Dictionaries, MedicalAmpholyte Mixtures: Such mixtures of amphoteric electrolytes or buffers that provide a continuous range of pH in an electric field; used for separating proteins by their isoelectric points, i.e., by isoelectric focusing.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Dictionaries, ChemicalParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Quintuplets: Five individuals derived from five FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.PaperGels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Microscopy, Ultraviolet: Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)SulfathiazolesSulfonesPurines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.PiperazinesPhosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Cofilin 1: Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Bites, Human: Bites inflicted by humans.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Adenosine-5'-O-phosphorylated and adenosine-5'-O-phosphorothioylated polyols as strong inhibitors of (symmetrical) and (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatases. (1/14)

Dinucleoside 5',5"'- P (1), P ( n )-polyphosphates, and particularly the diadenosine compounds, have been implicated in extracellular purinergic signalling and in various intracellular processes, including DNA metabolism, tumour suppression and stress responses. If permitted to accumulate, they may also be toxic. One approach to understanding their function is through the various specific degradative enzymes that regulate their levels. Eight adenosine-5'- O -phosphorylated polyols (derivatives of glycerol, erythritol and pentaerythritol) and 11 adenosine-5'- O -phosphorothioylated polyols (derivatives of glycerol, erythritol, pentaerythritol, butanediol and pentanediol) have been tested as inhibitors of specific diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) hydrolases. Of these two groups of novel nucleotides, the adenosine-5'- O -phosphorothioylated polyols were generally stronger inhibitors than their adenosine-5'- O -phosphorylated counterparts. 1,4-Di(adenosine-5'- O -phosphorothio) erythritol appeared to be the strongest inhibitor of ( asymmetrical ) Ap(4)A hydrolases (EC 3.6.1.17) from both lupin and human, with K (i) values of 0.15 microM and 1.5 microM respectively. Of eight adenosine-5'- O -phosphorylated polyols, 1,4-di(adenosine-5'- O -phospho) erythritol was the only compound that inhibited the lupin enzyme. Two derivatives of pentaerythritol, di(adenosine-5'- O -phosphorothio)-di(phosphorothio) pentaerythritol and tri(adenosine-5'- O -phosphorothio)-phosphorothio-pentaerythritol, proved to be the strongest inhibitors of the prokaryotic ( symmetrical ) Ap(4)A hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.41) so far reported. The estimated K (i) values were 0.04 microM and 0.08 microM respectively. All of these inhibitors were competitive with respect to Ap(4)A. These new selectively acting Ap(4)A analogues should prove to be valuable tools for further studies of Ap(4)A function and of the enzymes involved in its metabolism.  (+info)

Efficient solubilization buffers for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of acidic and basic proteins extracted from wheat seeds. (2/14)

Plant tissues are made up of a broad range of proteins with a variety of properties. After extraction, solubilization of a diverse range of plant proteins for efficient proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis is a challenging process. We tested the efficiency of 12 solubilization buffers in dissolving acidic and basic proteins extracted from mature seeds of wheat. The buffer containing two chaotropes (urea and thiourea), two detergents (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate and N-decyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane-sulfonate), two reducing agents (dithiothreitol and tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride) and two types of carrier ampholytes (BioLyte pH 4-6 and pH 3-10) solubilized the most acidic proteins in the pH range between 4 and 7. The buffer made up of urea, thiourea, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate, DeStreak reagent (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) and immobilized pH gradient buffer, pH 6-11 (Amersham Biosciences) solubilized the most basic proteins in the pH range between 6 and 11. These two buffers produced two-dimensional gels with high resolution, superior quality and maximum number of detectable protein (1425 acidic protein and 897 basic protein) spots.  (+info)

Commercial ampholytes used for isoelectric focusing may interfere with bioactivity based purification of antimicrobial peptides. (3/14)

BioRad's Rotofor system has been frequently used for the purification of proteins and smaller peptides such as bacteriocins. In this study, we report that some commercially available ampholytes used with the Rotofor isoelectric focusing system possess antimicrobial activity, which may interfere with the purification of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like substances.  (+info)

Infection with Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034. (4/14)

 (+info)

Effect of synthetic carrier ampholytes on saturation of human serum transferrin. (5/14)

We have investigated the effect in solution of synthetic carrier ampholytes on the saturation of human serum transferrin. By spectrophotometric titrations of human serum transferrin with various Fe3+-carrier ampholyte solutions, we demonstrated that under these conditions carrier ampholytes behave as typical chelators, their binding curves being very similar to that obtained with disodium nitrilotriacetate. On performing titration experiments at three different pH values, carrier ampholytes act like nitrilotriacetate at pH 7.5, but the former are more effective iron donors at pH 8.4 and worse iron donors at pH 5.2. Spectrophotometric titrations of isolated C-terminal and N-terminal fragments obtained from human serum transferrin by thermolysin cleavage show no differences between them, and no differences with respect to the whole protein except that they contain half the number of binding sites. In order to determine a site-specificity of iron in the presence of ampholytes, the classical urea/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis technique was adopted. Under saturating conditions carrier ampholyte solutions act mostly on the C-terminal site, whereas desaturating agents remove iron preferentially from the N-terminal site. Our findings support the hypothesis that Ampholine may chelate Fe3+ as well as many other compounds.  (+info)

Resolution of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in serum by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients. (6/14)

This new method for fractionation of serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes is based on isoelectric focusing on a mixed-type polyacrylamide support containing an immobilized pH gradient with a superimposed carrier-ampholyte gradient. All known forms of alkaline phosphatase are separated in an Immobiline pH 3.5-6.0 gradient, the sample being applied into pockets cast on a pH 8.0 plateau. Sharp zymogram bands are obtained by substituting alkaline-stable 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl phosphate and tetrazolium salts for the standard 1- and 2-naphthyl phosphate-diazonium salt combinations. After hydrolysis of the phosphate group by the alkaline phosphatase the indoxyl moieties reduce tetrazolium salts to nearly insoluble and nondiffusible formazan precipitates. Normal sera show an array of about 10 isobands isoelectric between pH 3.9 and pH 4.79. In Paget's disease, two sharp isobands with pls of 4.97 and 5.09 are seen. Placental alkaline phosphatase overlaps with the higher pl bands of normal serum; however, upon heat destruction of the latter, it shows four sharp bands with the following pl's: 4.59, 4.62, 4.67 and 4.73.  (+info)

Charge microheterogeneity of the major capsid protein of polyoma virus. (7/14)

The behavior in isoelectric focusing of the major capsid polypeptide VPI of several strains of polyoma virus was studied. Two previously recognized phenomena were reexamined, namely, (i) the separation of the VP1 polypeptide into multiple subspecies differing only slightly from each other in apparent isoelectric point and (ii) strain differences in the overall apparent net charge of the family of VP1 subspecies. It was found that the pattern of subspecies was reproducible when focusing was initiated from either the basic or acidic region of the gel, keeping the ampholyte mixture constant. However, individual subspecies were unstable, and labeled polypeptide could be shifted dramatically by either refocusing of separated subspecies or by altering the concentration of ampholytes. These findings suggest that protein-protein and protein-ampholyte interactions play an important role in the generation of this charge heterogeneity. The basis for the overall charge difference between the VP1 of 3049 virus and several other strains (lpD, lpS, ts59, and A2) was studied, using recombinant viruses constructed of specific sequences derived from 3049 and lpD genomes. The portion of the VP1 polypeptide carrying the altered charge could be mapped to the body of the molecule 3' to the HindIII site at 45.0 map units (3,918 base pairs). This clearly segregates the VP1 charge phenotype from the cyc phenotype of 3049 in which capsid proteins are overproduced and accumulate in the cytoplasm of infected cells.  (+info)

pH-dependent aggregation and electrofocusing of poliovirus. (8/14)

Following isoelectric focusing, poliovirus can be detected at two pH values. The acidic form consists of poliovirus aggregates and the neutral form of single virions.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... ampholyte mixtures MeSH D27.720.470.305 --- culture media MeSH D27.720.470.305.250 --- culture media, conditioned MeSH D27.720. ...

*Chromatofocusing

... is a protein-separation technique that allows resolution of single proteins and other ampholytes from a complex mixture ...

*Solubility equilibrium

Immediate precipitation may occur giving a cloudy mixture. The solubility measured for such a mixture is known as "kinetic ... Solubility values of organic acids, bases, and ampholytes of pharmaceutical interest may be obtained by a process called " ... In static methods a mixture is brought to equilibrium and the concentration of a species in the solution phase is determined by ...

*Isoelectric focusing

When a sample (a mixture of peptides or proteins) is injected in the capillary, the presence of the electrical field and the pH ... Molecules to be focused are distributed over a medium that has a pH gradient (usually created by aliphatic ampholytes). An ... IEF involves adding an ampholyte solution into immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels. IPGs are the acrylamide gel matrix co- ... The multi-junction IEF system has been used to separate tryptic peptide mixtures for two-dimensional proteomics and blood ...

*Protein purification

This method only gives a rough measure of the amounts of different proteins in the mixture, and it is not able to distinguish ... By making use of a pH-gradient, that can for example be induced by ampholytes, this technique allows to separate protein ... Protein purification is a series of processes intended to isolate one or a few proteins from a complex mixture, usually cells, ... When a vessel (typically a tube or bottle) containing a mixture of proteins or other particulate matter, such as bacterial ...

*Partition coefficient

ISBN 978-1-4200-7099-6. Pagliara A, Carrupt PA, Caron G, Gaillard P, Testa, B. (1997). "Lipophilicity Profiles of Ampholytes ... is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium. This ratio is therefore a ...
The basic method of all assays Ive seen is to lyse cells into an aqueous buffer, spin down the pellet, pull off the supernatant and store it as the soluble fraction, then solubilize proteins remaining in the pellet using a solubilization buffer containing various detergents and denaturing agents (e.g. SDS, urea), spin down the pellet again, and pull off the supernatant and store it as the insoluble fraction. Questions: How do you ensure that youve preserved the composition of total protein in each fraction? Answer: Extract in the same amount of buffer in each case, and load identical amounts of each fraction. Control: Do the lysis in solubilization buffer, and save that fraction as total protein. ...
The basic method of all assays Ive seen is to lyse cells into an aqueous buffer, spin down the pellet, pull off the supernatant and store it as the soluble fraction, then solubilize proteins remaining in the pellet using a solubilization buffer containing various detergents and denaturing agents (e.g. SDS, urea), spin down the pellet again, and pull off the supernatant and store it as the insoluble fraction. Questions: How do you ensure that youve preserved the composition of total protein in each fraction? Answer: Extract in the same amount of buffer in each case, and load identical amounts of each fraction. Control: Do the lysis in solubilization buffer, and save that fraction as total protein. ...
* found in: Pharmalyte, Pharmalyte, narrow range pH 4.2-4.9 Pharmalyte, narrow range pH 4.2-4.9 Pharmalyte carrier ampholytes, prepared by the co..
Method of producing electrical layer capacitors with glow-polymerizate layers as dielectrics, including a support surface, which includes initially forming a synthetic carrier strip having a substantially rectangular cross-section as well as given parts not to be coated with glow-polymerizate and a surface to be covered with glow-polymerizate, applying metal coating layers and glow-polymerizate layers offset from each other on the carrier strip forming contact strips on two mutually opposing edges of the carrier strip, the contact strips having within the extent thereof at least two metal layers lying directly on each other, and covering the given parts of the carrier strip not to be coated with at least one screen during the manufacture of the glow-polymerizate layers, wherein the improvement includes forming the recesses on areas of the carrier strip bordering the contact strips and not coated with glow-polymerizate, pressing the carrier strip against the support surface with holding devices
Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) can be described as an ingenious process for simultaneous concentration and separation of proteins. IEF employs a pH gradient formed by small amphoteric molecules (called ampholytes) to resolve proteins according to their different pI values (pI = isoelectric point). IEF is an end point method - when the electrophoretic run is completed proteins will appear as separate, sharp zones, in the order of their isoelectric points.. For IEF, SERVA offers a comprehensive product line: ...
A novel pH buffering system which is functionally stable under electrophoretic conditions employs buffering components in complementary buffer pairs. The buffering components are selected from among simple chemically defined ampholytes, weak acids and weak bases, and are paired together on the basis of their dissociation characteristics to define narrow overlapping buffering zones in which the buffering components exhibit low net electrophoretic mobility combined with desired pH buffering capacity. The narrow buffering zones cover from 0.4 to 1.25 pH units within a broad range of pH values of from about pH 3 to about pH 10. Specific buffering pH values within the narrow buffering zones are obtainable by varying the molar ratios of the two buffering components of the selected buffer pair. The buffering system may be used to form functionally stable precast narrow pH zone gradients in free solution, and has particular utility in isoelectric focusing and other electrophoretic processes.
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Peptide Analysis and Characterization to find products in Amino Acid Analysis, Ampholytes, Crystallization Reagents, Crystallization and Renaturation Screening Kit Components
Learn more about adenosine-5-diphosphate-disodium-salt-adp-disodium-salt. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Learn more about adenosine-5-o-3-thiotriphosphate-tetralithium-salt. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Brown, R.K., Caspers, M.L., Lull, J.M., Vinogradov, S.N., Felgenhauer, K. and Nekic, M. (1977). Carrier Ampholyte Distribution in Isoelectric Focusing. J. Chromatogr. 131, 223-232.. Brown, R.K., Caspers, M.L. and Vinogradov, S.N. (1977). Carrier Ampholyte Distribution. In Electrofocusing and Isotachophoresis (Radola, B.J. and Graesslin, D. Eds.) Walter DeGrutyer and Co., Berlin-New York, pp 87-96.. Caspers, M.L., Posey, Y. and Brown, R.K. (1977). Separator Isoelectric Focusing - An Improved Method of Protein Analysis and Purification. Anal. Biochem. 79, 166-180.. Caspers, M.L. and Chrambach, A. (1977). Natural pH Gradients Formed by Amino Acids: Ampholyte Distribution, Time Course, Use in Electrofocusing of Protein, Relation to pH Gradients in Isotachophoresis, Separator Effects. Anal. Biochem. 81, 23-39.. Caspers, M.L. and Siegel, G.J. (1980). Inhibition by Lead of Human Erythrocyte (Na+ + K+)-Adenosine Triphosphatase Associated with Binding of 210Pb to Membrane Fragments. Biochim. et. Biophy. ...
Such mixtures of amphoteric Electrolytes or Buffers that provide a continuous range of pH in an electric field; used for separating Proteins by their Isoelectric Points, i.e., by Isoelectric Focusing ...
Capillary zone electrophoresis and carrier ampholytes based capillary electrophoresis have been used as a second separation step to Off-Gel isoelectric focusing for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures. A tryptic digest of four proteins (bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin, horse myoglobin, cytochrome c) has been chosen as a peptide test mixture. After assessment of different modes of capillary electrophoresis as a second dimension to Off-Gel isoelectric focusing, the optimized two-dimensional platforms provide a degree of orthogonality comparable to state-of-the-art multidimensional liquid chromatography systems as well as a practical peak capacity above 700.. ...
Goal of the project is to design novel approaches strengthening tolerance towards autoantigens by induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). For this, modifications of autoantigen-derived peptides are being developed: Peptides coupled to either synthetic carriers or to ligands triggering tolerogenic responses are tested in vitro and in autoimmune models. In addition, the project searches for novel drug candidates able to induce stable Tregs. To improve efficacy of tolerogenic treatments in established disease, combination therapies deleting/inactivating effector cells followed by tolerogenic vaccination will be applied. ...
Chitosan is a unique biopolymer in the respect that it is abundant, cationic, low-toxic, non-immunogenic and biodegradable. The relative occurrence of the two monomeric building units (N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-glucosamine) is crucial to whether chitosan is predominantly an ampholyte or predominantly a polyelectrolyte at acidic pH-values. The chemical composition is not only crucial to its surface activity properties, but also to whether and why chitosan can undergo a sol-gel transition. This review gives an overview of chitosan hydrogels and their biomedical applications, e.g., in tissue engineering and drug delivery, as well as the chitosans surface activity and its role in emulsion formation, stabilization and destabilization. Previously unpublished original data where chitosan acts as an emulsifier and flocculant are presented and discussed, showing that highly-acetylated chitosans can act both as an emulsifier and as a flocculant.
Craig Duvall, associate professor of biomedical engineering, put the effectiveness of a specialized ribonucleic acid hitchhiking on the human protein albumin up against jetPEI nanoparticles, the mostly widely used synthetic carrier for the task of tumor gene silencing.. His findings, reached with Samantha Sarett, a recent biomedical engineering Ph.D. graduate, are published today(Monday, July 24) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. Albumin is Trojan horse. Ribonucleic acids can control the behavior of cancer cells, but they require a carrier to get them to the target. Duvalls team made a simple modification to a small-interfering ribonucleic acid molecule, called siRNA-L2, allowing it to rapidly load into an albumin pocket typically reserved to ferry fatty acids around the body.. They found that the siRNA-L2, using albumin as its carrier, has no apparent dose-limiting toxicity, a significant problem for synthetic nanoparticles. That means a higher dose of the anti-cancer ...
Browse Bio-Rads assortment of buffers and reagents for protein electrophoresis. Choose from loading buffers, detergents, ampholytes, and gel-casting buffers.
Hosur, MV and ViswamitraI, MA (1979) Molecular-conformation of adenosine-5-diphosphoric acid(C10N5O10H14P2.3H2O). In: Current Science (Bangalore), 48 (23). pp. 1027-1028. ...
Looking for RPI AMP (Adenosine-5-monophosphate),5g (31FV79)? Graingers got your back. Price:$40.70. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
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Presented by Alex Henri MD How prone are UAs to contamination, can we identify contamination on a UA, and does contamination matter? How common is contamination?
1B3E: X-ray crystallography and mass spectroscopy reveal that the N-lobe of human transferrin expressed in Pichia pastoris is folded correctly but is glycosylated on serine-32.
Finding mice or rodents inside your home can really be disturbing. Most of us will feel repulsed just by the sight of them. Having a single rodent inside a home can be dangerous because they have the ability to produce more than 60,000 droppings and 150 liters of urine. Imagine the risk of contamination by a single rodent, especially when it is not eliminated right away. The presence of rodents can bring about a spread of disease, contamination on foods and produce, and the damage to structures and equipment.. It is not safe to have these rodents in and around the house since they have the ability to feed on different types of foods while carrying different infectious diseases. One of the most dangerous diseases these rodents can pass is leptospirosis, which can be spread through their urine. Rodents also have the ability to spread and populate in just a matter of weeks. With the different complications these pests can bring, homeowners are always suggested to be cautious against them, and ...
Adenosine-5-triphosphate - adenozynotrifosforan (ATP), nukleotyd adenionowy (składa się z adenozyny i trzech grup fosforanowych. ATP jest wielofunkcyjnym nu...
Daniel called the police so that we could file a report and I called my OB to see if we should be concerned. Thankfully the lap part of my seat belt did not tighten and the chest part compressed mostly to the left and above my belly. I was feeling fine with just a bit of tenderness where the seat belt had tightened, so my doctor and I agreed that I didnt need to go to the hospital. HOWEVER if I started to experience contractions or bleeding, I needed to call her immediately. Our other concern was that if I did have any problems, I was about an hour from the hospital - not really enough time for any type of worse-case scenario. ...
The complexation of Cm(iii) with human serum transferrin was investigated in a pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). At pH [greater-than-or-equal] 7.4 Cm(iii) is incorporated at the Fe(iii) binding site of transferrin whereas at lower pH a partially bound Cm(iii) transferrin species is formed. At physiological temperature (310 K) at pH 7.4{,} about 70% of the partially bound and 30% of the incorporated Cm(iii) transferrin species are present in solution. The Cm(iii) results obtained by TRLFS are in very good agreement with Am(iii) EXAFS results{,} confirming the incorporation of Am(iii) at the Fe(iii) binding site at pH 8.5 ...
Nucleotide sequence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C.: The nucleotide sequence of the gene speC, encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C (SPE
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
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Ampholyte Mixtures - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAmpholyte Mixtures - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Ampholyte Mixtures. Such mixtures of amphoteric Electrolytes or Buffers that provide a continuous range of pH in an electric ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/ampholyte-mixtures.html

US7407816B2 - Isoelectric particles and uses thereof 
        - Google PatentsUS7407816B2 - Isoelectric particles and uses thereof - Google Patents

Preparation of carrier ampholyte mixtures US4334972A (en) 1977-04-26. 1982-06-15. Pharmacia Fine Chemicals Ab. Ampholyte and ... Preparation of carrier ampholyte mixtures US4139440A (en) 1977-06-20. 1979-02-13. Government Of The United States. ... When a mixture of ampholytes, in a gel or in a tube, is subjected to an electric field where the anode is in contact with an ... Thus, a mixture of proteins or peptides is separated based on the differences in their isoelectric points. Synthetic ampholytes ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US7407816

Toxicity of binary mixtures of pesticides to the marine microalgae Tisochrysis lutea and Skeletonema marinoi: Substance...Toxicity of binary mixtures of pesticides to the marine microalgae Tisochrysis lutea and Skeletonema marinoi: Substance...

This study screened binary mixtures of pesticides for potential synergistic interaction effects on growth of the marine ... Ampholyte Mixtures. Such mixtures of amphoteric electrolytes or buffers that provide a continuous range of pH in an electric ... Complex Mixtures. Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and ... The mixture of isoproturon and metazachlor tested on S. marinoi caused a 28-34% decrease in ϕ that was significantly higher ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2343959/Toxicity-of-binary-mixtures-of-pesticides-to-the-marine-microalgae-Tisochrysis-lutea.html

Continuous on-chip fluorescence labelling, free-flow isoelectric focusing and marker-free isoelectric point determination of...Continuous on-chip fluorescence labelling, free-flow isoelectric focusing and marker-free isoelectric point determination of...

The ampholyte mixture pH 4-7 was purchased from AppliChem (Darmstadt, Germany) and the activated labelling dye Atto 425-NHS ... The online labelling reaction was performed as follows: biomolecules were dissolved in ampholyte solution (0.1% ampholyte pH 4- ... 3c). It should also be mentioned that an ampholyte with a pH of 4 to 7 was used, which is not well-suited for neurotensin with ... We used a 60 μL mixture of 85.0% (w/w) acryloylmorpholine, 14.8% (w/w) oligoethylene glycol (OEG-DA700), 0.02% (w/w) PBI as a ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/-/content/articlehtml/2016/lc/c6lc00055j

WO2002025259A2 - Automated spot cutter for two-dimensional electrophoresis 
        - Google PatentsWO2002025259A2 - Automated spot cutter for two-dimensional electrophoresis - Google Patents

The ampholyte mixture serves to establish a high pH (~9) outside the range where most proteolytic enzymes are active, thus ... This can be achieved either dynamically, by including a heterogeneous mixture of charged molecules (ampholytes) into an ... pH 8-10.5 ampholyte mixture and 1% dithiothreitol (DTT). The urea and NP-40 serve to dissociate complexes of proteins with ... commercially-available ampholytes (e.g., BDH 3-10 ampholytes) in water. When samples are to be used whose protein SH groups ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2002025259A2/en

USE OF A MODIFIED UREA GEL ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING METHOD FOR SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF RAW OR BOILED WHITE, PINK, AND ROCK SHRIMP...USE OF A MODIFIED UREA GEL ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING METHOD FOR SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF RAW OR BOILED WHITE, PINK, AND ROCK SHRIMP...

ABSTRACT Isoelectric focusing (IEF) polyacrylamide gel containing an 80% pH 4-6.5 and 20% pH 3-10 ampholyte mixture greatly ... pH 3-10 ampholyte mixture greatly improved protein banding pattern for species identification of water extracts of raw pink, ... Identification of a specific species in mixture samples was achieved by the detection of water‐extractable shrimp specific ... Identification of a specific species in mixture samples was achieved by the detection of water‐extractable shrimp specific ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/use-of-a-modified-urea-gel-isoelectric-focusing-method-for-species-enEXJyPcGZ?impressionId=5dae5c626f52b&i_medium=docview&i_campaign=references&i_source=references

COMPOSITE COMPOSITIONS FOR ELECTROPHORESIS - Patent applicationCOMPOSITE COMPOSITIONS FOR ELECTROPHORESIS - Patent application

By using a proper mixture of carrier ampholytes, it is possible to generate a relatively smooth pH gradient for a limited ... 0127] Some types of IEF systems generate pH gradients by means of "carrier ampholytes." These are synthetic ampholytes that ... The chemistry of ampholyte mixtures is discussed in various references, such as U.S. Pat. No. 3,485,736; Matsui et al., Methods ... weight of the total amount of monomer in the mixture. [0054] In addition to the initiator and monomers the reaction mixture may ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20130008790

Characterization of the Leptospiral Outer Membrane and Description of Three Novel Leptospiral Membrane Proteins | Infection and...Characterization of the Leptospiral Outer Membrane and Description of Three Novel Leptospiral Membrane Proteins | Infection and...

... carrier ampholyte mixture (IPG buffer; Pharmacia). Immobiline DryStrips (Pharmacia) were rehydrated overnight in rehydration ... was transformed with the ligation mixture and spread onto LB plates containing 50 μg of ampicillin per ml, 100 μM isopropyl β-D ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/70/9/4936?ijkey=ebad3dfe5d4aadeab481c514df7aee0ace17c2a3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

List of MeSH codes (D16) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D16) - Wikipedia

... ampholyte mixtures MeSH D27.720.470.305 --- culture media MeSH D27.720.470.305.250 --- culture media, conditioned MeSH D27.720. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D16)

Microfluidic Free-Flow Electrophoresis for Proteomics on a chipMicrofluidic Free-Flow Electrophoresis for Proteomics on a chip

c)-d) application of free-flow isoelectric focusing: c) a wide sample mixture and ampholytes are sandwiched between two thin ... The sample mixture is injected into the carrier electrolyte flow and with increasing residence time the differently charged ... d) In the presence of an electrical field the ampholytes build up and buffer a linear pH gradient. Components move towards and ... The sample mixture is hydrodynamically focused by two sheath flow streams containing buffer only and no voltage is applied. b) ...
more infohttps://www.utwente.nl/en/eemcs/bios/research/micronanofluidics/oldmicro-nanofluidicsprojects/Microfluidic/

Design and applications of an improved capillary electrophoresis - electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry interface - UBC...Design and applications of an improved capillary electrophoresis - electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry interface - UBC...

The capillary was then fully filled by the sample/ampholyte mixture, followed by a plug of the anolyte solution (50 mM formic ... The HPLC peptide standard mixture, angiotensin I&II mixture, and protein standard mixture were dissolved in deionized water to ... The whole capillary column is first filled with a mixture of analyte proteins and carrier ampholytes which are dissolved in ... While most researchers had to perform cIEF-ESI-MS without adding any anticonvective agent into the ampholytes/sample mixture, ...
more infohttps://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0062357

Quantitative study on the antifreeze protein mimetic ice growth inhibition properties of poly(ampholytes) derived from vinyl...Quantitative study on the antifreeze protein mimetic ice growth inhibition properties of poly(ampholytes) derived from vinyl...

Here, poly(ampholytes), which contain a mixture of cationic and anionic side chains are quantitatively evaluated for their IRI ... ampholytes). The charge balance of the side chains is shown to be crucial, with only 50 : 50 mixtures having strong IRI ... Quantitative study on the antifreeze protein mimetic ice growth inhibition properties of poly(ampholytes) derived from vinyl- ... Quantitative study on the antifreeze protein mimetic ice growth inhibition properties of poly(ampholytes) derived from vinyl- ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2014/BM/c4bm00153b

Welcome to CDC stacks | Infection with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034 -...Welcome to CDC stacks | Infection with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t034 -...

Ampholyte Mixtures Bacterial Toxins Dispatch Exotoxins Humans Leukocidins Male Methicillin Resistance MRSA PVL ST398 ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/17103

Chromatofocusing - WikipediaChromatofocusing - Wikipedia

... is a protein-separation technique that allows resolution of single proteins and other ampholytes from a complex mixture ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatofocusing

Comparison of first dimension IPG and NEPHGE techniques in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis experiment with cytosolic...Comparison of first dimension IPG and NEPHGE techniques in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis experiment with cytosolic...

... some laboratories still use carrier ampholytes-based isoelectric focusing technique. The aim of this study was to directly ... NEPHGE was made with a non-linear pH3-10 gradient formed by carrier ampholytes. The mixture of carrier ampholytes and IEF gel ... ampholytes of pH5-6.5 were at the highest concentration followed by ampholytes of pH4-5 and pH6.5-8, then with further ... Spots 1 and 2 represent mixtures of similar proteins Ssa1 and Ssa2 (97% identity) at an unknown ratio (see Table one legend in ...
more infohttps://proteomesci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-5956-11-36

Plus itPlus it

... protease inhibitor mixture, 1% broad range carrier ampholytes (pH 3-10), and 0.2% each of five narrow range ampholytes (pH 2.5- ... This mixture was then centrifuged at 12,000 × g for 15 min at 4 °C. The aqueous phase was transferred to a new tube, and the ... Uniformly, 100 μg of protein in solubilization buffer was combined 1:1 with an ampholyte buffer containing 8 m urea, 2 m ... To this mixture, 2.5 ml of isopropanol was added, the sample was mixed and incubated for 10 min, and the precipitated protein ...
more infohttps://www.mcponline.org/content/6/9/1574

VEGFR2 induces c-Src signaling and vascular permeability in vivo via the adaptor protein TSAd | JEMVEGFR2 induces c-Src signaling and vascular permeability in vivo via the adaptor protein TSAd | JEM

Lysates were mixed with ampholyte premix (pH 5-8) and fluorescent pI standards (pI Standard Ladder 3) before being loaded into ... Isoelectric focusing was performed in capillaries filled with a mixture of cell lysate (0.05-0.1 mg/ml protein), fluorescently ... labeled pI standards, and ampholytes. The separated proteins were cross-linked to the capillary wall using UV light followed by ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/209/7/1363?ijkey=d03a28a938cb15dbe56bfa50e8a8a7f62d41fd84&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Health Insurance Hindgra sildenafil citrateHealth Insurance Hindgra sildenafil citrate

5 volumes of this solution, add the mixture Hindgra sildenafil citrate ampholytes specified Hindgra sildenafil citrate the ... Etoposide 4. Develop over a path Buy Tadalista online 15 cm using a freshly prepared mixture of 20 volumes of concentrated ...
more infohttp://shaymuratovo.ru/ed-tabs-shop/hindgra-sildenafil-citrate.php

Neutrophil inhibitors - Patent # 5708141 - PatentGeniusNeutrophil inhibitors - Patent # 5708141 - PatentGenius

Biolyte 3-10 ampholyte (BioRad) and 10%(v/v) glycerol. This mixture was focused with a constant power of 12 W for 5 hours at 4. ... For example, it iscommon to use a mixture of oligonucleotides as a probe for any particular sequence of amino acid, with each ... Such a library can be screened for useful clones by nucleic acid hybridization using theoligonucleotide mixtures described ... mixture in a 15 ml glass Corex test tube. The organiclayer was removed and dried under a stream of nitrogen gas. Residual ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5708141.html

dict.md | Mdict.md | M

MIXTURE, HEMATOLOGY QUALITY CONTROL. mixtures. mixtures of paint. Mixtures, Ampholyte. Mixtures, Complex. ... MIXTURE, CONTROL, WHITE-CELL AND RED-CELL INDICES. ... mixture of gases. Mixture of Germ Cell Neoplastic Components ...
more infohttp://en.dict.md/M/575

An arterial catheter was used for direct blood pr - wearburn infoAn arterial catheter was used for direct blood pr - wearburn info

Experimental behavior is reproduced by computer simulation of a model mixture of 15 hypothetical carrier ampholytes whose pIs ...
more infohttp://wearburn.info/an-arterial-catheter-was-used-for-direct-blood-pr/

Plus itPlus it

The mixtures containing 150 μg of protein were diluted 1:1 with rehydration buffer (7 m urea, 2 m thiourea, 4% CHAPS, 4% ... ampholytes (pH 3-11), and 200 mm DTT). The IPG strips (24 cm, pH 3-11 non-linear) were rehydrated overnight with 450 μl of a ... The seeded cells were incubated at 37 °C in a humidified gas mixture containing 5% CO2 balanced with air. The chondrocytes were ... Quantitative analysis of complex protein mixtures using isotope-coded affinity tags. Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 994- 999. ...
more infohttps://www.mcponline.org/content/8/1/172

Capillary nano-immunoassays: advancing quantitative proteomics analysis, biomarker assessment, and molecular diagnostics |...Capillary nano-immunoassays: advancing quantitative proteomics analysis, biomarker assessment, and molecular diagnostics |...

An "ampholyte gradient" consisting of hundreds of zwitterionic species whose isoelectric points cover a range of pH is added to ... the sample mixture. When the electric field is applied, the ampholytes arrange themselves according to isoelectric-point (pI) ... Labeled protein mixtures are applied to the array followed by immuno-analysis. In contract, multiple tissue or cell lysates, ... Often need to test multiple antibodies for a target, limited ampholyte options for low and high pI protein analysis, peak ...
more infohttps://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-015-0537-6
  • A separation of a somatomedin-containing peptide mixture into seven fractions by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on octyl-Sepharose is shown. (uu.nl)
  • Illustration of the µ-FFE device and applied separation methods: a), b) application of free-flow zone electrophoresis: a) The sample mixture is hydrodynamically focused by two sheath flow streams containing buffer only and no voltage is applied. (utwente.nl)
  • This study screened binary mixtures of pesticides for potential synergistic interaction effects on growth of the marine microalgae Tisochrysis lutea and Skeletonema marinoi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A promising method in this respect is micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) 2-4 because of its ability to continuously and preparatively separate and isolate biomolecules from mixtures on a small scale. (rsc.org)
  • Exposures were thus made in culture flasks at three concentrations, or concentration combinations for mixtures, selected to cause 25%, 50% and 75% growth rate inhibition. (bioportfolio.com)