VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.
A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It is a parasite and pathogen of freshwater FISHES.
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/512)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes. (2/512)

In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed.  (+info)

Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (3/512)

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

Characterization of toad liver glutathione transferase. (4/512)

The major form of glutathione transferase from the toad liver previously designed as Bufo bufo liver GST-7.6 (A. Aceto, B. Dragani, T. Bucciarelli, P. Sacchetta, F. Martini, S. Angelucci, F. Amicarelli, M. Miranda and C. Di Ilio, Biochem. J. 289 (1993) 417-422) has been characterized. According to its partial amino acid sequence, the toad enzyme may be included in the pi class GST and named bbGST P2-2. However, bbGST P2-2 appears to be immunologically, structurally and kinetically distinct from any other members of pi family, including bbGST P1-1, suggesting that it may constitute a subset of pi class GST. The data support the hypothesis that the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life causes a switch of the GST amphibian pattern promoting the expression of a GST form (bbGST P2-2) able to counteract, with higher efficiency, the toxic effects of reactive metabolites of oxidative metabolism and those of hydrophobic xenobiotics.  (+info)

Peptide growth factors in amphibian embryogenesis: intersection of modern molecular approaches with traditional inductive interaction paradigms. (5/512)

Recent discoveries of the role peptide growth factors (PGFs) play in regulating embryonic patterning and differentiation have profoundly influenced research on the molecular biology of early amphibian embryogenesis. Several PGFs have been recognized to be present as endogenous components of amphibian eggs and early embryos, while other PGFs -- which are known from heterologous systems (e.g., Drosophila) -- exert remarkable effects when injected as either protein or mRNA into eggs/embryos or when added to cultured embryonic tissue. For a variety of reasons (reviewed herein) optimism abounds that an understanding in molecular terms of the classical Spemann and Nieuwkoop tissue interactions which are generally believed to drive embryonic patterning is within reach. A critical assessment of the interpretations of some of the contemporary data on PGFs (included herein) should, however, temper some of that optimism. Likely, multiple rather than single PGFs act in a combinatorial fashion to contribute to individual patterning events. As well, substantial redundancy in PGF regulatory circuits probably exists, so the heavy reliance on tissue culture assays and overexpression studies which characterize much recent research needs to be circumvented. Potential experimental approaches for "next generation" experiments are discussed.  (+info)

Histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia-Gymnophiona). (6/512)

The histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus was studied by light microscopy in semithin sections of tissue embedded in hydrophilic resin. The kidney's nephron comprises the renal corpuscle, neck segment, proximal tubule, intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule. Nephrostomes are present. This structure, the neck segment, and intermediate tubules present long cilia, and probably play important roles in the propulsion of the peritoneal fluid and glomerular filtrate. The proximal tubule cells possess loosely packed microvilli and contain abundant polymorphic granules and vesicles that assume the aspect of lysosomes in different stages of intracellular digestion. The distal tubules are characterized by large, vertically disposed mitochondria assuming the aspect of ions transporting cells. The urinary bladder is lined with a transitional epithelium, whose aspect varies according to the quantity of urine.  (+info)

Classification of loops of lampbrush chromosomes according to the arrangement of transcriptional complexes. (7/512)

The arrangement of transcriptional units in the loops of lampbrush chromosomes from oocyte nuclei of urodele amphibia and from primary nuclei of the green alga Acetabularia have been studied in the electron microscope using spread preparations. Loops with different patterns of arrangement of matrix units (i.e. to a first approximation, transcriptional units) can be distinguished: (i) loops consisting of one active transcriptional unit; (ii) loops containing one active transcriptional unit plus additional fibril-free, i.e. apparently untranscribed, intercepts that may include 'spacer' regions; (iii) loops containing two or more transcriptional units arranged in identical or changing polarities, with or without interspersed apparent spacer regions. Morphological details of the transcriptional complexes are described. The observations are not compatible with the concept that one loop reflects one and only one transcriptional unit but, rather, lead to a classification of loop types according to the arrangement of their transcriptional units. We propose that the lampbrush chromosome loop can represent a unit for the coordinate transcription of either one gene or a set of several (different) genes.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of mitsugumin29 in developing skeletal muscle and effects of the protein expressed in amphibian embryonic cells. (8/512)

The temporal appearance and subcellular distribution of mitsugumin29 (MG29), a 29-kDa transmembrane protein isolated from the triad junction in skeletal muscle, were examined by immunohistochemistry during the development of rabbit skeletal muscle. MG29 appeared in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in muscle cells at fetal day 15 before the onset of transverse tubule (T tubule) formation. In muscle cells at fetal day 27, in which T tubule and triad formation is ongoing, both SR and triad were labeled for MG29. In muscle cells at newborn 1 day, the labeling of the SR had become weak and the triads were well developed and clearly labeled for MG29. Specific and clear labeling for MG29 was restricted to the triads in adult skeletal muscle cells. When MG29 was expressed in amphibian embryonic cells by injection of the cRNA, a large quantity of tubular smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (sER) was formed in the cytoplasm. The tubular sER was 20-40 nm in diameter and appeared straight or reticular in shape. The tubular sER was formed by the fusion of coated vesicles [budded off from the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER)] and vacuoles of rER origin. The present results suggest that MG29 may play important roles both in the formation of the SR and the construction of the triads during the early development of skeletal muscle cells.  (+info)

The first response to reports of declining amphibian populations was the formation of the Declining Amphibian Population Task Force (DAPTF) in 1990. DAPFT led efforts for increased amphibian population monitoring in order to establish the extent of the problem, and established working groups to look at different issues.[42] Results were communicated through the newsletter Froglog. Much of this research went into the production of the first Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA), which was published in 2004 and assessed every known amphibian species against the IUCN Red List criteria. This found that approximately one third of amphibian species were threatened with extinction.[43] As a result of these shocking findings an Amphibian Conservation Summit was held in 2005, because it was considered morally irresponsible to document amphibian declines and extinctions without also designing and promoting a response to this global crisis.[44]. Outputs from the Amphibian Conservation Summit included the ...
This book documents a major environmental crisis: rapidly declining amphibian populations and the developmental problems that are increasingly prevalent within many amphibian species. Horror stories on this topic have been featured in the scientific and popular press over the past fifteen years, invariably asking what amphibian declines are telling us about the state of the environment. Are declines harbingers of devastated ecosystems or simply weird reflections of a peculiar amphibian world? This compendium - presenting new data, reviews of current literature, and comprehensive species accounts - reinforces what scientists have begun to suspect: that amphibians are a lens through which the state of the environment can be viewed more clearly. And, that the view is alarming and presages serious concerns for all life, including that of our own species. The first part of this work consists of more than fifty essays covering topics from the causes of amphibian population declines to conservation, surveys
Buy Extinction in Our Times (9780195316940): Global Amphibian Decline: NHBS - James P Collins and Martha L Crump, Oxford University Press
Why are Amphibians Important. Amphibians are found worldwide and are an important link in the food chain of many ecosystems, acting as both predator and prey. Amphibians have thin and highly permeable skin that allows oxygen, water, and other chemicals to be absorbed. This means that pollutants and toxins may pass directly into the body. Consequently, environmental pollution can cause the death of amphibians directly, or have other impacts such as developmental abnormalities, altered behaviour and increased vulnerability to disease and predators.. These characteristics make amphibians, as a group, particularly sensitive to human activities that impact and result in changes in climate, habitat, and air and water quality. For this reason, amphibians are often referred to as biological indicator species and may reflect the ecological health of our waterways, wetlands and adjacent uplands.. Global Decline. Over recent decades an alarming decline in amphibian populations around the world has ...
Amphibians are an important food source for animals such as birds, snakes, raccoons, and fish. Amphibians are also important predators. As larvae, they feed mainly on small aquatic animals such as water insects. They may also feed on algae. As adults, amphibians are completely carnivorous. They may catch and eat worms, snails, and insects, as the frog inFigure below is doing. Unlike other amphibians, caecilians are burrowers. They use their head to dig in the soil, and they feed on earthworms and other annelids. Caecilians can be found in moist soil near rivers and streams in tropical regions.. ...
There are more than 6,000 species of amphibians living today. This animal class includes toads and frogs, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Amphibians have skin that is very permeable. This permeable skin helps them breathe, since oxygen passes easily through it. Amphibians lose a lot of water through their skin. This is why most amphibians are found in moist or humid environments, where they can re-load their water reserves. Amphibians are ectotherms or cold blooded, this means that amphibians cannot produce sufficient internal heat to maintain a constant body temperature. Instead an amphibians body temperature varies, depending on the surrounding temperature.. ...
The potential impact of chemical contaminants and conservation practices on amphibians in agricultural landscapes is a key research topic globally. Amphibians represent a common group in many freshwater systems and are currently experiencing worldwide population declines. Global amphibian declines may be attributed to a number of causes, including habitat loss, introduced species, global climate change, disease, and chemical contaminants; most species declines are not a function of only one factor, but a result of interacting factors and synergistic impacts. I analyzed the impact of field conservation efforts employed in the Calapooia watershed, located in the central Willamette Valley in Oregon, on amphibian species diversity using Simpsons Diversity Index. In the Calapooia watershed the value of this index increased when conservation efforts, such as retaining crop residue and riparian buffers, were present. This suggests that species diversity increased with increased conservation effort at ...
1st Course on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry. 18 to 22 of May, 2015. dBio-UA, University of Aveiro, PORTUGAL. The 1st Course on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry is an interesting and intensive course to researchers or technical staff working with amphibians and looking for more complete basis on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry.. The course explores the principles of amphibians husbandry, nutrition and dietary needs, captive reproduction, population management, veterinary aspects (diseases, pathology, and necropsy), biosecurity and quarantine, conservation, threats and global action. Hands on demonstrations, practical and group exercises are also included (enclosure demonstrations: tank drilling, false bottoms and plumbing, filters).. Preliminary Program:. Day 1 - May 18th. ____________________. 9:00am // Participants reception. 9:30am // Greetings and Introdution. 10:30am // Overview of the amphibians global crisis. 11:30am // Introducing Aveiro University and AArk ...
CORVALLIS, Ore. - Amphibian declines around the world have forced many species to the brink of extinction, are much more complex than realized and have multiple causes that are still not fully understood, researchers conclude in a new report.. The search for a single causative factor is often missing the larger picture, they said, and approaches to address the crisis may fail if they dont consider the totality of causes - or could even make things worse.. No one issue can explain all of the population declines that are occurring at an unprecedented rate, and much faster in amphibians than most other animals, the scientists conclude in a study just published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.. The amphibian declines are linked to natural forces such as competition, predation, reproduction and disease, as well as human-induced stresses such as habitat destruction, environmental contamination, invasive species and climate change, researchers said.. An enormous rate of change has ...
Although El Niño seems to be the ultimate climatic phenomenon affecting Atelopus declines, we further sought to differentiate among several climate-based factors associated with El Niño events that have been proposed as proximate drivers of enigmatic amphibian declines (26). The chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis proposes that increased cloud cover due to warmer oceanic temperatures leads to convergence of daytime and nighttime temperatures (i.e., a reduced diurnal temperature range) on the optimum temperature for Bd growth (11). Several mean-climate hypotheses have also been proposed for amphibian declines. These include predictions that mean temperature, mean precipitation, or an interaction between the two will be significant predictors of amphibian losses, either by directly causing declines, accelerating decomposition of leaf litter habitat, or altering interactions with natural enemies (27-31).. Finally, there is the climate-variability hypothesis, which proposes that temporal ...
Data Source ID: 99 This is a checklist of Amphibian Species in the Kihansi Gorge in the Udzungwa Tanzania. It is an important information on Biodiversity status of the Udzungwa Mountains as a Mega Biodiverse Hotspot of the Eastern Arc Mountains. It contains endemic and species with the risk of extinction (endangered, critically endangered, extinct in the wild). The studies on amphibian species commenced with the discovery of the Kihansi Spray Toad (KST) (Nectophrynoides asperginis) in December 1996 and its description in 1998 (Poynton et al., 1998). To date several species of amphibians in the Order Anura in Five different Families have been identified to exist in the Kihansi Gorge. Unfortunately Nectophrynoides asperginis went extinct in the wild mainly due to habitat alteration by the Kihansi River water abstraction where water is used for Hydro power project. Further studies are underway to establish the exact cause of the population crash of KST in the Kihansi Gorge as one of the effort to ...
The posterior genes of the HoxD cluster play a crucial role in the patterning of the tetrapod limb. This region is under the control of a global, long-range enhancer that is present in all vertebrates. Variation in limb types, as is the case in amphibians, can probably not only be attributed to variation in Hox genes, but is likely to be the product of differences in gene regulation. With a collection of vertebrate genome sequences available today, we used a comparative genomics approach to study the posterior HoxD cluster of amphibians. A frog and a caecilian were included in the study to compare coding sequences as well as to determine the gain and loss of putative regulatory sequences. We sequenced the posterior end of the HoxD cluster of a caecilian and performed comparative analyses of this region using HoxD clusters of other vertebrates. We determined the presence of conserved non-coding sequences and traced gains and losses of these footprints during vertebrate evolution, with particular focus on
The respiratory and circulatory systems of adult amphibians are adapted for life on land. In addition, adult amphibians have adaptations for obtaining food and moving. Amphibian larvae use gills to obtain oxygen, whereas adults use lungs. Lungs are organs of air-breathing vertebrates in which oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas are exchanged between the air and blood. Amphibian larvae also have a single-loop circulatory system and two-chambered heart, like that of a fish. In contrast, the circulatory system of an adult amphibian has two loops and a heart with three chambers. The two upper chambers of the heart are called atria, and the lower chamber is the ventricle. Blood moves to the lungs in one loop, and to the body in the other loop ...
Caecilians have no limbs. For this reason, the smaller species look like worms, while the larger species with lengths up to 1.5 m look similar to snakes. The tail is short and the cloaca is near the end of the body. Their skin is smooth and usually dark in colour. Some species have colorful skins, though. Inside the skin are calcite scales. Due to their underground life the eyes are small. Skin often covers them, to protect them. This has led to the idea that they are blind, which is not the case. Because of the skin cover, their seeing is limited to simple dark-light perception. They can tell the difference between dark and light. All Caecilians have two tentacles at their head. The tentacles are probably used for a second smelling capability in addition to the normal sense of smell based in the nose. Most Caecilians have lungs, except for two lungless species. Those that have lungs also use the skin or the mouth to get oxygen. Often the left lung is much smaller than the right one. This is an ...
p,Our knowledge of the broad-scale ecology of vertebrate ectotherms remains very limited. Despite ongoing declines and sensitivity to environmental change, amphibian distributions are particularly poorly understood. We present a global analysis of contemporary environmental and historical constraints on amphibian richness, the first for an ectotherm clade at this scale. Amphibians are presumed to experience environmental constraints distinct from those of better studied endothermic taxa due to their stringent water requirements and the temperature dependence of their energetic costs and performance. Single environmental predictors set upper bounds on, but do not exclusively determine, amphibian richness. Accounting for differing regional histories of speciation and extinction helps resolve triangular or scattered relationships between core environmental predictors and amphibian richness, as the relationships' intercepts or slopes can vary regionally. While the magnitude of richness is ...
This chapter argues that the environmental stressors acting upon populations, especially those stressors of anthropogenic origin, can be better divided into the following three evils: habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, and habitat degradation. Different species, with differing susceptibilities to extinction, should react to these environmental stressors in various ways depending upon their ecological differences, especially in demographic characteristics and population structures. Amphibians exhibit a variety of natural history and life history strategies, and this concept must apply as much to them as to the organisms upon which it was based. A classic problem in animal demographics and population biology is how populations of small animals (rodents, particularly lemmings, in the classic case) fluctuate in size. To understand amphibian population declines, this chapter examines amphibian persistence, extinction, and population increase. It then places these in the context of habitat
More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British scientists said. In a report to the Zoological Society of London, researchers said Thursday that the most threatened species live in southern Europe, The Guardian reported. The Mediterranean climate is expected to become significantly hotter and drier, which is bad news for the Mallorcan midwife toad and the brook newt of Sardinia. Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both extraordinary and terrifying that in just a few decades the world could lose half of all these species, said Sir David Attenborough, famed for his television nature shows. One-third of the amphibian species in the world are listed as endangered. Researchers said climate change adds to the stress caused by habitat loss and the spread of disease. Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping ...
Caecilians are definitely not worms. They are definitely amphibians, like frogs or salamanders -- class Lissamphibia, order Gymnophiona. They have spines and everything, I promise. There are a couple hundred known species (most of which are found in Mexico) but their distribution seems to be pretty wide and there are certainly lots that we dont know about. Some of them dont even have lungs, they just breathe entirely through their skin! Man, Caecilians are great. If I get a chance I will dig up the lecture notes from my herpetology class and see if I can find some more weird-ass facts about Caecilians ...
Amphibian population declines and sudden species extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost as a percentage of the current fauna can be a misleading statistic in some parts of the globe. The number of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies of single-species populations are needed, but this approach has its limits. Amphibian populations often show great annual variation in population size making it difficult, if not impossible, to use short-term studies as a basis for deciding if a population is increasing or decreasing in the long term. Aggregating single studies into databases and searching for patterns of variation is a way of overcoming this limitation. Several ...
Amphibians are cold-blooded and live both on land (breathing with lungs) and in water (breathing through gills) at different times. Three types of amphibians are frogs and toads, salamanders, and caecilians.
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Amphibian. Salamander. Amphibians Class. All amphibians are cold-blooded. Amphibians live in each continent except for Antarctica. An average amphibian grows smaller then other vertebrates. Salamander Adaptation. Slideshow 98003 by DoraAna
Dr. Eric Baitchman, Zoo New England director of Veterinary Services, is the lead veterinarian for the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project. We spent some time talking to Dr. Baitchman about his interest in amphibians and what he has learned from his participation in this vital conservation project. Heres what he told us:. When did you first develop an interest in amphibians? What sparked this interest?. I cant really say when or what it was that sparked my interest in amphibians. Ive always been drawn to their diversity of shape, colors and habits, as well as to the types of environments that amphibians usually occupy. Amphibian life histories are fascinating as well, spending the first part of their lives in the water as tadpoles, undergoing metamorphosis, and then growing in to terrestrial adults-no other vertebrate undergoes such dramatic changes in their life cycle.. What has been the most rewarding aspect about your participation in the Panama Amphibian Rescue and ...
Join the AArk as a Subscribing Member - as a member of the AArk, youll receive the electronic Amphibian Ark Newsletter (available in English and Spanish) every three months, and youll be showing your support for global amphibian conservation.. Make a donation - our supporters have been amazing in their commitment to helping us, and your generous donation will help save amphibians! Take another leap towards saving amphibians by becoming a Contributing Member of the Amphibian Ark and make a tax-deductible contribution immediately.. AArk works with many partners around the world, including organizations and projects that are currently seeking external support to help with their amphibian conservation projects. Assistance may be in the form of funding, support with specialized staff or training skills, volunteering or in-kind support by providing equipment and supplies. You can contact the program managers directly, using the Contact email link, to find out more about how you can help.. Help raise ...
The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) has joined with two branches of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN/SSC) - the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and the Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) - to form the Amphibian Ark (AArk). Since 2006 the Amphibian Ark has been helping zoos and aquariums to address the captive components of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, saving as many species as possible by providing global coordination, technical guidance, training, necessary linkages to other IUCN groups, communications, and guiding publicity and capital campaigns.. The AArk vision is the worlds amphibians safe in nature, and the mission is ensuring the survival and diversity of amphibian species focusing on those that cannot currently be safe-guarded in their natural environments. The AArk coordinates captive programs implemented by partners around the world, with the first emphasis on programs within the countries where the species occur in the wild, and with a ...
Amphibians are a key indicator species of ecosystem health. Their presence or absence can tell us a lot about the general health of a wetland or riparian area in addition to giving us a sense of site water and habitat quality. When climatic and hydrologic changes occur in an ecosystem, amphibians are often the first to react. Their thin skin makes them vulnerable to temperature increases, chemical pollutants, disease, and radiation. The combinations of pollutants, habitat fragmentation and development in urban areas have had a negative impact on amphibian populations. In the Portland Metro area, everything from mutations of extra legs to complete absence of native amphibians has been documented.. read more. ...
Fig. 2. A communal wood frog (Rana sylvatica) deposition site in Concord (Middlesex County) Massachusetts from 1988 (A). Well over 100 egg masses are shown just on the surface, indicating a local population of over 200 breeding adults. Similar numbers bred at this site in the previous 2 years, but in this same time frame only two adults were ever seen outside of the breeding season. (B-F) Breeding sites for boreal toads (Bufo boreas) along Del Peurto Creek in Stanislaus County, California. B shows a pair of copulating toads with the strings of eggs wrapped around the pair. C and D show views of one ephemeral pool where a single clutch of eggs (which can be up to 10,000 individuals) has hatched in 1996. E and F show changes in a second nearby deposition site from 1995 (E) to 1999 (F). The breeding site is on the left in both panels with Del Peurto Creek on the right. Arrow in E shows the location of the small breeding pool shown in panels C and D. Because of anthropogenic activity, water flow has ...
Almost 300 people, including veterinarians, scientists and fish and wildlife managers, will meet Nov. 5-7 in Tempe, Ariz., at a conference on stopping the spread of a fungal-based amphibian disease. Hosted by the Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC)-a multilateral organization with members from the federal and state governments, zoos, the pet industry, conservation groups and others-the conference will include panels to discuss amphibian deaths related to the so-called Bd fungal disease, know …
The skin is the largest organ of the body and provides many functions. Among tetrapod vertebrates, amphibian skin is semi-permeable and responsible for a greater proportion of water absorption and gas exchange. Myriad factors affect the physiological performance of amphibian skin. Morphological traits linked with amphibian skin physiology or ecology have remained difficult to discern because of a lack of quantitative comparative research and the discovery of sources of intraspecific variation that are mostly ignored in study designs. This thesis aims to address the effects of these sources of variation using a trait that is known to vary between sexes, among seasons, and among body regions and thought to be linked with physiology or ecology, skin thickness. The first source of variation addressed is sexual dimorphism. Specimens of the white-lipped treefrog, Litoria infrafrenata, that display sexual dimorphism in body size and skin thickness were used to test if body size was the main determinate ...
David Gower presented the second talk of the meeting: Recent discoveries - a golden age for caecilian biology?. Various new notable caecilian species have been named in recent years: examples include the giant lungless typhlonectid Atretochoana eiselti (named in 1968, but only recognised as truly novel and given its own genus in 1995), and the tiny, terrestrial lungless caeciliid Caecilita iwokramae (only just described by Wake & Donnelly (2009): its head is shown in the adjacent images. Scale bar = 1 mm!). And new discoveries, like rotational feeding, maternal dermatophagy, protrusible eyes and hydrostatic locomotion, have brought caecilians to the widespread attention of biologists. But, Gower asked, are we really in a golden age of new insight and discovery? A graph plotting all 1000 or so caecilian-specific publications over time showed that scientific interest in caecilians rose sharply as a result of Edward Taylors work, such that about half of all caecilian research has been ...
Amphibians are one of the most well-known experimental organisms. Despite this, knowledge of amphibian husbandry and welfare remains limited, with little established guidance or evidence-based refinements for their captive care. Today sees the publication of a report in Lab Animal on the NC3Rs/ZSL (Zoological Society of London) Workshop on Amphibian Welfare. Held in London
We compiled just a few resources available on the web that might help you get involved with Amphibian Week! You can also try searching Frog or Salamander Crafts, create amphibian friendly habitat in your yard, look up your local or state wildlife management agency and see what local information they have on amphibians, or step outside and practice frog calls! Dont forget to share how you are celebrating Amphibian Week with #AmphibianWeek. ...
Environmental contamination has been suspected of being partially responsible for recent declines in amphibian populations. It is often not feasible to identify all of the compounds in an environment, nor the concentrations in which they are present. SPMDs are passive sampling devices that uptake lipophilic compounds from the environment in a manner similar to aquatic organisms. The extracts from the SPMDs, therefore, contain a composite sample of the compounds that are present in the environment. In this paper, we outline the methods from studies in which we have used extracts from SPMDs in toxicity tests on amphibian larvae. Using SPMD extracts makes it possible to establish potential links between amphibian deformities and declines and environmental contamination by lipophilic compounds....
EYEWITNESS AMPHIBIAN BOOK. Frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and the rare caecilians come in a stunning array of colors, shapes, sizes, and habitats. They live both in water and on land and move in a great variety of ways from swimming, to hopping, and even flying. With a series of specially commissioned photographs, Amphibian takes a close look at the fascinating natural history of these creatures from the bright green, red-eyed tree frogs to dull, burrowing, wormlike caecilians; from startling black and yellow fire salamanders to tiny transparent glass frogs. Perfect amphibian reference book for children ages 7-adult. #AR-13398. Hardcover.
New US Geological Survey-led research suggests that even though amphibians are severely declining worldwide, there is no smoking gun -- and thus no simple solution -- to halting or reversing these declines.
Amphibians around the world are in decline, with nearly 2000 of over 6400 described species listed as threatened with extinction [1], and a range of potential causes for these declines have been proposed [2]. The parallel timing of rapid falls in ozone levels and the beginning of rapid amphibian declines during the late 1970s and early 1980s [3,4] generated a surge of scientific interest in the idea that increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion [5] may be contributing to some amphibian declines through its lethal and sublethal effects on embryonic and larval life stages [6-8]. Research over the past two decades has shown that, in some species, UV-B exposure can cause increased mortality, reduced growth, reduced rate of development, delayed metamorphosis, reduced locomotor performance, developmental abnormalities, behavioural changes and increased susceptibility to disease (e.g. [9-16]). UV-B has also been shown to interact synergistically with the ...
For the purpose of reproduction most amphibians require fresh water although some lay their eggs on land and have developed various means of keeping them moist. A few (e.g. Fejervarya raja) can inhabit brackish water, but there are no true marine amphibians.[66] There are reports, however, of particular amphibian populations unexpectedly invading marine waters. Such was the case with the Black Sea invasion of the natural hybrid Pelophylax esculentus reported in 2010.[67]. Several hundred frog species in adaptive radiations (e.g., Eleutherodactylus, the Pacific Platymantis, the Australo-Papuan microhylids, and many other tropical frogs), however, do not need any water for breeding in the wild. They reproduce via direct development, an ecological and evolutionary adaptation that has allowed them to be completely independent from free-standing water. Almost all of these frogs live in wet tropical rainforests and their eggs hatch directly into miniature versions of the adult, passing through the ...
The dry prairie may not seem a likely spot for finding amphibians, but visiting Badlands in the spring and summer yields some surprises! Seasonal streams, ponds, and other wetlands provide breeding habitat for 6 species of amphibians. The mating calls of frogs and toads may be heard from late spring well into the summer, with different species calling at different times. Chorus frogs are the first to emerge from hibernation and make themselves heard, typically in late April and early May. The Great Plains toad, Woodhouses toad, and plains spadefoot are most vocal a little bit later, in June and July. The blotched tiger salamander does not vocalize, but lucky park visitors may see these animals-which, as adults, can reach lengths of 6 to 9 inches-in moist areas.. Amphibians are of special concern because of declining populations worldwide, even in protected areas. The reason for these declines is not yet fully understood, but numerous factors at work may include habitat loss and fragmentation, ...
Lizards have got dry and scaly skins like most reptiles. And They use other mechanisms. Amphibians have soft bodies with thin skins, and lack claws, defensive armour, or spines. Lets clear up the confusion…eval(ez_write_tag([[970,250],amphibianlife_com-banner-1,ezslot_2,116,0,0])); Reptiles are scaly creatures, with dry bodies, that live on land. However, amphibians have moist skin with no fur or scales. Amphibians dont have scales, they have smooth skin. The first line of defence in salamanders and frogs is the mucous secretion that they produce. The most remarkable thing about poison dart Worm snakes (Typhlopidae) Species Common name(s) Notes Image Leptotyphlops bilineata: Two-lined blind snake: Endemic. There are a few key differences: turtles have scales and a shell, where amphibians dont, and turtles lay eggs on land, not in water. Salamanders are a group of amphibians that share the characteristics of a long body, a tail and short limbs. pockets of water trapped within cuplike ...
Amphibians are cold-blooded with a backbone and moist skin, however, unlike reptiles, they lack scales. The name amphibian means double life describing how these animals start their life in water and then undergo metamorphosis to live on land. Unable to regulate their heat, amphibians depend on warmth from the sun to become active ...
Amphibians Amphibians are cold-blooded, smooth-skinned vertebrates. Most live some of their life in water and some on land. The most common amphibian critter is a frog but there are many others.. ...
The sensitivity of amphibians is not being tested for the registration of pesticides. It is implicitly assumed that surrogate species are at least as sensitive as amphibians. Based on literature data, it will be shown that the acute sensitivity of amphibians is comparable to the sensitivity of fish and aquatic invertebrates. It can be said, that the acute risk of pesticides to amphibians in the aquatic system is covered by the risk assessment of fish and aquatic invertebrates. Long term effects and effects on terrestrial amphibians were not compared.. ...
Posing serious hazards to native amphibians. The breakdown products of the three most commonly used organophosphorus pesticides in the Central Valley are 10 to 100 times more toxic to amphibians than their parent compounds, which are already highly toxic to amphibians, says a report Wednesday from the U.S. Geological Survey.. Since some of the parent pesticide compounds are already at concentrations sufficient to cause significant amphibian mortality in the Sierra Nevada, the higher toxicity of the breakdown products poses a serious problem, says Gary Fellers, coauthor of the study published in the journal Environmental Pollution.. Donald Sparling, a research biologist and contaminants specialist at Southern Illinois University, and Mr. Fellers, a research biologist and amphibian specialist at the USGS Western Ecological Research Center in Sacramento, conducted laboratory tests to determine the acute toxicity -- the lethal dosage causing death in 96 hours or less -- of chlorpyrifos, malathion ...
Background for educators ,,. Introduction. This module introduces students to the world of amphibians. Few people, especially those living in urban areas, have an opportunity to experience and enjoy the beauty of a wetland. Well-established fears associated with wetlands soon disappear when one has had the opportunity to interact with the wetland ecosystem. Students will develop an understanding of the importance of water to the life cycle of amphibians, and will become more familiar with the twenty-one species that exist in Ontario. Students will examine the basic needs and habitat requirements of amphibians. Students will gain a greater understanding of how important amphibians are in detecting environmental contamination. The emphasis in this module should be placed on both global and local declines of amphibian populations, and the reasons contributing to their decline. (Note: For further background, you may wish to look at Unit 10, Case Studies which includes four case studies: Global ...
Learn about different reptile and amphibian species, including health and care information, from the vets and pet experts at PetMD.
Learn about different reptile and amphibian species, including health and care information, from the vets and pet experts at PetMD.
Aubry, K. B., and Hall, P. A. (1991). Terrestrial amphibian communities in the southern Washington Cascade Range. Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285. Ruggiero, L. F., Aubry, K. B., Carey, A. B., and Huff, M. H., technical coordinators, eds., USDA Forest Service, Northwest Research Station, Olympia, Washington., 326-338. Blair, A. P. (1951). Notes on the herpetology of the Elk mountains, Colorado. Copeia, 1951, 239-240. Blaustein, A. R., Edmond, B., Kiesecker, J. M., Beatty, J. J., and Hokit, D. G. (1995). Ambient ultraviolet radiation causes mortality in salamander eggs. Ecological Applications, 5(3), 740-743. Blaustein, A. R., Wake, D. B., and Sousa, W. P. (1994). Amphibian declines: Judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions. Conservation Biology, 8(1), 60-71. Boundy, J. and Balgooyen, T. G. (1988). Record lengths of some amphibians and reptiles from the western United ...
Survey and consolidate information on amphibian populations, their range and abundance within the forest fragments comprising the Taita Hills and Mount Kasigau as a barometer of environmental health. Working thorough local counterparts, this project will train local field assistants with a view to developing a sustainable long-term monitoring program.. ...
Biology Assignment Help, Question, Ask questiImagine you are studying a group of amphibian species that vary in their habitats-some living in dense, murky water, and others living in very clear ponds. What kind of communication problems exist in each environment? What sorts of differe
Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratia marcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed ...
Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining) amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains). We provide evidence that the observed ...
The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide.
USGS scientists and their colleagues have developed a new method to detect the presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in water and sediment samples
Emerging diseases, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, contribute to global population declines of amphibians. Virkon S is one of the most commonly used disinfectants to reduce risk of spreading such pathogens. Virkon S is classified as harmful to aquatic organisms, but until today no negative effects on tadpoles have been reported. We studied the effects of three concentrations of Virkon S on early life-stages (embryos and hatchlings) of the moor frog Rana anvils. Overall, Virkon S had no significant effects. However, hatching success was highest in the control treatment, suggesting that Virkon S may have weak negative effects on amphibian embryos. We suggest that further studies are needed to assess the negative effect of Virkon S on amphibians, and recommend that Virkon S is used with care and a minimized run-off into natural wetlands.. ...
by Vetscite. After a six-year effort, biologists say they have for the first time managed to rid a wild toad species of a lethal fungal disease that threatens amphibians around the world.. Midwife toads on the Spanish island of Mallorca are now free of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, says Jaime Bosch, an evolutionary biologist at Spains National Museum of Natural History in Madrid. His team reported their success in the journal Biology Letters on 18 November. But the successful treatment - which involved treating tadpoles with an antifungal drug and chemically cleansing their ponds - may not be widely applicable to the habitats of other amphibian species that are threatened by chytrid, the researchers and others say.. The fungal disease is one of the greatest threats amphibians face across the globe: chytrid has already wiped out hundreds of species of frogs. Bosch and his colleagues in Spain and the United Kingdom first set out to save isolated populations of vulnerable ...
Caudalization, which is proposed to be one of two functions of the amphibian organizer, initiates posterior pathways of neural development in the dorsalized ectoderm. In the absence of caudalization, dorsalized ectoderm only expresses the most anterior (archencephalic) differentiation. In the presence of caudalization, dorsalized ectorderm develops various levels of posterior neural tissues, depending on the extent of caudalization. A series of induction experiments have shown that caudalization is mediated by convergent extension: cell motility that is based on directed cell intercalation, and is essential for the morphogenesis of posterior axial tissues. During amphibian development, convergent extension is first expressed all-over the mesoderm and, after mesoderm involution, it becomes localized to the posterior mid-dorsal mesoderm, which produces notochord. This expression pattern of specific down regulation of convergent extension is also followed by the expression of the brachyury homolog. ...
The fungal skin disease, chytridiomycosis (caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans), has caused amphibian declines and extinctions globally since its emergence. Characterizing the host immune response to chytridiomycosis has been a focus of study with the aim of disease mitigation. However, many aspects of the innate and adaptive arms of this response are still poorly understood, likely due to the wide range of species responses to infection. In this paper we provide an overview of expected immunological responses (with inference based on amphibian and mammalian immunology), together with a synthesis of current knowledge about these responses for the amphibian-chytridiomycosis system. We structure our review around four key immune stages: (1) the naïve immunocompetent state, (2) immune defenses that are always present (constitutive defenses), (3) mechanisms for recognition of a pathogen threat and innate immune defenses, and (4) adaptive immune responses. We also evaluate the
Adams, M.J., Galvan, S., Reinitz, D., Cole, R.A., Pyare, S., Hahr, M. et Govindarajulu, P. 2007. Incidence of the fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian populations along the northwest coast of North America. Herpetological Reviews 38:430-431.. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments. 2009. Les maladies déclarables et les maladies à notification immédiate et annuelle : un guide pour les intervenants du milieu agro-alimentaire et les laboratoires [en ligne]. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments, Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 23 Oct. 2009).. Agence de la santé publique du Canada. 2006. Maladie de Lyme - fiche de renseignements [en ligne]. Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 11 janvier 2009).. Alexander, D.J. 2000. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses. Revue scientifique et technique (Office international des épizooties) 19:443-462.. Alford, R.A. et Richards, S.J. 1999. Global amphibian declines: a problem in applied ecology. Annual Review of ...
Identification of Chytrid Fungus in Native Toads and Frogs, administered by Dr. Kirk Suedmeyer, Director of Animal Health , to determine the incidence of chytrid fungus on Zoo grounds.. This one year study involves a team of staff and volunteers swabbing local amphibians for chytrid fungus. Geo tracking, species and gender determination and individual photo documentation will be performed on all toads and frogs caught. All animals tested will be released unharmed where they were found. Swabs obtained will be analyzed to determine the incidence and prevalence of this fungal organism on Zoo grounds.. In 2013 Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, discovered about a third of the ponds in their study are infected with chytrid, the notorious skin fungus that has sickened and killed amphibians in other parts of the world. In amphibians, chytrid infects and damages the skin, which amphibians use to breathe and absorb water. Once the fungus takes hold, it causes a disease called chytridiomycosis, ...
Epidemiological theory generally suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because the pathogen should fade out when the host population is driven below some threshold density. An emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is directly linked to the recent extinction or serious decline of hundreds of amphibian species. Despite continued spread of this pathogen into uninfected areas, the dynamics of the host-pathogen interaction remain unknown. We use fine-scale spatiotemporal data to describe (i) the invasion and spread of Bd through three lake basins, each containing multiple populations of the mountain yellow-legged frog, and (ii) the accompanying host-pathogen dynamics. Despite intensive sampling, Bd was not detected on frogs in study basins until just before epidemics began. Following Bd arrival in a basin, the disease spread to neighboring populations at approximately 700 m/yr in a wave-like pattern until all ...
Amphibian conservation has received increasing attention following the 2005 global declaration of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP), with placed a high premium on amongst other increasing the capacity of conservation research required to combat this global crisis. It is within this research field of amphibian conservation that I have established my research activities within the geographical bounds of sub-Saharan Africa and adjacent island of Madagascar. The majority of my work effort is focused, but not limited to the disease chytridiomycosis caused by a fungal skin pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Studying wildlife pathogens from the perspective of gaining insight on how to better conserve the host species being affected by disease requires trans-boundary collaboration between wildlife ecologists, veterinarians, and conservation organizations. For this reason my work on amphibian diseases has involved international collaboration on papers with authors from various ...
MONTPELIER, Vt. -- You may have already heard the spring peepers or wood frogs calling in your backyard. Or perhaps youve noticed salamanders crawling over rocks in a nearby stream. The arrival of spring brings the return of reptiles and amphibians to the Vermont landscape.. The frog calls you hear each spring are part of the animals breeding behavior, according to Zoologist Mark Ferguson with the Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department. Many frogs and salamanders are starting their breeding season, said Ferguson. By late May, we should see turtles crossing the road to build nests in the sandy embankments.. Amphibians migrate by the thousands each spring in search of breeding pools. This migration frequently takes them across roads and highways, leading to high rates of mortality among some species. Roadkill mortality, forest fragmentation and loss of wetland habitat have contributed to the decline of several of Vermonts reptile and amphibian species.. Most amphibian migration takes place ...
Extensive corn production in the midwestern United States has physically eliminated or fragmented vast areas of historical amphibian habitat. Midwestern corn farmers also apply large quantities of fertilizers and herbicides, which can cause direct and indirect effects on amphibians. Limited field research regarding the statuses of midwestern amphibian populations near areas of corn production has left resource managers, conservation planners, and other stakeholders needing more information to improve conservation strategies and management plans. We repeatedly sampled amphibians in wetlands in four conservation areas along a gradient of proximity to corn production in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2002 to 2005 and estimated site occupancy. We measured frequencies of gross physical deformities in recent metamorphs and triazine concentrations in the water at breeding sites. We also measured trematode infection rates in kidneys of recently metamorphosed Lithobates pipiens collected from nine
We present the first annotated amphibian checklist of Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR). The list comprises of 30 currently known amphibians (28 anurans and two caecilians), which includes 11 families and 15 genera. In addition, individual records per species, distribution in the reserve and brief remarks about the species are presented. The checklist is based on information from museum collections, field guides, unpublished reports and newly collected field data. We are able to confirm the presence of two Eastern Afromontane species in the SHNR: Scolecomorphus cf. vittatus and Callulina cf. kreffti. The latter has not been recorded since the original collection of a single specimen over 50 years ago. SHNR contains the highest number of amphibian species of any known locality in Kenya (about 30% of the countrys total number); therefore it is of national conservation importance. Finally, we briefly discuss the biogeography of the SHNR and its connections to nearby biogeographic ...
Chytridiomycosis is a globally emerging disease of amphibians and the leading cause of population declines and extirpations at species-diverse montane sites in Central America. We continued long-term
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium (B.) dendrobatidis was first identified in Australia in 1998 and named in 1999. This fungus is thought to be responsible for the population decline and the global extinction of ,200 amphibian species. Infections with B. dendrobatidis are in many cases associated with very high mortality rates (in lab up to 100%), but the fungus is not necessarily lethal. Other factors such as stress or co-infections with other pathogens also appear to play a role. B. dendrobatidis multiplies in keratinized tissue and therefore affects primarily the outer skin of adult animals (stratum corneum to the stratum granulosum). In larvae the horn strips on the mouth are affected. During metamorphosis the infections can lead to dramatic high mortality rates. The clinical symptoms are often nonspecific and may, in addition to the skin (often appear macroscopically unchanged or blunt or depigmented; hyperkeratosis and massive skinning episodes, mixed infections with severe erosions of ...
Amphibian populations are declining even in pristine areas in many parts of the world, and in the Neotropics most such enigmatic amphibian declines have occurred in mid- to high-elevation sites. However, amphibian populations have also declined at La Selva Biological Station in the lowlands of Costa Rica, and similar declines in populations of lizards have occurred at the site as well. To set the stage for describing amphibian declines at La Selva, I thoroughly review knowledge of amphibian decline and amphibian conservation in Central America: I describe general patterns in biodiversity, evaluate major patterns in and ecological correlates of threat status, review trends in basic and applied conservation literature, and recommend directions for future research. I then synthesize data on population densities of amphibians, as well as ecologically similar reptiles, over a 35-year periods using quantitative datasets from a range of studies. This synthesis identifies assemblage-wide declines of
Blue Poison Dart Frog From Suriname and Brazil The word amphibian translates into double life where the larvae go through an amazing transformation or metamorphosis. While the classic egg, tadpole, adult life cycle that has been taught in just about every grade school in America, some amphibians have very different and unique life cycles. The now extinct gastric breeding frogs incubated prejuvinile stages of their offspring in the females stomach. Marsupial frogs develop in a pouch of the adults females back and Surinam tads develop directly in the females skin on the back. Within Cleveland Metroparks the most abundant vertebrate is the redback salamander. This lungless amphibian spends most of their life under logs on the forest floor never entering water to lay their eggs like other amphibians. They will lay a clutch of 6-10 eggs under a log where they will tend them until they hatch into little miniature adults in late summer. This demonstrates that nature does not stick to the rules and ...
Hertz, A, Ponce, M, Madani, G, Bland, A, Petchey, A, Andrén, C and Eisenberg, T 2018, Low Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence in two persisting post-decline populations of endangered hylid frogs in western Panama , Salamandra, 54 (1) , pp. 83-86. Full text not available from this repository ...
Skin bacteria could be the best defense that frogs and salamanders have for protection against dangerous diseases like chytrid fungus.. By culturing and sequencing the DNA of naturally occurring bacteria living on the skin of four amphibian species in Virginia, Virginia Tech researchers found samples that could be useful for developing probiotic treatments for amphibians.. There is a lot of interest in using these beneficial bacteria as probiotics to protect amphibians from disease, said Jeni Walke, a postdoctoral researcher at Virginia Tech. As with many applications of microbiology, using probiotics requires having bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory and then, in this case, applied to amphibians.. Specifically, Walke and her team found distinct microbial communities across amphibian species with many of the dominant bacteria represented by cultures, some of which are known to contribute to disease resistance in hosts. Some species of skin bacteria produce antifungals, which, with ...
Colombian scientists say theyve discovered 10 new species of amphibians in the mountainous Tacarcuna area near the border with Panama.. The newly discovered species include a spiky-skinned, orange-legged rain frog, three poison dart frogs and three glass frogs, so called because their transparent skin can reveal internal organs.. The scientists, led by herpetologists from Conservation International in Colombia and ornithologists from the Ecotropico Foundation, identified approximately 60 species of amphibians, 20 reptiles and nearly 120 species of birds, many of them apparently found nowhere else.. Colombia has one of the most diverse amphibian communities in the world, with 754 species currently recorded, the researchers said.. ...
We proposed to test the hypothesis that ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures will increase susceptibility of metamorphic amphibians to a fungal pathogen known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, or Bd. Bd has received considerable attention as one of the causes of declining amphibian populations. We hypothesized that exposure to the contaminants in the larval stage would cause increased pathogen load, decreased growth, and increased mortality of amphibians. Our amphibians included 2 species of tree frogs (Spring Peepers and Pacific tree frogs), 1 toad species (Western Toads), and 2 true frog species (Leopard frogs and Cascades frogs). Each species of frog was split into five different pesticide treatments: high herbicide, low herbicide, high insecticide, low insecticide, and a control treatment. Half of the frogs in each pesticide treatment were exposed as tadpoles and half were exposed as metamorphs. In the end, three of the five species showed significant mortality rates. ...
Amphibians are in decline worldwide. However, their patterns of diversity, especially in the tropics, are not well understood, mainly because of incomplete information on taxonomy and distribution. We assess morphological, bioacoustic, and genetic variation of Madagascars amphibians, one of the first near-complete taxon samplings from a biodiversity hotspot. Based on DNA sequences of 2,850 specimens sampled from over 170 localities, our analyses reveal an extreme proportion of amphibian diversity, projecting an almost 2-fold increase in species numbers from the currently described 244 species to a minimum of 373 and up to 465. This diversity is widespread geographically and across most major phylogenetic lineages except in a few previously well-studied genera, and is not restricted to morphologically cryptic clades. We classify the genealogical lineages in confirmed and unconfirmed candidate species or deeply divergent conspecific lineages based on concordance of genetic divergences with other ...
Tetrapod groups with four limbs; these may also be categorized as Amniota (mammals, reptiles, dinosaurs and birds), with all living and fossil amphibians placed in various non-amniote groups -- [ ucmp ]; Amphibia and Reptilia together are sometimes referred to as herptiles --[ general herpetology links ] Amphibia amphibians spend part of their life in water, breathe through skin & gills, lay eggs in water and lack scales, cold blooded -- [ ucmp , links , Amphibian Species of the World ] Labyrinthodontia fossils Lepospondyli fossils Lissamphibia includes all living amphibians -- [ ToL , ummzADW ] Anura (=Salienta) frogs, toads -- [ ToL , ummzADW , links ] Bufonidae toads [ ummzADW ] Centrolenidae Centrolenella [ ummzADW ] Dendrobatidae poison dart frogs [ ummzADW ] Discoglossidae Alytes [ ummzADW ] Hylidae tree frogs and peepers [ ummzADW ] Hyperolidae Hyperolius [ ummzADW ] Leptodactylidae Syrrhophus, Telmatobius [ ummzADW ] Microhylidae narrowmouth toad [ ummzADW ] Myobatrachidae gastric ...
...An international team of researchers has completed the first major sur...The disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium de...Asia is home to a highly diverse set of amphibian species and potenti... Thats why were excited about this first really big survey said Vr...,Researchers,complete,first,major,survey,of,amphibian,fungus,in,Asia,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Circulatory systems in fish, amphibians and mammals. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals (Double Circulation).The circulatory system of a Frog forms a double loop. Adult frogs develop an apparatus and a digestive tract.Recall some of the adaptations each group has and how they help the animals better.RESPIRATION IN BIRDS-REPTILES-MAMMALS Respiratory System in Bird Respiratory System in Reptile Respiratory System in Mammals---a comparative anatomy.While something as basic as breathing may sound universal, the fact is that amphibians, birds, and mammals all do it differently.. The digestive system of birds is. the reproductive habits or mammals and those of reptiles, birds, and amphibians.Order Squamata Since reptiles were the first to inhabit dry land, several evolutionary changes were required in the.Many people who care for reptiles will at some point hear or read about the renal portal system. amphibians, birds and reptiles.). come from the digestive.. Animal genitalia: amphibians, reptiles and. ...
Researchers from the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Southern Illinois University and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) examined the chronic toxicity of two of the insecticides most commonly used in the Central Valley- chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, to larval Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii), the amphibians with declining populations that live and breed in meadows surrounding the Sierra Nevada. The results are discussed in Toxicity of Two Insecticides to California, USA, Anurans and Its Relevance to Declining Amphibian Populations. The study used laboratory testing to examine how the insecticides affected the two frogs at environmentally realistic concentrations. During testing, tadpoles were observed at various stages of development to see how the insecticides affected their growth and health.. The researchers found that endosulfan was more toxic than chlorpyrifos to both species, and tadpoles of both species developed abnormalities ...
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Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the particular fungus responsible for chytrid in frogs, and while hundreds of amphibian populations (and species!) have already been lost to this pathogen, there are many other populations that are doing just fine*.. So chytrid is a big problem, but predicting susceptibility to chytrid in natural populations is tricky business. A major focus of this effort is understanding how immunity is conferred to amphibians populations, and this process starts with the heroic genes that are most responsible for fighting chytrid: those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).. Conservation biologists hope that immunity to Bd is being selected for quickly, but the evolution of host resistance has only been recently addressed. Most recently, Anna Savage and Kelly Zamudio took a big step by taking measurements of positive selection for immunity out of the laboratory and into the field by analyzing MHC genes in wild populations of frogs with ongoing chytrid ...
Urbanization is a major anthropogenic factor affecting todays environment, making urban ecosystems the most dynamically evolving parts of modern biota. Although the influence of urbanization on biological species has been studied, a significant gap of knowledge exists regarding the effect of urbanization on the evolution of animal species. To address this question, my laboratory conducts a longitudinal study on amphibian communities in the Ural Mountains region in Russia. The Urals is natural barrier between Europe and Asia characterized by a considerable heterogeneity of landscapes, well-developed urban ecosystems, and diverse areas of environmental pollution. These factors strongly affect amphibian populations because the development of these animals is very sensitive to environmental cues. Starting 1977, we study five amphibian species at 20 geographical locations, including urban territories. We use standardized methods of data collection, which allows for comparisons between different ...
Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are responsible for massive population declines. In amphibians, chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has severely affected many amphibian populations and species around the world. One promising management strategy is probiotic bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria on amphibian skin. In vivo experimental trials using bioaugmentation strategies have had mixed results, and therefore a more informed strategy is needed to select successful probiotic candidates. Metagenomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic methods, colloquially called omics, are approaches that can better inform probiotic selection and optimize selection protocols. The integration of multiple omic data using bioinformatic and statistical tools and in silico models that link bacterial community structure with bacterial defensive function can allow the identification of species involved in pathogen inhibition. We recommend using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and ...
All frogs brought in from the wild go through a 10-day treatment protocol even before all of the amphibian chytrid results come back. The risks of missing a positive case and introducing chytrid to the entire captive population are too great to wait for results before beginning treatment. For 10 minutes each day, the frogs are bathed in the antifungal medication. Animals that are actively showing signs of illness also receive intensive supportive care to help them survive the course of treatment. The amphibian chytrid attacks the skin cells of amphibians, which can be quickly lethal for an animal that relies on its skin for the majority of respiratory function, hydration and electrolyte balance. Veterinary care for afflicted animals includes continuous fluid therapy to maintain hydration and replace electrolytes, as well as antibiotic treatment to protect against other infections that may take hold after the loss of the skins protective barrier.. Ten days after the bath cycle, the frogs are ...
Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all tetrapods and four-legged vertebrates that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectotherms, and generally spend part of their time on land. Most amphibians do not have the adaptations to an entirely terrestrial existence found in most other modern tetrapods. There are around 6,000 described, living species of amphibians. The study of amphibians and reptiles is known as herpetology. In the aquarium hobby, the most often encountered amphibian animals are Frogs, Newts and Salamanders. ...
Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all tetrapods and four-legged vertebrates that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectotherms, and generally spend part of their time on land. Most amphibians do not have the adaptations to an entirely terrestrial existence found in most other modern tetrapods. There are around 6,000 described, living species of amphibians. The study of amphibians and reptiles is known as herpetology. In the aquarium hobby, the most often encountered amphibian animals are Frogs, Newts and Salamanders. ...
It is thought that the cause for the decline of the southern day frog was the same virulent disease which is the suspected cause of the extinction of the two species of gastric brooding frog. The southern day frog and southern gastric brooding frog disappeared from the same region within the same year, strengthening the theory that declines were most likely a result of an infection with the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). These are just two of many species which are thought to have been affected by a chytrid epidemic that spread through Australian Frog populations from the late 1970s until the early 1990s ...
Published by Lynx Edicions, in association with IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe.. Amphibians are facing an extinction crisis, but getting to the facts has been difficult. Threatened Amphibians of the World is a visual journey through the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the worlds 6,000 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. All ~1,900 species known to be threatened with extinction are covered, including a description of threats to each species and an evaluation of conservation measures in place or needed. Each entry includes a photograph or illustration of the species where available, a distribution map, and detailed information on range, population and habitat and ecology. Introductory chapters present a detailed analysis of the results, complemented by a series of short essays written by many of the worlds leading herpetologists. Appendices include annoted lists of lower risk species and a ...
Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D.E., Cunningham, A.A., Goggin, C.L., Slocombe, R., Ragan, M.A., Hyatt, A.D., McDonald, K.R., Hines, H.B., Lips, K.R., Marantelli, G. & Parkes, H. (1998) Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 95, 9031-9036 ...
Chytridiomycosis is a fatal disease of post-metamorphic frogs and can be carried by healthy tadpoles. Here we describe methods for preparing and interpreting histologic sections from adults and tadpoles for the diagnosis of chytridiomycosis.. ...
Having started working in the field of amphibian embryology over 50 years ago, I make some comments about the changes that seem to me to have taken place in this field over this period. Over the period 1885 to 1960, much of the highly regarded experimental embryology was conducted on amphibian eggs and embryos. Indeed, much of this work was conducted in Germany and Switzerland using eggs and embryos of European newts (salamanders) and frogs of the Rana group. Xenopus started to be used extensively after the 1950s because eggs and embryos could be obtained throughout the year by hormone injection and because sexually mature animals could be raised from an egg within one year. Since the 1960s, publications using Xenopus have exceeded those using other amphibian species by 100-fold. This short commentary highlights some of the major advances attributable to embryological work with Amphibia and exemplifies these advances by reference to those who have made conspicuous contributions in this area.
This chytrid fungus (Chytriodiomycota: Chytridiales) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. This fungus has been implicated as the cause of amphibian declines and extinctions of more than 250 species of frogs across six continents (the widespread distribution of this disease the likely consequence of anthropogenic effects). B. dendrobatidis can infect both larval and adult amphibians. Infections in larvae cause a reduction in grazing efficiency, food intake, and survival. Infections in adults cause thickening of the skin which might interfere with osmoregulation or ion balance. This fungus has two parts of its life cycle: one part in the host and one part outside of the host (a motile zoospore stage). Recent studies have shown that B. dendrobatidis can survive for long periods of time outside of the host, increasing its ability to drive host populations extinct. Although this fungus is believed to have originated in Africa, B. dendrobatidis was ...
Amphibians[edit]. There is limited evidence for extinction of amphibians at the K-Pg boundary. A study of fossil vertebrates ... some amphibians do seem to have become extinct at the boundary. The relatively low levels of extinction seen among amphibians ... Gardner, J. D. (2000). "Albanerpetontid amphibians from the upper Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) of North America". ... Yet there are several species of Maastrichtian amphibian, not included as part of this study, which are unknown from the ...
In amphibians[edit]. Evolution of innate behaviors[edit]. Main article: Caridoid escape reaction § Evolution of the tail flip ...
Amphibians[edit]. Arctic frogs use glucose,[5] but Arctic salamanders create glycerol in their livers for use as a ... fish and amphibians create cryoprotectants (antifreeze compounds and antifreeze proteins) in their bodies to minimize freezing ...
Amphibians[edit]. Main article: Tadpole. The behavior of an amphibian hatchling, commonly referred to as a tadpole, is ... In oviparious biology, a hatchling is a newly hatched fish, amphibian, reptile, or bird.[1] A group of mammals called ... Duellman, W. E.; Trueb, L. (1994). Biology of amphibians. illustrated by L. Trueb. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018- ... "How neurons generate behavior in a hatchling amphibian tadpole: an outline". Front. Behav. Neurosci. 4 (16). doi:10.3389/fnbeh ...
Amphibians[edit]. *Cane toads have had serious negative effects on many ecosystems to which they have been introduced, ...
Reptiles & amphibians N/A 13.6 4.7 2.89 Equine N/A 13.3 3.9 3.41 ...
Amphibians[edit]. Paradise fish begin to hatch from a bubble nest.. Some species of frog build nests ranging from simple to ...
Amphibians. Main article: Amphibian § Respiratory system. Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians ... the skin's unique properties aid rapid gas exchange when amphibians are submerged in oxygen-rich water.[50] Some amphibians ... Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin ... The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on positive pressure ventilation. Muscles lower the floor of the oral cavity ...
Amphibians[edit]. *Ambystoma mexicanum, axolotl (2018)[46]. *Xenopus tropicalis, western clawed frog (2010)[47] ...
Amphibians[edit]. For many amphibians, an annual breeding cycle applies, typically regulated by ambient temperature, ... where prolonged aestivation or hibernation renders many amphibian species inactive for prolonged periods. Breeding habitats are ... which traits are often sorted among amphibians, reptiles, mammals, avafauna, arthropods and lower life forms. ...
Amphibians[edit]. Limb regeneration in the axolotl and newt has been extensively studied and researched. Urodele amphibians, ... Brockes JP, Kumar A (August 2002). "Plasticity and reprogramming of differentiated cells in amphibian regeneration". Nature ... Echinoderms (such as the sea star), crayfish, many reptiles, and amphibians exhibit remarkable examples of tissue regeneration ... the role of Distal-less and FGF signaling in amphibian limb regeneration". Development. 122 (11): 3487-97. PMID 8951064.. ...
Amphibians employ a positive pressure system to get air to their lungs, forcing air down into the lungs by buccal pumping. This ... The lungs of amphibians typically have a few narrow internal walls (septa) of soft tissue around the outer walls, increasing ... In tuataras, snakes, and some lizards, the lungs are simpler in structure, similar to that of typical amphibians.[78] ... The lungs of most frogs and other amphibians are simple and balloon-like, with gas exchange limited to the outer surface of the ...
Amphibians[edit]. Due to environmental factors, amphibians are not found in large numbers or diversity at the Sonny Bono Salton ... In addition, 41 species of mammals, 18 species of reptiles, 4 species of amphibians and 15 species of fish have been identified ...
Amphibians[edit]. Main article: List of amphibians of Great Britain. The species of amphibian native to Britain are the great ...
Living amphibians typically have greatly reduced skulls, with many of the bones either absent or wholly or partly replaced by ... The jugal is a skull bone found in most reptiles, amphibians, and birds. In mammals, the jugal is often called the zygomatic ...
Amphibians[edit]. The legless amphibians called caecilians have two short tentacles, one on each side of the head, between ...
Amphibians[edit]. Common name\scientific name. Extinction date. Range. Image. Atelopus ignescens[14]. Unknown. Ecuador. ...
Amphibians[edit]. Most aquatic and semi-aquatic amphibians have a membranous skin which allows them to absorb water directly ... Some aquatic amphibian such as Xenopus do not reabsorb water, to prevent excessive water influx.[31] For land-dwelling ... Laurie J. Vitt; Janalee P. Caldwell (25 March 2013). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic ... The amphibian bladder is usually highly distensible and among some land-dwelling species of frogs and salamanders may account ...
Amphibians[edit]. In or near fresh water there is sometimes found the Balkan frog (Pelophylax kurtmuelleri) and the European ...
Reptiles and amphibians[edit]. *Aquatic. Southern bell frogs. Leopard tortoise. Red-eared sliders. Axolotl. Australian water ...
Amphibians and reptiles[edit]. Eight species of amphibians and 31 species of reptiles live or have been recorded on and around ... the Epirus water frog and the Greek marsh frog are the representatives of the Amphibia Class. ...
Amphibians and Reptiles[edit]. Frogs[edit]. Alaska has two species of frogs. They are the Columbia Spotted Frog and Wood Frog. ... The Columbia Spotted Frog is an amphibian that lives in highly aquatic environments such as lakes, rivers, ponds, and marshes. ...
In living amphibians, there is simply a cylindrical piece of bone below the vertebral arch, with no trace of the separate ... The sacral vertebrae are those in the pelvic region, and range from one in amphibians, to two in most birds and modern reptiles ... the number of cervical vertebrae can range from a single vertebra in amphibians, to as many as 25 in swans or 76 in the extinct ...
Reptiles and amphibians[edit]. Amphibians, where regionally accessible, have been found in the North American river otter's ... Fish is a favored food among the otters, but they also consume various amphibians (such as salamanders and frogs[3]), ... Amphibians and reptiles are more obtainable by the North American river otter during the spring and summer as a result of ... amphibians, birds (most especially moulting ducks which render the birds flightless and thus makes them easier to capture), ...
Reptiles and amphibians[edit]. Basking is common to most active diurnal reptiles. Lizards, crocodiles, terrapins, and snakes ...
Reptiles and amphibians[edit]. All three British native species of snake inhabit the Forest. The adder (Vipera berus) is the ...
Only six amphibians and four land reptiles are native to Scotland.[144] The amphibians include three species of newt: the great ... A single alien amphibian is known in Scotland, the Alpine newt, a recent escapee confined to the Edinburgh area.[61] ... Only six amphibians and four land reptiles are native to Scotland, but many species of invertebrates live there that are ... "Protected species - Amphibians and reptiles" Archived 27 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. SNH. Retrieved 20 April 2012. ...
... model in amphibians[edit]. Amphibian frog Xenopus laevis serves as an ideal model system for the study of the ... tail and fins in amphibians metamorphosis, and stimulate the evolution of their nervous system transforming the aquatic, ...
Amphibian frog Xenopus laevis serves as an ideal model system for the study of the mechanisms of apoptosis. In fact, iodine and ... thyroxine also stimulate the spectacular apoptosis of the cells of the larval gills, tail and fins in amphibians metamorphosis ...
Class Amphibia (amphibians, some ancestral to the amniotes)-now a paraphyletic group ... their function taken over by the gills proper in fishes and by lungs in most amphibians. Some amphibians retain the external ... In amphibians and some primitive bony fishes, the larvae bear external gills, branching off from the gill arches.[16] These are ... Also note that Teleostei (Neopterygii) and Tetrapoda (amphibians, mammals, reptiles, birds) each make up about 50% of today's ...
The proceeds from this event will go directly to supporting amphibian conservation via the Amphibian Ark ... Amazing Amphibians at the Staten Island Zoo. If you love amphibians, you will love this conservation presentation and dinner. ... During dinner you will have the chance to participate in a silent auction of Amphibian themed art from around the world. ... Buffet style Dinner to be followed by additional presentations on amphibian conservation by Allysa Borek of the Bronx Zoo and ...
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... are cold-blooded vertebrates (vertebrates have backbones) that dont have scales. They live part of their lives in ... Amphibians. Amphibians are cold-blooded vertebrates (vertebrates have backbones) that dont have scales. They live part of ...
Mesozoic Amphibians". In Heatwole, H.; Carroll, R. L. Amphibian Biology: Paleontology: The Evolutionary History of Amphibians ( ... Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a ... "IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Retrieved March 30, 2012.. *^ Waddle, James Hardin (2006). Use of amphibians as ecosystem ... The study of amphibians is called batrachology, while the study of both reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology. ...
Amphibian Species of the World * AmphibiaWeb. * Declining Amphibian Population Task Force * Australian Herpetological Directory ... Living Amphibians Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. David Cannatella Click on an image to view larger ... Page: Tree of Life Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Authored by David Cannatella. The ... Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Version 28 November 2008 (under construction). http ...
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"Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both ... More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British ... One-third of the amphibian species in the world are listed as endangered. Researchers said climate change adds to the stress ... Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping in numbers as their food supply ...
Adult amphibians either have lungs or continue to breathe through their skin. Amphibians have three ways of breathing. The ... Amphibians have gills when they are young or they breathe through their skin. ... Amphibians Do young amphibians breathe through lungs. ?. no because adult amphibians is breathe from lungs and young amphibian ... Amphibians Do adult amphibians have lungs. ?. When amphibians are babies, they have gills, but most adult amphibians breathe ...
... Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ...
Amphibians. POTENTIAL CAUSES FOR AMPHIBIAN DECLINES IN PUERTO RICO. Fri, 07/29/2011 - 12:45 - ckass P. A. Burrowes, R. L. ... underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico:. analysis of U.S. government data archives. Conservation. Biology 15:943- ... None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian ... The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern ...
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... cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the frogs and toads (order ... amphibian, in zoology, cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the ... All living amphibians are specialized for their way of life, none representing the main amphibian stock from which the reptiles ... or limbless amphibians (order Gymnophiona, or Apoda), a little known tropical group. Amphibians, the most primitive of the ...
The Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program (TAMP) is a volunteer-based, multi-agency effort to assess the current status of ... Northeast Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative LEPAPS Frog and Toad ID Pages The Whole Frog Project ... The TAMP is being undertaken in an effort to understand the status of amphibians in our home state. The TAMP is an integral ... This lends some credence to our concerns about holes in the ozone layer, and reminds us of the value of amphibians as ...
This educational book about the first creatures to exist both on land and in the water includes colorful pictures of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians.
Amphibians with Tails. By IPS Correspondents Reprint , , Print , Apr 22 2001 (IPS) - Salamanders are often confused with ... which targets reptiles and amphibians, and their scientific classification encompasses 10 different families. ...
Pages in category "Amphibians of Kerala". This category contains only the following page. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Reptiles and amphibians: Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... Reptiles and amphibians. Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... There is some electrophysiological evidence of thermal sensitivity among amphibians; however, these organisms appear to respond ... Studies into the existence of TRP channels and other cellular thermoreception mechanisms in amphibians are ongoing. ...
A recent report provides the most compelling evidence yet that frogs and other amphibians are in serious trouble worldwide. ... The Case of the Missing Amphibians A recent report provides the most compelling evidence yet that frogs and other amphibians ... Gopher frogs and other amphibians are unusually sensitive to habitat loss and degradation. "Amphibians have smaller range sizes ... Because amphibian populations naturally fluctuate-and because most herpetologists focus on a single region-it took time for the ...
Amphibians of China (en); رده:دوزیستان جمهوری خلق چین (fa); Categoria:Anfíbios da China (pt); Categoría:Anfibios da China (gl ... Retrieved from "" ...
... newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British scientists said. ... Amphibian Ark envisioned *Many species thought safe from extinction said at climate-change risk *Amphibians rally from ... "Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both ... 26 (UPI) -- More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, ...
Reptiles and Amphibians. Read the question and answer the qestion correctly.Each time you get a question right you get closer ...
Smithsonian scientists are working to save amphibians through projects focused in Panama and Appalachia. ... Amphibians*Assisted Reproduction and Genome Resource Banking of Panamanian Golden Frogs. *Panama Amphibian Rescue and ... Amphibians-frogs, toads, salamanders and newts-are vanishing. Researchers believe that since 1980, 122 amphibian species have ... Visit our amphibian conservation exhibitions at the Zoos Amazonia Science Gallery (Amphibian Alert), the Reptile Discovery ...
It also weakens amphibian immune systems, leaving the fragile creatures vulnerable to disease. Though less obvious than gender ... bending, immunosuppression could also play a part in the worldwide decline of amphibians, which have porous \[…\] ... The best-known amphibian killer, the chytrid fungus, has killed 95 percent of all frogs in Colombia and Panama, and driven 30 ... Sex-Changing Herbicide Makes Amphibians Sick, Too. Atrazine is receiving lots of attention for turning male frogs into girls, ...
Before choosing a pet reptile or amphibian. *Reptiles and amphibians might not be right for your family because of their risk ... This germ can cause disease in fish and amphibians. Aeromonas can cause discoloration of the limbs of amphibians and fins of ... Housing your reptile or amphibian. *It is important that you provide your reptile or amphibian with a safe, warm, and ... Safe Handling of Pet Reptiles & Amphibians. CDC Webpage. Reptile and amphibian-associated outbreaks. US Outbreaks of Zoonotic ...
... a frog-killing fungus that has decimated some 200 species of amphibians globally is zeroing in on some of its last targets. ... While many species of amphibians may have been wiped out before Bds arrival, scientists point to the small pocket of Panama as ... Reuters) - In the remote jungles of eastern Panama, a frog-killing fungus that has decimated some 200 species of amphibians ... As soon as it strikes a susceptible amphibian population, a massive die-off can be witnessed in a season. ...
Other articles where Proteid is discussed: Caudata: Annotated classification: Family Proteidae (olms and mud puppies) The olm is blind, has little pigment, has an elongated body, and is cave-dwelling; mud puppies live in lakes and streams, have eyes, and are normally pigmented; elongate bodies, length to 45 cm; limbs with 3 (olm) or 4 fingers,…
Amphibian herpesviruses might never have been studied had Lucké (1934) not discovered that cells of the renal adenocarcinoma of ... Granoff, A., 1969, Viruses of Amphibia, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 50: 107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Granoff A. (1983) Amphibian Herpesviruses. In: Roizman B. (eds) The Herpesviruses. The Viruses. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI ... Amphibian herpesviruses might never have been studied had Lucké (1934) not discovered that cells of the renal adenocarcinoma of ...
There are three orders in the amphibia group, two of which are widely familiar, frogs (Anura) and salamanders (Caudata), and ... Amphibia Amphibia is one of the five major classes of vertebrates. ... Amphibia. Amphibia is one of the five major classes of vertebrates. There are three orders in the amphibia group, two of which ... Amphibia (amphibians; phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata) A class represented today by just three groups, the Apoda ( ...
Amphibians Amphibians are cold-blooded animals that possess backbones and display features that lie between those of fish and ... Amphibia , Amphibia is one of the five major classes of vertebrates. There are three orders in the amphibia group, two of which ... Amphibians. The vertebrate class Amphibia, to date, includes about 3,500 species in three orders: frogs and toads (order Anura ... Amphibian. An amphibian is a cold-blooded vertebrate (an animal with a backbone) animal that spends part of its life in the ...
A list of species profiles for amphibians the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service works to conserve in the Southeastern United ... amphibians. Southeastern amphibians. The species profiles below are a one-stop-shop for information about the amphibians the ... This large amphibian can be found crawling around the bottoms of clear, silt-free mountain streams. They are generally ...
  • The study of amphibians is called batrachology , while the study of both reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology . (
  • Study of these creatures forms part of herpetology, which targets reptiles and amphibians, and their scientific classification encompasses 10 different families. (
  • . Salmonella is normally in the digestive tract of healthy reptiles and amphibians, but it can cause infections in people who have contact with reptiles, amphibians, and their environments, including the water from terrariums or aquariums where they live. (
  • Salmonella is the most common disease associated with reptiles and amphibians that can cause human illness. (
  • See information about Salmonella and other diseases linked to reptiles and amphibians below. (
  • Salmonella spreads to people and animals through contaminated food or contact with the stools of certain animals, including reptiles and amphibians. (
  • can be found in healthy reptiles and amphibians and doesn't usually make them sick. (
  • Healthy reptiles and amphibians can carry Salmonella and other germs that can make people sick. (
  • You can keep yourself healthy around your pet reptiles and amphibians. (
  • Reptiles and amphibians can carry germs that can make people sick, even when they appear healthy and clean. (
  • Always wash your hands thoroughly after handling reptiles and amphibians, and anything in the area where they live or roam such as their habitats, food, or equipment. (
  • Source for finding Reptiles and Amphibians and supplies. (
  • Post your thoughts and ideas in the Reptiles and Amphibians Forum. (
  • A great place to share information and ideas to help keep our reptiles and amphibians thriving! (
  • Subscribe for free weekly updates from this Reptiles and Amphibians site. (
  • Natural News) A comparative study reveals that manicured citrus orchards and reclaimed orchard forests in Stann Creek, Belize have similar abundance and diversity in herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians) as natural habitat areas. (
  • Habitat loss is the greatest threat to both reptiles and amphibians in Europe. (
  • What do reptiles and amphibians have in common? (
  • Two things that reptiles and amphibians have in common is that they both have a backbone and they both are primarily cold-blooded animals. (
  • An AZA Recommendations for Reptiles and Amphibians Used in Outreach Programs document has been developed for use as a resource to identify some of the more common species that have been safely used in educational outreach programs. (
  • Reptiles and amphibians have not been extensively studied in Bhutan, and it is likely that many species thrive there. (
  • He has taught classes in reptiles and amphibians. (
  • Reptiles and amphibians are not recommended for children under the age of five. (
  • Keep your reptiles and amphibians and their equipment out of your kitchen or anywhere in your home where food is prepared, served, or consumed. (
  • Do not kiss or snuggle with reptiles and amphibians because this will increase your risk of getting sick. (
  • Reptiles and amphibians are every where you look in Florida. (
  • This forum is for questions and support regarding your pet reptiles and amphibians! (
  • The three modern orders of amphibians are Anura (the frogs and toads), Urodela (the salamanders), and Apoda (the caecilians). (
  • More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British scientists said. (
  • There are three living orders of amphibians: the frogs and toads (order Anura, or Salientia), the salamanders and newts (order Urodela, or Caudata), and the caecilians , or limbless amphibians (order Gymnophiona, or Apoda), a little known tropical group. (
  • The Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program (TAMP) is a volunteer-based, multi-agency effort to assess the current status of amphibians (frogs, toads, and salamanders) across our state, with the goal of learning where they live and how they are doing. (
  • In recent years, biologists in many parts of the world have documented declining populations of amphibians, especially anurans (frogs & toads). (
  • Amphibians-frogs, toads, salamanders and newts-are vanishing. (
  • Frogs and toads make up the order Anura, the largest group of living amphibians, comprising about 3,000 species. (
  • The largest frogs and toads also eat small mammals, birds, fish, and other amphibians. (
  • As of 29 August 2020[update], 7243 species of frogs and toads are recognised by Amphibian Species of the World. (
  • Among amphibians, a group that includes frogs, toads, salamanders and newts, two species have been classified as Critically Endangered: the Karpathos Frog ( Pelophylax cerigensis ) and the Montseny Brook Newt ( Calotriton arnoldi ), Spain's only endemic newt. (
  • Amphibians are familiar to most people as frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and to a much smaller group of people as caecilians. (
  • Frogs, toads, salamanders and newts make up the family of amphibians. (
  • The Global Amphibian Assessment is a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the world's 5,743 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders and caecilians. (
  • Our amphibians fall into two taxonomic orders: Caudata (salamanders) and Anura (frogs and toads). (
  • Amphibians, like frogs and toads, occur primarily in the tropical zone and the warmer, lower temperate forest belts, although some live in hot springs at incredibly high altitudes. (
  • There are three large amphibian groups: nearly 6,000 species of frogs and toads, several hundred species of salamanders, and around 200 of the lesser known caecilians (limbless, worm-like amphibians that live only in tropical regions, in the water or underground). (
  • any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Amphibia, comprising frogs and toads, newts and salamanders, and caecilians, the larvae being typically aquatic, breathing by gills, and the adults being typically semiterrestrial, breathing by lungs and through the moist, glandular skin. (
  • Amphibians evolved from lobe-finned fish during the late Devonian Period and include frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and caecilians. (
  • Approximately 230 species of frogs, toads, and salamanders make up the amphibian fauna of the continental United States. (
  • The Amphibian family includes toads, frogs and salamanders. (
  • Amphibians - frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians - were the first vertebrates to leave the water for a terrestrial existence. (
  • Amphibians are cold-blooded vertebrates (vertebrates have backbones) that don't have scales. (
  • Amphibians are ectothermic , tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia . (
  • [2] Traditionally, the class Amphibia includes all tetrapod vertebrates that are not amniotes. (
  • Amphibians, the most primitive of the terrestrial vertebrates, are intermediate in evolutionary position between the fish and the reptiles . (
  • Amphibia is one of the five major classes of vertebrates. (
  • The earliest tetrapods (four-legged, terrestrial vertebrates) were amphibians, and living amphibian species retain some of the primitive characteristics of the first terrestrial vertebrates, which invaded land habitats during the geologic period known as the Devonian, which was approximately 408 million years ago. (
  • For example, unlike other terrestrial vertebrates, amphibians lack scales and claws, and are instead characterized by a moist, glandular skin composed of living cells. (
  • Amphibians were the first vertebrates (animals with backbones) to live on land. (
  • Amphibians were the first vertebrates to leave the water and begin a new era of life on land. (
  • Amphibians are cold-blooded (body temperature is not internally regulated and therefore is similar to the external temperature), smooth-skinned vertebrates that characteristically hatch as an aquatic larva with gills. (
  • All amphibians are vertebrates, which means they have backbones. (
  • Hearing and Sound Communication in Amphibians is a compendium of the latest research on acoustic communication in these highly vocal vertebrates. (
  • Amphibians are considered the first vertebrates to have thrived on land and are believed to have been on Earth for hundreds of millions of years. (
  • Amphibians, not quite fish and not quite reptiles, were the first vertebrates to live on land. (
  • However, long-term gradual diversification is difficult to reconcile with the sensitivity of present-day amphibian faunas to rapid ecological changes and the incidence of similar environmental perturbations in the past that have been associated with high turnover rates in other land vertebrates. (
  • Recent research evaluated the importance of buffers in providing habitat for other vertebrates, especially amphibians, whose decreasing numbers are raising concerns worldwide. (
  • The impacts of changes are far more pervasive on amphibians than many other vertebrates, such as birds or mammals. (
  • Traditionally, amphibians as a class are defined as all tetrapods with a larval stage, while the group that includes the common ancestors of all living amphibians (frogs, salamanders and caecilians) and all their descendants is called Lissamphibia. (
  • 2000. Mitochondrial evidence on the phylogenetic position of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). (
  • There are three orders in the amphibia group, two of which are widely familiar, frogs (Anura) and salamanders (Caudata), and one of which is less well-known, the tropical caecilians (Gymnophiona). (
  • The three orders of amphibians are salamanders, frogs, and caecilians. (
  • Among amphibians, it is seen in numerous frog and salamander species, but has not been recorded in caecilians. (
  • The fossil record of modern amphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians) provides no evidence for major extinction or radiation episodes throughout most of the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. (
  • There is little doubt that Mesozoic and Tertiary patterns in amphibian diversity were determined to a great extent by the diversification of the extant orders Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians, respectively) ( 4 , 11 ⇓ ⇓ - 14 ). (
  • Amphibians (frogs, newts, salamanders etc) are NOT reptiles. (
  • The salamanders and newts are superficially the most similar to ancestral amphibians, having long tails and front and hind legs of approximately equal size. (
  • Red-spotted newts eat insects, worms, leeches and mollusks, as well as the young and eggs of some other amphibians. (
  • Although often mistaken for a type of lizard due to their similar body shapes salamanders and newts are in fact members of the Amphibian family. (
  • Of the many suspected causes of amphibian declines around the world, we focused on climate change and disease. (
  • Temperature and precipitation data from 1970-2000 were analyzed to determine the general pattern of oscillations and deviations that could be correlated with amphibian declines. (
  • The 1970's and 1990's, which represent the periods of amphibian extirpations and declines, were significantly drier than average. (
  • The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern Puerto Rico, a region unique in the humid tropics because of the degree of environmental monitoring that has taken place through the efforts of U.S. government agencies. (
  • Urban pollution impinging on Puerto Rico, dust generation from Africa (potential soil pathogens), and tropical forest burning (gaseous pollutants) have all increased during the last three decades, overlapping the timing of amphibian declines in eastern Puerto Rico. (
  • None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. (
  • In response to these declines in North America, an international group of biologists created the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) , with the goal of providing reliable methods of monitoring our native amphibians. (
  • Citations: 'The cause of global amphibian declines: a developmental endocrinologist's perspective. (
  • AZA's Conservation Education Committee , ATAG, and a special task force developed educational curriculum materials, fun family activities, and expert resources to help AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums raise awareness about amphibian declines and engage the public in their conservation efforts. (
  • An AZA article entitled " Responding to Amphibian Declines During Year of the Frog " describes the amphibian conservation crisis and the zoological community's response to amphibian declines in preparation for the Year of the Frog. (
  • The chytrid fungus, Bd, has been linked to declines in at least 200 amphibian species. (
  • Global amphibian declines first significantly caught researchers' attention in 1989, at the First World Congress of Herpetology (the study of amphibians and reptiles). (
  • The U.S. Department of the Interior has called for the development of a national program for monitoring amphibians and understanding their declines. (
  • The U.S. Southwest has been hit hard by amphibian declines, leaving a high proportion of species as sensitive or endangered. (
  • The tetrapod fossil record identifies at least one major extinction episode that involved widespread amphibian declines: At the end-Permian [≈251 million years ago (Mya)], a diversity of 24 amphibian-like families (including reptiliomorphs and acanthrosaurs, which may be more related to modern amniotes) was reduced to 8 over a single geological stage boundary ( 4 ). (
  • We know that there are various causes for amphibian population declines, including UV-B light exposure, habitat loss, pesticide pollution, infections and other issues," said Andrew Blaustein, a professor of zoology at OSU and one of the world's leading experts on amphibian decline. (
  • The smallest amphibian (and vertebrate) in the world is a frog from New Guinea ( Paedophryne amauensis ) with a length of just 7.7 mm (0.30 in). (
  • amphibian, in zoology, cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. (
  • In fact, the diversity of reproductive modes is greater among amphibians than other vertebrate groups. (
  • But more than 40% of amphibians are in similar straits -- making them worse off than any other vertebrate group, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature. (
  • All amphibians are members of the tetrapod vertebrate Class Amphibia. (
  • any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Amphibia, typically living on land but breeding in water. (
  • A cold-blooded, smooth-skinned vertebrate of the class Amphibia. (
  • Yet, the current rate at which amphibian faunas are declining exceeds that of any other vertebrate group and has been attributed to a combination of rapidly changing ecological and climatic conditions (habitat loss, invading pathogens, global warming, increased UV-radiation) ( 3 ). (
  • Mammals, birds, reptiles and adult amphibians breathe using lungs. (
  • The two main differences between the respiratory systems of amphibians and those of mammals are that amphibians can breathe through their skin (mammals cannot) and that juvenile amphibians only breathe underwater through gills (mammals breathe air through lungs throughout their lives). (
  • Amphibians have smaller range sizes than do birds or mammals, so if there is habitat loss in an area, they are more likely to be affected," says Chanson. (
  • The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)'s Red List of Threatened Species estimates that at least one-third of known amphibian species are threatened with extinction, a rate higher than that for birds or mammals. (
  • More than half of all European amphibians (59 percent) and 42 percent of reptiles are in decline, which means that amphibians and reptiles are even more at risk than European mammals and birds. (
  • New Delhi: Global populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish have suffered an average two-thirds' decline in less than half a century. (
  • 6,000 amphibian species worldwide ( 1 ), a diversity that parallels those of placental mammals and songbirds ( 2 ). (
  • A three-year effort involving more than 520 scientists from 60 nations, the assessment concludes that 1,856 of 5,743 known amphibian species-or nearly a third-are threatened with extinction. (
  • The Center for Species Survival's conservation efforts focus on developing ex situ assurance colonies for amphibian species at highest risk for extinction and finding a cure for the amphibian chytrid fungus so that amphibians can be reintroduced to their native habitat. (
  • The best-known amphibian killer, the chytrid fungus, has killed 95 percent of all frogs in Colombia and Panama, and driven 30 species in the Atelopus genus to extinction - and it was only identified in 1993. (
  • Managed populations of amphibians may become the only conservation hope for many species faced with imminent extinction. (
  • There is broad concern that a mass extinction of amphibians and reptiles is now underway. (
  • During the first hour, investigative reporter Linda Moulton Howe discussed the ongoing decline of amphibians as well as the extinction of coral reefs. (
  • One third of amphibians currently face extinction. (
  • Worldwide, Chytridiomycosis has decimated amphibian populations-even leading to the extinction of several species . (
  • In 2004, the Global Amphibian Assessment reported that 1,856 amphibian species, nearly one third of all amphibians, were globally threatened with extinction. (
  • The basic constraints of evolution and the inability of species to adapt quickly enough can explain most of the causes that are leading one species after another of amphibians into decline or outright extinction, say researchers from Oregon State University, in a study published today in the journal BioScience. (
  • We suggest a possible synergistic interaction between drought and the pathological effect of the chytrid fungus on amphibian populations. (
  • Scientists now believe that the spread of this disease, simply referred to as chytrid, is responsible for mass amphibian extinctions on several continents. (
  • However, according to Hayes, chytrid is only the most apparent amphibian affliction. (
  • While many species of amphibians may have been wiped out before Bd's arrival, scientists point to the small pocket of Panama as well as Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Papua New Guinea - which are believed to be chytrid-free - as a chance for scientists to mitigate what they consider the fungus' inevitable arrival to all susceptible corners of the planet. (
  • More than 40 percent of the world's 6,000-plus amphibians are declining due to pollution, habitat loss and chytrid. (
  • It's tremendously exciting, because the other treatments for chytrid have problems," claimed Don Church, a scientist with Conservation International and senior director of the Amphibian Assessment Group which monitors trends worldwide. (
  • The classical method of treatment with a fungicide leaves animals open to re-infection, and it's not a solution for use in the wild - it's a solution for animals that can be kept isolated or quarantined," continues Church who advocates more research on amphibians who survive chytrid attack. (
  • WOODHAMS: Bd is the chytrid fungus that's been spreading around the world and devastating amphibian populations. (
  • serves as a carrier for the chytrid fungus that is causing mass amphibian extinctions. (
  • While it is quite likely that several of these factors play a role in each amphibian species decline, a highly infectious chytrid fungus is playing a larger role than any other suspects. (
  • The chytrid fungus species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ("Bd" for short) was found in 1998 to be responsible for parasitizing and killing its amphibian hosts (the often-fatal resultant disease is called chytridiomycosis). (
  • In part, diseases such as amphibian chytrid fungus and ranavirus, both of which have been documented in Ohio, could be blamed. (
  • The evening starts off with cocktail hour and a tour of the Zoo's reptile wing by Menagerie Supervisor and reptile (and amphibian) keeper Cathy Eser. (
  • Millions of households in the United States own at least one reptile or amphibian. (
  • Reptile and amphibian owners should be aware that their pets can carry germs that make people sick. (
  • If you decide that a reptile or amphibian is the right pet for you, it is very important that you learn how to properly take care of it and become aware of diseases that it might carry. (
  • With routine veterinary care and some simple habits, you can reduce your risk of getting sick from touching, petting, or owning a reptile or amphibian. (
  • You don't have to touch a reptile or amphibian to get sick from their germs. (
  • Find what supplies you need for your exotic pet reptile, amphibian, and insect. (
  • This paper uses a new, highly conservative statistical method to infer the number of extinct amphibian and reptile species across the world. (
  • Never use food-preparation areas to clean reptile and amphibian habitats or anything in their habitats. (
  • The reptile now evolved from the amphibian , and a vast reptile population spread over the earth. (
  • You can also access Field Museum amphibian and reptile specimens on VertNet and GBIF . (
  • Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. (
  • When amphibians are larvae (babies), they have gills, but most adult amphibians breathe with a pair of lungs excluding salamanders. (
  • Although aquatic larvae, metamorphosis, and semiterrestrial adults make up a typical amphibian life history, it is important to remember that there are numerous exceptions to this pattern. (
  • Berrill M, Bertram S, Pauli B (1997) Effects of pesticides on amphibian embryos and larvae. (
  • Amphibians hatch as aquatic larvae with gills and, in most species, then undergo metamorphosis into four-legged terrestrial adults with lungs for breathing air. (
  • Many amphibians lay their eggs in shallow, open water in direct sunlight to provide a more oxygenated environment, increase growth rate of larvae and reduce predation. (
  • The most familiar amphibian larvae is the tadpole, which swims about in ponds until it grows legs, loses its tail and matures into a frog. (
  • All amphibians go through this same process and larvae hatched in aquariums can be observed through their metamorphosis. (
  • While the aquatic larvae feed, like fish, on small crustaceans, adult amphibians eat a wide variety of foods, which makes them easy to feed in captivity. (
  • The Amphibians' opens with an introduction by ASA Conservation Officer and member of the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, Dr. Robin Moore. (
  • IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2015). (
  • The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) was a collaborative citizen science effort between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and 26 partners (state agencies, universities, and nonprofit organizations) for monitoring calling amphibian populations over much of the eastern and central United States. (
  • in recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations for many species around the globe. (
  • Unfortunately, as this book demonstrates, our rapid increase in the knowledge of amphibian species diversity and biology is coincident with a massive global decline in amphibian populations. (
  • Still under much debate to this day, there are several hypotheses for the global decline in amphibian populations: introduced species, human over-exploitation and modification of habitat areas, environmental contaminants, global warming, and infectious diseases. (
  • Since 1980, as many as 122 kinds of amphibians may have become extinct, and 34 extinctions are confirmed. (
  • Here I apply an extremely conservative Bayesian method to estimate the number of recent amphibian and squamate extinctions in nine important tropical and subtropical regions. (
  • She spoke with amphibian expert, Andrew Blaustein, Ph.D., who said the major cause of the extinctions is habitat destruction and habitat alterations. (
  • There have been at least 125 to 170 species extinctions of amphibians since 1980, he noted. (
  • A list of amphibians organizes the class of amphibian by family and subfamilies and mentions the number of species in each of them. (
  • The following is a list of amphibians found in the state of Arizona. (
  • 2001. On the origin of and phylogenetic relationships among living amphibians. (
  • Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping in numbers as their food supply dwindles. (
  • Herp enthusiasts take a stand along my side to stand up for the right to own exotic pets including lizards, snakes, amphibians, frogs, and turtles. (
  • Throughout this article you will find check lists of reptiles, amphibians and snakes. (
  • In California's High Sierra, meadows rich with the call of amphibians such as the Yosemite toad and the yellow-legged frog became eerily silent. (
  • Reuters) - In the remote jungles of eastern Panama, a frog-killing fungus that has decimated some 200 species of amphibians globally is zeroing in on some of its last targets. (
  • Amphibian herpesviruses might never have been studied had Lucké (1934) not discovered that cells of the renal adenocarcinoma of the common leopard frog, Rana pipiens , frequently contain intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies similar to those found in herpes simplex infections and other viral diseases. (
  • In a newly published study, scientists reported biofluorescence in 32 amphibian species, including Cranwell's horned frog. (
  • Feb. 27 (UPI) -- Until now, scientists knew of only four biofluorescent amphibians, one salamander and three frog species. (
  • Angola's native amphibians include Hildebrandtia ornatissima, an endemic frog that can survive in both dry and moist environments. (
  • Other amphibians in the country include the Red Tree Frog, Grandison's Toad, the Grey Foam Nest Tree Frog, and Power's Rain Frog. (
  • Since then, SSPs for the Wyoming Toad, Panamanian Golden Frog , Harlequin Golden Frog, Dusky Gopher Frog, and Houston Toad have been established to enhance amphibian conservation efforts. (
  • The Chinese giant salamander and the Goliath frog are considered examples of the largest amphibians. (
  • The Arizona tree frog is the state amphibian. (
  • Research led by Purdue University professor Maria Sepúlveda revealed certain chemicals are stunting the growth of amphibians, including the northern leopard frog (shown here). (
  • Thus if it be supposed that the amphibian arose from the fish, the tadpole presents more resemblance to the fish than the frog. (
  • Initiated in 1997, in response to needs set forth by the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force (DAPTF) in 1994, NAAMP was designed to provide scientifically and statistically defensible, long-term distribution and trend data for calling frog and toad populations at both the state and regional level. (
  • Scientists at Brown University studied 15 amphibian species in the Pacific Northwest, including the black-bellied slender salamander, the Santa Lucia Mountains slender salamander, the California red-legged frog and the California newt. (
  • In Franklin County, you re looking at massive habitat destruction, said Jeff Davis, a high-school science teacher in the Cincinnati area and founder of the Ohio Frog and Toad Calling Survey, which monitors amphibians statewide. (
  • The wood frog is actually a species that I point to as a success story, said Gregory Lipps, an Ohio herpetologist and a contributor to Amphibians of Ohio, a soon-to-be-released book. (
  • Amphibians range in size from a Brazilian frog that, at 1½ inches long, is the world's smallest four-legged animal to the 145-pound Chinese giant salamander, the largest amphibian, which approaches 6 feet in length. (
  • Amphibians may breathe with lungs, gills or through their skin. (
  • Amphibian eggs also require moist environments. (
  • A typical amphibian life cycle involves semiterrestrial adults that breed and lay eggs in water. (
  • The life cycle of most amphibians begins in water when the female lays eggs that are fertilized outside of her body. (
  • This amphibian also differs from other salamanders if a strange way as the female will not only lay large clutches of eggs that it attaches to submerged logs and stones, it will also guard the eggs until they hatch. (
  • Do All Amphibians Lay Eggs? (
  • Almost all amphibians lay eggs, but there is one species that gives birth to live young. (
  • Amphibians lay their eggs in water, where water-breathing juveniles develop and become air-breathing adults. (
  • The eggs of amphibians are fertilized externally and lack an amnion. (
  • Amphibians are of particular interest because their physiology and complex life cycle often exposes them to a wider range of environmental changes than other species must face - they have permeable skin, live on both land and water, their eggs have no shells. (
  • What most distinguishes amphibians is the fact that they begin their lives in the water and then metamorphose into land creatures that lay their eggs in the water. (
  • Woodruff DS (1976a) Courtship, reproductive rates and mating system in three Australian Pseudophryne ( Amphibia , Anura, Leptodactylidae). (
  • Reproductive activity and advertisement calls of the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus ( Amphibia , Anura, Bufonidae) from Bach Ma National Park, Vietnam. (
  • The new study suggests that ancestors of modern amphibians likely also featured biofluorescence, which would explain the phenomenon being widespread among frogs and salamanders living today. (
  • This raises questions of how the ancestors of modern amphibians coped with preceding environmental crises during their evolutionary history. (
  • Angola is endowed with a wealth of native amphibians. (
  • Alabama is home to 73 native amphibians, including 30 species of frogs and 43 species of salamanders. (
  • The largest living amphibian is the 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) Chinese giant salamander ( Andrias davidianus ), but this is dwarfed by the extinct 9 m (30 ft) Prionosuchus from the middle Permian of Brazil. (
  • No. Larval amphibians breathe through gills.Some salamander retain those gills into adulthood. (
  • The largest known amphibian is the Chinese giant salamander , which can grow to a length of 6 feet (1.83 m). (
  • 1993: Life history of the European plethodontid salamander Speleomantes ambrosii ( Amphibia , Caudata). (
  • In 1999, Smithsonian's National Zoo scientists worked with a researcher from the University of Maine to describe a new fungus that causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis--or Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)--that is deadly to amphibians. (
  • It causes a disease called chytridiomycosis on some amphibians. (
  • Major threats to amphibians include habitat loss or degradation and the rapidly dispersing infectious disease chytridiomycosis. (
  • Nearly half of the world's 6,000 amphibian species could be extinct by the end of this century, Linda explained, noting increased global temperatures, fungal diseases, and pesticides as some reasons for their decline. (
  • Our goal is to cover the entire state by enlisting a network of volunteers (Frogloggers) with an interest in science, herpetology (the study of amphibians and reptiles) and conservation. (
  • All amphibians are carnivorous, with the exception of larval frogs (tad-poles), which are primarily herbivorous. (
  • Based on an extensive series of experiments, we demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides can be highly toxic to larval amphibians. (
  • To learn more about amphibians visit . (
  • This resource can be downloaded by logging in to the website, navigating to the Animal Programs database by clicking 'Animal Programs' in the left-hand menu, clicking 'Search Animal Program Documents', and then typing 'Amphibian TAG RCP' into the Search Term box. (
  • Please feel free to browse our Reptiles & Amphibians archive below, search our site for additional information about reptiles & amphibians, or browse the full archives for this forum. (
  • If you love amphibians, you will love this conservation presentation and dinner. (
  • Foillowed by the keynote speaker Devin Edmonds talking about his project with Mitsinjo and its amphibian conservation mission in Madagascar. (
  • Buffet style Dinner to be followed by additional presentations on amphibian conservation by Allysa Borek of the Bronx Zoo and Johnathan Kolby of Operation Wallacea. (
  • With last fall's publication of the Global Amphibian Assessment, a joint project of IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Conservation International (CI) and NatureServe, the problem has become impossible to ignore. (
  • Amphibian conservation is part of the Smithsonian Conservation and Biology Institute's Center for Species Survival. (
  • In Ecuador, scientists found an Atelopus species not seen since 1995 as part of a Conservation International global project to locate 100 "lost" amphibians. (
  • Extensive research needs to be conducted on the lesser known amphibians to help in conservation efforts. (
  • The Amphibian TAG and SSPs work directly with at-risk species, while the Conservation Education Committee developed conservation and education resources, and AZA manages the FrogWatch USA citizen science program. (
  • AZA's Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group (ATAG) serves a vital role in helping AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums take strategic, sustainable, and effective actions towards the protection and conservation of amphibians. (
  • Amphibian Regional Collection Plan - identifies species that could benefit from ex situ conservation programs, how much space should be dedicated to each within AZA-accredited institutions, and recommends in situ conservation strategies. (
  • AZA has developed a series of publications to communicate the conservation-related activities of its accredited members in order to share scientific information, foster a community of support for amphibian conservation, and inspire conservation action. (
  • Uncertainty is so great that, for example, the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment ( 1 ) used by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) hazarded that anywhere between 9 and 122 amphibians might have gone extinct since 1980. (
  • Several types of amphibian conservation outreach materials, including posters, fact sheets, handouts, outreach program animal recommendations, and adaptable amphibian articles, have been developed and are available for anyone to download. (
  • Fact sheets, describing the amphibian crisis and the conservation actions AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums take towards alleviating this crisis are available for for volunteers, docents, educators, media communications, or anyone else to download. (
  • Additionally, based on the amazingly high, and historically unprecedented, rate at which amphibian species are becoming threatened and extinct, there may be even more catastrophic losses in this group of animals in the decades to come. (
  • Though less obvious than gender bending, immunosuppression could also play a part in the worldwide decline of amphibians, which have porous skin and easily absorb chemicals from rain, groundwater and even water vapor. (
  • Even though they had the ability to evolve and survive for hundreds of millions of years - since before the time of the dinosaurs and through many climatic regimes - the massive, worldwide decline of amphibians can best be understood by their inability to keep pace with the current rate of global change, a new study suggests. (
  • Amphibians bodies need to moist because that is what they breathe through. (
  • Adult amphibians differ from reptiles in having moist skins, without scales or with small, hidden scales. (
  • The possession of skin with living cells limits many amphibian species to fairly moist habitats, although certain species have drier skins and are able to tolerate drier habitats. (
  • The number of known amphibian species is approximately 7,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs. (
  • [4] The numbers of species cited above follows Frost and the total number of known amphibian species is over 7,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs. (
  • For the study, Jennifer Lamb and Matthew Davis , biologists at St. Cloud State University in Minnesota, exposed a handful of specimens from 32 different amphibian species to ultra-violet light. (
  • Known aggregation of different amphibian species along with carrier species can increase the spread of Bd within an area. (
  • The name "amphibian" refers to the use of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and the life history patterns of species in the group. (
  • Many amphibian species make use of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, either simultaneously or sequentially during different life stages. (
  • Despite strong legislation protecting our habitats and most of the species concerned, almost a quarter of Europe's amphibians are now under threat. (
  • There are more than 6,000 currently recognized species of extant amphibians, with representatives present in virtually all terrestrial and freshwater habitats, but absent from the coldest and driest regions, and from the most remote oceanic islands. (
  • The researchers, Regan Early and Dov Sax, examined amphibians because they have distinct habitats. (
  • The fluctuating temperature can shrink amphibian habitats, effectively trapping them in pockets en route to more stable environments. (
  • Scientists monitoring stable populations of 49 amphibian species listened and watched as they crashed in just two years, with 20 native species disappearing completely-including the golden toad, found nowhere else on Earth. (
  • Because amphibian populations naturally fluctuate-and because most herpetologists focus on a single region-it took time for the scientists to comprehend the global nature of the crisis. (
  • In a newly published study, scientists reported biofluorescence in 32 amphibian species, including the Chinese firebelly newt. (
  • Scientists hope their discovery will inspire further investigation of the source and purpose of biofluorescence among specific amphibian species. (
  • Our results provide a roadmap for future studies on the characterization of molecular mechanisms of biofluorescence in amphibians, as well as directions for investigations into the potential impact of biofluorescence on the visual ecology and behavior of biofluorescent amphibians," scientists wrote. (
  • Scientists in Spain have confirmed one of these possibilities: rising temperatures may increase amphibians' vulnerability to the fungus. (
  • Many scientists believe that amphibians lived as many as 370 million years ago. (
  • At the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior, USGS Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) scientists are supporting the development of a national monitoring program for amphibians to detect stressors in the environment. (
  • The systems developed over millions of years to give amphibians survival advantages have now turned against them, scientists say. (
  • Over time, amphibians shrank in size and decreased in diversity, leaving only the modern subclass Lissamphibia. (
  • This group, which includes all living amphibians, as well as their extinct relatives, goes by two formal names: Lissamphibia or Amphibia. (
  • 1991. A phylogenetic investigation of the inter- and intrarelationships of the Lissamphibia (Amphibia: Temnospondyli). (
  • All living amphibians belong to the group Lissamphibia. (
  • Researchers believe that since 1980, 122 amphibian species have gone extinct. (
  • Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin. (
  • Typically amphibians undergo a metamorphosis from an aquatic, water-breathing, limbless larva (called a tadpole) to a terrestrial or partly terrestrial, air-breathing, four-legged adult. (
  • The thin skin of amphibians contains many glands, among them poison glands that protect certain species against predators. (
  • The fungus-which infects the skin of amphibians, preventing them from absorbing key nutrients-appears on every continent but new research suggests that this may not have always been the case. (
  • This germ can cause disease in fish and amphibians. (
  • Gopher frogs and other amphibians are unusually sensitive to habitat loss and degradation. (
  • Habitat loss is the major threat to rare amphibians. (
  • The European pond turtle is a protected species of Slovak fauna, listed among the amphibia and reptiles of Slovakia that are critically endangered.There are several reasons for its decline, mainly unfavourable climate factors, disruption of natural biotopes, human activities and competition with other species for habitat and food. (
  • Of the three amphibian clades , or orders, metamorphosis is most extreme among frogs, where there is a striking difference between the larva (the tadpole) and the adult. (
  • Biofluorescent patterns may help amphibians locate one another in low-light environs. (
  • This large amphibian can be found crawling around the bottoms of clear, silt-free mountain streams. (
  • Adult amphibians either have lungs or continue to "breathe" through their skin. (
  • The mission of this project is the realization of a comprehensive phylogeny of all taxa of extant and extinct amphibians. (