Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Pivalate ester analog of AMPICILLIN.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Diseases of plants.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An ester of AMPICILLIN which is readily hydrolyzed on absorption to release ampicillin. It is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a greater bioavailability of ampicillin than can be achieved with equivalent doses of ampicillin.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.

Pharmacodynamic comparisons of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro model of infection. (1/296)

The increasing frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococcus continues to be of concern throughout the world. Newer fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as levofloxacin, have shown enhanced in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, the bactericidal characteristics and pharmacodynamic profiles of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against four isolates of S. pneumoniae were compared by using an in vitro model of infection. Standard antibiotic dosing regimens which simulated the pharmacokinetic profile observed in humans were used. Control and treatment models were sampled for bacterial CFU per milliliter over the duration of each 24- or 48-h experiment. In addition, treatment models were sampled for MIC determinations and drug concentration. Regrowth of all isolates as well as an increase in MICs throughout the study period was observed in the ciprofloxacin experiments. A limited amount of regrowth was noted during levofloxacin therapy for one isolate; however, no change in MIC was detected for any isolate. Ampicillin showed rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against all isolates. In this study, ratios of effective fluoroquinolone area under the concentration-time curve (AUC):MIC values ranged from 30 to 55. Levofloxacin, owing to its larger AUC0-24 values, has excellent and sustained activity against different pneumococcal strains superior to that of ciprofloxacin.  (+info)

Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis increases the incidence of gram-negative neonatal sepsis. (2/296)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the increased use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis on the incidence of vertically transmitted neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Multiple institutional databases were queried for the number of cases in which intrapartum antibiotics were used, the obstetric risk factors that were present, and the number of resultant cases of neonatal sepsis that occurred for deliveries from 1992 through 1997. Intrapartum antibiotic use was compared between the first and fourth quarter of 1997. Comparisons were made between the years 1992-1996 and 1997 for the incidence of the various pathogens causing neonatal sepsis; group B streptococcus (GBS), gram-negative sepsis, and others. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in intrapartum chemoprophylaxis between the first and fourth quarters of 1997 corresponding to the increased physician awareness of published guidelines. As expected, the incidence of neonatal GBS sepsis was drastically reduced (from 1.7/1000 live births to 0 in 3730 births, P = 0.02). Unfortunately, there was a concomitant increase in the incidence of gram-negative sepsis (0.29/1000 vs. 1.3/1000, P = .02). The overall incidence of neonatal sepsis remained unchanged (2.7/1000 vs. 2.1/1000, P = .69). CONCLUSIONS: Published guidelines have encouraged physicians to increase the use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to reduce vertical transmission of GBS. This study confirms the efficacy of this approach. Unfortunately, this reduction comes at the cost of increasing the incidence of ampicillin-resistant gram-negative neonatal sepsis with a resultant increased mortality. These data provide compelling evidence that the policy of providing ampicillin chemoprophylaxis in selected patients needs to be reconsidered.  (+info)

Increase in incidence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim in clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium with investigation of molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance. (3/296)

Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium isolates obtained during the period 1987-1994 were examined and the molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim were investigated in 24 strains isolated during 1994. Resistance to ampicillin increased from 18% to 78%, to chloramphenicol from 15% to 78%, to tetracycline from 53% to 89% and to co-trimoxazole from 3% to 37%, whereas resistance to norfloxacin remained at 0%. Of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium strains isolated during 1994, all ampicillin-resistant strains had an MIC > 256 mg/L, except one strain in which the MIC was 64 mg/L. Twelve strains (52%) had a TEM-type beta-lactamase, nine (39%) a CARB-type beta-lactamase and two strains (8%) had an OXA-type beta-lactamase. Chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase activity was detected in only nine (47%) of 19 chloramphenicol resistant strains, whereas all eight trimethoprim-resistant strains produced a dihydrofolate reductase type Ia enzyme. Three different epidemiological groups were defined by either low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The latter technique provided an alternative, rapid and powerful genotyping method for S. Typhimurium. Although quinolones provide a good therapeutic alternative, the multiresistance of S. Typhimurium is of public health concern and it is important to continue surveillance of resistance levels and their mechanisms.  (+info)

Near absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci but high carriage rates of quinolone-resistant ampicillin-resistant enterococci among hospitalized patients and nonhospitalized individuals in Sweden. (4/296)

Rates of colonization with enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin (vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) and ampicillin (ampicillin-resistant enterococci [ARE]) were determined by using fecal samples from 670 nonhospitalized individuals and 841 patients in 27 major hospitals. Of the hospitalized patients, 181 (21.5%) were carriers of ARE and 9 (1.1%) were carriers of VRE. In univariate analyses, length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 8.9) and antimicrobial therapy (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.3 to 6.7) were associated with ARE colonization, as were prior treatment with penicillins (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5. 5), cephalosporins (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.0), or quinolones (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.7). In logistic regression analysis, antimicrobial therapy for at least 5 days was independently associated with ARE carriage (adjusted OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.6 to 5.4). Over 90% of the ARE isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant, whereas 14% of the ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant. ARE carriage rates correlated with the use of fluoroquinolones (P = 0.04) but not with the use of ampicillin (P = 0.68) or cephalosporins (P = 0.40). All nine VRE isolates were E. faecium vanB and were found in one hospital. Seven of these isolates were related according to their types as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the nonhospitalized individuals, the ARE carriage rate was lower (6%; P < 0.05), and only one person, who had recently returned from Africa, harbored VRE (E. faecium vanA). The absence of VRE colonization in nonhospitalized individuals reflects an epidemiological situation in Sweden radically different from that in countries in continental Europe where glycopeptides have been widely used for nonmedical purposes.  (+info)

Evaluation of the revised MicroScan dried overnight gram-positive identification panel to identify Enterococcus species. (5/296)

The revised MicroScan Dried Overnight Gram-Positive Identification panel was evaluated for its efficacy at identifying Enterococcus species in comparison with conventional biochemical tests. Supplemental testing of ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium for motility and the ability to acidify methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside helped recognize E. gallinarum and increased the accuracy of the panel for identifying Enterococcus species to 98.5%.  (+info)

Normalization of array hybridization experiments in differential gene expression analysis. (6/296)

For detecting and confirming differentially expressed genes it is necessary to have a trustworthy reference. So called 'housekeeping genes' are frequently used for this purpose as internal standard. However, if the influence of new experimental conditions is to be analyzed it is not safe to assume a priori that the expression of these genes is not affected. Therefore two synthetic poly(A)-RNAs were generated by PCR and in vitro transcription. They were used as external standards for normalization of northern blots and cDNA arrays where non-regulated genes as internal reference were not available.  (+info)

vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium strain: effect on interpretation of clonality. (7/296)

Clonal spread and horizontal transfer in the spread of vancomycin resistance genes were investigated. Multiplex PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), hybridization of enterococcal plasmids with the vanA and vanB probes, and sequencing of a fragment of vanB were used in the analysis. Before May 1996, 12 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates were found in Finland. Between May 1996 and October 1997, 156 VRE isolates were found in the Helsinki area. Between December 1997 and April 1998, fecal samples from 359 patients were cultured for VRE. One new case of colonization with VRE was found. During the outbreak period, 88% (137 of 155) of the VRE isolates belonged to two strains (VRE types I and II), as determined by PFGE. Each VRE type I isolate possessed vanB, and five isolates also had vanA. Of the 34 VRE type II isolates, 27 possessed vanA and 7 possessed vanB. Fifteen of 21 (71%) ampicillin-resistant, vancomycin-sensitive E. faecium (VSE) isolates found during and after the outbreak period in one ward were also of type II. Two VSE type II isolates were found in the hospital before the outbreak in 1995. By PFGE, the three groups (vanA, vanB, or no van gene) of type II shared the same band differences with the main type of VRE type II with vanA. None of the differences was specific to or determinative for any of the groups. Our material suggests that vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant VSE strain.  (+info)

Towards single-copy gene expression systems making gene cloning physiologically relevant: lambda InCh, a simple Escherichia coli plasmid-chromosome shuttle system. (8/296)

We describe a simple system for reversible, stable integration of plasmid-borne genes into the Escherichia coli chromosome. Most ordinary E. coli strains and a variety of pBR322-derived ampicillin-resistant plasmids can be used. A single genetic element, a lambda phage, is the only specialized vector required. The resultant strains have a single copy of the plasmid fragment inserted stably at the lambda attachment site on the chromosome, with nearly the entire lambda genome deleted.  (+info)

Ampicillin resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance where bacteria have the ability to grow in the presence of ampicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic used to treat various infections. This resistance occurs due to the production of enzymes called beta-lactamases that can break down the ampicillin molecule, rendering it ineffective. Additionally, some bacteria may have mutations that result in changes to their cell wall structure, making them impervious to the effects of ampicillin. Ampicillin resistance is a significant public health concern as it limits treatment options for infections caused by these resistant bacteria and can lead to increased morbidity and mortality.

Ampicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

The medical definition of Ampicillin is:

"A semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic, derived from the Penicillium mold. It is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is effective against both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and endocarditis."

It's important to note that Ampicillin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or other bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillins. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics like Ampicillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a significant public health concern.

Penicillin resistance is the ability of certain bacteria to withstand the antibacterial effects of penicillin, a type of antibiotic. This occurs when these bacteria have developed mechanisms that prevent penicillin from binding to and inhibiting the function of their cell wall biosynthesis proteins, particularly the enzyme transpeptidase.

One common mechanism of penicillin resistance is the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate the beta-lactam ring structure present in penicillin and other related antibiotics. Another mechanism involves alterations in the bacterial cell wall that prevent penicillin from binding to its target proteins.

Penicillin resistance is a significant concern in clinical settings, as it can limit treatment options for bacterial infections and may necessitate the use of more potent or toxic antibiotics. It is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including those resistant to penicillin.

In the context of medical laboratory reporting, "R factors" refer to a set of values that describe the resistance of certain bacteria to different antibiotics. These factors are typically reported as R1, R2, R3, and so on, where each R factor corresponds to a specific antibiotic or class of antibiotics.

An R factor value of "1" indicates susceptibility to the corresponding antibiotic, while an R factor value of "R" (or "R-", depending on the laboratory's reporting practices) indicates resistance. An intermediate category may also be reported as "I" or "I-", indicating that the bacterium is intermediately sensitive to the antibiotic in question.

It's important to note that R factors are just one piece of information used to guide clinical decision-making around antibiotic therapy, and should be interpreted in conjunction with other factors such as the patient's clinical presentation, the severity of their infection, and any relevant guidelines or recommendations from infectious disease specialists.

Haemophilus influenzae is a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that can cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans. It is part of the normal respiratory flora but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances. The bacteria are named after their initial discovery in 1892 by Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic, although they are not the causative agent of influenza.

There are six main serotypes (a-f) based on the polysaccharide capsule surrounding the bacterium, with type b (Hib) being the most virulent and invasive. Hib can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and sepsis, particularly in children under 5 years of age. The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of these invasive diseases.

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains lack a capsule and are responsible for non-invasive respiratory tract infections, such as otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NTHi can also cause invasive diseases but at lower frequency compared to Hib.

Proper diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing are crucial for effective treatment, as Haemophilus influenzae strains may display resistance to certain antibiotics.

Enterococcus faecium is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. It is a member of the family Enterococcaceae and is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of environments, including those with high salt concentrations, low pH levels, and the presence of antibiotics.

E. faecium is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in healthcare settings such as hospitals and long-term care facilities. It can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and intra-abdominal infections. E. faecium is resistant to many antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism.

E. faecium is also a potential threat as a bioterrorism agent due to its ability to survive outside the host and cause disease. However, it is not considered a high-risk agent because it is not easily transmitted from person to person and is not highly virulent. Nonetheless, appropriate infection control measures are important to prevent the spread of E. faecium in healthcare settings.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Penicillinase is an enzyme produced by some bacteria that can inactivate penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics by breaking down the beta-lactam ring, which is essential for their antimicrobial activity. Bacteria that produce penicillinase are resistant to penicillin and related antibiotics. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins, such as methicillin and oxacillin, have been developed to overcome this form of bacterial resistance.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

Chloramphenicol resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to survive and grow in the presence of the antibiotic Chloramphenicol. This can occur due to genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria through horizontal gene transfer.

There are several mechanisms by which bacteria can become resistant to Chloramphenicol, including:

1. Enzymatic inactivation: Some bacteria produce enzymes that can modify or degrade Chloramphenicol, rendering it ineffective.
2. Efflux pumps: Bacteria may develop efflux pumps that can actively pump Chloramphenicol out of the cell, reducing its intracellular concentration and preventing it from reaching its target site.
3. Target site alteration: Some bacteria may undergo mutations in their ribosomal RNA or proteins, which can prevent Chloramphenicol from binding to its target site and inhibiting protein synthesis.

Chloramphenicol resistance is a significant public health concern because it can limit the effectiveness of this important antibiotic in treating bacterial infections. It is essential to use Chloramphenicol judiciously and follow proper infection control practices to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs) are essential bacterial enzymes that play a crucial role in the synthesis and maintenance of the bacterial cell wall. They are called "penicillin-binding" because they possess the ability to bind to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics, which subsequently inhibits their function and leads to the death of the bacteria. PBPs are primary targets for many clinically important antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Inhibition of these proteins interferes with the cross-linking of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall, causing structural weakness and osmotic lysis of the bacteria.

Extrachromosomal inheritance refers to the transmission of genetic information that occurs outside of the chromosomes, which are the structures in the cell nucleus that typically contain and transmit genetic material. This type of inheritance is relatively rare and can involve various types of genetic elements, such as plasmids or transposons.

In extrachromosomal inheritance, these genetic elements can replicate independently of the chromosomes and be passed on to offspring through mechanisms other than traditional Mendelian inheritance. This can lead to non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance, where traits do not follow the expected dominant or recessive patterns.

One example of extrachromosomal inheritance is the transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than on the chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles that produce energy for the cell, and they contain their own small circular genome that is inherited maternally. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases.

Overall, extrachromosomal inheritance is an important area of study in genetics, as it can help researchers better understand the complex ways in which genetic information is transmitted and expressed in living organisms.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by preventing the growth and multiplication of bacteria. It is a part of the tetracycline class of antibiotics, which also includes doxycycline, minocycline, and others.

Tetracycline is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as some atypical organisms such as rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and spirochetes. It is commonly used to treat respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and other bacterial infections.

Tetracycline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It should be taken orally with a full glass of water, and it is recommended to take it on an empty stomach, at least one hour before or two hours after meals. The drug can cause tooth discoloration in children under the age of 8, so it is generally not recommended for use in this population.

Like all antibiotics, tetracycline should be used only to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

"Shigella sonnei" is a medically recognized term that refers to a specific species of bacteria that can cause human illness. It's one of the four main species in the genus Shigella, and it's responsible for a significant portion of shigellosis cases worldwide.

Shigella sonnei is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming, rod-shaped bacterium that can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water. Once ingested, it can invade and infect the epithelial cells of the colon, leading to inflammation and diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe.

The infection caused by Shigella sonnei is known as shigellosis, and its symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and watery or bloody diarrhea. In some cases, it can lead to more serious complications such as dehydration, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a type of kidney failure.

It's worth noting that Shigella sonnei is particularly concerning because it has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics, making treatment more challenging in some cases. Proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, are crucial in preventing the spread of this bacterium.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Haemophilus ducreyi is a gram-negative, oxidase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that is the causative agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. It requires factors X and V for growth, which makes it fastidious and difficult to culture. The organism primarily infects the epithelial cells of the skin and mucous membranes, causing painful, necrotic ulcers with ragged borders and suppurative inguinal lymphadenopathy. Chancroid is a significant co-factor in the transmission of HIV. Infections caused by H. ducreyi are more common in tropical and developing regions, where it remains an important public health concern.

Bacterial transformation is a natural process by which exogenous DNA is taken up and incorporated into the genome of a bacterial cell. This process was first discovered in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, who observed that dead virulent bacteria could transfer genetic material to live avirulent bacteria, thereby conferring new properties such as virulence to the recipient cells.

The uptake of DNA by bacterial cells typically occurs through a process called "competence," which can be either naturally induced under certain environmental conditions or artificially induced in the laboratory using various methods. Once inside the cell, the exogenous DNA may undergo recombination with the host genome, resulting in the acquisition of new genes or the alteration of existing ones.

Bacterial transformation has important implications for both basic research and biotechnology. It is a powerful tool for studying gene function and for engineering bacteria with novel properties, such as the ability to produce valuable proteins or degrade environmental pollutants. However, it also poses potential risks in the context of genetic engineering and biocontainment, as transformed bacteria may be able to transfer their newly acquired genes to other organisms in the environment.

Haemophilus infections are caused by bacteria named Haemophilus influenzae. Despite its name, this bacterium does not cause the flu, which is caused by a virus. There are several different strains of Haemophilus influenzae, and some are more likely to cause severe illness than others.

Haemophilus infections can affect people of any age, but they are most common in children under 5 years old. The bacteria can cause a range of infections, from mild ear infections to serious conditions such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs).

The bacterium is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccination is also available to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections, which are the most severe and common form of Haemophilus infection.

Genetic transformation is the process by which an organism's genetic material is altered or modified, typically through the introduction of foreign DNA. This can be achieved through various techniques such as:

* Gene transfer using vectors like plasmids, phages, or artificial chromosomes
* Direct uptake of naked DNA using methods like electroporation or chemically-mediated transfection
* Use of genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce precise changes into the organism's genome.

The introduced DNA may come from another individual of the same species (cisgenic), from a different species (transgenic), or even be synthetically designed. The goal of genetic transformation is often to introduce new traits, functions, or characteristics that do not exist naturally in the organism, or to correct genetic defects.

This technique has broad applications in various fields, including molecular biology, biotechnology, and medical research, where it can be used to study gene function, develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), create cell lines for drug screening, and even potentially treat genetic diseases through gene therapy.

Trimethoprim is an antibiotic medication that is primarily used to treat bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and protein. This leads to bacterial cell death. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX.

Medical Definition:
Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial drug that selectively inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate, a cofactor involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine and purines. By blocking this essential pathway, trimethoprim disrupts bacterial DNA and protein synthesis, leading to bacteriostatic activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX, which inhibits two consecutive steps in the bacterial folate synthesis pathway.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Penicillin G is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of medications called penicillins. It is a natural antibiotic derived from the Penicillium fungus and is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Penicillin G is active against many gram-positive bacteria, as well as some gram-negative bacteria.

Penicillin G is available in various forms, including an injectable solution and a powder for reconstitution into a solution. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. Penicillin G is often used to treat serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics, such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), pneumonia, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).

It's important to note that Penicillin G is not commonly used for topical or oral treatment due to its poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and instability in acidic environments. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, Penicillin G should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure appropriate use and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase is not a commonly used medical term, but it refers to an enzyme involved in the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and degradation process. The muramoylpentapeptide is a component of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Carboxypeptidases are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds, specifically at the carboxyl-terminal end of a protein or peptide.

In this context, Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase is an enzyme that removes the terminal D-alanine residue from the muramoylpentapeptide, which is a crucial step in the biosynthesis and recycling of bacterial cell wall components. This enzyme plays a significant role in the regulation of peptidoglycan structure and thus impacts bacterial growth, division, and virulence.

Inhibition or disruption of Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase can potentially be used as an antibacterial strategy, targeting essential processes in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and weakening the structural integrity of pathogenic bacteria.

Sulbactam is not a medication itself, but it's a type of β-lactamase inhibitor. It's often combined with other antibiotics such as ampicillin or cefoperazone to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that produce β-lactamases, enzymes that can inactivate certain types of antibiotics (like penicillins and cephalosporins). By inhibiting these enzymes, sulbactam helps to protect the antibiotic from being deactivated, allowing it to maintain its activity against bacteria.

The combination of sulbactam with other antibiotics is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It's important to note that the specific medical definition of sulbactam would be a β-lactamase inhibitor used in combination with other antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Peptidyl transferase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term used to describe an enzymatic function or activity. It is often mentioned in the context of molecular biology, protein synthesis, and ribosome structure.

Peptidyl transferase refers to the catalytic activity of ribosomes that facilitates the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids during protein synthesis. More specifically, peptidyl transferase is responsible for transferring the peptidyl group (the growing polypeptide chain) from the acceptor site (A-site) to the donor site (P-site) of the ribosome, creating a new peptide bond and elongating the polypeptide chain. This activity occurs within the large subunit of the ribosome, near the peptidyl transferase center (PTC).

While it is often attributed to the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) component of the ribosome, recent research suggests that both rRNA and specific ribosomal proteins contribute to this enzymatic activity.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the class of aminoglycosides and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial death.

Streptomycin is primarily used to treat a variety of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis, brucellosis, plague, tularemia, and certain types of bacterial endocarditis. It is also used as part of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Like other aminoglycosides, streptomycin has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use is typically limited to cases where other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.

It's important to note that the use of streptomycin requires careful monitoring of drug levels and kidney function, as well as regular audiometric testing to detect any potential hearing loss.

Gram-positive bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that turn purple when stained using the Gram stain method. This staining technique is used in microbiology to differentiate between two main types of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

Gram-positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Some common examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis.

Gram-positive bacterial infections can range from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. The symptoms of these infections depend on the type of bacteria involved and the location of the infection in the body. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as penicillin, vancomycin, or clindamycin. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria is a growing concern and can complicate treatment in some cases.

A Serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase is a type of enzyme that specifically catalyzes the cleavage of the peptide bond at the carboxyl terminus of a polypeptide, where the penultimate residue is D-alanine and the ultimate residue is D-alanine. This enzyme plays an essential role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is a crucial target for antibiotics such as vancomycin and teicoplanin, which inhibit its activity by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala motif of the peptidoglycan precursor. The serine residue in the active site of this enzyme is involved in the catalytic mechanism, hence the name "serine-type" carboxypeptidase.

Hexosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a hexose (a type of sugar molecule made up of six carbon atoms) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This transfer results in the formation of a glycosidic bond between the two molecules.

Hexosyltransferases are involved in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, which play important roles in cell recognition, signaling, and communication. These enzymes can transfer a variety of hexose sugars, including glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine, to different acceptor molecules, such as proteins, lipids, or other carbohydrates.

Hexosyltransferases are classified based on the type of donor molecule they use, the type of sugar they transfer, and the type of glycosidic bond they form. Some examples of hexosyltransferases include:

* Glycosyltransferases (GTs): These enzymes transfer a sugar from an activated donor molecule, such as a nucleotide sugar, to an acceptor molecule. GTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids.
* Fucosyltransferases (FUTs): These enzymes transfer fucose, a type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. FUTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including blood group antigens and Lewis antigens.
* Galactosyltransferases (GALTs): These enzymes transfer galactose, another type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. GALTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including lactose in milk and gangliosides in the brain.
* Mannosyltransferases (MTs): These enzymes transfer mannose, a type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. MTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including N-linked glycoproteins and yeast cell walls.

Hexosyltransferases play important roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of hexosyltransferases is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

"Multiple drug resistance" (MDR) is a term used in medicine to describe the condition where a patient's infection becomes resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This means that the bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite that is causing the infection has developed the ability to survive and multiply despite being exposed to medications that were originally designed to kill or inhibit its growth.

In particular, MDR occurs when an organism becomes resistant to at least one drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. This can happen due to genetic changes in the microorganism that allow it to survive in the presence of these drugs. The development of MDR is a significant concern for public health because it limits treatment options and can make infections harder, if not impossible, to treat.

MDR can develop through several mechanisms, including mutations in the genes that encode drug targets or enzymes involved in drug metabolism, as well as the acquisition of genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons that carry resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs are major drivers of MDR, as they create selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

MDR infections can occur in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and communities. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, although certain populations may be at higher risk, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. Preventing the spread of MDR requires a multifaceted approach that includes surveillance, infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and research into new therapies and diagnostics.

Pivampicillin is not a medication itself, but rather a prodrug of ampicillin, which is a type of antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. A prodrug is an inactive or less active form of a drug that is converted into its active form in the body after administration.

Pivampicillin is made up of ampicillin linked to a pivaloyl group, which helps improve the absorption and bioavailability of ampicillin when taken orally. Once absorbed, the pivaloyl group is removed by enzymes in the body, releasing ampicillin, which then exerts its antibacterial effects by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Therefore, a medical definition of pivampicillin would be: "A prodrug of ampicillin, used orally to treat various bacterial infections, which is rapidly converted to ampicillin in the body after administration."

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Circular DNA is a type of DNA molecule that forms a closed loop, rather than the linear double helix structure commonly associated with DNA. This type of DNA is found in some viruses, plasmids (small extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in bacteria), and mitochondria and chloroplasts (organelles found in plant and animal cells).

Circular DNA is characterized by the absence of telomeres, which are the protective caps found on linear chromosomes. Instead, circular DNA has a specific sequence where the two ends join together, known as the origin of replication and the replication terminus. This structure allows for the DNA to be replicated efficiently and compactly within the cell.

Because of its circular nature, circular DNA is more resistant to degradation by enzymes that cut linear DNA, making it more stable in certain environments. Additionally, the ability to easily manipulate and clone circular DNA has made it a valuable tool in molecular biology and genetic engineering.

Disease resistance, in a medical context, refers to the inherent or acquired ability of an organism to withstand or limit infection by a pathogen, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. This resistance can be due to various factors including the presence of physical barriers (e.g., intact skin), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid), and immune responses that recognize and eliminate the pathogen.

Inherited disease resistance is often determined by genetics, where certain genetic variations can make an individual more or less susceptible to a particular infection. For example, some people are naturally resistant to certain diseases due to genetic factors that prevent the pathogen from infecting their cells or replicating within them.

Acquired disease resistance can occur through exposure to a pathogen, which triggers an immune response that confers immunity or resistance to future infections by the same pathogen. This is the basis of vaccination, where a weakened or dead form of a pathogen is introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response without causing disease.

Overall, disease resistance is an important factor in maintaining health and preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Vascular resistance is a measure of the opposition to blood flow within a vessel or a group of vessels, typically expressed in units of mmHg/(mL/min) or sometimes as dynes*sec/cm^5. It is determined by the diameter and length of the vessels, as well as the viscosity of the blood flowing through them. In general, a decrease in vessel diameter, an increase in vessel length, or an increase in blood viscosity will result in an increase in vascular resistance, while an increase in vessel diameter, a decrease in vessel length, or a decrease in blood viscosity will result in a decrease in vascular resistance. Vascular resistance is an important concept in the study of circulation and cardiovascular physiology because it plays a key role in determining blood pressure and blood flow within the body.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Drug resistance, viral, refers to the ability of a virus to continue replicating in the presence of antiviral drugs that are designed to inhibit or stop its growth. This occurs when the virus mutates and changes its genetic makeup in such a way that the drug can no longer effectively bind to and inhibit the function of its target protein, allowing the virus to continue infecting host cells and causing disease.

Viral drug resistance can develop due to several factors, including:

1. Mutations in the viral genome that alter the structure or function of the drug's target protein.
2. Changes in the expression levels or location of the drug's target protein within the virus-infected cell.
3. Activation of alternative pathways that allow the virus to replicate despite the presence of the drug.
4. Increased efflux of the drug from the virus-infected cell, reducing its intracellular concentration and effectiveness.

Viral drug resistance is a significant concern in the treatment of viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus, and influenza. It can lead to reduced treatment efficacy, increased risk of treatment failure, and the need for more toxic or expensive drugs. Therefore, it is essential to monitor viral drug resistance during treatment and adjust therapy accordingly to ensure optimal outcomes.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the ability of bacteria to synthesize proteins, which essential for their growth and survival. This helps to stop the spread of the infection and allows the body's immune system to clear the bacteria from the body.

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means that it is effective against many different types of bacteria. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics. However, because of its potential for serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression and gray baby syndrome, chloramphenicol is usually reserved for use in cases where other antibiotics are not effective or are contraindicated.

Chloramphenicol can be given by mouth, injection, or applied directly to the skin in the form of an ointment or cream. It is important to take or use chloramphenicol exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken. This helps to ensure that the infection is fully treated and reduces the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

Gentamicin is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of aminoglycosides. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including:

* Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis
* Certain Gram-positive bacterial infections, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Gentamicin works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death. It is typically given via injection (intramuscularly or intravenously) and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat serious infections.

Like all aminoglycosides, gentamicin can cause kidney damage and hearing loss, especially when used for long periods of time or at high doses. Therefore, monitoring of drug levels and renal function is recommended during treatment.

Tetracycline resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance where bacteria have developed the ability to survive and grow in the presence of tetracyclines, a class of antibiotics used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. This resistance can be mediated through various mechanisms such as:

1. Efflux pumps: These are proteins that actively pump tetracyclines out of the bacterial cell, reducing the intracellular concentration of the antibiotic and preventing it from reaching its target site.
2. Ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs): These proteins bind to the ribosomes (the sites of protein synthesis) and prevent tetracyclines from binding, thus allowing protein synthesis to continue in the presence of the antibiotic.
3. Enzymatic modification: Some bacteria produce enzymes that modify tetracyclines, rendering them ineffective or less effective against bacterial growth.
4. Mutations in target sites: Bacteria can also acquire mutations in their genome that alter the structure of the target site (ribosomes), preventing tetracyclines from binding and inhibiting protein synthesis.

Tetracycline resistance has become a significant public health concern, as it limits the therapeutic options for treating bacterial infections and contributes to the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The primary causes of tetracycline resistance include the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in both human medicine and agriculture.

Enterococcus faecalis is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. It is a type of enterococci that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with compromised immune systems.

E. faecalis is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and resist various antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism. It can also form biofilms, which further increase its resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses. Accurate identification and appropriate treatment of E. faecalis infections are essential to prevent complications and ensure positive patient outcomes.

Beta-lactam resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to inactivate or circumvent the action of beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Bacteria can develop beta-lactam resistance through several mechanisms:

1. Production of beta-lactamases: These are enzymes that bacteria produce to break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Some bacteria have acquired genes that encode for beta-lactamases that can hydrolyze and destroy the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.
2. Alteration of PBPs: Bacteria can also develop mutations in their PBPs that make them less susceptible to beta-lactams. These alterations can reduce the affinity of PBPs for beta-lactams or change their conformation, preventing the antibiotic from binding effectively.
3. Efflux pumps: Bacteria can also develop efflux pumps that actively pump beta-lactam antibiotics out of the cell, reducing their intracellular concentration and limiting their effectiveness.
4. Biofilm formation: Some bacteria can form biofilms, which are communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are encased in a protective matrix. Biofilms can make bacteria more resistant to beta-lactams by preventing the antibiotics from reaching their targets.

Beta-lactam resistance is a significant public health concern because it limits the effectiveness of these important antibiotics. The overuse and misuse of beta-lactams have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, making it essential to use these antibiotics judiciously and develop new strategies to combat bacterial resistance.

Sulfamethoxazole is a type of antibiotic known as a sulfonamide. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce folic acid, which is necessary for their growth and survival. Sulfamethoxazole is often combined with trimethoprim (another antibiotic) in a single medication called co-trimoxazole, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

The medical definition of Sulfamethoxazole can be found in various pharmaceutical and medical resources, here are some examples:

* According to the Merck Manual, Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial drug that inhibits bacterial synthesis of folic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid for the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase."
* According to the British National Formulary (BNF), Sulfamethoxazole is a "sulfonamide antibacterial agent, active against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is often combined with trimethoprim in a 5:1 ratio as co-trimoxazole."
* According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial agent that is used in combination with trimethoprim for the treatment of various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid."

It's important to note that, as any other medication, Sulfamethoxazole should be taken under medical supervision and following the instructions of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects and interact with other medications.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Penicillanic acid is not a term that has a widely accepted or established medical definition in the context of human medicine or clinical practice. It is a chemical compound that is a derivative of penicillin, an antibiotic produced by certain types of mold. Penicillanic acid is a breakdown product of penicillin and is not itself used as a medication.

In chemistry, penicillanic acid is a organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C6H5COOH. It is a derivative of benzene and has a carboxylic acid group and a five-membered ring containing a sulfur atom and a double bond, which is a characteristic feature of penicillin and its derivatives.

It's important to note that while penicillanic acid may have relevance in the context of chemistry or microbiology research, it does not have a direct medical definition or application in clinical medicine.

Cloxacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other types of penicillins. Cloxacillin works by interfering with the ability of the bacterial cell wall to grow and multiply, ultimately leading to the death of the bacterium.

Cloxacillin is often used to treat skin infections, pneumonia, and other respiratory tract infections. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powder for injection. As with all antibiotics, it is important to take cloxacillin exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken.

Like other penicillins, cloxacillin can cause allergic reactions in some people. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform a healthcare provider of all other medications being taken before starting cloxacillin.

Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the bacterium Shigella. It is characterized by the inflammation of the intestines, particularly the colon, resulting in diarrhea that may contain blood and mucus. The infection is typically spread through contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person. Symptoms usually appear within 1-4 days after exposure and can include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to have a bowel movement). In severe cases, bacillary dysentery can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and other complications. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria, as well as fluid replacement to prevent dehydration.

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily responsible for causing shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery. These pathogens are highly infectious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

There are four main species of Shigella: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Each species has distinct serotypes that differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The severity of shigellosis can range from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to defecate). In some cases, Shigella infections may lead to complications such as bacteremia, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, proper food handling and preparation, access to clean water, and adequate sanitation facilities. Antibiotic treatment is generally recommended for severe cases of shigellosis, but the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has become a growing concern in recent years.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to

Cephalexin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is essential for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacterial cells become unstable and eventually die.

Cephalexin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating various types of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Like all antibiotics, cephalexin should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalexin include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, severe skin rashes, or liver damage may occur. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any signs of an allergic reaction or serious side effect are experienced while taking cephalexin.

Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Kanamycin is primarily used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is also used in veterinary medicine to prevent bacterial infections in animals.

Like other aminoglycosides, kanamycin can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, it is important to monitor patients closely for signs of toxicity and adjust the dose accordingly. Kanamycin is not commonly used as a first-line antibiotic due to its potential side effects and the availability of safer alternatives. However, it remains an important option for treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

Erythromycin is a type of antibiotic known as a macrolide, which is used to treat various types of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to produce proteins, which are necessary for the bacteria to survive and multiply. Erythromycin is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It may also be used to prevent endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart) in people at risk of this condition.

Erythromycin is generally considered safe for most people, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking before starting erythromycin.

Like all antibiotics, erythromycin should only be used to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

Fungal drug resistance is a condition where fungi are no longer susceptible to the antifungal drugs that were previously used to treat infections they caused. This can occur due to genetic changes in the fungi that make them less sensitive to the drug's effects, or due to environmental factors that allow the fungi to survive and multiply despite the presence of the drug.

There are several mechanisms by which fungi can develop drug resistance, including:

1. Mutations in genes that encode drug targets: Fungi can acquire mutations in the genes that encode for the proteins or enzymes that the antifungal drugs target. These mutations can alter the structure or function of these targets, making them less susceptible to the drug's effects.
2. Overexpression of efflux pumps: Fungi can increase the expression of genes that encode for efflux pumps, which are proteins that help fungi expel drugs from their cells. This can reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug and make it less effective.
3. Changes in membrane composition: Fungi can alter the composition of their cell membranes to make them less permeable to antifungal drugs, making it more difficult for the drugs to enter the fungal cells and exert their effects.
4. Biofilm formation: Fungi can form biofilms, which are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular material. Biofilms can make fungi more resistant to antifungal drugs by limiting drug penetration and creating an environment that promotes the development of resistance.

Fungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. It can lead to treatment failures, increased morbidity and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. To address this issue, there is a need for new antifungal drugs, as well as strategies to prevent and manage drug resistance.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

Cephaloridine is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of cephalosporins. It is used for treating various bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia.

Cephaloridine works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. It is administered intramuscularly or intravenously and is known for its broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, due to its potential nephrotoxicity (kidney toxicity), it has largely been replaced by other antibiotics with similar spectra of activity but better safety profiles.

It's important to note that the use of cephaloridine should be reserved for infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics, and its administration should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

Probenecid is a medication that is primarily used to treat gout and hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood). It works by decreasing the production of uric acid in the body and increasing its excretion through the kidneys.

In medical terms, probenecid is a uricosuric agent, which means it increases the urinary excretion of urate, the salt form of uric acid. It does this by inhibiting the reabsorption of urate in the proximal tubules of the kidneys, thereby promoting its elimination in the urine.

Probenecid is also used in conjunction with certain antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, to increase their concentration in the body by reducing their excretion by the kidneys. This is known as probenecid-antibiotic interaction.

It's important to note that probenecid should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be contraindicated in certain medical conditions or in combination with specific medications.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections. It contains two active ingredients: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, which work together to inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, a vital component for their survival.

Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme needed for bacterial growth, while sulfamethoxazole is a bacteriostatic sulfonamide that inhibits the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate by blocking the action of the enzyme bacterial dihydropteroate synthase. The combination of these two agents produces a synergistic effect, increasing the overall antibacterial activity of the medication.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a severe lung infection that can occur in people with weakened immune systems. It is also used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent PCP in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that compromise the immune system.

As with any medication, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination can have side effects and potential risks, including allergic reactions, skin rashes, gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood disorders. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Talampicillin" is not a recognized or established term in medical science or pharmacology. It's possible that there may be a spelling error or a mix-up with the names of various medications. Talampicillin does not appear in reputable databases of medical terms or drugs, such as those maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), or other reliable sources.

If you have any doubts about a specific medication or medical term, I would recommend checking these reputable sources or consulting with a healthcare professional to ensure you receive accurate and trustworthy information.

Salmonella infections, also known as salmonellosis, are a type of foodborne illness caused by the Salmonella bacterium. These bacteria can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, animals, and birds, especially poultry. People typically get salmonella infections from consuming contaminated foods or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Common sources of Salmonella include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and milk products; contaminated fruits and vegetables; and improperly prepared or stored food.

Symptoms of salmonella infections usually begin within 12 to 72 hours after exposure and can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Most people recover from salmonella infections without treatment within four to seven days, although some cases may be severe or even life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems. In rare cases, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause serious complications such as meningitis, endocarditis, and arthritis.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices; washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or touching animals; avoiding cross-contamination of foods during preparation; and using pasteurized dairy products and eggs. If you suspect that you have a Salmonella infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent complications and reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.

Nitrofurantoin is an antibacterial medication used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the National Library of Medicine, its medical definition is: "Antibacterial agent with nitrofuran ring and furazan moiety. It is used to treat urinary tract infections and is also used for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections."

Nitrofurantoin works by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, leading to bacterial death. It is typically administered orally and is available under various brand names, such as Macrobid® and Furadantin®. The medication is generally well-tolerated; however, potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain), headaches, dizziness, and pulmonary reactions. Rare but severe adverse events include peripheral neuropathy and hepatotoxicity.

It is essential to note that nitrofurantoin's effectiveness depends on the susceptibility of the infecting bacteria, and resistance has been reported in some cases. Therefore, it is crucial to consider local resistance patterns when prescribing this antibiotic.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are derived from bacteria and are used to treat various types of infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. These antibiotics work by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, tobramycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. These antibiotics are often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Aminoglycosides can have serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, so they are typically reserved for use in serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics. They are also used topically to treat skin infections and prevent wound infections after surgery.

It's important to note that aminoglycosides should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to antibiotic resistance and further health complications.

Vancomycin resistance refers to the ability of certain bacteria to resist the antibiotic effects of vancomycin, which is a glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat severe infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. This resistance develops due to genetic changes that result in the alteration of the bacterial cell wall, making it difficult for vancomycin to bind and inhibit bacterial growth.

There are several types of vancomycin resistance mechanisms, with the most common ones being VanA, VanB, VanC, VanD, VanE, and VanG. Among these, VanA and VanB are clinically significant as they confer high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin, another glycopeptide antibiotic.

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria can cause various difficult-to-treat infections, such as urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. These infections often occur in healthcare settings, including hospitals and long-term care facilities, where the use of antibiotics is more frequent. The spread of vancomycin resistance is a significant public health concern, as it limits treatment options for severe bacterial infections and can lead to worse patient outcomes.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Resistance training is a form of exercise that involves working your muscles against some form of external resistance, such as free weights, resistance bands, or your own body weight. The goal of resistance training is to increase muscle strength, power, endurance, and size. It can also help improve overall physical function, bone density, and metabolic health.

In a medical context, resistance training may be recommended as part of a treatment plan for various conditions, such as chronic pain, arthritis, or mobility limitations. When performed regularly and with proper form, resistance training can help reduce symptoms, improve functional ability, and enhance quality of life for individuals with these conditions.

It is important to note that resistance training should be tailored to the individual's fitness level, goals, and any medical considerations. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider or a qualified fitness professional before starting a new exercise program.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Nalidixic acid is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a synthetic quinolone derivative. It is primarily used for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Nalidixic acid works by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme necessary for DNA replication. This leads to the prevention of DNA synthesis and ultimately results in bacterial cell death. However, its use has become limited due to the emergence of resistance and the availability of more effective antimicrobials.

It is essential to note that nalidixic acid is not typically used as a first-line treatment for urinary tract infections or any other type of infection. It should only be used when other antibiotics are not suitable due to resistance, allergies, or other factors. Additionally, the drug's potential side effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, and dizziness, may limit its use in some patients.

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Ceftriaxone has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Ceftriaxone is available in injectable form and is commonly used to treat serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. It is also used to prevent infections after surgery or trauma. The drug is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious side effects such as anaphylaxis, kidney damage, and seizures.

It's important to note that Ceftriaxone should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and that it is not recommended for use in individuals with a history of allergic reactions to cephalosporins or penicillins. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, it should be taken as directed and for the full duration of the prescribed course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the treatment is finished.

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"ampicillin (CHEBI:28971)". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved February 17, 2023. Kate Connolly (March 5, 2009). "Jewish resistance film ... The mention of ampicillin is an anachronism. In one scene, it is stated that there may be an epidemic of typhus, and that ... Tomas Arana as Ben Zion Gulkowitz, a resistance leader. Jacek Koman as Konstanty "Kościk" Kozłowski Mia Wasikowska as Chaya ... Veterans of the Soviet partisan resistance in Belarus criticised the film for inaccuracies. Some reviews, as in Poland, ...
Ampicillin generally is considered antibiotic of choice; gentamicin is added frequently for its synergistic effects. Overall ... In addition, no genetic resistance to P100 phage has been reported from present studies on Listeria isolates. Bacteremia should ... Treatment includes prolonged administration of antibiotics, primarily ampicillin and gentamicin, to which the organism is ...
It contains resistance genes against ampicillin and puromycin. Release 1 of the TRC lentiviral shRNA libraries consist of about ...
This does not, however, prevent resistance conferred by bacterial beta-lactamases. Members of this family include ampicillin, ... The aminopenicillins are a group of antibiotics in the penicillin family that are structural analogs of ampicillin (which is ...
However, resistance in these organisms is now common. Ampicillin Amoxicillin There are many ampicillin precursors in existence ... These are inactive compounds that are broken down in the gut to release ampicillin. None of these pro-drugs of ampicillin are ... Using any of these, bacteria commonly develop resistance to different antibiotics, a phenomenon called multi-drug resistance. ... Rice LB (February 2012). "Mechanisms of resistance and clinical relevance of resistance to β-lactams, glycopeptides, and ...
Resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin and vancomycin has been observed. D. lykanthroporepellens is strictly anaerobic and ...
The strain is natively resistant to both spectinomycin and ampicillin antibiotics. Kanamycin resistance is used as a selectable ...
An example of a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic is ampicillin. Antibiotics are often grouped by their ability to act on ... normal bacteria and the development of antimicrobial resistance. ...
... ampicillin resistance azi = azide resistance bla = beta-lactam resistance cat = chloramphenicol resistance kan = kanamycin ... the ampicillin-resistance phenotype of the β-lactamase gene bla). Protein names are the same as the gene names, but the protein ... resistance rif = rifampicin resistance tonA = phage T1 resistance sup = suppressor (for instance, supF suppresses amber ... which confers kanamycin-resistance, as oftentimes parenthetically noted for drug-resistance markers) When referring to the ...
The resistance genes confer resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. In addition, RK2 contains a ... and two antibiotic resistance genes, bla and cat, which confer resistance to Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol, respectively. ... as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. Plasmids in the IncP- ... RK2 is approximately 60 kbp long and contains genes for replication, maintenance, conjugation and antibiotic resistance. ...
Treatment is typically with antibiotics such as clindamycin, meropenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, or moxifloxacin. For those with ... or meropenem is recommended in cases of potential antibiotic resistance. The typical duration of antibiotic therapy is about 5 ... ampicillin/sulbactam, and moxifloxacin. Treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime, levofloxacin, imipenem, ...
The plasmid also carries genes to confer resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Plasmid pHT01 is generally stable in ...
... pUC19 also encodes for an ampicillin resistance gene (ampR), via a β-lactamase enzyme that functions by degrading ampicillin ... Only the cells with the plasmid containing the ampicillin resistance (ampR) gene will survive. Furthermore, the transformed ... Therefore, the media used should contain ampicillin, IPTG, and X-gal. Due to its extensive use as a cloning vector in research ... Vector (molecular biology) Blue white screen Antibiotic resistance pBLU Yanisch-Perron, C.; Vieira, J.; Messing, J. (1985). " ...
... although some isolates have been found to show resistance. C. canimorsus is susceptible to ampicillin, third-generation ... It has shown resistance to gentamicin. Treatment is recommended for a minimum of three weeks. Hospitalization is required in ... C. canimorsus cells also show resistance to killing by complement and killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNMs). C. ...
Sensitive strains of these bacteria can be treated with ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin. Urinary tract infections can be ... 2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1- ... an important feature of this genus is the high level of intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Some enterococci are intrinsically ... Is Required for the Resistance of This Species to Clindamycin and Quinupristin-Dalfopristin". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
... and ampicillin resistance genes. Genes in the resistance plasmids enable bacteria to produce Pilli and develop resistance to ... Multiple resistance genes are commonly arranged in the resistance cassettes. The antibiotic resistance genes found on the ... It is very common for the resistance genes or entire resistance cassettes to be re-arranged on the same plasmid or be moved to ... Resistance plasmids by definition carry one or more antibiotic resistance genes. They are frequently accompanied by the genes ...
Ampicillin- and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (lacking high-level resistance to aminoglycosides) strains can be treated by ... Daptomycin or linezolid may also show efficacy in case ampicillin and vancomycin resistance. A combination of penicillin and ... The resistance is mediated by the presence of multiple genes related to drug resistance in the chromosome or plasmid. ... ceftriaxone is working synergistically with ampicillin) may be used alternatively for ampicillin-susceptible E. faecalis. ...
The increasing resistance of the Campylobacter to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is of a major concern.[citation needed] A ... Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin are ineffective against Campylobacter.[citation needed] In the past, poultry ... Fàbrega A, Sánchez-Céspedes J, Soto S, Vila J (2008). "Quinolone resistance in the food chain". Int J Antimicrob Agents. 31 (4 ... McDermott P, Bodeis S, English L, White D, Walker R, Zhao S, Simjee S, Wagner D (2002). "Ciprofloxacin resistance in ...
... demonstrates in vitro resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, streptomycin, ...
Some strains of S. flexneri have resistance to the antibiotics streptomycin, ampicillin, or trimethoprim. It has been found ... Ssr1 sRNA, which could play role in resistance to acidic stress and regulation of virulence was shown to exist only in Shigella ... "Molecular characteristics of class 1 and class 2 integrons and their relationships to antibiotic resistance in clinical ... flexneri have more plasmids that are suspected to confer antibiotic resistance. ...
When grown on medium containing ampicillin, bacteria die due to lack of ampicillin resistance. The position is later noted on ... Beta-lactamase which confers ampicillin resistance to bacterial hosts. Neo gene from Tn5, which confers resistance to kanamycin ... Normally the genes encoding resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline or kanamycin, etc., are ... Selectable markers are often antibiotic resistance genes (An antibiotic resistance marker is a gene that produces a protein ...
So, for example, the "marker gene" could be for resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. If the bacteria that were supposed to ... Typical marker genes are for antibiotic resistance or nutrient biosynthesis. ... Now the bacteria that picked up the plasmid would be able to grow in ampicillin whereas the bacteria that did not pick up the ... desired plasmid would still be vulnerable to destruction by the ampicillin. Therefore, successfully transformed bacteria would ...
Resistance to rifampicin has been noted to increase after use, which has caused some to recommend considering other agents. ... In young children and those over 50 years of age, as well as those who are immunocompromised, the addition of ampicillin is ... In the US, where resistance to cefalosporins is increasingly found in streptococci, addition of vancomycin to the initial ... Chloramphenicol, either alone or in combination with ampicillin, however, appears to work equally well. Empirical therapy may ...
Environmental resistance of T.equigenitalis is poor. There is evidence supporting that T. equigenitalis can survive for short ... Antibiotics useful in treating T. equigenitalis include ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, ... sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin resistance and should therefore be avoided. Daily washing of the external genitalia with a ... chlorhexidine as well as starting an antibiotic such as ampicillin. Prevention involves testing of new horses brought into the ...
Most strains of C. pseudotuberculosis have been shown to be intrinsically resistant to streptomycin, with varying resistance to ... It has been shown to be susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, lincomycin, and chloramphenicol. Vaccines have ... Specifically, C. pseudotuberculosis is intrinsically resistant to streptomycin, with varying resistance to penicillin and ... including ampicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, lincomycin, chloramphenicol, and others. Treatment within live animals (in vivo ...
Clinical guidelines thus recommend that C. hominis and other HACEK organisms be presumed to harbor ampicillin resistance and ... Historically, C. hominis has been sensitive to penicillin and penicillin derivatives such as ampicillin. However, penicillin- ...
... freundii strains have inducible ampC genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. ... In addition, isolates of Citrobacter may be resistant to many other antibiotics as a result of plasmid-encoded resistance genes ...
... or ampicillin-resistant enterococcal infections. Centers with significant gentamicin resistance patterns should consider ... Ampicillin plus gentamicin (or amikacin) plus clindamycin •Ampicillin plus an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (eg, cefotaxime [ ... replacing ampicillin or added to monotherapy) in centers where there is a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant ... Ampicillin plus gentamicin (or amikacin) plus metronidazole • ...
... pBR322 is 4361 base pairs in length and has two antibiotic resistance genes - the gene bla encoding the ampicillin resistance ( ... Another plasmid, RSF 2124, which is a derivative of ColE1, confers ampicillin resistance but is larger. Many other plasmids ... the ampicillin resistance gene of RSF 2124, and the replication elements of pMB1, a close relative of the ColE1 plasmid. A ... I. Ampicillin-resistant derivatives of the plasmid pMB9". Gene. 2 (2): 75-93. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(77)90074-9. PMID 344136. ...
Ampicillin use for this purpose had declined as bacterial resistance has increased. Mastitis in sows Mixed aerobic-anaerobic ... Ampicillin is not recommended in people with concurrent mononucleosis, as over 40% of patients develop a skin rash. Ampicillin ... Ampicillin reacts with probenecid and methotrexate to decrease renal excretion. Large doses of ampicillin can increase the risk ... Ampicillin has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. Until the introduction of ampicillin by the ...
Trends in antibiotic resistance for the priority bacterial pathogens in children and adults Researchers assessed the variation ... Early-life acquisition of antibiotic resistance in neonates from developing countries Every year, almost 7 million potentially ... The incidence of antimicrobial resistance among urinary E. coli isolates is increasing in both hospital and community settings ...
Resistance is caused by a change in penicillin-binding proteins. It is recommended for bites from cats, dogs, and humans. ... This is a drug combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and ampicillin. It interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis ... Resistance occurs by alterations in penicillin-binding proteins. It is used as initial therapy for suspected streptococcal and ... Resistance occurs by alteration of penicillin-binding proteins. It is used for the treatment of infections caused by ...
Antimicrobial resistance¶. Ampicillin. 493/640 (77). 449/641 (70). 942/1,281 (74). ... Isolate genomes were screened for resistance determinants and assigned predicted resistance patterns using ResFinder† drug keys ... No resistance. 46/640 (7). 94/641 (15). 140/1,281 (11). * Denominators may not equal totals for each year due to missing data. ... and creates opportunities for resistance genes to spread. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for multidrug resistance ...
Ampicillin/sulbactam 1 4. 8. R. Aztreonam <=2. S. Aztreonam/avibactam 1. 0.06. ---. ... This analysis does not include mutations that may result in antibiotic resistance or resistance determinants added to newer ... For resistance determinant detection, 99-100% sequence identity and 100% sequence coverage from GAMMA and SRST2 was used. GAMMA ... 4 The MIC Interpretation has been defaulted to "Resistant" due to known intrinsic resistance for this bacterial species in the ...
Ampicillin <=1. S. Ampicillin/sulbactam 1. 2. S. Aztreonam <=2. S. Cefazolin 8. R. ... This analysis does not include mutations that may result in antibiotic resistance or resistance determinants added to newer ... For resistance determinant detection, 99-100% sequence identity and 100% sequence coverage from GAMMA and SRST2 was used. GAMMA ... Refer to CLSI M100 for more information about intrinsic resistance. 5 Clinical and PK/PD data demonstrate colistin has limited ...
Ampicillin. 6. ≥32. R. TMP/SMX. 6. ≥320. R. Ciprofloxacin. 12. ≥4 and 8. R. ... Shigella flexneri with Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility, Canada, 2015 Christiane Gaudreau. , ... Shigella flexneri with Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility, Canada, 2015. ... and the susceptibility and resistance breakpoints for the other 11 antimicrobial agents were CLSI Enterobacteriaceae ...
All four (100%) isolates tested were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline.. *Antibiotic resistance may be associated with ... Of the four isolates tested, all (100%) were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. Antibiotic resistance may be associated ... Of the four isolates tested, all (100%) were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. Antibiotic resistance may be associated ... CDCs National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) laboratory conducted antibiotic resistance testing on ...
QIAexpress pQE vectors and constructs can be maintained in any E. coli strain that is ampicillin-sensitive and carries the ... Confers ampicillin resistance. See figures. pQE Vectors.. pQE TriSystem.. Procedure. Inserts encoding proteins of interest are ...
Bacterial Resistance. Ampicillin. Stable. Unspecified. Constitutive. Unspecified. Viral/Non-Viral. Unspecified. Sequence. Copy ...
Bacterial Resistance:. Ampicillin. Notes:. Vector for expressing mPlum in bacteria.. Stable:. Unspecified. ...
Function: detoxifies beta lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin. GM Trait: Antibiotic resistance ...
To this end, researchers have tracked the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from swine. ... AMC-Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid; AMP-Ampicillin; AXO-Ceftriaxone; AZI-Azithromycin; COT-Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole; FOX- ... Researchers track antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from swine. by Ananya Sen, University of Illinois at Urbana- ... Antimicrobial resistance trends in commensal Escherichia coli (n = 3237) isolated from swine at slaughter across the US, 2013- ...
Ampicillin or amoxicillin should be avoided due to high rates of resistance.[23][24] If the beta-lactams cannot be used, ... An Estrogen Vaginal Cream May Help Increase Resistance to Bladder Infections: Clinicians may suggest an estrogen cream for the ... The duration of treatment should be no longer than a week.[3] If the urine cultures show resistance to all available oral ... Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli outpatient urinary isolates: final results from the North American Urinary Tract ...
Categories: Ampicillin Resistance Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
33] A carbapenem or ampicillin/sulbactam also are options in treating Acinetobacter HAP/VAP. If there is resistance to these ... MRSA should be covered empirically in patients with any of the following risk factors for antibiotic resistance:. * Patients ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance and therapeutic options at the turn of the new millennium. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 Jun. ... Double-drug coverage of P aeruginosa should combine agents with a high degree of antipseudomonal activity and low resistance ...
β-lactamase gene for ampicillin resistance selection in bacteria. Figure 5.Stable Expression Vector ...
Ampicillin resistance gene (66) *Sildegra (293) *Does luvox cause weight loss (61) ...
Antibiotic Resistance Bacterial. Ampicillin (AmpR). Cloning Method. LIC Cloning. Sample Type. PCR Products ...
boydii infections in England and Wales has increased from 42% to 65% and the incidence of resistance to trimethoprim, from 6% ... Since 1983 the incidence of resistance to ampicillin in Shigella dysenteriae, Sh. flexneri, and Sh. ... Since 1983 the incidence of resistance to ampicillin in Shigella dysenteriae, Sh. flexneri, and Sh. boydii infections in ... Increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance in shigellas from humans in England and Wales: recommendations for therapy Microb ...
Ampicillin resistance gene function (117) *Vigra price (62) *Benicar hct tablets (66) ... Diclofenac potasico sirve para la inflamacion Price of viagra 100mg kroger No precsription calis Chloramphenicol ampicillin ...
Antimicrobial Resistance Transduction. The antibiogram from E. coli isolate P5 revealed resistance to ampicillin (Table 2). ... E. coli were tested for resistance towards ampicillin at 35 µg/mL, tetracycline at 20 µg/mL, kanamycin at 30 µg/mL, and ... Phage vB_EcoM_P5 isolated originally from this strain was used to test its ability to transduce ampicillin resistance. After ... with resistance against penicillin G, erythromycin, and clindamycin to possible resistance genes to be transduced. The new ...
Its Backbone is With a resistance against Ampicillin/Gentamycin Have a look at the part design page on the registry for More ... Its Backbone is ,partinfo,BBa_J61035,/partinfo, With a resistance against Ampicillin/Gentamycin [[Team Groningen:Dummielink ... Its Backbone is ,partinfo,BBa_J61035,/partinfo, With a resistance against Ampicillin/Gentamycin ...
Ampicillin resistance in FlgE-Bla-exporting cells was assayed as described13, with minor modifications described in Methods. ... Briefly, cells were diluted to D600 = 0.01, cultured for 4.5 h in LB media containing ampicillin in a series of dilutions ... Reversion of antibiotic resistance in multidrug-resistant pathogens using non-antibiotic pharmaceutical benzydamine *Yuan Liu ... 3a). Thus, the electrical potential component seems essential for export under the conditions of this experiment (extracellular ...
Most of the isolates showed resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics, augmentin, ampicillin, gentamicin and ... The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis. Pharm Ther. 2015; 40(4): 277-283. 45. Piddock LJ The crisis of no new antibiotics-what is the ... Increasing antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics is a challenge to the health-care system. Inappropriate use of ... Increasing antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics is a challenge to the health-care system. Routine culture and ...
The prevalence of resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species, and local information on resistance is ... 3 Breakpoint values in the table are based on Ampicillin breakpoints.. 4 The resistant breakpoint of R,8 mg/l ensures that all ... As necessary, expert advice should be sought when the local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in ... The two main mechanisms of resistance in Co-Amoxiclav are: • the inactivation by bacterial beta-lactamases that are not ...
... www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/resistance-bank/) for use in validation of colistin-resistance testing in U.S. clinical laboratories ... The sample from one pig also was resistant to other antibiotics, including ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and ... No additional resistance was found in the isolate from the second pig. The presence of the mcr-1 gene on a plasmid means that ... Bacteria with this resistance mechanism have now been identified from humans, food, environmental samples, and food animals in ...
  • Researchers assessed the variation in antibiotic resistance patterns in adults and children. (news-medical.net)
  • This analysis does not include mutations that may result in antibiotic resistance or resistance determinants added to newer versions of used database or other antimicrobial resistance gene databases. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) laboratory conducted antibiotic resistance testing on clinical isolates collected from four ill people infected with the outbreak strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased risk of hospitalization, development of a bloodstream infection, or treatment failure in patients. (cdc.gov)
  • This R-plasmid reservoir may contribute to the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance in our Region. (who.int)
  • Research has focused on cost-effective antibiotic therapy and concern for emergence of antibiotic resistance with both typical and atypical organisms. (medscape.com)
  • Increasing antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics is a challenge to the health-care system. (ispub.com)
  • The mcr-1 gene exists on a plasmid, a small piece of DNA that is capable of moving from one bacterium to another, potentially spreading antibiotic resistance to other bacterial species. (cdc.gov)
  • Ampicillin and puromycin antibiotic resistance genes provide selection in bacterial or mammalian cells respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance has become an increasingly pressing problem in many countries. (medscimonit.com)
  • Novel nonantibiotic approaches such as immunoaugmentation with antibodies, or limiting antimicrobials to topical applications might reduce selective pressure to develop antibiotic resistance in the host microbiome that is currently thought to be caused by perioperative agents. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment is usually with penicillinase-resistant beta-lactams, but because antibiotic resistance is common, vancomycin or other newer antibiotics may be required. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Coagulase-positive S. aureus is among the most ubiquitous and dangerous human pathogens, for both its virulence and its ability to develop antibiotic resistance. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance is high in children with urinary tract infections, and it's so common that antibiotics may be ineffective as first-line treatments, a new study has found. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • The target of this work was to generate information on circulating serotypes, antibiotic resistance and the presence of simultaneous resistance to multiple drugs in Salmonella from human clinical samples and food samples in the period from 2017 to 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • Isolates were defined as MDR if they contained resistance determinants for three or more antimicrobial classes. (cdc.gov)
  • All four (100%) isolates tested were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT We investigated antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of uropathogenic Escher- ichia coli isolates from inpatients and outpatients at Jordan University Hospital in 2000 and 2001. (who.int)
  • A large, transferable R-plasmid of 28 kb was found in most E. coli isolates (67%) that were resistant to at least ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and tetracycline. (who.int)
  • sonnei almost 50% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin or trimethoprim and 15% were resistant to both of these antimicrobials. (nih.gov)
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that the majority of the isolates were sensitive to Imipenem and Nitrofurantoin while most were significantly resistant to, augmentin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. (ispub.com)
  • For most isolates, the MIC of ampicillin is 2- to 4-fold lower than that of penicillin. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, this enhanced dose would deal with the relative resistance of enterococcal isolates that have been previously exposed to vancomycin. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to antimicrobials may facilitate survival of isolates that have either spontaneously mutated or acquired resistance through other means. (vin.com)
  • In this study, the resistance patterns of urinary isolates to commonly used antimicrobials were determined in order to evaluate the options for empirical antibiotic therapy of UTI in out- and in- patients. (medscimonit.com)
  • Against Gram-positive isolates, enterococci in particular, ampicillin and glycopeptides demonstrated the best, most consistent activity. (medscimonit.com)
  • Among Escherichia coli isolates, nitrofurantoin, cephalosporins, and penicillin/betalactams were the best options for therapeutic treatment because of the presence of a rate of resistance to cotrimoxazole and fluoroquinolones of over 10%, while the most active drug against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was piperacillin/tazobactam. (medscimonit.com)
  • Cefoxitin (30g) was used as surrogate to determine phenotypic methicillin resistance in staphylococcus isolates, and the methicillin resistance ( mec A) gene was detected by conventional PCR assay. (who.int)
  • Gram negative isolates showed high resistance rate of 73.1% to ampicillin and 65.4% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Gram-positive isolates showed high resistant rate of 94.1% to penicillin. (who.int)
  • All the Salmonella isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing, bioinformatics analysis for serovar predictions, multi-locus sequence types, antimicrobial resistance genes, and plasmid types by using the in-house Galaxy platform. (frontiersin.org)
  • The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates was determined using a minimal inhibitory concentration assay with 14 antimicrobials. (frontiersin.org)
  • Surviving cells of all isolates demonstrated multiple drug-resistance post exposure to UV radiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • 13.0% (18/138) with the most common resistance profile being resistance to ampicillin-chloramphenicol-ciprofloxacin from Salmonella Enteritidis isolates ( n = 5). (who.int)
  • Ampicillin is used to treat infections by many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its spectrum of activity is enhanced by co-administration of sulbactam, a drug that inhibits beta lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria to inactivate ampicillin and related antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. coli can also acquire and transfer resistance genes to other bacteria in the intestinal tract, making them ideal for monitoring programs of livestock and humans. (phys.org)
  • The researchers focused on market swine and sows in the US between 2013 and 2019, and used the data compiled by the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service under the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria program. (phys.org)
  • Bacteria with this resistance mechanism have now been identified from humans, food, environmental samples, and food animals in at least 20 countries around the world. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of the mcr-1 gene on a plasmid means that colistin resistance can be shared with other more resistant bacteria such as CRE, raising the possibility that untreatable bacteria could develop. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), will continue to look for mcr-1 mediated colistin resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. (cdc.gov)
  • A so-called beta lactamase, TEM1 causes resistance against antibiotics like ampicillin in bacteria. (cscs.ch)
  • Bacteria in humans, food and animals continue to show resistance to the most widely used antimicrobials, says the latest report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic bacteria in Europe. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Marta Hugas, Head of EFSA's Biological Hazards and Contaminants unit, said: "In northern Europe, there is lower resistance in bacteria from poultry, particularly in countries with low use of antimicrobials in animals. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Resistance to widely used antimicrobials, such as ciprofloxacin, was commonly detected in bacteria from humans and poultry. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The prevalence of multi-drug resistance was high in bacteria in humans (26%), and especially high in broiler and turkey meat (24.8% and 30.5%, respectively). (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Some types of Salmonella bacteria, namely Salmonella Kentucky and Salmonella Infantis, are of particular concern as they showed high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and high multi-drug resistance. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The antibacterial activity of renowned medicinal plant Azadirachta indica was also evaluated against some multidrug resistance bacteria. (scirp.org)
  • Ampicillin sodium targets non-ESBL (Extended Spectrum β-lactamase) bacteria including Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species and medically important enteric pathogens such as Shigella and Salmonella . (goldbio.com)
  • Until recently, the HACEK bacteria were uniformly susceptible to ampicillin. (medscape.com)
  • Respiratory infections, including bronchitis, pharyngitis Sinusitis Sepsis Whooping cough, to prevent and treat secondary infections Ampicillin used to also be used to treat gonorrhea, but there are now too many strains resistant to penicillins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The penicillinase-resistant, or second-generation, penicillins are semisynthetic modifications of natural penicillins that are resistant to bacterial enzyme beta-lactamase, which accounts for typical penicillin resistance. (medscape.com)
  • 4 The MIC Interpretation has been defaulted to "Resistant" due to known intrinsic resistance for this bacterial species in the wild-type population. (cdc.gov)
  • 4 The interpretation of resistant is due to intrinsic resistance for this species-drug combination rather than the MIC. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs through different mechanisms, which include spontaneous (natural) genetic mutations and horizontal transfer of resistant genes through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (who.int)
  • This increase poses important problems, including a) the lack of available antimicrobial therapy for VRE infections, because most VRE are also resistant to drugs previously used to treat such infections (e.g., aminoglycosides and ampicillin), and b) the possibility that the vancomycin-resistant genes present in VRE can be transferred to other gram-positive microorganisms (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • For rare strains that are resistant to ampicillin because of beta-lactamase production, ampicillin plus sulbactam may be used. (medscape.com)
  • Trials optimizing timing of antibiotic administration with regard to known antimicrobial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (e.g., prolonging infusion times of β-lactams to reduce bacterial resistance) should also assist in improving outcomes in penetrating traumatic infections, which are increasingly antibiotic resistant. (medscape.com)
  • With more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections in the United States every year, "even 1 antibiotic course can influence resistance patterns of future infections in the patient and population," Rana E. El Feghaly, MD, MSCI, associate professor, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children's Mercy Kansas City, Missouri, noted at the 2022 AAP National Conference & Exhbition. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • In the UK, half of all samples were resistant to ampicillin (amoxicillin), a third to co-trimoxazole, and a quarter to trimethoprim. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • V. cholerae isolated at a national referral laboratory from 1999 to 2012 were retrospectively analysed and evaluated for resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and ofloxacin. (who.int)
  • observing greater resistance to Tetracycline, Ác. (bvsalud.org)
  • Vancomycin should be used in patients with a penicillin allergy or infections with strains that have high-level penicillin resistance due to altered PBPs. (medscape.com)
  • The report also includes information on the occurrence of Salmonella and E. coli strains that produce an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and/or a carbapenemase, enzymes that confer resistance to the critically important third-generation antimicrobials cephalosporins and carbapenems, respectively. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. (nih.gov)
  • Our study demonstrated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella strains isolated from pig slaughterhouses in China and suggested that the genomic platform can serve as routine surveillance along with the food-chain investigation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility data revealed increasing resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin, but strains remained highly susceptible to ofloxacin. (who.int)
  • The 16.9% the strains presented multiple resistance (3 or more antibiotics) with 37 different phenotypes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Its scarcity in the medical literature and resistance to numerous broad-spectrum antibiotics such as carbapenems, cephalosporins, and beta-lactam/lactamase inhibitors pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. (hindawi.com)
  • and Bacillus cereus were ascertained and compared with that of the conventional antibiotics of Amoxicillin and Ampicillin using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). (ispub.com)
  • Amoxicillin a moderate-spectrum antibiotic and Ampicillin are conventional antibiotics recommended for treating gastrointestinal infections caused by these organisms. (ispub.com)
  • Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics occurs in the presence of cells containing plasmid encoded extended spectrum β-lactamases or ESBLs. (goldbio.com)
  • Resistance to first-line antibiotics limits the therapeutic choices for Salmonella infection. (who.int)
  • The report also found evidence of resistance to the antimicrobial colistin in Salmonella and E. coli among poultry in the EU. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Resistance to widely used antimicrobials was commonly detected in Salmonella from humans (tetracyclines 30%, sulphonamides 28.2%, ampicillin 28.2%) and poultry. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • As of this year the report gives information on resistance to colistin in Salmonella and E.coli from poultry in the EU. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Scientists from the Institut Pasteur have retrospectively identified early cases of Salmonella resistance to ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is. (pasteur.fr)
  • Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (nih.gov)
  • E. coli was 80% resistance to Ampicillin and 90% sensitive to Ciprofloxacin whereas Salmonella spp. (scirp.org)
  • The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic Salmonella is a significant ongoing concern over the world. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, significant advancements have been achieved in understanding and prediction of antimicrobial resistance of the Salmonella ( 11 , 14 , 18 , 19 ), and the knowledge of the antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids are improving. (frontiersin.org)
  • Resistencia a múltiples antibióticos en serovariedades de Salmonella aisladas de muestra. (bvsalud.org)
  • Salmonella enterica es un patógeno transmitido por alimentos y agente etiológico de brotes alimentarios de gran impacto en la salud humana. (bvsalud.org)
  • El objetivo de este trabajo fue generar información sobre los serotipos circulantes, resistencia a los antibióticos y presencia de resistencia simultánea a múltiples fármacos en Salmonella provenientes de muestras clínicas humanas y muestras de alimentos en el periodo desde 2017 a 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fueron analizadas un total de 668 cepas de Salmonella aisladas en los años 2017, 2018 y 2019 a partir de muestras clínicas humanas y de alimentos, en el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública y/o remitidas por Laboratorios de la Red de Enteropatógenos. (bvsalud.org)
  • The epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance pat- induce self-limiting diarrhoea, which is referred to tern of iNTS in Asia is not well documented, with limited as non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) gastroenteritis. (who.int)
  • Azithromycin epidemiologic cutoff values for wild-type (MIC ≤8 mg/L) and non-wild-type (MIC ≥16 mg/L) Shigella flexneri ( 2 ) and the susceptibility and resistance breakpoints for the other 11 antimicrobial agents were CLSI Enterobacteriaceae breakpoints ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • ampicillin for amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for ampicillin-sulbactam. (vin.com)
  • An excellent example is the recent demonstration of substantially higher ampicillin/sulbactam resistance in a center where abdominal trauma patients repeatedly received ampicillin/sulbactam. (medscape.com)
  • Nalidixic, Ampicillin and Nitrofurantoin, to a lesser degree resistance to cephalosporins (C3ªG) and ciprofloxacin was evidenced. (bvsalud.org)
  • Isolate genomes were screened for resistance determinants and assigned predicted resistance patterns using ResFinder † drug keys as part of surveillance through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. (cdc.gov)
  • In particular, the resistance to ceftriaxone, an important antimicrobial drug in both human and veterinary medicine, increased from 0.8% in 2013 to 7.7% in 2019. (phys.org)
  • Multiple studies of ceftriaxone plus ampicillin in E faecalis valve endocarditis supported those of smaller earlier ones. (medscape.com)
  • For individuals at risk for these side effects, intravenous ampicillin 2 g every 4 hours plus intravenous ceftriaxone 2 g every 12 hours appears to provide a reasonable alternative. (medscape.com)
  • This report presents the status of AMR in Africa by analysing the main types of resistance and the underlying genes where possible. (who.int)
  • Thus, genes for resistance develop along with genes directing antibiotic production and organisms are "primed" to develop resistance. (vin.com)
  • Microflora of the GI tract can serve as reservoir of resistance genes. (vin.com)
  • Vancomycin resistance in enterococci has coincided with the increasing incidence of high-level enterococcal resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides, thus presenting a challenge for physicians who treat patients who have infections caused by these microorganisms (1,4). (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists warn that resistance to ciprofloxacin, an antimicrobial that is critically important for the treatment of human infections, is very high in Campylobacter , thus reducing the options for effective treatment of severe foodborne infections. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Vytenis Andriukaitis, EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety, said: "Every year in the EU, infections caused by antimicrobial resistance lead to about 25,000 deaths - but the threat is not confined to Europe. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • It is no longer recommended to use fluoroquinolones to treat gonococcal infections secondary to a high rate of resistance. (medscape.com)
  • Ciprofloxacin is no longer recommended for gonococcal and nongonococcal infections, such as chlamydia, given their incomplete coverage and increased rate of resistance. (medscape.com)
  • Since 1983 the incidence of resistance to ampicillin in Shigella dysenteriae, Sh. (nih.gov)
  • Garlic also retained the same MIC activity with Ampicillin on Shigella (50mg/ml). (ispub.com)
  • The report also includes a summary on the status of drug resistance for TB, HIV and malaria. (who.int)
  • For persistent infection following treatment, unrelated to reexposure, send a specimen to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for drug-resistance testing. (medscape.com)
  • Escherichia coli rapidly develops resistance, particularly that associated with multiple drug resistance (MDR) when exposed to selected antimicrobials. (vin.com)
  • showed 100% resistance to Ampicillin and 80% sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin. (scirp.org)
  • Combination therapy with a cell wall-active agent (eg, ampicillin, vancomycin) and an aminoglycoside (eg, gentamicin, streptomycin) has long been regarded as the standard of care for E faecalis native valve endocarditis. (medscape.com)
  • Even though these numbers are not high compared to the resistance to other antimicrobials, the increasing trend is concerning. (phys.org)
  • The study - published in The BMJ - found that there was a high prevalence of resistance globally in children's UTIs caused by E coli (which is responsible for 80% of cases). (nursinginpractice.com)
  • Ampicillin is one of the most used drugs in pregnancy, and has been found to be generally harmless both by the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. (which classified it as category B) and the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia (which classified it as category A). It is the drug of choice for treating Listeria monocytogenes in pregnant women, either alone or combined with an aminoglycoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnancy increases the clearance of ampicillin by up to 50%, and a higher dose is thus needed to reach therapeutic levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advent of antimicrobial resistance is increasingly limiting therapeutic options in human and veterinary medicine. (vin.com)
  • High to extremely high resistance to nalidixic acid and to tetracyclines was reported in broilers. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Ceftaroline and ampicillin are the most promising of the beta-lactams. (medscape.com)
  • In human medicine, E. coli has developed resistance to the fluorinated quinolones, beta-lactams, or both: it is among the gram-negative organisms that secrete extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). (vin.com)
  • Ampicillin is the drug of choice for monotherapy of susceptible E faecalis infection . (medscape.com)
  • Knowledge of local organisms and resistance patterns plays an integral role in appropriate antimicrobial selection. (medscape.com)
  • In sensitive E faecalis native valve endocarditis treated with ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside, consideration should be given to limiting the aminoglycoside component to 2 weeks in order to avoid nephrotoxic, vestibular, and ototoxic events. (medscape.com)
  • The World Health Organization classifies ampicillin as critically important for human medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of organisms to develop resistance to an antimicrobial varies with the species and strain. (vin.com)
  • It may be caused by mobile genetic elements, which can transfer antimicrobial resistance from one bacterium to another. (phys.org)
  • Amoxicillin is a derivative of ampicillin and has a similar antibacterial spectrum-namely, certain gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. (medscape.com)
  • In November 2015, a report from China first described plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance caused by the mcr-1 gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance trends in commensal Escherichia coli (n = 3237) isolated from swine at slaughter across the US, 2013-2019. (phys.org)
  • To this end, researchers have tracked the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from swine. (phys.org)
  • The study "Evaluating Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Commensal Escherichia coli Isolated from Cecal Samples of Swine at Slaughter in the United States, 2013-2019" was published in Microorganisms . (phys.org)
  • RESUME Nous avons étudié la résistance aux antimicrobiens et les profils plasmidiques des isolats d' Escherichia coli uropathogénique chez des malades hospitalisés et des malades externes à l'Hôpital universitaire jordanien en 2000 et 2001. (who.int)
  • The actual increase in the incidence of VRE in U.S. hospitals might be greater than reported because the fully automated methods used in many clinical laboratories cannot consistently detect vancomycin resistance, especially moderate vancomycin resistance (as manifested in the VanB phenotype) (9-11). (cdc.gov)
  • The gastrointestinal environment is conducive to development of resistance. (vin.com)
  • No additional resistance was found in the isolate from the second pig. (cdc.gov)
  • For IV and IM injections, ampicillin is kept as a powder that must be reconstituted. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kit includes pre-weighed ampicillin (sodium) powder, a sterile filter, and a sterile container for the filtered solution. (goldbio.com)
  • Emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) is an example of the relentless adaptive nature of microbes toward designer drugs intended to preclude the advent of resistance. (vin.com)
  • Ampicillin sodium is a member of the extended-spectrum β-lactam family and similar in structure to penicillin. (goldbio.com)
  • It is ideal for mammalian bite wounds, but it is not ideal for nosocomial pathogens because of increasing rates of resistance of gram-negative organisms. (medscape.com)
  • Resistance may be easily conferred to other potentially more virulent organisms. (vin.com)
  • More disconcerting, resistance is easily conferred to more pathogenic organisms. (vin.com)
  • Although it is a big problem, to the best of our knowledge this paper is the first surveillance study in the US that looks at antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from swine at slaughter. (phys.org)
  • Our study is meant to show that there is an issue and that surveillance systems are very important to show the changes in resistance," Varga said. (phys.org)
  • This is a drug combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and ampicillin. (medscape.com)
  • Ampicillin is contraindicated in those with a hypersensitivity to penicillins, as they can cause fatal anaphylactic reactions. (wikipedia.org)