successful rehabilitation.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Disarticulation is a medical term that refers to the separation or dislocation of a joint. It can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or surgical intervention. In some cases, disarticulation may be necessary to relieve pain or improve mobility in a damaged joint. In forensic medicine, disarticulation is used to describe the postmortem separation of body parts at the joints, which can occur naturally in advanced decomposition or as a result of scavenging by animals.

Finger injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the fingers, which can include cuts, bruises, dislocations, fractures, and sprains. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or direct blows to the finger. Symptoms of finger injuries may include pain, swelling, stiffness, deformity, numbness, or inability to move the finger. The treatment for finger injuries varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, immobilization, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is essential to seek medical attention promptly for proper diagnosis and treatment of finger injuries to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

Leg injuries refer to damages or harm caused to any part of the lower extremity, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common leg injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, contusions, and cuts. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, weakness, or difficulty walking. The specific treatment for a leg injury depends on the type and severity of the injury.

In medical terms, toes are the digits located at the end of the foot. Humans typically have five toes on each foot, consisting of the big toe (hallux), second toe, third toe, fourth toe, and little toe (fifth toe). The bones of the toes are called phalanges, with the exception of the big toe, which has a different bone structure and is composed of a proximal phalanx, distal phalanx, and sometimes a sesamoid bone.

Toes play an essential role in maintaining balance and assisting in locomotion by helping to push off the ground during walking or running. They also contribute to the overall stability and posture of the body. Various medical conditions can affect toes, such as ingrown toenails, bunions, hammertoes, and neuromas, which may require specific treatments or interventions to alleviate pain, restore function, or improve appearance.

A foot ulcer is a wound or sore on the foot that occurs most commonly in people with diabetes, but can also affect other individuals with poor circulation or nerve damage. These ulcers can be challenging to heal and are prone to infection, making it essential for individuals with foot ulcers to seek medical attention promptly.

Foot ulcers typically develop due to prolonged pressure on bony prominences of the foot, leading to breakdown of the skin and underlying tissues. The development of foot ulcers can be attributed to several factors, including:

1. Neuropathy (nerve damage): This condition causes a loss of sensation in the feet, making it difficult for individuals to feel pain or discomfort associated with pressure points, leading to the formation of ulcers.
2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): Reduced blood flow to the lower extremities can impair wound healing and make the body more susceptible to infection.
3. Deformities: Structural foot abnormalities, such as bunions or hammertoes, can cause increased pressure on specific areas of the foot, increasing the risk of ulcer formation.
4. Poorly fitting shoes: Shoes that are too tight, narrow, or ill-fitting can create friction and pressure points, contributing to the development of foot ulcers.
5. Trauma: Injuries or trauma to the feet can lead to the formation of ulcers, particularly in individuals with neuropathy who may not feel the initial pain associated with the injury.
6. Foot care neglect: Failure to inspect and care for the feet regularly can result in undetected wounds or sores that progress into ulcers.

Foot ulcers are classified based on their depth, severity, and extent of tissue involvement. Proper assessment, treatment, and prevention strategies are crucial in managing foot ulcers and minimizing the risk of complications such as infection, gangrene, and amputation.

The term "extremities" in a medical context refers to the most distant parts of the body, including the hands and feet (both fingers and toes), as well as the arms and legs. These are the farthest parts from the torso and head. Medical professionals may examine a patient's extremities for various reasons, such as checking circulation, assessing nerve function, or looking for injuries or abnormalities.

Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD) refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These diseases are characterized by a narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow to the limbs, particularly the legs.

The primary cause of PVD is atherosclerosis, a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, forming plaques that restrict blood flow. Other risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of vascular disease.

Symptoms of PVD can vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include leg pain or cramping during exercise (claudication), numbness or tingling in the legs, coldness or discoloration of the feet, sores or wounds that heal slowly or not at all, and in severe cases, gangrene.

PVD can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, so it is essential to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible. Treatment options include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet, medications to control symptoms and reduce the risk of complications, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to restore blood flow.

Replantation is a surgical procedure in which a body part that has been completely detached or amputated is reattached to the body. This procedure involves careful reattachment of bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels to restore function and sensation to the greatest extent possible. The success of replantation depends on various factors such as the level of injury, the condition of the amputated part, and the patient's overall health.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Podiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and lower extremities. Podiatrists are healthcare professionals who specialize in this field, also known as doctors of podiatric medicine (DPM). They receive specialized medical education and training to provide comprehensive care for various conditions such as bunions, hammertoes, heel pain, nerve damage, diabetic foot problems, and sports injuries among others. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, orthotics, or surgery.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Regeneration in a medical context refers to the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that replaces damaged or missing cells, tissues, organs, or even whole limbs in some organisms. This complex biological process involves various cellular and molecular mechanisms, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which work together to restore the structural and functional integrity of the affected area.

In human medicine, regeneration has attracted significant interest due to its potential therapeutic applications in treating various conditions, including degenerative diseases, trauma, and congenital disorders. Researchers are actively studying the underlying mechanisms of regeneration in various model organisms to develop novel strategies for promoting tissue repair and regeneration in humans.

Examples of regeneration in human medicine include liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, where the remaining liver lobes can grow back to their original size within weeks, and skin wound healing, where keratinocytes migrate and proliferate to close the wound and restore the epidermal layer. However, the regenerative capacity of humans is limited compared to some other organisms, such as planarians and axolotls, which can regenerate entire body parts or even their central nervous system.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

Debridement is a medical procedure that involves the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing process or prevent further infection. This can be done through various methods such as surgical debridement (removal of tissue using scalpel or scissors), mechanical debridement (use of wound irrigation or high-pressure water jet), autolytic debridement (using the body's own enzymes to break down and reabsorb dead tissue), and enzymatic debridement (application of topical enzymes to dissolve necrotic tissue). The goal of debridement is to promote healthy tissue growth, reduce the risk of infection, and improve overall wound healing.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Blast injuries are traumas that result from the exposure to blast overpressure waves, typically generated by explosions. These injuries can be categorized into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries.

1. Primary Blast Injuries: These occur due to the direct effect of the blast wave on the body, which can cause barotrauma to organs with air-filled spaces such as the lungs, middle ear, and gastrointestinal tract. This can lead to conditions like pulmonary contusion, traumatic rupture of the eardrums, or bowel perforation.

2. Secondary Blast Injuries: These result from flying debris or objects that become projectiles due to the blast, which can cause penetrating trauma or blunt force injuries.

3. Tertiary Blast Injuries: These occur when individuals are thrown by the blast wind against solid structures or the ground, resulting in blunt force trauma, fractures, and head injuries.

4. Quaternary Blast Injuries: This category includes all other injuries or illnesses that are not classified under primary, secondary, or tertiary blast injuries. These may include burns, crush injuries, inhalation of toxic fumes, or psychological trauma.

It is important to note that blast injuries can be complex and often involve a combination of these categories, requiring comprehensive medical evaluation and management.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

I could not find a medical definition for "animal fins" as a single concept. However, in the field of comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology, fins are specialized limbs that some aquatic animals use for movement, stability, or sensory purposes. Fins can be found in various forms among different animal groups, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, and even mammals like whales and dolphins.

Fins consist of either bony or cartilaginous structures that support webs of skin or connective tissue. They may contain muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and sensory organs, which help animals navigate their underwater environment efficiently. The specific structure and function of fins can vary greatly depending on the animal's taxonomic group and lifestyle adaptations.

In a medical context, studying animal fins could provide insights into the evolution of limbs in vertebrates or contribute to the development of biomimetic technologies inspired by nature. However, there is no standalone medical definition for 'animal fins.'

The tibial arteries are three major arteries that supply blood to the lower leg and foot. They are branches of the popliteal artery, which is a continuation of the femoral artery. The three tibial arteries are:

1. Anterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the front of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg, as well as to the foot. It becomes the dorsalis pedis artery as it approaches the ankle.
2. Posterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the back of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg. It then branches into the fibular (peroneal) artery and the medial and lateral plantar arteries, which supply blood to the foot.
3. Fibular (peroneal) artery: This artery runs down the outside of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg. It also provides branches that anastomose with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, forming a network of vessels that helps ensure adequate blood flow to the foot.

Together, these arteries play a critical role in providing oxygenated blood and nutrients to the lower leg and foot, helping to maintain their health and function.

The forefoot is the front part of the human foot that contains the toes and the associated bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. It is made up of five long bones called metatarsals and fourteen phalanges, which are the bones in the toes. The forefoot plays a crucial role in weight-bearing, balance, and propulsion during walking and running. The joints in the forefoot allow for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction of the toes, enabling us to maintain our footing on various surfaces and adapt to different terrain.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Arm injuries refer to any damage or harm sustained by the structures of the upper limb, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common arm injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, tendonitis, and nerve damage. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, numbness, or weakness in the affected area. Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, and may include rest, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

A forelimb is a term used in animal anatomy to refer to the upper limbs located in the front of the body, primarily involved in movement and manipulation of the environment. In humans, this would be equivalent to the arms, while in quadrupedal animals (those that move on four legs), it includes the structures that are comparable to both the arms and legs of humans, such as the front legs of dogs or the forepaws of cats. The bones that make up a typical forelimb include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or blockage of arteries that supply blood to the extremities, most commonly the legs. This results in reduced blood flow, leading to symptoms such as leg pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness during physical activity, and in severe cases, tissue damage or gangrene. PAD is often indicative of widespread atherosclerosis, which is the hardening and narrowing of arteries due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. It's important to note that early detection and management can help prevent serious complications.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

A leg ulcer is a chronic wound that occurs on the lower extremities, typically on the inner or outer ankle. It's often caused by poor circulation, venous insufficiency, or diabetes. Leg ulcers can also result from injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. These ulcers can be painful, and they may take a long time to heal, making them prone to infection. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and wound care are essential for healing leg ulcers and preventing complications.

Foot diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the foot, including its structures such as the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These conditions can cause symptoms like pain, swelling, numbness, difficulty walking, and skin changes. Examples of foot diseases include:

1. Plantar fasciitis: inflammation of the band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the toes.
2. Bunions: a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of the big toe.
3. Hammertoe: a deformity in which the toe is bent at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
4. Diabetic foot: a group of conditions that can occur in people with diabetes, including nerve damage, poor circulation, and increased risk of infection.
5. Athlete's foot: a fungal infection that affects the skin between the toes and on the soles of the feet.
6. Ingrown toenails: a condition where the corner or side of a toenail grows into the flesh of the toe.
7. Gout: a type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the joints, often starting with the big toe.
8. Foot ulcers: open sores or wounds that can occur on the feet, especially in people with diabetes or poor circulation.
9. Morton's neuroma: a thickening of the tissue around a nerve between the toes, causing pain and numbness.
10. Osteoarthritis: wear and tear of the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

Foot diseases can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and some may be prevented or managed with proper foot care, hygiene, and appropriate medical treatment.

Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring (TcBGM) is a non-invasive method to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the blood. This technique uses heated sensors placed on the skin, typically on the ear lobe or the soles of the feet, to estimate the gas tensions in the capillary blood.

The sensors contain a electrochemical or optical sensor that measures the pO2 and pCO2 levels in the tiny amount of gas that diffuses through the skin from the underlying capillaries. The measurements are then adjusted to reflect the actual blood gas values based on calibration curves and other factors, such as the patient's age, temperature, and skin perfusion.

TcBGM is commonly used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to monitor oxygenation and ventilation in premature infants, who may have immature lungs or other respiratory problems that make invasive blood gas sampling difficult or risky. It can also be used in adults with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea, or neuromuscular disorders, where frequent blood gas measurements are needed to guide therapy and monitor response to treatment.

Overall, TcBGM provides a safe, painless, and convenient way to monitor blood gases in real-time, without the need for repeated arterial punctures or other invasive procedures. However, it is important to note that TcBGM may not always provide accurate measurements in certain situations, such as when the skin perfusion is poor or when there are significant differences between the capillary and arterial blood gases. Therefore, clinical judgment and other diagnostic tests should be used in conjunction with TcBGM to ensure appropriate patient management.

Hemipelvectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the entire half of the pelvis, including the lower limb. This type of surgery is usually performed to remove cancerous tumors that have invaded the pelvic bones or surrounding soft tissues and cannot be controlled with radiation therapy or chemotherapy alone. Hemipelvectomy can be either radical (removal of the whole leg) or hindquarter amputation (removal of the lower leg). This is a major surgery with significant morbidity, but it may be necessary to prevent the spread of cancer and improve the patient's quality of life.

Osteomyelitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection that involves the bone or the bone marrow. It can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections that spread to the bone from another part of the body, or direct infection of the bone through trauma or surgery.

The symptoms of osteomyelitis may include pain and tenderness in the affected area, fever, chills, fatigue, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, there may also be redness, swelling, and drainage from the infected area. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, as well as blood tests and cultures to identify the underlying cause of the infection.

Treatment for osteomyelitis usually involves a combination of antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and possibly surgical debridement to remove infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and manage the condition.

Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger's disease, is a rare inflammatory disease that affects the small and medium-sized arteries and veins, most commonly in the legs and feet but sometimes in the arms and hands. The condition is characterized by the formation of blood clots (thrombi) and inflammation in the affected blood vessels, leading to their obstruction and damage.

The exact cause of thromboangiitis obliterans is not known, but it is strongly associated with tobacco use, particularly smoking. The condition primarily affects young men, although women can also develop the disease. The symptoms include pain and cramping in the affected limbs, especially during exercise, skin discoloration, ulcers, and in severe cases, gangrene.

The diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans is based on a combination of clinical presentation, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. There is no cure for the disease, but quitting smoking and other tobacco products can help slow its progression and reduce the risk of complications. Treatment typically involves medications to manage symptoms, improve blood flow, and prevent further clotting. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or bypass blocked blood vessels.

Prosthesis fitting is the process of selecting, designing, fabricating, and fitting a prosthetic device to replace a part of an individual's body that is missing due to congenital absence, illness, injury, or amputation. The primary goal of prosthesis fitting is to restore the person's physical function, mobility, and independence, as well as improve their overall quality of life.

The process typically involves several steps:

1. Assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's medical history, physical condition, and functional needs is conducted to determine the most appropriate type of prosthesis. This may include measurements, castings, or digital scans of the residual limb.

2. Design: Based on the assessment, a customized design plan is created for the prosthetic device, taking into account factors such as the patient's lifestyle, occupation, and personal preferences.

3. Fabrication: The prosthesis is manufactured using various materials, components, and techniques to meet the specific requirements of the patient. This may involve the use of 3D printing, computer-aided design (CAD), or traditional handcrafting methods.

4. Fitting: Once the prosthesis is fabricated, it is carefully fitted to the patient's residual limb, ensuring optimal comfort, alignment, and stability. Adjustments may be made as needed to achieve the best fit and function.

5. Training: The patient receives training on how to use and care for their new prosthetic device, including exercises to strengthen the residual limb and improve overall mobility. Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor progress, make any necessary adjustments, and provide ongoing support.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The fibula is a slender bone located in the lower leg of humans and other vertebrates. It runs parallel to the larger and more robust tibia, and together they are known as the bones of the leg or the anterior tibial segment. The fibula is the lateral bone in the leg, positioned on the outside of the tibia.

In humans, the fibula extends from the knee joint proximally to the ankle joint distally. Its proximal end, called the head of the fibula, articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia and forms part of the inferior aspect of the knee joint. The narrowed portion below the head is known as the neck of the fibula.

The shaft of the fibula, also called the body of the fibula, is a long, thin structure that descends from the neck and serves primarily for muscle attachment rather than weight-bearing functions. The distal end of the fibula widens to form the lateral malleolus, which is an important bony landmark in the ankle region. The lateral malleolus articulates with the talus bone of the foot and forms part of the ankle joint.

The primary functions of the fibula include providing attachment sites for muscles that act on the lower leg, ankle, and foot, as well as contributing to the stability of the ankle joint through its articulation with the talus bone. Fractures of the fibula can occur due to various injuries, such as twisting or rotational forces applied to the ankle or direct trauma to the lateral aspect of the lower leg.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

In the context of human anatomy, the term "tail" is not used to describe any part of the body. Humans are considered tailless primates, and there is no structure or feature that corresponds directly to the tails found in many other animals.

However, there are some medical terms related to the lower end of the spine that might be confused with a tail:

1. Coccyx (Tailbone): The coccyx is a small triangular bone at the very bottom of the spinal column, formed by the fusion of several rudimentary vertebrae. It's also known as the tailbone because it resembles the end of an animal's tail in its location and appearance.
2. Cauda Equina (Horse's Tail): The cauda equina is a bundle of nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord, just above the coccyx. It got its name because it looks like a horse's tail due to the numerous rootlets radiating from the conus medullaris (the tapering end of the spinal cord).

These two structures are not tails in the traditional sense but rather medical terms related to the lower end of the human spine.

Salamandridae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic designation in the field of biology. It refers to a family of amphibians commonly known as newts and salamanders. These creatures are characterized by their slender bodies, moist skin, and four legs. Some species have the ability to regenerate lost body parts, including limbs, spinal cord, heart, and more.

If you're looking for a medical term, please provide more context or check if you may have made a typo in your question.

Veterans hospitals, also known as Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals, are healthcare facilities provided by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. These hospitals offer comprehensive medical care, including inpatient and outpatient services, to eligible veterans. The services offered include surgery, mental health counseling, rehabilitation, long-term care, and other specialized treatments. The mission of veterans hospitals is to provide high-quality healthcare to those who have served in the US military.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Hand injuries refer to any damage or harm caused to the structures of the hand, including the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, blood vessels, and skin. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Examples of hand injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, cuts, burns, and insect bites. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury, but they often include pain, swelling, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or loss of function in the hand. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Diabetes complications refer to a range of health issues that can develop as a result of poorly managed diabetes over time. These complications can affect various parts of the body and can be classified into two main categories: macrovascular and microvascular.

Macrovascular complications include:

* Cardiovascular disease (CVD): People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing CVD, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke.
* Peripheral arterial disease (PAD): This condition affects the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the limbs, particularly the legs. PAD can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs and may increase the risk of amputation.

Microvascular complications include:

* Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage that can occur due to prolonged high blood sugar levels. It commonly affects the feet and legs, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or pain.
* Diabetic retinopathy: This condition affects the blood vessels in the eye and can cause vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
* Diabetic nephropathy: This is a type of kidney damage that can occur due to diabetes. It can lead to kidney failure if not managed properly.

Other complications of diabetes include:

* Increased risk of infections, particularly skin and urinary tract infections.
* Slow healing of wounds, which can increase the risk of infection and amputation.
* Gum disease and other oral health problems.
* Hearing impairment.
* Sexual dysfunction.

Preventing or managing diabetes complications involves maintaining good blood sugar control, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, following a healthy lifestyle, and receiving routine medical care.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Diabetic angiopathies refer to a group of vascular complications that occur due to diabetes mellitus. Prolonged exposure to high blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels, leading to various types of angiopathies such as:

1. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a condition where the small blood vessels in the retina get damaged due to diabetes, leading to vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
2. Diabetic nephropathy: In this condition, the kidneys' glomeruli (the filtering units) become damaged due to diabetes, leading to protein leakage and eventually kidney failure if not managed properly.
3. Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage caused by diabetes that can affect various parts of the body, including the legs, feet, and hands, causing numbness, tingling, or pain.
4. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: This is a condition where the heart muscle becomes damaged due to diabetes, leading to heart failure.
5. Diabetic peripheral arterial disease (PAD): In this condition, the blood vessels that supply the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked due to diabetes, leading to pain, cramping, or even gangrene in severe cases.

Overall, diabetic angiopathies are serious complications of diabetes that can significantly impact a person's quality of life and overall health. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels effectively and undergo regular check-ups to detect any early signs of these complications.

Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, which is a hardening and narrowing of the arteries. ASO is also known as peripheral artery disease (PAD). It mainly affects the arteries that supply blood to the legs, but it can also affect the arms, head, and stomach.

In ASO, fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arterial walls, causing them to become thickened and less flexible. This leads to a decrease in blood flow, which can cause symptoms such as leg pain or cramping when walking (claudication), numbness, weakness, and coldness in the legs or feet. In severe cases, ASO can lead to tissue damage, gangrene, and even amputation if left untreated.

ASO is typically caused by risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and a family history of the disease. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery to improve blood flow.

Osteosarcoma is defined as a type of cancerous tumor that arises from the cells that form bones (osteoblasts). It's the most common primary bone cancer, and it typically develops in the long bones of the body, such as the arms or legs, near the growth plates. Osteosarcoma can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body, including the lungs, making it a highly malignant form of cancer. Symptoms may include bone pain, swelling, and fractures. Treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

The metatarsus is the region in the foot between the tarsal bones (which form the hindfoot and midfoot) and the phalanges (toes). It consists of five long bones called the metatarsals, which articulate with the tarsal bones proximally and the phalanges distally. The metatarsus plays a crucial role in weight-bearing, support, and propulsion during walking and running. Any abnormalities or injuries to this region may result in various foot conditions, such as metatarsalgia, Morton's neuroma, or hammertoes.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Neurogenic arthropathy is a joint disease that occurs as a result of nerve damage or dysfunction. Also known as Charcot joint, this condition is characterized by joint destruction and deformity due to the loss of sensation and proprioception, which normally help protect the joint from excessive stress and injury.

Neurogenic arthropathy often affects people with diabetes, syphilis, leprosy, spinal cord injuries, or other conditions that damage nerves. The damage impairs the ability to feel pain, temperature, and position, making it difficult for individuals to notice or respond to joint injuries. Over time, this can lead to joint degeneration, fractures, dislocations, and severe deformities if left untreated.

Treatment typically involves managing the underlying nerve condition, immobilizing the affected joint with a brace or cast, and in some cases, surgical intervention to repair or replace damaged joints. Regular exercise, physical therapy, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can also help manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

A tibial fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the shin bone, which is called the tibia. The tibia is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and is responsible for supporting much of your body weight. Tibial fractures can occur in various ways, such as from high-energy trauma like car accidents or falls, or from low-energy trauma in individuals with weakened bones due to osteoporosis or other medical conditions.

Tibial fractures can be classified into different types based on the location, pattern, and severity of the break. Some common types of tibial fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A straight break that goes across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A diagonal break that slopes across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that spirals around the bone, often caused by twisting or rotational forces.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break where the bone is shattered into multiple pieces.
5. Open fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin, increasing the risk of infection.
6. Closed fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Tibial fractures can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Treatment for tibial fractures may include immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, and rehabilitation to restore strength, mobility, and function to the injured limb.

Ambystoma mexicanum is the scientific name for the axolotl, a type of salamander that is native to Mexico. The axolotl is also known as the Mexican walking fish, although it is not actually a fish but an amphibian. It is unique because it exhibits neoteny, which means it can remain in its larval form throughout its entire life and never undergo complete metamorphosis into a terrestrial form.

The axolotl is a popular organism in scientific research due to its ability to regenerate lost body parts, including limbs, spinal cord, heart, and other organs. This has made it an important model organism for studying the mechanisms of regeneration and repair in mammals, including humans.

A wound infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a part of the body tissue, which has been damaged by a cut, blow, or other trauma, leading to inflammation, purulent discharge, and sometimes systemic toxicity. The symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and fever. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics and proper wound care. It's important to note that not all wounds will become infected, but those that are contaminated with bacteria, dirt, or other foreign substances, or those in which the skin's natural barrier has been significantly compromised, are at a higher risk for infection.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS) is a group of congenital abnormalities that occur when the fetus becomes entangled in fibrous strands or bands of the amnion, the innermost membrane surrounding the developing embryo or fetus in the womb. These strands can constrict the fetal parts, leading to various deformities and limitations of growth, depending on the severity and location of the entanglement.

The medical definition of Amniotic Band Syndrome includes:

1. Constriction bands: These are the most common manifestation of ABS, where fibrous bands encircle a digit, limb, or other body parts, causing varying degrees of constriction and deformity. The constriction can lead to swelling, discoloration, and, in severe cases, amputation of the affected body part.
2. Amniotic band sequence (ABSq): This term is used interchangeably with ABS but emphasizes that multiple congenital abnormalities may result from a single etiology - entanglement in fibrous bands. The abnormalities can include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, craniofacial deformities, and spinal defects, among others.
3. Limb-body wall complex (LBWC): This is a severe form of ABS where the fetus has extensive deformities involving multiple body parts, including limbs, abdominal wall, and organs. LBWC can be fatal in utero or during early infancy due to its severity.
4. ADAM complex: Acronym for Amniotic Deformation and Adhesion Malformation, this term refers to a specific pattern of deformities seen in ABS, including craniofacial defects, limb deformities, and abdominal wall defects.

The exact cause of amniotic band syndrome remains unknown, but it is not believed to be inherited or genetic. It is thought to occur randomly due to the rupture of the amnion during pregnancy, leading to the formation of fibrous bands that entangle the fetus.

The inguinal canal is a narrow passage in the lower abdominal wall. In males, it allows for the spermatic cord and blood vessels to travel from the abdomen to the scrotum. In females, it provides a pathway for the round ligament of the uterus to pass through. The inguinal canal is located in the groin region, and an inguinal hernia occurs when a portion of the intestine protrudes through this canal.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Soft tissue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and synovial membranes (the thin layer of cells that line joints and tendons). Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their behavior and potential for spread depend on the specific type of neoplasm.

Benign soft tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing, well-circumscribed, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically with a low risk of recurrence. Examples of benign soft tissue neoplasms include lipomas (fat tumors), schwannomas (nerve sheath tumors), and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors).

Malignant soft tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. They are often more difficult to treat than benign neoplasms and require a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Examples of malignant soft tissue neoplasms include sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from skeletal muscle), leiomyosarcoma (arising from smooth muscle), and angiosarcoma (arising from blood vessels).

It is important to note that soft tissue neoplasms can occur in any part of the body, and their diagnosis and treatment require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional with expertise in this area.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

A "Veteran" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe individuals who have served in the military. Specifically, in the United States, a veteran is defined as a person who has served in the armed forces of the country and was discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable. This definition can include those who served in war time or peace time. The term "veteran" does not imply any specific medical condition or diagnosis. However, veterans may have unique health needs and challenges related to their military service, such as exposure to hazardous materials, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other physical and mental health conditions.

Angioplasty, balloon refers to a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed using a catheter-based technique, where a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery, usually through the groin or wrist, and guided to the site of the narrowing or obstruction in the coronary artery.

Once the catheter reaches the affected area, a small balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated, which compresses the plaque against the artery wall and stretches the artery, thereby restoring blood flow. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter.

Balloon angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a stent, a small metal mesh tube that helps to keep the artery open and prevent it from narrowing again. This procedure is known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Overall, balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery can occur in some cases.

A neuroma is not a specific type of tumor, but rather refers to a benign (non-cancerous) growth or swelling of nerve tissue. The most common type of neuroma is called a Morton's neuroma, which typically occurs between the third and fourth toes in the foot. It develops as a result of chronic irritation, compression, or trauma to the nerves leading to the toes, causing them to thicken and enlarge.

Morton's neuroma can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the affected area. Treatment options for Morton's neuroma may include rest, ice, orthotics, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you suspect you have a neuroma or are experiencing related symptoms.

Diabetic neuropathies refer to a group of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes. High blood sugar levels can injure nerves throughout the body, but diabetic neuropathies most commonly affect the nerves in the legs and feet.

There are four main types of diabetic neuropathies:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the legs and feet, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, or shooting pain.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and bladder function. Symptoms may include dizziness, fainting, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty regulating body temperature.
3. Proximal neuropathy: Also known as diabetic amyotrophy, this type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the hips, thighs, or buttocks, causing weakness, pain, and difficulty walking.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve or group of nerves, causing symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or pain in the affected area. Focal neuropathies can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the head, torso, and legs.

The risk of developing diabetic neuropathies increases with the duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control. Other factors that may contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathies include genetics, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

An embolectomy is a surgical procedure to remove an embolus, which is a blockage in a blood vessel caused by a clot or air bubble that has traveled from another part of the body. During an embolectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the affected blood vessel and removes the embolus using specialized surgical instruments. This procedure is often performed as an emergency treatment to restore blood flow and prevent tissue damage in the affected area of the body.

Vascular diseases are medical conditions that affect the circulatory system, specifically the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). These diseases can include conditions such as:

1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, which can restrict blood flow.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): A condition caused by atherosclerosis where there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, most commonly in the legs. This can lead to pain, numbness, and cramping.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain. This can increase the risk of stroke.
5. Cerebrovascular Disease: Conditions that affect blood flow to the brain, including stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA or "mini-stroke").
6. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes it to bulge outward and potentially rupture.
7. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, which can cause pain, swelling, and increased risk of pulmonary embolism if the clot travels to the lungs.
8. Varicose Veins: Swollen, twisted, and often painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood, usually appearing in the legs.
9. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage and narrowing, leading to reduced blood flow.
10. Raynaud's Phenomenon: A condition where the small arteries that supply blood to the skin become narrowed, causing decreased blood flow, typically in response to cold temperatures or stress.

These are just a few examples of vascular conditions that fall under the umbrella term "cerebrovascular disease." Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many of these conditions.

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... self-amputation; molting, a common source of injury for arthropods; extreme weather conditions, such as storms, extreme heat or ...
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Limbs amputation. Nonetheless, the course of PAES is often slow and takes time, thus, limbs loss is rarely seen, even in PAES ...
"Stian Westerhus - Amputation". Retrieved 2017-01-05. "Lars Danielsson: Sun Blowing - CD". ACT Music. Retrieved ...
How Amputation Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03-20. Termites: They Bore But They Aren't Boring. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved ...
"Nilis feared amputation". BBC Sport. 11 November 2000. Retrieved 5 January 2014. "Sabatina da Folha com Ronaldo - Íntegra". " ... At one point, the injury became infected, and Nilis even feared a possible amputation. This hypothesis was later ruled out, ...
Amputations of limbs may be considered heroic measures but necessary in situations which call for drastic measures. In the ... However, one can argue the use of a prosthesis after amputation would disqualify this method as an heroic measure but there are ... Walicka M, Raczyńska M, Marcinkowska K, Lisicka I, Czaicki A, Wierzba W, Franek E (2021). "Amputations of Lower Limb in ... August 2021). "Major Lower Limb Amputations: Recognizing Pitfalls". Cureus. 13 (8): e16972. doi:10.7759/cureus.16972. PMC ...
Adams, Dean (2008-04-26). "Amputation For Hayden". Superbike Planet. Hardscrabble Media LLC. Archived from the original on 2012 ...
Thoughts on Amputation; being a Supplement to the Letters on Compound Fractures, and a Comment on Dr. Bilguer's book on this ... Johann Ulrich von Bilguer, a Prussian military surgeon, had written against amputation, and a book of his had appeared in ... John R. Kirkup (27 May 2007). A History of Limb Amputation. Springer. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-84628-509-7. Samuel H. Greenblatt; T. ...
McWhertor, Michael (21 September 2010). "NeverDead Preview: Amputation Amplified". Kotaku Australia. Allure Media. Archived ...
Soul Amputation Soul Amputation (2005) Universal Rebel Overdog (2007) On The Shoulders of Giants (2010) In Petto Live at the ... "Steve Honoshowsky-Soul Amputation". "Archives 2008". Harabadian, Eric (Winter-Spring 2009). "No Use For Humans". Progression ... "Soul Amputation". This project allowed Steve to improvise on a drum kit while incorporating keyboards and other electronics. ... and also performs solo sets under the name Soul Amputation. In addition to performing, Honoshowsky teaches private lessons, ...
It featured: one death by Direwolf; one graphic foot amputation; two separate uses of a crossbow as a weapon of intimidation; ...
"Amputation Fatal for Actor". The Bakersfield Californian. California, Bakersfield. December 3, 1940. p. 14. Retrieved February ...
... including 85 fractures and fifteen amputations. The need to perform amputations and other surgery may be why railway surgeons ... Many injuries required amputation. For instance, in 1880 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reported 184 crushed limbs, ... One railway surgeon reported that his fatality rate following amputation more than halved after first aid was introduced. There ...
It usually causes permanent damage to the limb; often amputation is necessary. Among the Ancient Greeks before Hippocrates, all ...
Finger amputation and cannibalism, which related to ideas of rebirth and kinship. It was Schuster's study of joint marks that ... Handprints and Finger Amputation. PDF posted on Siegeltuch, Mark. Inversion: The Upside-Down World of the Dead. ...
Sometimes, amputation is required. The infection occurs generally in the tropics, and is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, ... and may require surgical interventions including salvage procedures as bone resection or even the more radical amputation. The ...
He was a pioneer of treating fractures by fixation and had impressive results with an amputation rate for sepsis of only 2.6%, ... He was also a pioneer of hindquarter amputation, a radical operation involving division of the pubic symphysis and the ... 1910 Pringle, J. H. (1909). "Some Notes on the Interpelvi-Abdominal Amputation, with a Report of Three Cases". The Lancet. 173 ... Pringle, J. H. (1916). "The interpelvi-abdominal amputation". British Journal of Surgery. 4 (14): 283-296. doi:10.1002/bjs. ...
Even 'amputation', i.e. Croatian independence to the benefit of the whole system, was considered on multiple occasions. Usually ... A concrete amputation proposal was voiced in a 1923 pamphlet, following the centralist reversals in parliamentary elections. ... amputation' of Croatia, the King proclaimed a royal dictatorship, pending the promulgation of a new constitution. Banac, Ivo ( ... "amputation" of troublesome northwest Croatia, which would have mutilated Croat national territory. Banac, Ivo (1984). The ...
"Malgaigne's amputation": Subastragalar amputation; an amputation of the foot in which the astragalus is conserved. "Malgaigne's ...
Single above elbow amputation." This class includes people with several disability types include cerebral palsy and amputations ... A3 swimmers use around 41% more oxygen to walk or run the same distance as someone without a lower limb amputation. A2 swimmers ... Sometimes the health examination may not be done on site for amputees in this class because the nature of the amputation could ... The nature of an A2 and A3 swimmers's amputations in this class can effect their physiology and sports performance. Because of ...
They even considered amputation. "I didn't know that at the time," Mortimer said, speaking in front of the gym full of ... Amputation was a possibility, although Mortimer was only informed of it in 2011. She spent six months in a wheelchair and ...
Facial amputations include but are not limited to: amputation of the ears amputation of the nose (rhinotomy) amputation of the ... minor and major amputations. Minor amputations generally refer to the amputation of digits. Major amputations are commonly ... Types of amputations include: partial foot amputation amputation of the lower limb distal to the ankle joint ankle ... a below-knee amputation knee disarticulation amputation of the lower limb at the knee joint trans-femoral amputation amputation ...
Limb loss and amputations have different causes including birth defects, cancer and injuries. Physical therapy and counseling ... Leg amputation - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Leg or foot amputation (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Amputation (National Institutes of Health) * Amputation, Traumatic (National Institutes ... Amputations (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) - PDF * Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention (American ...
Find out what to expect after an amputation, and how to have a healthy recovery. ... Foot and Leg Amputations. A foot or leg amputation is a major life change. Youll need some time to recover, both physically ... Every amputation is different, but many people can use a prosthesis, which is an artificial limb. A prosthesis can help with ... Toe and Partial Foot Amputations. You may not realize how important toes are for balance and stability when walking. Be sure to ...
Stream Dr. Pimple Popper (2023) online with DIRECTV Tylers hands are so dry, cracked and painful that he considers getting them amputated; Ebonee covers the tiny bumps around her eyes with sunglasses; Ralph feels like a cyst factory with painful cysts covering his back.
The Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence is the leading advocate for research and treatment of Department of ... Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients with extremity trauma and amputation. ... Limb Loss, Amputation Resources, Advances from Military Health System. Limb loss and amputation clinical and resource advances ... The Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence continues to facilitate the most advanced care for amputation in the ...
Iran: Suicidal inmate subjected to 60 lashes and at risk of amputation. The Iranian authorities flogging of Hadi Rostami, an ... "We call on the Iranian authorities to quash Hadi Rostamis conviction and amputation sentence immediately and grant him a fair ... Cruel and inhumane punishments such as flogging and amputation constitute torture, which is a crime under international law and ... The Iranian authorities are committing torture by leaving Hadi Rostami in constant fear of amputation and deliberately denying ...
KNEE FUSION or AMPUTATION. Sometimes the knee problem is so severe that the joint itself cannot be saved. The patient will have ... Elective Amputation Last post by kneegeek2020 « Sun Jul 26, 2020 8:19 pm. ...
Lower-extremity amputation is one of the oldest known surgically performed procedures. The original surgical principles as ... Amputation is still often viewed as a failure of treatment. The responsibility for performing an amputation may even fall on ... Amputation wound healing is a concern because most amputations are performed for compromised circulation (eg, PVD or damaged ... Whatever the reason for performing an extremity amputation, it should not be viewed as a failure of treatment. Amputation can ...
What happens before the partial foot amputation? What happens afterwards? What will my life be like with a partial foot ... A transfemoral amputation is when the knee is affected as well.. As a rule, the amputation level is decided by the orthopaedist ... Therefore, its best to work together to decide what amputation level is right in your case. The type of amputation has a major ... But since treatment continues to improve as well, amputation numbers are not rising. Well over 20,000 amputations in Germany ...
Amputation Hazards Net Bakery $129K in OSHA Fines. OSHA cited the company for 16 violations after receiving a complaint ... Florida facility exposed to amputation, fire and noise hazards. ...
A Cambridgeshire man who underwent amputation of both legs after being diagnosed with sepsis is speaking out on how his life ... "The past two years have been incredibly difficult for Christopher, having to go through the trauma of a double amputation. ... A Cambridgeshire man who underwent amputation of both legs after being diagnosed with sepsis is speaking out on how his life ... On 26 September, he underwent surgery for bilateral below knee amputations. He was discharged from the intensive care unit on ...
Limb Threat Classification: A Tool to Coordinate Amputation Prevention Teams - UCSF Vascular Symposium 2017. 5/24/2017; 25 ...
Surgery: instruments for the amputation of limbs, including chisels and needles. Engraving with etching by B.L. Prevost after ... Surgery: instruments for the amputation of limbs, including chisels and needles. Engraving with etching by B.L. Prevost after ...
Some Kansas City Chiefs fans have been told to schedule amputations after they suffered frostbite at the Jan. 13 playoff game ... Some Kansas City Chiefs Fans Advised To Undergo Amputation After Cold-Weather Game. ... they are just getting to the point now we are starting to discuss their amputations that might be necessary," Garcia told Fox4. ... of the patients admitted for frostbite during the extreme January cold have been advised to undergo amputation. ...
... history of lower limb amputation, history of LBP and acceptance of the amputation.,/p,,p,RESULTS: Between March and June 2021, ... history of lower limb amputation, history of LBP and acceptance of the amputation. ... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of low back pain (LBP) in people with lower limb amputation (LLA) and to ... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of low back pain (LBP) in people with lower limb amputation (LLA) and to ...
Maruks Story-Onset to Amputation to Chemo to Now ... dog or cat with a support group for dog and cat amputation ... Add Reply: Maruks Story-Onset to Amputation to Chemo to Now. Please add brief descriptive title for new topics. Titles like " ... Tripawds is your home to learn how to care for a three legged dog or cat, with answers about dog leg amputation, and cat ... Tripawds Three Legged Dog and Cat ForumsShare Your StoryMaruks Story-Onset to Amputation t… ...
To assess long-term outcomes of amputation in patients with long-standing therapy-resista... ... Re-amputation. Seven participants (15%) underwent a re-amputation due to recurrence of CRPS-I, of which 6 participants were re- ... Conclusion: Amputation can be considered as a treatment for patients with long-standing, therapy-resistant CRPS-I. Amputation ... These re-amputations mostly took place in other hospitals. One participant had already undergone an amputation before re- ...
... had amputation below the knee, 40 (34%) above the knee, 10 (8.5%) through the knee, 1 had a Syme and 1 a Chopart amputation ( ... Opposite limb amputation occurred in 9% (11/117) of patients with unilateral amputation. This incidence was higher in the ... Rehabilitation after amputation for vascular disease: a follow-up study. N. de Luccia *. M. A. G. de Souza Pinto *. J. P. B. ... Mooney V, Wagner W, Waddell J, Ackerson T (1976). The below-the-knee amputation for vascular disease. J Bone Joint Surg 58A, ...
Final Results from Below-the-knee Cohort in Chocolate Registry Presented at the 5th Annual Amputation Prevention Conference. ... FINAL RESULTS FROM BELOW-THE-KNEE COHORT IN CHOCOLATE REGISTRY PRESENTED AT THE 5 TH ANNUAL AMPUTATION PREVENTION CONFERENCE ...
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... Amputation. Anyone who is dependent on legs or arms for a living may look forward with ... Amputation (Common): Spiritually any amputation signifies a loss of some sort - we may be attempting ... ... Amputation (Miller): Ordinary amputation of limbs, denotes small offices lost; the loss of entire ... ... Amputation (Common): To dream that your limbs are amputated, signifies abandoned talents and serious, ... ...
We carried out an investigation with 21 adults with member amputation (mean age 42.62 years). The data collection included ... Social network and life satisfaction in persons with amputation. Ciênc. cogn. [online]. 2007, vol.10, pp. 164-177. ISSN 1806- ...
A wearable wound simulation that represents a partial amputation on the left leg. The simulation shows deep laceration exposing ... A wearable wound simulation that represents a partial amputation on the left leg. The simulation shows deep laceration exposing ... ":"Partial Leg Amputation (Left)","width":1800,"height":989,"src":"\/\/\/cdn\/shop\/products\/752_PT_amp_Leg_ ... ":"Partial Leg Amputation (Left)","width":1800,"height":1800,"src":"\/\/\/cdn\/shop\/products\/752_PT-amp_Leg ...
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in many cases can open the door to options to save a limb from amputation. ... Progress has been made in recent years to defer and often avoid the permanent loss of a lower limb by surgical amputation. ... Progress has been made in recent years to defer and often avoid the permanent loss of a lower limb by surgical amputation. ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in many cases can open the door to options to save a limb from amputation. ...
Call the experienced California amputation injury lawyers at Sally Morin Law at 877-380-8852 if you were injured in a auto ... Some amputations involve the total loss of a limb and others are partial amputations. Vehicle accidents are the top cause of ... As amputation injury lawyers, our team at Sally Morin Personal Injury Lawyers helps people who are adjusting to new amputations ... How an Amputation Changes Your Life. Amputations require long periods of rehabilitation, rest, and recovery. They also bring ...
Home/Amputation - general overview/Above the Knee Amputation. Above the Knee Amputation. ...
Welcome to our Root Amputation page. Contact Oscar Brandi, DDS today at (310) 832-5570 or visit our office servicing Lomita, CA ... What does root amputation involve?. Prior to root amputation, it is necessary to perform root canal treatment. The amputation ... When is root amputation necessary?. It is important to note that root amputation can only be performed on an otherwise healthy ... During the root amputation procedure, a small incision will be created in the gum to fully expose the roots of the affected ...
Welcome to our Root Amputation page. Contact SoCal Dental Specialists today at (909) 500-2705 or visit our office servicing ... What does root amputation involve?. Prior to root amputation, it is necessary to perform root canal treatment. The amputation ... When is root amputation necessary?. It is important to note that root amputation can only be performed on an otherwise healthy ... Root Amputation. Root amputation is a specialized dental procedure, whereby one root is removed from a multi-root tooth. The ...
Accidents, Home Adolescent Adult Amputation, Traumatic Emergency Service, Hospital Equipment Design Equipment Safety Finger ... "Surveillance for injuries: cluster of finger amputations from snowblowers." 104, no. 2 (1989). Istre, Gregory R. et al. " ... Fifteen (88) percent of these amputations were associated with snowblower use. An additional 12 persons with hand or finger ... 1989). Surveillance for injuries: cluster of finger amputations from snowblowers.. 104(2). Istre, Gregory R. et al. " ...
  • From the results of this study, LBP in LLA showed a prevalence of 82% post-amputation and 70% in the last year. (
  • Edema of the Residual Limb Even after the residual limb matures 18 to 24 months post amputation, edema can still occur. (
  • Unique prospective longitudinal data on patients after dysvascular LLA who survived twelve months post-amputation were reported in Study IV. (
  • This study documents that significant improvement in more aspects of HRQOL can be achieved as soon as three months post-amputation. (
  • A special case is that of congenital amputation, a congenital disorder, where fetal limbs have been cut off by constrictive bands. (
  • Prosthetic limbs range in cost depending on what type of amputation you had and your health care coverage. (
  • Amputation is the treatment of choice for diseased limbs and devastating lower-extremity injuries for which attempts at salvage and reconstruction may be lengthy, have high emotional and financial costs, and yield a less-than-satisfactory result. (
  • Surgery: instruments for the amputation of limbs, including chisels and needles. (
  • Whether it is workplace injury caused by faulty machinery, an oil and gas industry explosion, or a vehicle collision, crushed limbs often require amputation, which leaves our Texas clients physically, emotionally, and financially traumatized. (
  • To implement a comprehensive plan and strategy for the DOD and the VA for the mitigation, treatment, and rehabilitation of traumatic extremity injuries and amputations. (
  • To carry out such other activities to improve and enhance the efforts of the DOD and VA for the mitigation, treatment, and rehabilitation of traumatic extremity injuries and amputations as the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs consider appropriate. (
  • Vehicle accidents are the nation's #1 cause of traumatic amputations. (
  • Amputations after car accidents frequently involve traumatic destruction to the limb and partial or total loss of blood flow that creates permanent limb damage. (
  • Loss of function may be due to fracture, amputation, stroke or another neurologic disorder, traumatic brain. (
  • Hippocrates' On the Articulations provided the earliest description of therapeutic amputation for vascular gangrene. (
  • Amputation can be the treatment of choice for severe trauma , vascular disease, and tumors. (
  • Rehabilitation of one hundred and twenty eight patients with lower limb amputation performed for vascular disease from 1979 to 1987 was assessed. (
  • In conclusion rehabilitation after vascular amputation is feasible in a large number of patients, despite a limited life span. (
  • Rehabilitation after amputation due to vascular disease presents special features that make this group of patients particular, Advanced age, associated diseases, and vascular involvement of the opposite limb are examples of these peculiar conditions. (
  • From August 1979 to August 1987, 128 consecutive patients with lower limb amputation due to peripheral vascular disease were evaluated. (
  • The main causes of limb amputation are Vascular disease (particularly from diabetes and peripheral arterial disease). (
  • In recent months, prison, intelligence and prosecution officials in Urumieh prison have summoned Hadi Rostami on numerous occasions, blaming him for the media attention on the cases of men in the prison who are at risk of amputation, and threatening that his amputation sentence would be carried out imminently. (
  • Such pressure areas may develop as a result of alteration of the remaining ipsilateral foot architecture (depending on the type of amputation performed) or subtle changes in gait that affect the contralateral foot. (
  • The patients who had their frostbite injuries along with the Chiefs game, they are just getting to the point now we are starting to discuss their amputations that might be necessary," Garcia told Fox4. (
  • Surveillance for injuries: cluster of finger amputations from snowblowers. (
  • He had injuries including a toe amputation that impacted his ability to ride his motorcycle and enjoy his life as he'd always lived. (
  • What are the Most Common Causes of Amputations and Crush Injuries in Texas? (
  • There is no limit to the types of negligence that can lead to crush injuries and amputations in Texas. (
  • What is the Long-Term Impact of Crush Injuries and Amputations on Accident Victims? (
  • Managing diabetes and taking care of your feet is extremely important to prevent a lower-limb amputation (LLA). (
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of low back pain (LBP) in people with lower limb amputation (LLA) and to analyse the association factors that can influence the genesis of LBP. (
  • METHODS: The online questionnaire included six sections: informed consent of the study, demographic information, comorbid conditions, history of lower limb amputation, history of LBP and acceptance of the amputation. (
  • This thesis was designed to investigate health-related quality of life, functional level and needs of care the first year after dysvascular major lower limb amputation and consists of four studies with three different designs. (
  • Effect of time and age on health related quality of life (HRQOL), general self-efficacy and functional level twelve months following dysvascular major lower limb amputation were investigated in Study IV. (
  • Root amputation is a specialized dental procedure, whereby one root is removed from a multi-root tooth. (
  • The multi-root teeth best suited to the root amputation procedure are the molars at the back of the mouth. (
  • The general purpose of root amputation is to save an injured or diseased tooth from extraction. (
  • Most dentists agree that there is no better alternative than retaining a healthy natural tooth, and the root amputation procedure makes this possible. (
  • Generally, root amputation and the necessary crown work are less expensive and can be completed in 1-3 short visits. (
  • When is root amputation necessary? (
  • It is important to note that root amputation can only be performed on an otherwise healthy tooth. (
  • Suitable teeth for root amputation have a healthy tooth surface, strong bone support and healthy underlying gums. (
  • What does root amputation involve? (
  • Prior to root amputation, it is necessary to perform root canal treatment. (
  • During the root amputation procedure, a small incision will be created in the gum to fully expose the roots of the affected tooth. (
  • If you have any questions or concerns about root amputation, please ask your dentist. (
  • A Cambridgeshire man who underwent amputation of both legs after being diagnosed with sepsis is speaking out on how his life has changed "dramatically" since developing the condition. (
  • METHODS: Patients (n = 423) who underwent amputation or reconstruction after limb threatening lower extremity trauma and who were working before the injury were prospectively evaluated at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 84 months. (
  • The objective of this study is to assess rehabilitation in respect of walking capability, when using a prosthesis, according to the level of amputation, as well as to analyse the influence of diabetes mellitus in long term patient survival and contralateral limb preservation. (
  • Patients were referred to the rehabilitation centre only after amputation for initial evaluation. (
  • Amputations require long periods of rehabilitation, rest, and recovery. (
  • Before amputation, the physician describes to the patient the extensive postsurgical rehabilitation program that is needed. (
  • We included 5 criteria (outcomes) ability to walk, healing after amputation surgery , rehabilitation program intensity, limb length, and ease of use of prosthetic/ orthotic device . (
  • Patients and family members must be aware of their options and have realistic expectations of surgical outcomes in order to make informed decisions regarding amputation. (
  • This study evaluated the long-term outcomes of amputation in these patients, with respect to quality of life, pain, recurrence of CRPS-I, and functioning. (
  • Comparing Patient and Provider Priorities Around Amputation Level Outcomes Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis. (
  • In the context of a Cox proportional hazards model, differences in RTW outcomes by treatment (amputation versus reconstruction) were not statistically significant. (
  • Amputations of the entire leg below the knee are also common, especially in exposed-body accidents like motorcycle crashes. (
  • Because ambulation requires a 10 to 40% increase in energy expenditure after below-the-knee amputation and a 60 to 100% increase after above-the-knee amputation, endurance exercises may be indicated. (
  • Persons who have undergone amputations are often viewed as incomplete individuals. (
  • In the last 15 years, 53 patients have undergone amputation at our hospital. (
  • Some Kansas City Chiefs fans have been told to schedule amputations after they suffered frostbite at the Jan. 13 playoff game between the Chiefs and the visiting Miami Dolphins, a doctor treating the patients told Fox4 on Wednesday. (
  • Dr. Megan Garcia, the Grossman Burn Center medical director, said 70% of the patients admitted for frostbite during the extreme January cold have been advised to undergo amputation. (
  • Patients who had amputation of a limb due to long-standing, therapy-resistant CRPS-I, at the University Medical Centre Groningen, The Netherlands, between May 2000 and September 2015 ( n = 53) were invited to participate. (
  • Amputation can be considered as a treatment for patients with long-standing, therapy-resistant CRPS-I. Amputation can increase mobility and reduce pain, thereby improving the quality of patients' lives. (
  • Consequently, patients might request amputation of the affected limb due to severe or unbearable pain, infections, or extremely limited mobility (4, 5, 8-10). (
  • To investigate whether the use of statin is associated with a risk reduction in lower-extremity amputation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). (
  • Compared with statin nonusers who were never treated with lipid-lowering drugs, this study found that statin users had a lower risk of lower-extremity amputation and cardiovascular death in patients with DM and PAD. (
  • [ 16 ] Because many DM patients with PAD may die before the initial amputation, [ 17 ] this issue has not been fully clarified. (
  • Because of the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing toe amputation, anesthesia requirements may actually be minimal as a result of peripheral neuropathy. (
  • The results illustrates how cognitively and emotionally vulnerable patients are shortly after leg amputation. (
  • Factors potentially influencing outcome were evaluated in Study III where characteristics of a consecutive sample of patients having amputation were also reported and participants were compared with non-participants. (
  • Participants were consecutively recruited from patients having amputation at the tibia, knee or femoral level at two Danish hospitals. (
  • This thesis provides unique insight into the lives of dysvascularly-amputated patients during the first twelve months after an amputation and shows that, as a group, they are vulnerable in more aspects even though leg amputation can result in better HRQOL in all domains except physical function. (
  • Patients with chronic limb threatening ischemia may require a transmetatarsal amputation (TMA) or a transtibial amputation . (
  • When making an amputation -level decision , these patients face a tradeoff-a TMA preserves more limb and may provide better mobility but has a lower probability of primary wound healing and may therefore result in additional same or higher level amputation surgeries with an associated negative impact on function. (
  • En outre, 23 patients (92%) avaient un risque d'amputation à 100% selon la classification de l'Université du Texas . (
  • Common partial foot amputations include the Chopart, Lisfranc, and ray amputations. (
  • What happens before the partial foot amputation? (
  • Partial foot amputation - what now? (
  • If you have to come to terms with a partial foot amputation, this difficult situation can often make you feel helpless at first and in need of objective information. (
  • Please know that your life will be worth living even after a partial foot amputation. (
  • As strange as it may sound, a partial foot amputation is often the only chance to walk again in such cases. (
  • A wearable wound simulation that represents a partial amputation on the left leg. (
  • More than 2 million people currently have amputations and every year in the U.S., 185,000 more people have partial to total amputations. (
  • Some amputations involve the total loss of a limb and others are partial amputations. (
  • Vehicle accidents are the top cause of medically-necessary partial amputations of the fingers, toes, hands, and feet. (
  • The VA established an Amputee System of Care across the United States with Regional Amputation Centers and Polytrauma Amputation Network Sites. (
  • Common forms of ankle disarticulations include Pyrogoff, Boyd, and Syme amputations. (
  • Major amputations are commonly below-knee- or above-knee amputations. (
  • A less common major amputation is the Van Nes rotation, or rotationplasty, i.e. the turning around and reattachment of the foot to allow the ankle joint to take over the function of the knee. (
  • A guillotine amputation is typically followed with a more time-consuming, definitive amputation such as an above or below knee amputation. (
  • Every amputation is different, but many people can use a prosthesis, which is an artificial limb. (
  • Preparing for a Limb Prosthesis When amputation is elective, certain preparatory measures can help optimize recovery. (
  • You aren't the only one affected by this: 30,000 to 40,000 amputations are performed each year in Germany, most of them on the foot. (
  • Often the reason for an amputation is that blood circulation in the affected part of the foot is no longer sufficient to adequately supply the cells of the tissue with oxygen, for example, in individuals with diabetic foot syndrome. (
  • The most common causes for amputations on the foot are diabetes - diabetic foot syndrome, to be precise - and serious accidents, for example, occupational or traffic accidents. (
  • Well over 20,000 amputations in Germany each year are due to diabetic foot syndrome. (
  • Diabetic foot syndrome is the most common cause of amputations on the foot. (
  • Diabetic foot syndrome does not inevitably have to lead to an amputation. (
  • The responsibility for performing an amputation may even fall on the most junior member of the surgical team. (
  • Whatever the indication for amputation, the goal remains length preservation and surgical reconstruction that maintains the most functional limb possible. (
  • Progress has been made in recent years to defer and often avoid the permanent loss of a lower limb by surgical amputation. (
  • The main risks described in the early history of amputation surgery were hemorrhage, shock, and sepsis . (
  • Contraindications for the various techniques employed in fingertip amputation vary, as follows. (
  • In September 2020, Amnesty International warned that Iran's Supreme Court had upheld amputation sentences against four men, including Hadi Rostami , who had been convicted of robbery following unfair trials. (
  • In December 2020, the organization published information indicating that prosecution and prison authorities were preparing to bring a guillotine to Urumieh prison to carry out the amputation sentences of up to six men, but it appears that this has not occurred thus far. (
  • We're here to help you fight for what you deserve: full and fair compensation for your California amputation injury. (
  • Below, you'll find additional information about starting your amputation injury case in California. (
  • If you're wondering whether people make successful claims for high-value compensation in California amputation cases, here's a good example. (
  • In surgery, a guillotine amputation is an amputation performed without closure of the skin in an urgent setting. (
  • As amputation injury lawyers , our team at Sally Morin Personal Injury Lawyers helps people who are adjusting to new amputations. (
  • At Charles J. Argento , our Houston amputation and crush injury lawyers understand the life-changing result of losing the ability to use a limb, or the limb itself. (
  • The victims endured temperatures that plunged below zero in the Chiefs' 26-7 victory at home en route to their eventual Super Bowl title. (
  • Unique to the EACE, is a Congressional mandate under the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act to "conduct research to develop scientific information aimed at saving injured extremities, avoiding amputations, and preserving and restoring the function of injured extremities. (
  • To conduct research to develop scientific information aimed at saving injured extremities, avoiding amputations, and preserving the function of injured extremities. (
  • Do you have any amputations of your legs and feet other than toes? (
  • Lower limb amputations can be divided into two broad categories: minor and major amputations. (
  • Lower-extremity amputation is one of the oldest known surgically performed procedures, dating back to prehistoric times. (
  • The primary outcome was lower-extremity amputation. (
  • In the propensity score matching analysis, the effect of statin on the risk of lower-extremity amputation was consistent. (
  • By using a nationwide DM cohort database in Taiwan, we sought to investigate whether the use of statins is associated with a lower-extremity amputation rate in a high-risk population with known PAD as compared with two propensity score-matched cohorts without statin use (including a nonstatin lipid-lowering agents group and a nonuser group) while taking into consideration the competing risk of death. (
  • Fingertip amputation occurs distal to the insertion of flexor or extensor tendons into the distal phalanx. (
  • Another cause for amputations are accidents in which the foot cannot be restored. (
  • Current antibiotic treatments frequently fail, leading to life-altering consequences like amputations and significant healthcare costs - estimated at one third of the total direct costs of diabetes care. (
  • Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery. (
  • One of the greatest difficulties for a person undergoing amputation surgery is overcoming the psychological stigma that society associates with the loss of a limb. (
  • Numerous techniques are available for the repair of fingertip amputations, with the common goal to reduce pain and preserve sensation at the tip (see Technique ). (
  • A foot or leg amputation is a major life change. (
  • In 385 BCE, Plato's Symposium mentioned therapeutic amputation of the hand and the foot. (
  • Hippocrates described amputation at the edge of the ischemic tissue, with the wound left open to allow healing by secondary intent. (
  • [ 1 , 2 ] The appropriate approach depends on the amount of tissue involved, the involvement of bone (distal phalanx), the angles and levels of amputation, and the involvement of other fingers or the rest of the hand. (
  • A V-Y flap is indicated if the angle of fingertip amputation is either oblique with more tissue loss dorsally or transverse. (
  • A V-Y flap is contraindicated when the geometry of the fingertip amputation is oblique with more tissue loss on the volar side. (
  • A bipedicle dorsal flap is not possible when the fingertip amputation is very distal and in cases where the soft tissue loss is significantly at the sides. (
  • Sometimes the amputation happens instantaneously during an accident. (
  • If you have suffered a crush injury or the need for amputation after an accident caused by negligence, contact our skilled Houston personal injury lawyer to learn more about your legal rights and options to pursue the liable party for your full financial recovery. (
  • What Type of Financial Compensation Can I Pursue After Suffering a Crush Injury or Amputation in a Texas Accident? (
  • Whether your amputation or crush injury was caused by a workplace accident, plant explosion, or vehicle collision, you are going to need help getting your life back. (
  • With time and practice, you can live a healthy and active life after an amputation. (
  • Furthermore, this procedure is not possible with more proximal fingertip amputations. (
  • Once the procedure is completed, and medical care continues to ensure proper healing, amputation presents multi-directional challenges. (
  • The root canal and amputation treatments will be performed under local anesthetic. (
  • A thenar flap is indicated in any fingertip amputation with exposed bone. (
  • Open technique is contraindicated in any fingertip amputation with exposed bone. (
  • Skin graft alone is insufficient in fingertip amputation with exposed bone. (
  • Minor amputations generally refer to the amputation of digits. (
  • Amputation is a mutilating treatment for persons with a life-threatening disease in an arm or leg. (
  • Amputation is a major health burden on both the individual who loses his or her limb, and his or her family, as it impacts the injury victim's physical, emotional, and psychological well-being. (
  • Affected individuals have many questions about the amputation and about life afterwards. (
  • At Charles J. Argento, our skilled personal injury lawyer in Houston will review your complete damages, including how your crush injury or amputation has impacted your daily activities and overall quality of life. (
  • Amputation is still often viewed as a failure of treatment. (
  • Whatever the reason for performing an extremity amputation, it should not be viewed as a failure of treatment. (
  • But since treatment continues to improve as well, amputation numbers are not rising. (
  • However, amputation as a treatment for long-standing therapy-resistant CRPS-I remains controversial (4, 5, 11, 12). (
  • Loss of your career and earning power can be factored into an amputation injury claim. (