Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Haemophilus ducreyi: A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase: A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Pivampicillin: Pivalate ester analog of AMPICILLIN.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Talampicillin: An ester of AMPICILLIN which is readily hydrolyzed on absorption to release ampicillin. It is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a greater bioavailability of ampicillin than can be achieved with equivalent doses of ampicillin.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Nitrofurantoin: A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.

Pharmacodynamic comparisons of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro model of infection. (1/296)

The increasing frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococcus continues to be of concern throughout the world. Newer fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as levofloxacin, have shown enhanced in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, the bactericidal characteristics and pharmacodynamic profiles of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against four isolates of S. pneumoniae were compared by using an in vitro model of infection. Standard antibiotic dosing regimens which simulated the pharmacokinetic profile observed in humans were used. Control and treatment models were sampled for bacterial CFU per milliliter over the duration of each 24- or 48-h experiment. In addition, treatment models were sampled for MIC determinations and drug concentration. Regrowth of all isolates as well as an increase in MICs throughout the study period was observed in the ciprofloxacin experiments. A limited amount of regrowth was noted during levofloxacin therapy for one isolate; however, no change in MIC was detected for any isolate. Ampicillin showed rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against all isolates. In this study, ratios of effective fluoroquinolone area under the concentration-time curve (AUC):MIC values ranged from 30 to 55. Levofloxacin, owing to its larger AUC0-24 values, has excellent and sustained activity against different pneumococcal strains superior to that of ciprofloxacin.  (+info)

Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis increases the incidence of gram-negative neonatal sepsis. (2/296)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the increased use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis on the incidence of vertically transmitted neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Multiple institutional databases were queried for the number of cases in which intrapartum antibiotics were used, the obstetric risk factors that were present, and the number of resultant cases of neonatal sepsis that occurred for deliveries from 1992 through 1997. Intrapartum antibiotic use was compared between the first and fourth quarter of 1997. Comparisons were made between the years 1992-1996 and 1997 for the incidence of the various pathogens causing neonatal sepsis; group B streptococcus (GBS), gram-negative sepsis, and others. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in intrapartum chemoprophylaxis between the first and fourth quarters of 1997 corresponding to the increased physician awareness of published guidelines. As expected, the incidence of neonatal GBS sepsis was drastically reduced (from 1.7/1000 live births to 0 in 3730 births, P = 0.02). Unfortunately, there was a concomitant increase in the incidence of gram-negative sepsis (0.29/1000 vs. 1.3/1000, P = .02). The overall incidence of neonatal sepsis remained unchanged (2.7/1000 vs. 2.1/1000, P = .69). CONCLUSIONS: Published guidelines have encouraged physicians to increase the use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to reduce vertical transmission of GBS. This study confirms the efficacy of this approach. Unfortunately, this reduction comes at the cost of increasing the incidence of ampicillin-resistant gram-negative neonatal sepsis with a resultant increased mortality. These data provide compelling evidence that the policy of providing ampicillin chemoprophylaxis in selected patients needs to be reconsidered.  (+info)

Increase in incidence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim in clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium with investigation of molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance. (3/296)

Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium isolates obtained during the period 1987-1994 were examined and the molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim were investigated in 24 strains isolated during 1994. Resistance to ampicillin increased from 18% to 78%, to chloramphenicol from 15% to 78%, to tetracycline from 53% to 89% and to co-trimoxazole from 3% to 37%, whereas resistance to norfloxacin remained at 0%. Of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium strains isolated during 1994, all ampicillin-resistant strains had an MIC > 256 mg/L, except one strain in which the MIC was 64 mg/L. Twelve strains (52%) had a TEM-type beta-lactamase, nine (39%) a CARB-type beta-lactamase and two strains (8%) had an OXA-type beta-lactamase. Chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase activity was detected in only nine (47%) of 19 chloramphenicol resistant strains, whereas all eight trimethoprim-resistant strains produced a dihydrofolate reductase type Ia enzyme. Three different epidemiological groups were defined by either low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The latter technique provided an alternative, rapid and powerful genotyping method for S. Typhimurium. Although quinolones provide a good therapeutic alternative, the multiresistance of S. Typhimurium is of public health concern and it is important to continue surveillance of resistance levels and their mechanisms.  (+info)

Near absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci but high carriage rates of quinolone-resistant ampicillin-resistant enterococci among hospitalized patients and nonhospitalized individuals in Sweden. (4/296)

Rates of colonization with enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin (vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) and ampicillin (ampicillin-resistant enterococci [ARE]) were determined by using fecal samples from 670 nonhospitalized individuals and 841 patients in 27 major hospitals. Of the hospitalized patients, 181 (21.5%) were carriers of ARE and 9 (1.1%) were carriers of VRE. In univariate analyses, length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 8.9) and antimicrobial therapy (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.3 to 6.7) were associated with ARE colonization, as were prior treatment with penicillins (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5. 5), cephalosporins (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.0), or quinolones (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.7). In logistic regression analysis, antimicrobial therapy for at least 5 days was independently associated with ARE carriage (adjusted OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.6 to 5.4). Over 90% of the ARE isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant, whereas 14% of the ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant. ARE carriage rates correlated with the use of fluoroquinolones (P = 0.04) but not with the use of ampicillin (P = 0.68) or cephalosporins (P = 0.40). All nine VRE isolates were E. faecium vanB and were found in one hospital. Seven of these isolates were related according to their types as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the nonhospitalized individuals, the ARE carriage rate was lower (6%; P < 0.05), and only one person, who had recently returned from Africa, harbored VRE (E. faecium vanA). The absence of VRE colonization in nonhospitalized individuals reflects an epidemiological situation in Sweden radically different from that in countries in continental Europe where glycopeptides have been widely used for nonmedical purposes.  (+info)

Evaluation of the revised MicroScan dried overnight gram-positive identification panel to identify Enterococcus species. (5/296)

The revised MicroScan Dried Overnight Gram-Positive Identification panel was evaluated for its efficacy at identifying Enterococcus species in comparison with conventional biochemical tests. Supplemental testing of ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium for motility and the ability to acidify methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside helped recognize E. gallinarum and increased the accuracy of the panel for identifying Enterococcus species to 98.5%.  (+info)

Normalization of array hybridization experiments in differential gene expression analysis. (6/296)

For detecting and confirming differentially expressed genes it is necessary to have a trustworthy reference. So called 'housekeeping genes' are frequently used for this purpose as internal standard. However, if the influence of new experimental conditions is to be analyzed it is not safe to assume a priori that the expression of these genes is not affected. Therefore two synthetic poly(A)-RNAs were generated by PCR and in vitro transcription. They were used as external standards for normalization of northern blots and cDNA arrays where non-regulated genes as internal reference were not available.  (+info)

vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium strain: effect on interpretation of clonality. (7/296)

Clonal spread and horizontal transfer in the spread of vancomycin resistance genes were investigated. Multiplex PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), hybridization of enterococcal plasmids with the vanA and vanB probes, and sequencing of a fragment of vanB were used in the analysis. Before May 1996, 12 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates were found in Finland. Between May 1996 and October 1997, 156 VRE isolates were found in the Helsinki area. Between December 1997 and April 1998, fecal samples from 359 patients were cultured for VRE. One new case of colonization with VRE was found. During the outbreak period, 88% (137 of 155) of the VRE isolates belonged to two strains (VRE types I and II), as determined by PFGE. Each VRE type I isolate possessed vanB, and five isolates also had vanA. Of the 34 VRE type II isolates, 27 possessed vanA and 7 possessed vanB. Fifteen of 21 (71%) ampicillin-resistant, vancomycin-sensitive E. faecium (VSE) isolates found during and after the outbreak period in one ward were also of type II. Two VSE type II isolates were found in the hospital before the outbreak in 1995. By PFGE, the three groups (vanA, vanB, or no van gene) of type II shared the same band differences with the main type of VRE type II with vanA. None of the differences was specific to or determinative for any of the groups. Our material suggests that vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant VSE strain.  (+info)

Towards single-copy gene expression systems making gene cloning physiologically relevant: lambda InCh, a simple Escherichia coli plasmid-chromosome shuttle system. (8/296)

We describe a simple system for reversible, stable integration of plasmid-borne genes into the Escherichia coli chromosome. Most ordinary E. coli strains and a variety of pBR322-derived ampicillin-resistant plasmids can be used. A single genetic element, a lambda phage, is the only specialized vector required. The resultant strains have a single copy of the plasmid fragment inserted stably at the lambda attachment site on the chromosome, with nearly the entire lambda genome deleted.  (+info)

*Extrachromosomal DNA

... contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. There also ... Bacterial plasmids can also function in pigment production, nitrogen fixation and the resistance to heavy metals in those ... Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites ... Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, ...

*Beta-lactamase

Up to 90% of ampicillin resistance in E. coli is due to the production of TEM-1. Also responsible for the ampicillin and ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ... of the plasmid-mediated ampicillin resistance in this species. ESBLs in this family also have amino acid changes around the ... The OXA-type beta-lactamases confer resistance to ampicillin and cephalothin and are characterized by their high hydrolytic ...

*Ampicillin resistance

... is bacterial resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. Many strains of bacteria are resistant to a variety ... however the resistance that is most commonly used in research and industry is ampicillin resistance. It is used as a selectable ... Although ampicillin resistance can be a huge benefit to scientists, it can also cause problems in regards to medical treatment ... If the ampicillin resistance gene accidentally spreads to other bacteria, then there are stronger antibiotics to kill off the ...

*Gene nomenclature

... ampicillin resistance azi = azide resistance bla = beta-lactam resistance cat = chloramphenicol resistance kan = kanamycin ... the ampicillin-resistance phenotype of the β-lactamase gene bla). Protein names are the same as the gene names, but the protein ... resistance rif = rifampicin resistance tonA = phage T1 resistance sup = suppressor (for instance, supF suppresses amber ... which confers kanamycin-resistance, as oftentimes parenthetically noted for drug-resistance markers) When referring to the ...

*PUC19

It has one ampR gene (ampicillin resistance gene), and an N-terminal fragment of β-galactosidase (lacZ) gene of E. coli. The ... Only the cells with the plasmid containing the ampicillin resistance (ampR) gene will survive. Furthermore, the transformed ... Therefore, the media used should contain ampicillin, IPTG, and X-gal. Due to its extensive use as a cloning vector in research ... In addition to β-galactosidase, pUC19 also encodes for an enzyme called β-lactamase, which can degrade ampicillin and reduce ...

*PBR322

... pBR322 is 4361 base pairs in length and has two antibiotic resistance genes - the gene bla encoding the ampicillin resistance ( ... Another plasmid, RSF 2124, which is a derivative of ColE1, confers ampicillin resistance but is larger. Many other plasmids ... the ampicillin resistance gene of RSF 2124, and the replication elements of pMB1, a close relative of the ColE1 plasmid. A ... I. Ampicillin-resistant derivatives of the plasmid pMB9". Gene. 2 (2): 75-93. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(77)90074-9. PMID 344136. ...

*Selectable marker

When grown on medium containing ampicillin bacteria die due to lack of ampicillin resistance. The position is later noted on ... Beta-lactamase which confers ampicillin resistance to bacterial hosts. Neo gene from Tn5, which confers resistance to kanamycin ... Normally the genes encoding resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloroamphenicol, tetracycline or kanamycin, etc., ... Selectable markers are often antibiotic resistance genes; bacteria that have been subjected to a procedure to introduce foreign ...

*PBLU

... is a commercially produced bacterial plasmid that contains genes for ampicillin resistance (beta lactamase and beta ... galactosidase). It is often used in conjunction with an ampicillin-susceptible E. coli strain to teach students about ...

*PGLO

The plasmid contains several reporter genes, most notably for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the ampicillin resistance ... They are as follows: Bla, which codes for the enzyme beta-lactamase giving the transformed bacteria resistance to the beta- ...

*Evolutionary capacitance

... mutations in the antibiotic resistance gene B-lactamase introduce cefotaxime resistance but do not affect ampicillin resistance ... In populations exposed only to ampicillin, such mutations may be present in a minority of members since there is not fitness ... the minority members will exhibit some resistance. Chaperones assist in protein folding. The need to fold proteins correctly is ...

*Tac-Promoter

Also, in a novel application, the PTAC vector is used along PMAL-C2X expression vector for imparting ampicillin resistance to ... Ampicillin resistance ● Can act as the Tac promoter ● MBP - Maltose Binding Protein is located at the N-Terminal ● Another ...

*PComb3H

For the purpose of phage production, it contains the bacterial ampicillin resistance gene (for B-lactamase), allowing the ...

*Cardiobacterium hominis

Clinical guidelines thus recommend that C. hominis and other HACEK organisms be presumed to harbor ampicillin resistance and ... Historically, C. hominis has been sensitive to penicillin and penicillin derivatives such as ampicillin. However, penicillin- ...

*Enhancer trap

... or ampicillin resistance in E. coli. The most common and basic enhancer traps are: P[lacZ] from the bacterium E. coli and P[ ...

*RK2 plasmid

The resistance genes confer resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. In addition, RK2 contains a ... and two antibiotic resistance genes, bla and cat, which confer resistance to Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol, respectively. ... as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. Plasmids in the IncP- ... RK2 is approximately 60 kbp long and contains genes for replication, maintenance, conjugation and antibiotic resistance. ...

*Pht01

The plasmid also carries genes to confer resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Plasmid pHT01 is generally stable in ...

*The RNAi Consortium

It contains resistance genes against ampicillin and puromycin. Release 1 of the TRC lentiviral shRNA libraries consist of about ...

*Citrobacter

C. freundii strains have inducible ampC genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. In ... addition, isolates of Citrobacter may be resistant to many other antibiotics as a result of plasmid-encoded resistance genes. ...

*Pseudomonas fluorescens

Several strains of P. fluorescens, such as Pf-5 and JL3985, have developed a natural resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin ... The bacteria might induce systemic resistance in the host plant, so it can better resist attack by a true pathogen. The ... fluorescens strain G20-18 to be critical for its biocontrol activity by activating plant resistance. By culturing P. ...

*Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens

Resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin and vancomycin has been observed. D. lykanthroporepellens is strictly anaerobic and ...

*Riboflavin

... ampicillin) resistance marker, and is now successfully employed at a commercial scale to produce riboflavin for feed and food ...

*Cloning vector

Some vectors contain two selectable markers, for example the plasmid pACYC177 has both ampicillin and kanamycin resistance gene ... Antibiotic resistance is often used as marker, an example being the beta-lactamase gene, which confers resistance to the ... although some selectable markers such as resistance to zeocin and hygromycin B are effective in different cell types. ... penicillin group of beta-lactam antibiotics like ampicillin. ...

*Insertional mutagenesis

An example is the use of pBR322, which has genes that respectively encode polypeptides that confer resistance to ampicillin and ... resistance to specific antibiotics) is gained. An alternative strategy for insertional mutagenesis has been used in vertebrate ...

*Subcloning

So, for example, the "marker gene" could be for resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. If the bacteria that were supposed to ... Typical marker genes are for antibiotic resistance or nutrient biosynthesis. ... Now the bacteria that picked up the plasmid would be able to grow in ampicillin whereas the bacteria that did not pick up the ... desired plasmid would still be vulnerable to destruction by the ampicillin. Therefore, successfully transformed bacteria would ...

*Anaerobic infection

Agents no longer recommended are: cefotetan and clindamycin ( Bacteroides fragilis group resistance) and ampicillin-sulbactam ( ... ampicillin, piperacillin) and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (i.e. clavulanic acid, sulbactam, tazobactam), and a carbapenem ( ... E. coli resistance) and ainoglycosides (toxicity). For high risk community-acquired infections in adults, the agents ... which can delay their identification by the frequent polymicrobial nature of these infections and by the increasing resistance ...

*Publix

These medications include: Amoxicillin (excluding Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) Ampicillin Ciprofloxacin (excluding ... professionals expressed concerns that this could contribute to an overuse of antibiotics which leads to antibiotic resistance, ...

*Klebsiella pneumonia

Klebsiella possesses beta-lactamase giving it resistance to ampicillin, many strains have acquired an extended-spectrum beta- ... In 2009, strains of K. pneumoniae with gene called New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase ( NDM-1) that even gives resistance against ... lactamase with additional resistance to carbenicillin, amoxicillin, and ceftazidime. The bacteria remain susceptible to ... "Klebsiella pneumoniae antimicrobial drug resistance, United States, 1998-2010". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 19 (1): 133-6. ...
Chloramphenicol resistance gene: 1856 - 2515 ccdB gene:. bla promoter: 3997 - 4095 Ampicillin resistance gene: 4096. pNGWA sequence:.. A vector for cloning DNA fragments comprising the following sequence: bacteriophage P1 loxP site-ampicillin resistance gene. resistance gene.ARG-ANNOT (Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation). sequences without web interface. ARG-ANNOT database consists of a single file covering. Bla: beta -lactamases.. Genomic DNA cloning of rickettsia-like. Genomic DNA cloning of rickettsia-like organisms (RLO) of Saint. the gene for ampicillin resistance, (2).Drug Resistance, Microbial. FAQ. Genes, MDR; Tetracycline Resistance; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal;. Ampicillin Resistance; Time Factors; Immunity, Innate.. resistance gene. resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniaeMB45. oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniaeMB45 having.Characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli with changing environments. often from horizontal gene transfer,. Resistance ...
BioAssay record AID 678547 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of ampicillin MIC to compound MIC for ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate.
Iodometric method for detection of β-lactamase activity in yeast cells carrying ampicillin resistance gene in chimeric plasmids Auteur(s) / Author(s).. from yeast. The enhancer trap. sort of visible marker that allows the new insertions to be recognized such as the white eye color gene in Drosophila or.piperacillin-tazobactam, tigecycline, ampicillin-sulbactam, moxi. was a similar pattern of moderate increases in resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam and ertapenem.Ampicillin resistance gene. There are two tests en sjelden gang infeksjoner immunoglobulin M antibody to. How long does a yeast infection last after taking diflucan.. Je me suis procuré un livre qui date dune vingtaine dannées, The Yeast Connection par William G. Crook, M.D., et qui reste pourtant très pertinent.. coupon can i use ampicillin for a sinus. in the kidney ampicillin resistance promoter in dna. 100mg yeast infection ...
Tandemly repeated DNA sequences are common in the genomes of many organisma and are susceptive to deletions and amplifications. That way they are a major cause of genome instability. Genetic analysis of repeated sequence rearrangements in Escherichia coli has revealed that multiple mechanisms participate in the process. They can be roughly divided into RecA-dependant and RecA-independent mechanisms. In this graduation thesis we wanted to test intramolecular recombination efficiency of bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compare it to that in Escherichia coli. For that purpose we have designed a plasmid which has tandem repeats of incomplete spectinomycin genes separated with ampicillin resistance gene. Spectinomycin resistance can be achieved either by RecA-dependant homologous recombination between direct repeats, while simultaneously deleting ampicillin resistance gene, or by RecAindependent mechanisms, which yields both ampicillin resistance gene and spectinomycin resistance genes ...
A novel plasmid vector pSELECT-1 is described which can be used for highly efficient site-directed in vitro mutagenesis. The mutagenesis method is based on the use of single-stranded DNA and two primers, one mutagenic primer and a second correction primer which corrects a defect in the ampicillin resistance gene on the vector and reverts the vector to ampicillin resistance. Using T4 DNA polymerase and T4 DNA ligase the two primers are physically linked on the template. The non-mutant DNA strand is selected against by growth in the presence of ampicillin. ...
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The Amp, if I understood right, is the ampicillin resistance gene. Ampicillin is the prokariotic antibiotic and is used for selection of bacteria. To select transfected eukariotic cells (HEK293 or any other) your plasmid should have a gene providing the resistance to an eukariotic antibiotic, which is in your case, most probably, the Neo (neomicin) resistancy gene. Check your plasmid for gene like this. If there is no genes for eukariotic antibiotic resistance then you have to use another plasmid ...
ID PAS1MTLB6 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 1 BP. XX AC ATCC53101; XX DT 01-JUL-1993 (Rel. 7, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE E. coli plasmid vector pAS1MTLB6 - incomplete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pAS1MTLB6 from pBR322 RA ; RT ; RL Unpublished (1993). XX CC Medium is 1065 LB medium. CC NM (pAS1MTLB6) CC CM (no) CC NA (ds-DNA) CC TP (circular) CC ST () CC TY (plasmid) CC SP (ATCC) CC HO (E.coli N99cI+)(E.coli) CC CP () CC FN (cloning) CC SE () CC PA () CC BR () CC OF () CC OR () XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT misc_feature 0..0 FT /note="1. pBR322, ori/amp gene FT -, pAS1MTLB6" FT rep_origin 0..0 FT /note="ORI E. coli pMB1 (ColE1 and pBR322)" FT CDS 0..0 FT /note="ANT E. coli beta-lactamase gene (bla) FT ampicillin resistance gene (apr/amp)" XX SQ Sequence 1 BP; 0 A; 0 C; 0 G; 0 T; 1 other; n ...
ID PAS1MTL1 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 1 BP. XX AC ATCC53102; XX DT 01-JUL-1993 (Rel. 7, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE E. coli plasmid vector pAS1MTL1 - incomplete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pAS1MTL1 from pBR322 RA ; RT ; RL Unpublished (1993). XX CC Medium is 1065 LB medium. CC NM (pAS1MTL1) CC CM (no) CC NA (ds-DNA) CC TP (circular) CC ST () CC TY (plasmid) CC SP (ATCC) CC HO (E.coli N99cI+)(E.coli) CC CP () CC FN (cloning) CC SE () CC PA () CC BR () CC OF () CC OR () XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT misc_feature 0..0 FT /note="1. pBR322, ori/amp gene FT -, pAS1MTL1" FT rep_origin 0..0 FT /note="ORI E. coli pMB1 (ColE1 and pBR322)" FT CDS 0..0 FT /note="ANT E. coli beta-lactamase gene (bla) FT ampicillin resistance gene (apr/amp)" XX SQ Sequence 1 BP; 0 A; 0 C; 0 G; 0 T; 1 other; n ...
OK. So last time I reviewed for you some of the basic cloning techniques. I failed to show you this slide, which I intended to do, which is a commercially available plasmid. I told you about plasmids last time, small circular DNA molecules that are used in the purpose of cloning. Theyre derived from nature, but then theyve been heavily manipulated by scientists to be useful for the purposes of cloning. Recall that they have two, three critical elements, an origin of replication to allow them to be replicated inside of bacteria, a selectable marker, a drug-resistance gene, ampicillin resistance gene for example, and finally, can you now show the middle slide? Hes working on it. And finally what we call a multiple cloning site, a set of restriction sites, restriction enzyme recognition sites that allow us to pop in pieces of DNA. I have dual paper readers. Dual paper readers? That doesnt happen very often. You usually have one but not often two in a row. Good. So these are useful practical ...
For transformation of PCR-TRAP and pAPtag-5 vectors. The GH Competent cells can be used with both our PCR-TRAP PCR product cloning system & with our pAPtag-5 AP fusion cloning vector (AP-TAG Kit B). The pAPtag-5 vector contains the ampicillin resistance gene. It can be easily and efficiently transformed and propagated in GH Competent cells.. 3 mLs (6 x 0.5 mL tubes) Detailed protocol included.. ...
I dont understand. What did you transform them with? Did you have an insert disrupting an ampicillin resistance gene? Otherwise, why would you try to grow your transformed bacteria on a medium which (you thought) would kill them?. ...
ContentDisclamer}} [[File:PHT253.PNG,600px]] [[File:PHT253-Legende.jpg,300px]] The pHT253 vector contains the coding sequence for an 8xHis tag and allows high-level intracellular production of recombinant N-terminal His tagged protein with B. subtilis. The tag can be used for detection or purification of the produced protein of interest. The expression is controlled by the strong Pgrac100 promoter, consisting of the groeESL promoter of B. subtilis with improved regulatory elements fused to the lac operator allowing their induction by IPTG. Nucleotides were optimized at the conserved regions of the groESL promoter including the UP element, the −35 and the −15 region. Combination of these changes into one promoter enhanced the amount of recombinant proteins accumulating intracellularly up to about 30% of the total cellular protein of B. subtilis (Phan et al., 2011). pHT253 is an E. coli / B. subtilis shuttle vector, that provides ampicillin resistance to ...
Summary: Quroum sensing (Las and Rhl) was used to cross-induce ampicillin resistance in cells so that the survival of each relied on eachother. Cell types were "tagged" with pigment expression (blue and pink) in order to quantify the proportion of each in co-culture. The team reported a third strain (labeled yellow) but I only saw data for a two-strain blue/ pink co-culture on their poster ...
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pGLO™ & GFP Central Framework of Molecular Biology DNA RNA Protein Trait What is Transformation? • Uptake of foreign DNA, often a circular plasmid GFP Beta-lactamase Ampicillin Resistance What is a plasmid? • A circular piece of autonomously replicating DNA • Originally evolved by bacteria • May express antibiotic resistance gene or be modified to express proteins of interest Protein Size • Beta Lactamase - Ampicillin resistance • Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) - Aequorea victoria jellyfish gene • araC regulator protein - Regulates GFP transcription Transformation Procedure Day 1 Day 2 Bacterial Transformation Cell wall GFP Bacterial chromosomal DNA Beta lactamase (ampicillin resistance) pGLO plasmids Bacterial DNA Bacterial cell Plasmid DNA Genomic DNA Transcriptional Regulation • Lactose operon • Arabinose operon • pGLO plasmid Methods of Transformation • Electroporation - Electrical shock makes cell membranes permeable to DNA • Calcium Chloride/Heat-Shock - ...
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During "transformation," a single plasmid enters a single bacterium and, once inside, replicates and expresses the genes it encodes. In this case, the relevant genes expressed are for ampicillin resistance and for the piece of the C. elegans gene of interest. The transformation mixes were given a short time to express these gene products and then were spread on an agar plate that contained nutrients and the antibiotics tetracyclin (encoded by the bacteria) and ampicillin (encoded by the plasmid). Only the cells that incorporated the plasmid DNA and expressed the plasmid genes grew to form colonies of bacteria in the presence of ampicillin. The untransformed bacteria failed to form visible colonies on the ampicillin containing agar surface ...
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Experiment C analyzed the difference in expression levels of the kE2 protein in E. coli harboring the p7KE2 expression vector between cultures with different selection markers: ampicillin resistance (AmpR) as the Type I marker and KmR as the Type II marker. Results of these experiments are shown in Figure 3C.. Experiment D compared the expression levels of the target polypeptide obtained in a commonly used system, T7 p/p, with the expression levels for the novel T7C p/p system described here. To this end, two vectors were used, a standard vector with the T7 phage promoter and an introduced sequence encoding PA-4D (pGPA), and a modified vector containing the sequence encoding PA-4D as a part of the expression cassette (pGKPA). We used two different selection markers: CmR as the Type I marker and KmR as the Type II marker. Results of these experiments are presented in Figure 3D.. Target protein expression levels were the same for both selection marker types between 4 to 6 hours after induction ...
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Our first goal for this competition was to design, create, and submit a working part to the iGem registry. The part we want to create is the Cup-1 promoter. This promoter is already present in yeast, so we had to extract it from the yeast genome. We did this using primers of our own design that attached to the specific sequence we wanted, and then removed it from the rest of the DNA. The Cup-1 sequence, with the added primers, is 226 base pairs long. To test our results, we ran a gel using gel electrophoresis, and we determined that the strand we isolated was somewhere between 200 to 300 base pairs long. So it is reasonable to assume that we successfully isolated Cup-1. So our next step was to use the Gibson Method to fuse Cup-1 with our added primers into the iGem BioBrick. Then we transformed the new plasmid into E.Coli bacteria, and put it on ampicillin plates because the iGem BioBrick has an amp marker, meaning it makes the E.Coli ampicillin resistant. This allowed us to differentiate the ...
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There are many health risks of GE animal feeds. The GE process itself reduces mineral levels (calcium from 6130 mg/kg or ppm down to 14, magnesium from 113 down to 2, manganese and zinc from 14 down to 2, copper from 16 to 2 and cobalt from 1.5 to 0.2 - levels measured in maize). The Brix level incidentally dropped from 20 down to 1! We already have problems with deficiencies and here we are adding to that problem. In fact, I have industry figures showing that milk is woefully short of providing the necessary mineral levels for calves, e.g., less than 10% of the vitamin D, iron and manganese needed. So they are inferior feeds and are not equivalent to non-GE, therefore should be subject to more vigorous testing.. A recent study found that all of the six main rivers in China tested positive for ampicillin-resistant bacteria, and the gene responsible is derived from a GE lab, suggesting GE is the source of ampicillin resistance found in humans.. GE DNA from soy and maize is found in milk from ...
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Just a suggestion: when you are plating out on ampicillin plates, the number of cells plated is at least 1000 fold higher then the number of resistant colonies. Cells that do not grow ( ampicillin is bacteriostatic but not entirely killing E.coli ), however, appear later when ampicillin is degraded by a transformant colony. So, if the number of actual transformants is very low like it is in blunt-end ligations, one tends to plate larger part of the transformation mixture, thus increasing the number of the cells surviving the ampicillin background. So, the background must be proportional to the portion of the transformation mixture plated on one plate AND to the extent of ampicillin dying-out due to aged preparation, old plates etc. The problem should be more frequent in electroporation, where a large number of cells is used in one experiment. In my hands, plating more then an equivalent of 1 ml log-culture cells on one 90-mm plate always resulted in quickly appearing background colonies, no ...
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An ampicillin resistance plasmid carrying the cloned repressor gene cII of the L phage (Salmonella lyphimurium) was conducted by Flac into an F- recipient. Two types of plaamids were isolated from Apr transconjugants. The majority of plasmids were dimers with one copy of Tn1000 inserted, the minority being monomers with one copy of Tn1000. This proportion remained unaltered when we used the Flac strain transformed with a monomeric form of the recombinant plasmid as a donor. An extensive oligomerization of pBR322-originating plasmids was proved in the presence of Flac; its presumable relationship to transposition-related processes is suggested.
Cloning recombinants. A restriction enzyme is used to insert a hummingbird gene into a plasmid, which acts as a cloning vector and placed back into E. coli cells. The plasmid genes ampR (ampicillin resistance) and lacZ are used as genetic markers to screen for E. coli cells containing the recombinant gene of interest. Once identified, the recombinant E. coli cells are cloned to make many copies of the gene of interest. Tutorial: ...
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Transformation of plasmids of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encoding ampicillin resistance to. National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, P.Impact of three ampicillin dosage regimens on selection of ampicillin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and excretion of blaTEM genes in swine feces.. Antibiotic resistance is a type of drug resistance where a. The most commonly used antibiotics in genetic engineering are generally "older. ampicillin kanamycin.Ampicillin generic name. Best Online Pharmacies and conditions for buying drugs online. Find us on FaceBook!.Jeux Alchemy gratuit: le jeu en ligne Alchemy est en flash et est jouable sans aucun telechargement ni inscription ...
At its meeting on April 16, 1975, the Committee on Infectious Diseases reconsidered the problem of ampicillin-resistant strains of Hemophilus influenzae type b. The following facts were noted:. (1) Strains of H. influenzae type b highly resistant in vitro to ampicillin have been reported from 20 states and the District of Columbia.1. (2) These strains were isolated from children with sepsis, meningitis, cellulitis, epiglottitis, suppurative arthritis, and pneumonia. Some of the children died when the resistance of the etiologic strain was not appreciated.. (3) The prevalence of these strains is still uncertain but appears to be at a low level in most communities. Epidemiologic studies, however, indicate these strains may infect many children in closed communities, such as day-care centers.2. The Committee believes a modification of its prior statement3 is warranted based on the wide-spread occurrence of these strains:. (1) Initial management of children with documented or suspected severe ...
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• Acute epiglottitis in adults occurs more frequently than generally realized. Haemophilus influenzae type b is the major causative agent. While H influenzae re
antibiotic resistance markers and future transformation selection technologies. Organisms resistant to ampicillin by virtue of. Klebsiella pneumoniae.. nitrofurantoin (66%) but less susceptible to ampicillin (4%) and ticarcillin (7%). but very resistant to. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and Escherichia.Klebsiella oxytoca; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Legionella; Morganella morganii; Proteus rettgeri; Proteus vulgaris; Providencia; Pseudomonas; Serratia; Yersinia.Why is klebsiella resistant to ampicillin ampicillin hcpcs code ampicillin plus tobramycin order ampicillin bertibarots ampicillin droge.réservez vos places Lanfains 22 - BZH - France (près de St-Brieuc) Accueil Infos pratiques éditions passées partenaires Lorganisation Presse Contact.Ampicilline + gentamicine. les germes plus inhabituels tels que la Klebsiella pneumoniae,. Carr TL, Beazley DD et al. Antibiotic use in pregnancy and drug.Ampicilline G (1962) Ent robact ries (1964) C phalosporines 3G (1980) Ent robact. 2/ Klebsiella ...
The following organisms are usually susceptible: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, indole-positive Proteus species including Proteus vulgaris, Haemophilus influenzae (including ampicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei. It should be noted, however, that there are little clinical data on the use of sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim IV infusion in serious systemic infections due to Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. ...

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