Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Triturus: A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.MycosesRana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Animal DiseasesNotophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.DNA Virus InfectionsRana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Saprolegnia: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It is a parasite and pathogen of freshwater FISHES.Rana ridibunda: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.TailEmbryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.UreohydrolasesEctoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.PanamaBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/512)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes. (2/512)

In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed.  (+info)

Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (3/512)

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

Characterization of toad liver glutathione transferase. (4/512)

The major form of glutathione transferase from the toad liver previously designed as Bufo bufo liver GST-7.6 (A. Aceto, B. Dragani, T. Bucciarelli, P. Sacchetta, F. Martini, S. Angelucci, F. Amicarelli, M. Miranda and C. Di Ilio, Biochem. J. 289 (1993) 417-422) has been characterized. According to its partial amino acid sequence, the toad enzyme may be included in the pi class GST and named bbGST P2-2. However, bbGST P2-2 appears to be immunologically, structurally and kinetically distinct from any other members of pi family, including bbGST P1-1, suggesting that it may constitute a subset of pi class GST. The data support the hypothesis that the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life causes a switch of the GST amphibian pattern promoting the expression of a GST form (bbGST P2-2) able to counteract, with higher efficiency, the toxic effects of reactive metabolites of oxidative metabolism and those of hydrophobic xenobiotics.  (+info)

Peptide growth factors in amphibian embryogenesis: intersection of modern molecular approaches with traditional inductive interaction paradigms. (5/512)

Recent discoveries of the role peptide growth factors (PGFs) play in regulating embryonic patterning and differentiation have profoundly influenced research on the molecular biology of early amphibian embryogenesis. Several PGFs have been recognized to be present as endogenous components of amphibian eggs and early embryos, while other PGFs -- which are known from heterologous systems (e.g., Drosophila) -- exert remarkable effects when injected as either protein or mRNA into eggs/embryos or when added to cultured embryonic tissue. For a variety of reasons (reviewed herein) optimism abounds that an understanding in molecular terms of the classical Spemann and Nieuwkoop tissue interactions which are generally believed to drive embryonic patterning is within reach. A critical assessment of the interpretations of some of the contemporary data on PGFs (included herein) should, however, temper some of that optimism. Likely, multiple rather than single PGFs act in a combinatorial fashion to contribute to individual patterning events. As well, substantial redundancy in PGF regulatory circuits probably exists, so the heavy reliance on tissue culture assays and overexpression studies which characterize much recent research needs to be circumvented. Potential experimental approaches for "next generation" experiments are discussed.  (+info)

Histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia-Gymnophiona). (6/512)

The histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus was studied by light microscopy in semithin sections of tissue embedded in hydrophilic resin. The kidney's nephron comprises the renal corpuscle, neck segment, proximal tubule, intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule. Nephrostomes are present. This structure, the neck segment, and intermediate tubules present long cilia, and probably play important roles in the propulsion of the peritoneal fluid and glomerular filtrate. The proximal tubule cells possess loosely packed microvilli and contain abundant polymorphic granules and vesicles that assume the aspect of lysosomes in different stages of intracellular digestion. The distal tubules are characterized by large, vertically disposed mitochondria assuming the aspect of ions transporting cells. The urinary bladder is lined with a transitional epithelium, whose aspect varies according to the quantity of urine.  (+info)

Classification of loops of lampbrush chromosomes according to the arrangement of transcriptional complexes. (7/512)

The arrangement of transcriptional units in the loops of lampbrush chromosomes from oocyte nuclei of urodele amphibia and from primary nuclei of the green alga Acetabularia have been studied in the electron microscope using spread preparations. Loops with different patterns of arrangement of matrix units (i.e. to a first approximation, transcriptional units) can be distinguished: (i) loops consisting of one active transcriptional unit; (ii) loops containing one active transcriptional unit plus additional fibril-free, i.e. apparently untranscribed, intercepts that may include 'spacer' regions; (iii) loops containing two or more transcriptional units arranged in identical or changing polarities, with or without interspersed apparent spacer regions. Morphological details of the transcriptional complexes are described. The observations are not compatible with the concept that one loop reflects one and only one transcriptional unit but, rather, lead to a classification of loop types according to the arrangement of their transcriptional units. We propose that the lampbrush chromosome loop can represent a unit for the coordinate transcription of either one gene or a set of several (different) genes.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of mitsugumin29 in developing skeletal muscle and effects of the protein expressed in amphibian embryonic cells. (8/512)

The temporal appearance and subcellular distribution of mitsugumin29 (MG29), a 29-kDa transmembrane protein isolated from the triad junction in skeletal muscle, were examined by immunohistochemistry during the development of rabbit skeletal muscle. MG29 appeared in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in muscle cells at fetal day 15 before the onset of transverse tubule (T tubule) formation. In muscle cells at fetal day 27, in which T tubule and triad formation is ongoing, both SR and triad were labeled for MG29. In muscle cells at newborn 1 day, the labeling of the SR had become weak and the triads were well developed and clearly labeled for MG29. Specific and clear labeling for MG29 was restricted to the triads in adult skeletal muscle cells. When MG29 was expressed in amphibian embryonic cells by injection of the cRNA, a large quantity of tubular smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (sER) was formed in the cytoplasm. The tubular sER was 20-40 nm in diameter and appeared straight or reticular in shape. The tubular sER was formed by the fusion of coated vesicles [budded off from the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER)] and vacuoles of rER origin. The present results suggest that MG29 may play important roles both in the formation of the SR and the construction of the triads during the early development of skeletal muscle cells.  (+info)

*Bufotoxin

They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and ...

*Amphisbaenia

Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 212-215. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. Muller, J et al. (2011). " ...

*Salamandridae

Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 73-74. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... authors list (link) Pyron, R.A.; Weins, J.J. (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a ... http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/references.php?id=27224 Marjanovic, D.; Laurin, M. (2014). "An updated ...

*Hox genes in amphibians and reptiles

Some amphibians and reptiles have the ability to regenerate limbs, eyes, spinal cords, hearts, intestines, and upper and lower ... Hox genes play a massive role in some amphibians and reptiles in their ability to regenerate lost limbs, especially HoxA and ... Similar to an ancient tetrapod group with assorted limb types, it is important to note that amphibians are required for the ... A PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) study was conducted in two species of each amphibian order to identify Hox-9 to Hox-13. ...

*Keichousaurus

peripstus.com/Keichousaurus Hong Kong Reptile & Amphibian Society Functional morphology and ontogeny of Keichousaurus hui ...

*Neoteny

Gills are a common juvenile characteristic in amphibians that are kept after maturation; an example of this would be a ... Many species of salamander, and amphibians in general, are known to have neotenized characteristics because of the environment ... doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2011.00470.x. Swingle, W. (1922). "Experiments on the metamorphosis of neotenous amphibians". Journal ... unlike other adult amphibians like frogs and toads. The word neoteny is borrowed from the German Neotenie, the latter ...

*Amphiuma

Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. [1] Data related to Amphiuma at ...

*Ranavirus

... infections in amphibians have been implicated as a contributing factor in the global decline of amphibian populations ... Amphibian mass mortality events due to Ranavirus have been reported in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. ... Decline in amphibian populations "Iridoviridae". ICTV Online (10th) Report. Whittington, RJ; Becker, JA; Dennis, MM (2010). " ... The genus Ranavirus is composed of 6 recognized viral species, 3 of which are known to infect amphibians (Ambystoma tigrinum ...

*Asiatic salamander

Retrieved May 8, 2005 from [1]. Pyron, R.A.; Weins, J.J. (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 ... Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. Hasumi, M. (2002). About ...

*Sirenidae

They are notable among salamanders (and most amphibians, aside from a few frog species) due to their semi-herbivorous habits. ... Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 69-70. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... Direct observation and review of herbivory in Sirenidae (Amphibia: Caudata). Southeastern Naturalist 14, N5-N9. John Farrand Jr ... Direct observation and review of herbivory in Sirenidae (Amphibia: Caudata). Southeastern Naturalist 14, N5-N9. Reinhard, S., ...

*Pain in amphibians

Analgesia in amphibians can be measured using heart rate and respiratory rate. Amphibians exhibit classic wiping and withdrawal ... Examples of the three modern orders of amphibians The possibility that amphibians and other non-human animals may experience ... and amphibians used in scientific research. Several scientists and scientific groups have expressed the belief that amphibians ... "The importance of enrichment for advancing amphibian welfare and conservation goals" (PDF). Amphibian & Reptile Conservation. 8 ...

*Parthenogenesis in amphibians

Among amphibians, it is seen in numerous frog and salamander species, but has not been recorded in caecilians. Haploid ... All known parthenogenic amphibians have been the result of hybridization events between closely related species. Pelophylax ... Polyploidy, a numerical change in the number of chromosomes, is common in parthenogenic amphibians. Triploidy (having three ... Embryonic mortality in parthenogenic amphibians is high. Hatching rates for North American salamander species have ranged from ...

*List of amphibians

11 species List of California amphibians and reptiles Amphibian Frost, Darrel R. (2011). Amphibian Species of the World: an ... List of amphibians organizes the class of amphibian by family and subfamilies and mentions the number of species in each of ... The list below largely follows Darrel Frost's Amphibian Species of the World (ASW), Version 5.5 (31 January 2011). Another ... There are a total of 6771 amphibian species Total 5966 species Family Alytidae - Painted Frogs or Disc-Tongued frogs, 12 ...

*Amphibians of Western Australia

Fossils of Amphibians have been found in Western Australia. List of amphibians of Western Australia Amphibians of Australia ... Fossil records of Amphibia have been identified in the north west of the state. Currently, the only non-native amphibian ... The Amphibians of Western Australia are represented by two families of frogs. Of the 78 species found, most within the ... "The frogs of Western Australia". the Amphibian Research Centre. Archived from the original on 16 September 2009. Retrieved 2009 ...

*Sexual selection in amphibians

... involves sexual selection processes in amphibians, including frogs, salamanders and newts. ... Hearing and sound communication in amphibians. 28, 44-86 (2007). Wells, K. D. & Ryan, M. "The energetics of calling in frogs." ... Byrne, P. G.; Roberts, J. D. (2012). "Evolutionary causes and consequences of sequential polyandry in anuran amphibians". ... Shine, R. (1979). "Sexual selection and sexual dimorphism in the Amphibia". Copeia. 1979 (2): 297-306. doi:10.2307/1443418. ...

*List of endangered amphibians

... amphibians List of vulnerable amphibians List of critically endangered amphibians List of recently extinct amphibians List of ... Critically endangered amphibians are listed separately. There are 1393 amphibian species which are endangered or critically ... 13% of all evaluated amphibian species are listed as endangered. No subpopulations of amphibians have been evaluated by the ... Additionally 1567 amphibian species (24% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient ...

*Amphibians in human culture

Amphibians have for centuries appeared in culture. From the fire-dwelling salamander to the frogs (and occasionally toads) of ... Crump, Marty (2015). Eye of Newt and Toe of Frog, Adder's Fork and Lizard's Leg: The Lore and Mythology of Amphibians and ... myth and fairytale and the rare use of a newt in literature, amphibians play the role of strange and sometimes repulsive ...

*List of vulnerable amphibians

... amphibians List of endangered amphibians List of critically endangered amphibians List of recently extinct amphibians List of ... 10% of all evaluated amphibian species are listed as vulnerable. No subpopulations of amphibians have been evaluated by the ... See: List of endangered amphibians, List of critically endangered amphibians. Vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered ... Additionally 1567 amphibian species (24% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient ...

*Amphibian

... image and PDF formats Amphibian Specialist Group Amphibian Ark AmphibiaWeb Global Amphibian Assessment Amphibian vocalisations ... Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a ... Mesozoic Amphibians". In Heatwole, H.; Carroll, R. L. Amphibian Biology: Paleontology: The Evolutionary History of Amphibians ( ... On land, amphibians are restricted to moist habitats because of the need to keep their skin damp. The smallest amphibian (and ...

*List of amphibians of Alabama

"Amphibians in Alabama". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original ... The U.S. state of Alabama has 73 known indigenous amphibian species. These indigenous species include 30 frog and toad species ... Human predation, pollution, and habitat destruction has placed several amphibian species at risk of extirpation or extinction. ...

*List of amphibians of Ghana

This is a list of the amphibian species recorded in Ghana. There are 80 amphibian species in Ghana, of which 2 are critically ... "Amphibians of Ghana". IUCN. 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011. "Amphibians of Ghana". AmphibiaWeb. 2011. Retrieved 23 September ... IUCN Redlist which lists species of amphibians and includes those amphibians that have recently been classified as extinct ( ... List of chordate orders Lists of amphibians by region " ...

*List of amphibians of Pakistan

This list of the amphibians of Pakistan currently contains 19 confirmed species that are known to occur in Pakistan. Family ... Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae). Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden 51: 253-319. STÖCK M., D. K. LAMATSCH, C. STEINLEIN, J. ...

*List of amphibians of Singapore

There are about 30 species of amphibians in Singapore. Amphibians are aquatic vertebrates. They need water to survive. They ... The most common amphibians one is likely to encounter are the Asian Toad and Banded Bullfrog. Some species are common in ... "List of amphibian species present in Singapore". Retrieved 10 January 2016. "Ichthyophis singaporensis". The IUCN Red List of ... www.ecologyasia.com/verts/amphibians.htm http://anura-in-singapore.blogspot.com/ Amphibian and Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia ...

*List of amphibians of Cyprus

There are four species of amphibians recorded in Cyprus, all of them frogs. Family: Bufonidae Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769 ... "Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0". American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 3 December ...

*Amphibians and reptiles of Wyoming

On rainy nights, bullfrogs, along with many other amphibians, travel overland, and may be seen in numbers on country roads. In ... Cerovski, A.O.; M. Grenier; B. Oakleaf; L. Van Fleet; S. Patla (2004). Atlas of Birds, Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles in ... Wyoming is home to 12 amphibian species and 22 species of reptiles. The Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) is a species of ... "Atlas of Birds, Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles in Wyoming-Plains Hog-nosed Snake" (PDF). Wyoming Game and Fish Department, ...
Order Gymnophiona. Amphibians (class Amphibia, from Amphi- meaning "on both sides" and -bios meaning "life"), such as frogs, salamanders, and caecilians, are ectothermic (or cold-blooded) animals that metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form, either to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph that retains some juvenile characteristics. Mudpuppies, for example, retain juvenile gills in adulthood. The three modern orders of amphibians are Anura (frogs and toads), Caudata (salamanders and newts), and Gymnophiona (caecilians, limbless amphibians that resemble snakes). Like the fish they evolved from, most amphibians lay eggs in water. Amphibians are superficially similar to reptiles, but reptiles are amniotes, along with mammals and birds. The study of amphibians is called batrachology.. Amphibians are ecological indicators[1], and in recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations around the globe. Many species are now threatened or extinct.. Amphibians ...
This book documents a major environmental crisis: rapidly declining amphibian populations and the developmental problems that are increasingly prevalent within many amphibian species. Horror stories on this topic have been featured in the scientific and popular press over the past fifteen years, invariably asking what amphibian declines are telling us about the state of the environment. Are declines harbingers of devastated ecosystems or simply weird reflections of a peculiar amphibian world? This compendium - presenting new data, reviews of current literature, and comprehensive species accounts - reinforces what scientists have begun to suspect: that amphibians are a lens through which the state of the environment can be viewed more clearly. And, that the view is alarming and presages serious concerns for all life, including that of our own species. The first part of this work consists of more than fifty essays covering topics from the causes of amphibian population declines to conservation, surveys
Amphibians are an important food source for animals such as birds, snakes, raccoons, and fish. Amphibians are also important predators. As larvae, they feed mainly on small aquatic animals such as water insects. They may also feed on algae. As adults, amphibians are completely carnivorous. They may catch and eat worms, snails, and insects, as the frog inFigure below is doing. Unlike other amphibians, caecilians are burrowers. They use their head to dig in the soil, and they feed on earthworms and other annelids. Caecilians can be found in moist soil near rivers and streams in tropical regions.. ...
The potential impact of chemical contaminants and conservation practices on amphibians in agricultural landscapes is a key research topic globally. Amphibians represent a common group in many freshwater systems and are currently experiencing worldwide population declines. Global amphibian declines may be attributed to a number of causes, including habitat loss, introduced species, global climate change, disease, and chemical contaminants; most species declines are not a function of only one factor, but a result of interacting factors and synergistic impacts. I analyzed the impact of field conservation efforts employed in the Calapooia watershed, located in the central Willamette Valley in Oregon, on amphibian species diversity using Simpsons Diversity Index. In the Calapooia watershed the value of this index increased when conservation efforts, such as retaining crop residue and riparian buffers, were present. This suggests that species diversity increased with increased conservation effort at ...
The first global assessment of amphibians provides new context for the well-publicized phenomenon of amphibian declines. Amphibians are more threatened and are declining more rapidly than either birds or mammals. Although many declines are due to habitat loss and overutilization, other, unidentified processes threaten 48% of rapidly declining species and are driving species most quickly to extinction. Declines are nonrandom in terms of species ecological preferences, geographic ranges, and taxonomic associations and are most prevalent among Neotropical montane, stream-associated species. The lack of conservation remedies for these poorly understood declines means that hundreds of amphibian species now face extinction. ...
In this study, we successfully obtained most of the Banna caecilian Hox cluster sequences using LA PCR and GW. We identified 39 Hox genes, 2 Evx paralogs, 5 microRNA genes and 1 pseudogene (ψHoxD12) in four clusters. Most of their physical linkages were determined which was not accomplished in previous PCR surveys. The overall organization of the caecilian Hox clusters was conserved, similar to those from other species with four clusters. The presence of HoxC1 in caecilian is unique compared with all the tetrapods studied so far, which suggests that the tetrapod ancestor had HoxC1 but lost it in different lineages. Loss or pseudogenization of HoxD12 appears to be a distinct feature of the amphibians Hox clusters and has been proposed to be related to digit reduction as frogs and salamanders normally only have four fingers and caecilians are limbless [20]. Other surveys have shown that HoxD12 is also lost in snakes, which are limbless, and the African lungfish, which has only thread-like fins, ...
Amphibians are unique in that most require aquatic habitats for reproduction. Due to the sensitive nature of most aquatic systems, amphibians are considered ecological indicators - often times harbingers of environmental degradation. Pollution, disease, habitat loss, and habitat fragmentation are all factors associated with declines and reduced viability of populations of amphibians. What appear to be relatively stable, in some cases robust, populations of amphibians at CCNS highlight the importance of the park as critical habitat.. Twelve species of amphibians are known to occur at Cape Cod National Seashore. One species of particular concern is the eastern spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus holbrookii). Derived from desert ancestors, spadefoots are adapted to breed explosively following heavy rainfalls or when water tables are very high, in shallow, temporary ponds. They are rarely seen or heard other than on rainy nights in spring and summer. Spadefoots have been found throughout the park, ...
1st Course on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry. 18 to 22 of May, 2015. dBio-UA, University of Aveiro, PORTUGAL. The 1st Course on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry is an interesting and intensive course to researchers or technical staff working with amphibians and looking for more complete basis on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry.. The course explores the principles of amphibians husbandry, nutrition and dietary needs, captive reproduction, population management, veterinary aspects (diseases, pathology, and necropsy), biosecurity and quarantine, conservation, threats and global action. Hands on demonstrations, practical and group exercises are also included (enclosure demonstrations: tank drilling, false bottoms and plumbing, filters).. Preliminary Program:. Day 1 - May 18th. ____________________. 9:00am // Participants reception. 9:30am // Greetings and Introdution. 10:30am // Overview of the amphibians global crisis. 11:30am // Introducing Aveiro University and AArk ...
Globally, amphibian species have been in decline and a wide range of factors have been purported to be driving the decline. The Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida has a high degree of endemism and rarity and the biodiversity in the region includes a diverse suite of amphibian species. Degradation of habitat has been considered by many to be a major part of amphibian declines, however amphibian declines are complex and in many cases multiple factors are occurring in concert. My dissertation research examined aspects of habitat ecology and occupancy for two rare amphibians, Florida Bog Frog (Rana okaloosae) (Chapter 1, 2, and 3) and Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma bishopi) (Chapter 5), that are both restricted to the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. Further, for R. okaloosae I examined the influence of a sympatric congener, Bronze Frog (R. clamitans clamitans), on microhabitat selection (Chapter 1) and growth of tadpoles (Chapter 4). My overall goal was to be able to elucidate factors that ...
The respiratory and circulatory systems of adult amphibians are adapted for life on land. In addition, adult amphibians have adaptations for obtaining food and moving. Amphibian larvae use gills to obtain oxygen, whereas adults use lungs. Lungs are organs of air-breathing vertebrates in which oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas are exchanged between the air and blood. Amphibian larvae also have a single-loop circulatory system and two-chambered heart, like that of a fish. In contrast, the circulatory system of an adult amphibian has two loops and a heart with three chambers. The two upper chambers of the heart are called atria, and the lower chamber is the ventricle. Blood moves to the lungs in one loop, and to the body in the other loop ...
p,Our knowledge of the broad-scale ecology of vertebrate ectotherms remains very limited. Despite ongoing declines and sensitivity to environmental change, amphibian distributions are particularly poorly understood. We present a global analysis of contemporary environmental and historical constraints on amphibian richness, the first for an ectotherm clade at this scale. Amphibians are presumed to experience environmental constraints distinct from those of better studied endothermic taxa due to their stringent water requirements and the temperature dependence of their energetic costs and performance. Single environmental predictors set upper bounds on, but do not exclusively determine, amphibian richness. Accounting for differing regional histories of speciation and extinction helps resolve triangular or scattered relationships between core environmental predictors and amphibian richness, as the relationships' intercepts or slopes can vary regionally. While the magnitude of richness is ...
More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British scientists said. In a report to the Zoological Society of London, researchers said Thursday that the most threatened species live in southern Europe, The Guardian reported. The Mediterranean climate is expected to become significantly hotter and drier, which is bad news for the Mallorcan midwife toad and the brook newt of Sardinia. "Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both extraordinary and terrifying that in just a few decades the world could lose half of all these species," said Sir David Attenborough, famed for his television nature shows. One-third of the amphibian species in the world are listed as endangered. Researchers said climate change adds to the stress caused by habitat loss and the spread of disease. Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping ...
Caecilians are definitely not worms. They are definitely amphibians, like frogs or salamanders -- class Lissamphibia, order Gymnophiona. They have spines and everything, I promise. There are a couple hundred known species (most of which are found in Mexico) but their distribution seems to be pretty wide and there are certainly lots that we dont know about. Some of them dont even have lungs, they just breathe entirely through their skin! Man, Caecilians are great. If I get a chance I will dig up the lecture notes from my herpetology class and see if I can find some more weird-ass facts about Caecilians ...
Amphibian population declines and sudden species extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost as a percentage of the current fauna can be a misleading statistic in some parts of the globe. The number of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies of single-species populations are needed, but this approach has its limits. Amphibian populations often show great annual variation in population size making it difficult, if not impossible, to use short-term studies as a basis for deciding if a population is increasing or decreasing in the long term. Aggregating single studies into databases and searching for patterns of variation is a way of overcoming this limitation. Several ...
Global amphibian decline threatens frogs, toads and salamanders with extinction. AArk is saving endangered amphibians with ex situ amphibian conservation.
Amphibians are cold-blooded and live both on land (breathing with lungs) and in water (breathing through gills) at different times. Three types of amphibians are frogs and toads, salamanders, and caecilians.
Amphibian. Salamander. Amphibians Class. All amphibians are cold-blooded. Amphibians live in each continent except for Antarctica. An average amphibian grows smaller then other vertebrates. Salamander Adaptation. Slideshow 98003 by DoraAna
Amphibians are a key indicator species of ecosystem health. Their presence or absence can tell us a lot about the general health of a wetland or riparian area in addition to giving us a sense of site water and habitat quality. When climatic and hydrologic changes occur in an ecosystem, amphibians are often the first to react. Their thin skin makes them vulnerable to temperature increases, chemical pollutants, disease, and radiation. The combinations of pollutants, habitat fragmentation and development in urban areas have had a negative impact on amphibian populations. In the Portland Metro area, everything from mutations of extra legs to complete absence of native amphibians has been documented.. read more. ...
Fig. 2. A communal wood frog (Rana sylvatica) deposition site in Concord (Middlesex County) Massachusetts from 1988 (A). Well over 100 egg masses are shown just on the surface, indicating a local population of over 200 breeding adults. Similar numbers bred at this site in the previous 2 years, but in this same time frame only two adults were ever seen outside of the breeding season. (B-F) Breeding sites for boreal toads (Bufo boreas) along Del Peurto Creek in Stanislaus County, California. B shows a pair of copulating toads with the strings of eggs wrapped around the pair. C and D show views of one ephemeral pool where a single clutch of eggs (which can be up to 10,000 individuals) has hatched in 1996. E and F show changes in a second nearby deposition site from 1995 (E) to 1999 (F). The breeding site is on the left in both panels with Del Peurto Creek on the right. Arrow in E shows the location of the small breeding pool shown in panels C and D. Because of anthropogenic activity, water flow has ...
Almost 300 people, including veterinarians, scientists and fish and wildlife managers, will meet Nov. 5-7 in Tempe, Ariz., at a conference on stopping the spread of a fungal-based amphibian disease. Hosted by the Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC)-a multilateral organization with members from the federal and state governments, zoos, the pet industry, conservation groups and others-the conference will include panels to discuss amphibian deaths related to the so-called Bd fungal disease, know …
The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change-that of extreme variation in precipitation-may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall
Environmental contamination has been suspected of being partially responsible for recent declines in amphibian populations. It is often not feasible to identify all of the compounds in an environment, nor the concentrations in which they are present. SPMDs are passive sampling devices that uptake lipophilic compounds from the environment in a manner similar to aquatic organisms. The extracts from the SPMDs, therefore, contain a composite sample of the compounds that are present in the environment. In this paper, we outline the methods from studies in which we have used extracts from SPMDs in toxicity tests on amphibian larvae. Using SPMD extracts makes it possible to establish potential links between amphibian deformities and declines and environmental contamination by lipophilic compounds....
FAQs on Xenopus Disease by Category: Environmental, Nutritional, Social, Trauma, Infectious (Virus, Bacterial, Fungal), Parasitic, Treatments, Related Articles: Keeping African Clawed Frogs and African Dwarf Frogs by Neale Monks, Amphibians, Turtles, Related FAQs: Xenopus in General, Xenopus Identification, Xenopus Behavior, Xenopus Compatibility, Xenopus Selection, Xenopus Feeding, Xenopus Disease, Xenopus Reproduction, & Amphibians 1, Amphibians 2, Frogs Other Than African and Clawed, African Dwarf Frogs, Turtles, Amphibian Identification, Amphibian Behavior, Amphibian Compatibility, Amphibian Selection, Amphibian Systems, Amphibian Feeding, Amphibian Disease, Amphibian Reproduction,. ...
The Eurasian beaver Castor fiber, formerly occurred across the Palaearctic, but was nearly eradicated in the 19th century. Due to reintroductions in the 20th century, beaver populations are increasing and now extend into highland areas. Natural still waters are scarce in highlands of Central Europe. Therefore the question arises,
... Frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and the rare caecilians come in a stunning array of colors, shapes, sizes, and habitats. They live both in water and on land and move in a great variety of ways from swimming, to hopping, and even flying. With a series of specially commissioned photographs, Amphibian takes a close look at the fascinating natural history of these creatures from the bright green, red-eyed tree frogs to dull, burrowing, wormlike caecilians; from startling black and yellow fire salamanders to tiny transparent glass frogs. Perfect amphibian reference book for children ages 7-adult. #AR-13398. Hardcover.
Amphibians around the world are in decline, with nearly 2000 of over 6400 described species listed as threatened with extinction [1], and a range of potential causes for these declines have been proposed [2]. The parallel timing of rapid falls in ozone levels and the beginning of rapid amphibian declines during the late 1970s and early 1980s [3,4] generated a surge of scientific interest in the idea that increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion [5] may be contributing to some amphibian declines through its lethal and sublethal effects on embryonic and larval life stages [6-8]. Research over the past two decades has shown that, in some species, UV-B exposure can cause increased mortality, reduced growth, reduced rate of development, delayed metamorphosis, reduced locomotor performance, developmental abnormalities, behavioural changes and increased susceptibility to disease (e.g. [9-16]). UV-B has also been shown to interact synergistically with the ...
For the purpose of reproduction most amphibians require fresh water although some lay their eggs on land and have developed various means of keeping them moist. A few (e.g. Fejervarya raja) can inhabit brackish water, but there are no true marine amphibians.[66] There are reports, however, of particular amphibian populations unexpectedly invading marine waters. Such was the case with the Black Sea invasion of the natural hybrid Pelophylax esculentus reported in 2010.[67]. Several hundred frog species in adaptive radiations (e.g., Eleutherodactylus, the Pacific Platymantis, the Australo-Papuan microhylids, and many other tropical frogs), however, do not need any water for breeding in the wild. They reproduce via direct development, an ecological and evolutionary adaptation that has allowed them to be completely independent from free-standing water. Almost all of these frogs live in wet tropical rainforests and their eggs hatch directly into miniature versions of the adult, passing through the ...
The dry prairie may not seem a likely spot for finding amphibians, but visiting Badlands in the spring and summer yields some surprises! Seasonal streams, ponds, and other wetlands provide breeding habitat for 6 species of amphibians. The mating calls of frogs and toads may be heard from late spring well into the summer, with different species calling at different times. Chorus frogs are the first to emerge from hibernation and make themselves heard, typically in late April and early May. The Great Plains toad, Woodhouses toad, and plains spadefoot are most vocal a little bit later, in June and July. The blotched tiger salamander does not vocalize, but lucky park visitors may see these animals-which, as adults, can reach lengths of 6 to 9 inches-in moist areas.. Amphibians are of special concern because of declining populations worldwide, even in protected areas. The reason for these declines is not yet fully understood, but numerous factors at work may include habitat loss and fragmentation, ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Duellman, William E., Hedges, Blair (2008): Two new minute species of Phrynopus (Lissamphibia: Anura) from the Cordillera oriental in Peru. Zootaxa 1675: 59-66, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.274057 ...
Amphibians are cold-blooded with a backbone and moist skin, however, unlike reptiles, they lack scales. The name amphibian means double life describing how these animals start their life in water and then undergo metamorphosis to live on land. Unable to regulate their heat, amphibians depend on warmth from the sun to become active ...
Amphibians Amphibians are cold-blooded, smooth-skinned vertebrates. Most live some of their life in water and some on land. The most common amphibian critter is a frog but there are many others.. ...
Posing serious hazards to native amphibians. The breakdown products of the three most commonly used organophosphorus pesticides in the Central Valley are 10 to 100 times more toxic to amphibians than their parent compounds, which are already highly toxic to amphibians, says a report Wednesday from the U.S. Geological Survey.. "Since some of the parent pesticide compounds are already at concentrations sufficient to cause significant amphibian mortality in the Sierra Nevada, the higher toxicity of the breakdown products poses a serious problem," says Gary Fellers, coauthor of the study published in the journal Environmental Pollution.. Donald Sparling, a research biologist and contaminants specialist at Southern Illinois University, and Mr. Fellers, a research biologist and amphibian specialist at the USGS Western Ecological Research Center in Sacramento, conducted laboratory tests to determine the acute toxicity -- the lethal dosage causing death in 96 hours or less -- of chlorpyrifos, malathion ...
Background for educators ,,. Introduction. This module introduces students to the world of amphibians. Few people, especially those living in urban areas, have an opportunity to experience and enjoy the beauty of a wetland. Well-established fears associated with wetlands soon disappear when one has had the opportunity to interact with the wetland ecosystem. Students will develop an understanding of the importance of water to the life cycle of amphibians, and will become more familiar with the twenty-one species that exist in Ontario. Students will examine the basic needs and habitat requirements of amphibians. Students will gain a greater understanding of how important amphibians are in detecting environmental contamination. The emphasis in this module should be placed on both global and local declines of amphibian populations, and the reasons contributing to their decline. (Note: For further background, you may wish to look at Unit 10, Case Studies which includes four case studies: "Global ...
Biology Assignment Help, Question, Ask questiImagine you are studying a group of amphibian species that vary in their habitats-some living in dense, murky water, and others living in very clear ponds. What kind of communication problems exist in each environment? What sorts of differe
Writing in the journal Nature, researchers said the fossil suggests that modern amphibians may have come from two groups, with frogs and salamanders related to an ancient amphibian known as a temnospondyl, and worm-like caecilians more closely related to the lepospondyls, another group of ancient amphibians ...
vc_column][vc_column width="1/3″][text_output]Founded: 2004. Head Office: Owosso, Michigan. Geographic Area of Work: USA. Website: www.JoshsFrogs.com. Social Media: Facebook/ Twitter[/text_output][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width="1/1″][text_output]Joshs Frogs is an Associate Partner of the ASA.. Vision: To replace the demand for wild caught reptiles and amphibians in the pet trade with healthy, ethically produced captive bred animals.. Mission: To provide healthy, captive bred amphibians and reptiles and all the supplies needed to properly keep them. Joshs Frogs strives to be a source of knowledge on keeping amphibians and providing them with a long, healthy life in captivity. By producing captive bred animals for the pet trade, we hope to take pressure off of wild populations of the amphibians we love.[/text_output][line][text_output]Joshs Frogs is an active Alliance Partner working in the following areas:[/text_output][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row padding_top="0px" ...
In some high-elevation lakes of the Pacific Northwest it was recently shown that frog eggs allowed to develop in their native habitat were adversely affected by the amount of ultraviolet radiation present, while those that were shielded from UV light developed normally. Many populations of some montane (mountain habitat) frog species may have disappeared for this reason. This lends some credence to our concerns about holes in the ozone layer, and reminds us of the value of amphibians as environmental indicators.. In response to these declines in North America, an international group of biologists created the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP), with the goal of providing reliable methods of monitoring our native amphibians. The TAMP is being undertaken in an effort to understand the status of amphibians in our home state. The TAMP is an integral part of this larger national effort while expanding the scope of the surveys to suit special needs in the Volunteer State.. Our goal is ...
The Amphibian Foundation, an Amphibian Survival Alliance Partner, needs your help to save amphibians! Established in 2016, the Atlanta-based nonprofit collaborates with partners in the fight against amphibian extinction. But we cant do it alone. Join the fight through our new membership plan, and help us achieve our mission: members.amphibianfoundation.org. We lead one-of-a-kind conservation research [...] ...
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Aim Predicting species distribution is of fundamental importance for ecology and conservation. However, distribution models are usually established for only one region and it is unknown whether they can be transferred to other geographical regions. We studied the distribution of six amphibian species in five regions to address the question of whether the effect of landscape variables varied among regions. We analysed the effect of 10 variables extracted in six concentric buffers (from 100 m to 3 km) describing landscape composition around breeding ponds at different spatial scales. We used data on the occurrence of amphibian species in a total of 655 breeding ponds. We accounted for proximity to neighbouring populations by including a connectivity index to our models. We used logistic regression and information-theoretic model selection to evaluate candidate models for each species.. Location Switzerland.. Results The explained deviance of each species best models varied between 5% and 32%. ...
Art on Tap Series. 5:30-7 p.m. Art therapist/counselor Trish Ebbert will talk about the benefits of art for ones good mental health.. "Amphibian Declines: Around the World and in Your Backyard." 7 p.m. Fish and wildlife biologist Michelle Christman will talk about amphibian biology, threats amphibians face and general amphibian declines, both around the world and locally. The recent decision to list the Jemez Mountains salamander as an endangered species will also be discussed. No advance registration required. Free. For more information, visit PajaritoEEC.org, call 662-0460, or email [email protected] Los Alamos County and the Los Alamos League of Women Voters presents back-to-back forums at Fuller Lodge. At 5:30 p.m., the forum on the Structure-of-Government Charter Amendments. At 6:45 p.m. the forum for candidates for the Third Congressional District, will feature Democratic Candidate Ben Ray Luján and Republican Candidate Jefferson Byrd.. Downtown Dogs. A weekly walking group for ...
This directory includes experts in a wide range of fields related to captive amphibian programs. It is intended to benefit anyone who is involved with conservation programs for captive amphibians.. Please note: If you are not directly involved with captive conservation programs for amphibians, we ask that you consider searching for any information you need on our web site, or using an internet search engine rather than contacting the people below. Due to their existing workloads, these people are unable to answer emails that are not from people involved with captive amphibian programs. Please consider using these other resources to find the help you need: Amphibian Husbandry, Chytrid Fungus, AArk Documents, Amphibians on the Web.. ...
This directory includes experts in a wide range of fields related to captive amphibian programs. It is intended to benefit anyone who is involved with conservation programs for captive amphibians.. Please note: If you are not directly involved with captive conservation programs for amphibians, we ask that you consider searching for any information you need on our web site, or using an internet search engine rather than contacting the people below. Due to their existing workloads, these people are unable to answer emails that are not from people involved with captive amphibian programs. Please consider using these other resources to find the help you need: Amphibian Husbandry, Chytrid Fungus, AArk Documents, Amphibians on the Web.. ...
A new study has determined for the first time just how quickly frogs and other amphibians are disappearing around the United States, and the news is not good.The U.S. Geological Survey said Thursday that populations of frogs, salamanders and toads have be
Habitat fragmentation is a primary threat to amphibians worldwide and... Habitat fragmentation is likely to reduce dispersal rates between loc...Dispersal of juvenile amphibians is critical to maintaining population...Rothermel and Semlitsch studied the movements of three types of juveni...While small-mouthed salamanders showed no preference for forest or old...,Fragmentation,may,be,linked,to,local,amphibian,extinctions,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The problem of Data Deficiency in amphibian conservation. There are currently 7737 recognised species of amphibian and new species are being added to the list each month. This is either due to new species discoveries or as a result of taxonomic revisions where a taxonomic split of one previously recognised species results in several new species. Each species is given an extinction risk by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) which ranges from Extinct through four threatened categories (Extinct in the Wild, Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) to Near Threatened, Data Deficient and Not Evaluated (NE). Species with insufficient information available are classed as Data Deficient (DD). High profile vertebrate groups such as mammals and birds have near complete IUCN coverage with few DD species. However, within the amphibians there are many poorly understood species which has resulted in a relatively high proportion of species being classed as DD. The prevalence ...
The amphibian Xenopus has long been a comparative model system of choice for a number of different biological research areas, including immunology. Specifically, the evolutionary distance between amphibians and mammals, including humans, allows for the study of both species-specific adaptations, as well as conserved features of the immune system. Furthermore, the Xenopus genus includes species with multiple levels of polyploidy, thereby providing a unique model to study whole genome duplication and its effects thereof on individual genes. To better exploit this amphibian model, the development and innovative applications of novel research tools have been a priority. In this regard, recent advances in adapting the transgenesis approach to Xenopus have allowed for in vivo studies of the impact of loss and gain of function of specific genes at the level of the whole organism, further enhancing the potential uses of Xenopus as an important biomedical model system. This review highlights some of the major
This practical manual of amphibian ecology and conservation brings together a distinguished, international group of amphibian researchers to provide a state-of-the-art review of the many new and exciting techniques used to study amphibians and to track their conservation status and population trends.
This practical manual of amphibian ecology and conservation brings together a distinguished, international group of amphibian researchers to provide a state-of-the-art review of the many new and exciting techniques used to study amphibians and to track their conservation status and population trends.
For thousands of years, Nature has been considered to be essential for human beings for the treatment of their diseases. Amphibians are an important component of the Animal Kingdom and have played a significant role in sourcing many active compounds and some therapeutics. In the course of this research, genomic and proteomic techniques have been used to investigate the bioactive peptides from the skin secretions of four American amphibian species: the Central American red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas~ the South American orange-legged leaf frog, Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis, Rohdes leaf frog, Phyllomedusa rohdei and the Giant Mexican leaf frog Pachymedusa dacnicolor. The synthetic peptides all exhibited significant biological activities. Medusins were a novel family of antimicrobial peptides found in all species investigated and all possessed a broad-spectrum of antibiotic activity. Phylloseptins were found to be active against both planktonic bacteria and those within biofilms. ...
The frog has three respiratory surfaces on its body that it uses to exchange gas with the surroundings: the skin, in the lungs and on the lining of the mouth.Chapter 42: Circulation and Gas Exchange Learn with flashcards, games, and more - for free.It is interesting that, the more an animal species evolves,.Introduction to the Amphibian. heart Double-Loop Circulation Amphibians evolved to have a.Circulation: A amphibian is cold blooded so its body temperature is the same as its surrounding environment.. ...
Handprinted in the UK, 100%Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Amphibian tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for years to come. an Ideal gift for anyone interested in amphibian Sizes are Small 35 - 37, Medium 38 - 40, Large 40 - 41, XL 44 - 46, XXL 47 - 49, XXXL 50 -52
Scottish Dragon Finder are holding an evening amphibian survey training event where you can learn how to identify our native amphibian species undertaking 3 methods of pond survey. This session is based entirely outdoors and gives you the opportunity to get hands on and learn about netting, egg-searching and torching techniques. No previous knowledge / experience is required but booking is essential. Wellies and headtorch highly recommended but may be borrowed, please mention when contacting if you need either of these.. ...
Appendix A. Effects of single and combined effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, the insecticide carbaryl, overwintered bullfrog tadpoles, and bluegill sunfish on amphibian community and on the bullfrogs and bluegill used as treatments. Univariate treatments for mass and time include only those that were significant in the MANOVA.. TABLE A1. Multivariate and univariate ANOVA for the metamorphic response (which includes mass and time to metamorphosis), survival, evenness, and species diversity.. ...
Dias, I. R., T. T. Medeiros, M. F. V. Nova, and M. Solé. 2014. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazils Atlantic Forest hotspot. ZooKeys 449: 105-130 ...
10 new species of amphibians has been discovered, in Columbias mountainous Tacarcuna area of the Darien, during a recent rapid asesment program.
Almeida, J. P. F. A. de, A. C. do Nascimento, S. Torquato, B. S. Lisboa, I. C. S. Tiburcio, C. N. S. Palmeira, M. G. de Lima, and T. Mott. 2016. Amphibians of Alagoas state, northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 9: 123-140 ...
The extant amphibians are one of the most diverse radiations of terrestrial vertebrates (,6800 species). Despite much recent focus on their conservation, diversification, and systematics, no previous phylogeny for the group has contained more than 522 species. However, numerous studies with limited taxon sampling have generated large amounts of partially overlapping sequence data for many species. Here, we combine these data and produce a novel estimate of extant amphibian phylogeny, containing 2871 species (40% of the known extant species) from 432 genera (85% of the 500 currently recognized extant genera). Each sampled species contains up to 12,712 bp from 12 genes (three mitochondrial, nine nuclear), with an average of 2563 bp per species. This data set provides strong support for many groups recognized in previous studies, but it also suggests non-monophyly for several currently recognized families, particularly in hyloid frogs (e.g., Ceratophryidae, Cycloramphidae, Leptodactylidae, ...
The results of wildlife studies suggest that the bioaccumulation of environmental toxicants leads to endocrine disruption, developmental abnormalities, and reproductive failure. Because the lipophilic nature of putative toxicants, such as organochlorines, promotes the concentration of these toxicants in the food chain, they have become prime candidates for the cause of reproductive failure and developmental defects in birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Parallel laboratory experiments have not replicated these adverse effects in rodent models; consequently, the field observations were interpreted to indicate that: (1) the types of exposures common in situ may be poorly replicated ex situ; (2) lower vertebrates are more sensitive to HAHs than the higher vertebrates commonly used in the laboratory; and/or (3) different mechanisms of toxicity operate in different genders and species. Despite the growing evidence that birds, reptiles, and amphibians are adversely affected by environmental hazards, ...
amphibian: Amphibia any member of the group of vertebrate animals characterized by their ability to exploit both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. The name amphibian, derived from the Greek...
Nature studies provide an excellent opportunity to do hands-on science. The topic of amphibians is especially replete with interesting things to do whether you want to do it hands-on or not. You can dissect a frog virtually or in real life. You can study metamorphosis by reading a book and watching videos or by raising tadpoles yourself. Discover a salamander s habitat by reading The Salamander Room or visit the zoo to see salamander s in person. The resources we have provided with this unit will allow you to explore amphibians at your own pace and at your own level of intricacy.
To examine antioxidant activity of each sample, the Blois Amphibians are usually called as wa in traditional orien- (1958) method measuring radical scavenging effect with tal medicine because it croaks well. In [Donguibogam] its DPPH (Sigma, USA) was used. DPPH solution was made cold characteristic was reported to control fissure and foods by dissolving around 2 mg DPPH in 15 mL EtOH. After of children and in [Pen-Tsao-Kang-Mu] it was written to adding 6.25 mL dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to 12 mL of the relieve diarrhea and pathology of fever. In traditional orien- solution, it was diluted with EtOH for absorbance of the con- tal medicine, it is used for nephropathy, diuresis, nutrition trol to be 0.94~0.97 at 517 nm wavelength and was shaken and flatulence, dried powder in warm honey water or boiled for 10 sec. In addition, 100 μL samples of each concentra- amphibian bodies by itself is eaten as a special efficient medi- tion dissolved in MeOH were put on 96 well plate and a cine of pulmonary ...
They covet vernal pools, those ephemeral puddles that will dry by July. These temporary ponds cannot house fish and other aquatic predators, creating a safe nursery for amphibians. But, the amphibians cant waste their time--the pools will dry, and if the larvae cannot mature, they perish. Starting in late February and early March, the salamanders stage a sluggish exodus from their subterranean hovels to their ice-rimmed breeding pools ...
The natural history of the species of amphibian being kept is important to the design of appropriate housing. Species from ponds and small bodies of quiet water generally prefer low flow systems and tolerate lower quality water better than stream living species. Species which live in streams and rivers require excellent water quality and do best in flow-through or highly filtered systems.. Day/night cycles are important to reproduction of many species and can have an impact on metabolism. Time of day of feeding can even affect how food is metabolized. Temperature requirements are relatively narrow for tropical species, but temperate species hibernate over winter. Some species of subarctic frogs actually appear to freeze during the winter and revive when thawed.. Many species of amphibians, particularly the frogs, are very susceptible to topical contact with toxins. Smokers should avoid handling smaller species of frogs. The nicotine on their hands can be fatal to the frogs. The poison arrow ...
Discover unique amphibians that survive on land and water at the free �Toad-ally Awesome Amphibians� event in North Chagrin Nature Center on Saturday, March 23 from 2 to 6 p.m., with some hikes extending to 8 p.m ...
I am looking for a way to karyotype an amphibian cell line. The current protocol which I am using is out of the newest edition of Freshney. However, their given protocol does not give great results, possibly because of the difference between mammalian cell culture conditions and amphibian culture conditions. Anyone have any advice to offer? Please Email directly if possible. Thanks ...
A stunning new eBook The Amphibians has been published by the Amphibian Survival Alliance (ASA) in collaboration with Meet Your Neighbours, a world...
Amphibians live in and out of the water, with many species being found in wetlands or marsh areas. Many amphibians have slimy bodies that need rehydration, which is why many live near a water...
Sports vehicle enthusiast can find Gibbs sports amphibians on GibbsSports.com, which is the manufacturers website. Users can also find the amphibians on websites run by approved dealer websites in...
Top 10 Amphibian Bacterial Infections that owners are most concerned about. Diagnosis, prevention, treatments - find the right solution for your Amphibian.
Natura - nature Mundus - physical world;material world Naturalia Biota Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotes Kingdom Animalia - animals Subkingdom Bilateria - bilaterians;triploblastic animals Branch Deuterostomia - deuterostomes Infrakingdom Chordonia Phylum Chordata - chordates Subphylum Vertebrata - vertebrates Infraphylum Gnathostomata - jawed vertebrates Superclass Tetrapoda - tetrapods 2.2.2.2.2.2.2.2.1 Class Amphibia C. Linnaeus, 1758 - amphibians H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982:239; Count:[s]3o;57f;500g;6108s;77ss; 4s; 2o;32f;33g;18s 1 Order Temnospondyli Zittel, 1888 - temnospondyls H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:M.J. Benton, 2005:393 (implicit position); Count: 19f;25g;9s 1.1 Subclass Lissamphibia Haeckel, 1866 H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:W.E. Duellman, 1982:945; Count:[s]3o;57f;500g;6108s;77ss; 4s; 1o;13f;8g;9s ...
The Neuse River waterdog is a rusty brown colour on the upper side, with dark blueish to black spots scattered across the back and onto the head, where they tend to be smaller. The underside is brown/grey and also has dark spots, but here they are smaller than those on the back. There is a dark line through the eye. This species has smooth skin, a stocky body, a flattened snout with rather squared edges, small limbs with four toes on each foot (most salamanders have five toes on their hind feet), and a tail that is vertically flattened with fins both top and bottom ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Amphibia - Amphibians -- Discover Life
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Amphibia - Amphibians -- Discover Life
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Amphibia - Amphibians -- Discover Life
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Amphibia - Amphibians -- Discover Life
There are striking differences in the ability of vertebrates to repair axonal connections. Mammals cannot regenerate CNS axons efficiently, resulting in permanent loss of function after injury. In contrast, non-mammalian species (particularly fish and amphibians) are able to functionally restore distrupted CNS axon connections. Against this background, my work is focused on the following aspects:. ...
This educational book about the first creatures to exist both on land and in the water includes colorful pictures of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians.
Article Metals‐mediated climate susceptibility in a warming world: Larval and latent effects on a model amphibian. Though sophisticated models predict the effects of future temperatures on ectotherms, few also address how ubiquitous sublethal contami...
There are three types of amphibians found in the UK, these are frogs, toads and newts. You can tell the difference between frogs and toads in a few ways. A frog will feel moist when touched but a toad will feel dry. The skin of a frog is smooth whereas a toad is warty. Toads backs appear flatter than a fogs ridged back.
More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British scientists said.
Archegosaurus decheni fossil. This amphibian, which lived in the Permian period (280-248 million years ago), was the first vertebrate to begin the conquest of solid ground. The fossil was found in deposits in Saarland, Germany. Taken from Mines and Miners L. Simonin, 1868. - Stock Image E445/0169
Olim palus , where once upon a time the marsh: distribution, demography, ecology and threats of amphibians in the Circeo National Park (Central Italy)
Amphibian Mercedes Concept - With all the energy and resources in the automotive sector focusing on alternative energy, you rarely hear any talk about creating multi terrain te...
Can you pick the North American amphibians? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Scuadrado
MCB Professor Rebecca Heald is studying the effects of genome size in amphibians, where larger genomes generate larger cells, organelles, and spindle apparatus sizes during cell division. Her research seeks to identify these
Walke, J. B., Harris, R. N., Reinert, L. K., Rollins-Smith, L. A. and Woodhams, D. C. (2011), Social Immunity in Amphibians: Evidence for Vertical Transmission of Innate Defenses. Biotropica, 43: 396-400. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2011.00787.x ...
Buy Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians by Martin E. Feder at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780226239446. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
Can you pick the African amphibians? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Scuadrado
Buy Sabes algo sobre anfibios? (Do You Know about Amphibians?) from Dymocks online BookStore. Find latest reader reviews and much more at Dymocks
Buy Amphibians of Nandankanan (9788192065703): NHBS - Pratyush P Mohapatra, Manoj V Nair, Sudarsan Panda, Nandankanan Biological Park
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The French love of frogs legs is helping to spread a killer disease that threatens to wipe out amphibians around the world, according to new research. The international trade in frogs has been identified as a key factor in the spread of a devastating amphibian fungal infection. Scientists knew that the main cause of the global decline of frog, toad and newt populations was a combination of environmental factors and a number of diseases. But for years they had been puzzled by the relentless spread of the fungal infection. Now, British-born Peter Dasak, chief executive of the Consortium for Conservation Medicine at Columbia University, New York, has discovered that the DNA of the fungal infection, which is harmless to humans, is identical all over the world. At last weeks Conservation Biology annual meeting in Canterbury, Dr Dasak said a disease would have to travel rapidly to avoid evolving genetic differences along the way. He believes the trade in frogs explains the fungal infections rapid ...
The disappearance of the golden toad is perhaps the most striking case of amphibian decline, not only because its habitat and dispersion ability seem to have been unaffected (Pounds et al. 1997), but also because of the abrupt nature of its decline. The documented story is a good one, beginning with Savages (1966) preliminary description, spanning through the late 1980s when B. periglenes disappeared, and continuing now with extensive causal analysis. The history of abundance begins with Savages (1966) initial sighting in 1964, when he noted that "within a radius of 5 meters at least 200 toads were visible." In 1977, Jacobson and Vandenberg (1991) counted 988 individuals in a single day, as compared to a greatest daily count of 85 in 1982. The last significant record came from May 1987, when Crump et al. (1992) observed a total of 1500 adult toads over the duration of the breeding season. This count was reduced to a single toad in both 1988 and 1989 (Pounds and Crump 1994), and none have been ...
Principal Investigator:YAMANA Kiyotaka, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:動物発生・生理学
Frogs and salamanders, wakened a bit sooner than usual this year, are walking to their mating areas. Volunteers help many make it past perilous traffic.
The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining) amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains). We provide evidence that the observed ...
Chytrid Fungus (KIT-rid) (Batrachochytrium sp. - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is a fungal pathogen and a major contributor to the decline of amphibian populations around the world, threatening many species with extinction. This fungus is a global emerging amphibian pathogen which is proving to be one of the worst vertebrate infectious diseases found so far. It is causing a huge amount of extinction and disease within amphibian populations. More than 100 species of amphibians are known to be affected by the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Some are very susceptible and die quickly while others which are more resistant are carriers of the pathogen. The disease, called Chytridiomycosis, is already credited with wiping out frogs and toads in large numbers in Australia and South America. The aquarium hobbys main two species available from shops are the Dwarf African Frog (Hymenochirus boettgeri) and the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis). These have shown to be infected in ...
Esta lista de anfibios de Guatemala incluye un total de 169 especies agrupadas en 3 órdenes: los cecílidos (Gymnophiona), las salamandras (Caudata) y las ranas y sapos (Anura). La UICN considera que 33 de estas especies están en peligro crítico de extinción (CR), 27 en peligro (EN), 11 casi amenazadas (NT) y 22 vulnerables (VU). Esta lista se deriva de la base de datos de Amphibian Species of the World,[1]​ de AmphibiaWeb,[2]​ y de la lista de Campbell.[3]​. Orden: Gymnophiona. Familia: Dermophiidae Dermophis mexicanus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) Gymnopis multiplicata Peters, 1874 Gymnopis syntrema (Cope, 1866) Orden: Caudata. Familia: Plethodontidae Bolitoglossa centenorum Campbell, Smith, Streicher, Acevedo, and Brodie, 2010) Bolitoglossa conanti McCranie and Wilson, 1993) Bolitoglossa cuchumatana (Stuart, 1943) [E] Bolitoglossa daryorum Campbell, Smith, Streicher, Acevedo, and Brodie, 2010) Bolitoglossa diaphora McCranie and Wilson, 1995 Bolitoglossa dofleini (Werner, 1903) ...
Native Fish and Amphibians From Fish Stocking SACRAMENTO, Calif.- The Sacramento Superior Court has ordered the California Department of Fish and Game into talks with Pacific Rivers Council and the Center for Biological Diversity to develop interim measures to limit harm to native species caused by fish stocking. The intent is to minimize the adverse effect that hatchery-raised fish inflict on sensitive native fish and amphibian species while the Department prepares an Environmental Impact Report under the California Environmental Quality Act.. "Interim measures limiting stocking are needed to help save Californias native fish and frogs from extinction," said Noah Greenwald, biodiversity program director for the Center for Biological Diversity. "Fish and Game should still be able to stock hatchery fish, but in places where they wont harm native species.. The court ruled in May 2007 that fish stocking has "significant environmental impacts" on "aquatic ecosystems" and "in particular, on native ...
tree frog amphibian treefrog rainforest branch exotic tropical rain forest species of Bolivian amazon jungle night animal isolated on black background beautiful wildlife - buy this stock photo on Shutterstock & find other images.
Disease is among the suspected causes of amphibian population declines, and an iridovirus and a chytrid fungus are the primary pathogens associated with amphibian mortalities. Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) and a closely related strain, Regina ranavirus (RRV), are implicated in salamander die-offs in Arizona and Canada, respectively. We report the complete sequence of the ATV genome and partial sequence of the RRV genome. Sequence analysis of the ATV/RRV genomes showed marked similarity to other ranaviruses, including tiger frog virus (TFV) and frog virus 3 (FV3), the type virus of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), as well as more distant relationships to lymphocystis disease virus, Chilo iridescent virus, and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus. Putative open reading frames (ORFs) in the ATV sequence identified 24 genes that appear to control virus replication and block antiviral responses. In addition, |50 other putative genes, homologous to ORFs in other iridoviral genomes but of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trophic effect of transferrin on amphibian limb regeneration blastemas. AU - Mescher, Anthony. AU - Munaim, S. I.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021280796&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021280796&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 230. SP - 485. EP - 490. JO - Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology. JF - Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology. SN - 0022-104X. IS - 3. ER - ...
Bartlett, R D. and Bartlett, P.P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xviii + 331 pp.. Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.. Dixon, J.R. 2000. Amphibians and Reptiles of Texas. With Keys, Taxonomic Synopses, Bibliography, and Distribution Maps. Second edition. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, College Station, Texas.. Dundee, H.A. and Rossman, D.A. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.. Ernst, C.H. and Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.. Gibbons, J.W. and Dorcas, M.E. 2004. North American Watersnakes: A Natural History. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. xxvi + 439 pp.. IUCN. 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: ...
Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia. Peak virus titers in serum of up to 4.5, 4.7, and 5.1 log10 plaque-forming units per milliliter were observed for garter snakes, ball pythons, and Texas toads, respectively. These results add to those of other studies that have suggested a possible role for ectothermic vertebrates in the ecology of arbovirus maintenance and transmission in nature.

Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog  » Blog Archive  More Research Links Atrazine to Sexual Abnormalities in Amphibians - Beyond...Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog » Blog Archive More Research Links Atrazine to Sexual Abnormalities in Amphibians - Beyond...

More Research Links Atrazine to Sexual Abnormalities in Amphibians. (Beyond Pesticides, March 3, 2010) A recently published ... Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ... demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Dr. Hayes and other researchers examined a ... the use of atrazine in 2006 concluding that there was no evidence atrazine was causing adverse impacts on the amphibians ...
more infohttp://beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/2010/03/more-research-links-atrazine-to-sexual-abnormalities-in-amphibians/

A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of...A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of...

A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of ... Arntzen J W (2012). A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), ... Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 3682 (3): 441-453, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ ...
more infohttps://www.gbif.org/dataset/bd3a8c00-de22-4566-ae08-b0d123f817f5

Effect of rival males on the courtship of paedomorphic and metamorphic Triturus alpestris (Amphibia : Salamandridae) - Denoël...Effect of rival males on the courtship of paedomorphic and metamorphic Triturus alpestris (Amphibia : Salamandridae) - Denoël...

Effect of rival males on the courtship of paedomorphic and metamorphic Triturus alpestris (Amphibia : Salamandridae). ...
more infohttps://orbi.uliege.be/handle/2268/2976

Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations.  - DAF...Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations. - DAF...

Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations. ... amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the ... Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations. Plos Pathogens ... addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian ...
more infohttp://era.daf.qld.gov.au/id/eprint/1468/

Effects of the disinfectant Virkon S on early life-stages of the moor frog (Rana arvalis)Effects of the disinfectant Virkon S on early life-stages of the moor frog (Rana arvalis)

Amphibia-Reptilia On the subject. Natural Sciences Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... 2012 (English)In: Amphibia-Reptilia, ISSN 0173-5373, E-ISSN 1568-5381, Vol. 33, no 3-4, 349-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed ... amphibians, chytridiomycosis, disinfectant, infection disease, Virkon S National Category Natural Sciences Identifiers. URN: ... We suggest that further studies are needed to assess the negative effect of Virkon S on amphibians, and recommend that Virkon S ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:588227

Ranaviruses : Detection, differentiation and host immune responseRanaviruses : Detection, differentiation and host immune response

Ranaviruses cause systemic infection in fish, amphibians and reptiles. Disease outbreaks associated with ranaviruses have been ...
more infohttps://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/33935?show=full

Living AmphibiansLiving Amphibians

Amphibian Species of the World * AmphibiaWeb. * Declining Amphibian Population Task Force * Australian Herpetological Directory ... Living Amphibians Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. David Cannatella Click on an image to view larger ... Page: Tree of Life Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Authored by David Cannatella. The ... Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Version 28 November 2008 (under construction). http ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Living_Amphibians

AmphibiansAmphibians

The Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program (TAMP) is a volunteer-based, multi-agency effort to assess the current status of ... Northeast Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative LEPAPS Frog and Toad ID Pages The Whole Frog Project ... The TAMP is being undertaken in an effort to understand the status of amphibians in our home state. The TAMP is an integral ... This lends some credence to our concerns about holes in the ozone layer, and reminds us of the value of amphibians as ...
more infohttps://www.tn.gov/twra/wildlife/amphibians.html

Living AmphibiansLiving Amphibians

Amphibian Species of the World * AmphibiaWeb. * Declining Amphibian Population Task Force * Australian Herpetological Directory ... Living Amphibians Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. David Cannatella Click on an image to view larger ... Page: Tree of Life Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Authored by David Cannatella. The ... Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Version 28 November 2008 (under construction). http ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Lissamphibia

Amphibian - WikipediaAmphibian - Wikipedia

Mesozoic Amphibians". In Heatwole, H.; Carroll, R. L. Amphibian Biology: Paleontology: The Evolutionary History of Amphibians ( ... Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a ... "IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Retrieved March 30, 2012.. *^ Waddle, James Hardin (2006). Use of amphibians as ecosystem ... The study of amphibians is called batrachology, while the study of both reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphibian

Amphibians - Gopher FrogAmphibians - Gopher Frog

Gopher frogs will travel great distances, as much as a mile or more, to breed in temporary ponds year-round, laying eggs in shallow water. As adults, they hop into surrounding uplands, where they find a home in the active burrow of a gopher tortoise. They may also use a stump hole or the abandoned burrow of a small rodent. They are nocturnal, and seldom range far from their daytime retreat. You may be able to glimpse one by sneaking up on a gopher tortoise burrow very early in the morning.. Their call is a deep guttural snore, and heavy rains at any season may stimulate choruses, many of them calling at once. Sometimes they call from underwater, so as not to attract predators, a noise that must be detected by hydrophone.. ...
more infohttp://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/reptiles-and-amphibians/amphibians/gopher-frog/

Amphibians :: Add-ons for SeaMonkeyAmphibians :: Add-ons for SeaMonkey

If you suspect this add-on violates our policies or has security or privacy issues, please use the form below to describe your concerns. Please do not use this form for any other reason. ...
more infohttps://addons.mozilla.org/En-us/seamonkey/addon/amphibians/

Extinction Threatens European Amphibians - RedorbitExtinction Threatens European Amphibians - Redorbit

"Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both ... More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British ... One-third of the amphibian species in the world are listed as endangered. Researchers said climate change adds to the stress ... Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping in numbers as their food supply ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1568655/extinction_threatens_european_amphibians/

amphibian | Infopleaseamphibian | Infoplease

... cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the frogs and toads (order ... amphibian, in zoology, cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the ... All living amphibians are specialized for their way of life, none representing the main amphibian stock from which the reptiles ... or limbless amphibians (order Gymnophiona, or Apoda), a little known tropical group. Amphibians, the most primitive of the ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/ecology/animals/vertebrates/amphibian

EMERGENCY - Reptiles & Amphibians - MedHelpEMERGENCY - Reptiles & Amphibians - MedHelp

my pet corn snake is just a baby. i got her a couple of days ago. i dont hadle her all the time i keep on a minle bases. when i got home from school today i went to check on her and she was limp but sh...
more infohttp://www.medhelp.org/posts/Reptiles--Amphibians/EMERGENCY/show/1145509

Amphibians - PixdausAmphibians - Pixdaus

Pixdaus.com is an environmental photo-bookmarking and sharing service. All the pictures are uploaded by users and the copyrights belong to the rightholders. You can request a removal using the Copyright flag link below each image if you find an image that shouldnt belong here ...
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Amphibians by Edward R. Ricciuti | ScholasticAmphibians by Edward R. Ricciuti | Scholastic

This educational book about the first creatures to exist both on land and in the water includes colorful pictures of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians.
more infohttps://www.scholastic.com/teachers/books/amphibians-by-edward-r-ricciuti/

Category:Amphibians of Kerala - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Amphibians of Kerala - Wikimedia Commons

Pages in category "Amphibians of Kerala". This category contains only the following page. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Amphibians_of_Kerala&oldid=184644143" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Amphibians_of_Kerala

Category:Amphibians of China - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Amphibians of China - Wikimedia Commons

Amphibians of China (en); رده:دوزیستان جمهوری خلق چین (fa); Categoria:Anfíbios da China (pt); Categoría:Anfibios da China (gl ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Amphibians_of_China&oldid=333012241" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Amphibians_of_China

Extinction threatens European amphibians - UPI.comExtinction threatens European amphibians - UPI.com

... newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British scientists said. ... Amphibian Ark envisioned *Many species thought safe from extinction said at climate-change risk *Amphibians rally from ... "Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both ... 26 (UPI) -- More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Science_News/2008/09/26/Extinction-threatens-European-amphibians/57281222403426/

The Case of the Missing AmphibiansThe Case of the Missing Amphibians

A recent report provides the most compelling evidence yet that frogs and other amphibians are in serious trouble worldwide. ... The Case of the Missing Amphibians A recent report provides the most compelling evidence yet that frogs and other amphibians ... Gopher frogs and other amphibians are unusually sensitive to habitat loss and degradation. "Amphibians have smaller range sizes ... Because amphibian populations naturally fluctuate-and because most herpetologists focus on a single region-it took time for the ...
more infohttps://www.nwf.org/en/Magazines/National-Wildlife/2005/Missing-Amphibians

Reptiles and Amphibians  - Exotic PetsReptiles and Amphibians - Exotic Pets

Reptiles and Amphibians at Exotic Pets : Here you will find the cold blooded critters that need extra special care. They cant ... Reptile, Amphibian, and Insect Supplies Find what supplies you need for your exotic pet reptile, amphibian, and insect. All ... Reptile, Amphibians, and Insects Shop Reptile, Amphibians, and Insects supplies, items to set up your vivarium environment. ... Amphibians and reptiles. Are Animal Television Networks Tumbling into the Toilet? Over the last several years, many nature and ...
more infohttps://www.bellaonline.com/subjects/9513.asp

AmphibiaAmphibia

Class Amphibia-Amphibians. Those amphibians of our region that are represented as fossils are tied to water for reproduction. ... Our amphibians fall into two taxonomic orders: Caudata (salamanders) and Anura (frogs and toads). Except for California, the ...
more infohttps://www.utep.edu/leb/pleistNM/taxa/amphibia.htm

Amphibian Herpesviruses | SpringerLinkAmphibian Herpesviruses | SpringerLink

Amphibian herpesviruses might never have been studied had Lucké (1934) not discovered that cells of the renal adenocarcinoma of ... Granoff, A., 1969, Viruses of Amphibia, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 50: 107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Granoff A. (1983) Amphibian Herpesviruses. In: Roizman B. (eds) The Herpesviruses. The Viruses. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI ... Amphibian herpesviruses might never have been studied had Lucké (1934) not discovered that cells of the renal adenocarcinoma of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7012-3_7

Thermoreception - Reptiles and amphibians | Britannica.comThermoreception - Reptiles and amphibians | Britannica.com

Reptiles and amphibians: Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... Reptiles and amphibians. Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... There is some electrophysiological evidence of thermal sensitivity among amphibians; however, these organisms appear to respond ... Studies into the existence of TRP channels and other cellular thermoreception mechanisms in amphibians are ongoing. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/thermoreception/Reptiles-and-amphibians
  • The salamanders and newts are superficially the most similar to ancestral amphibians, having long tails and front and hind legs of approximately equal size. (infoplease.com)
  • Red-spotted newts eat insects, worms, leeches and mollusks, as well as the young and eggs of some other amphibians. (reference.com)
  • The smallest amphibian (and vertebrate) in the world is a frog from New Guinea ( Paedophryne amauensis ) with a length of just 7.7 mm (0.30 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 40 percent of the world's 6,000-plus amphibians are declining due to pollution, habitat loss and chytrid. (reuters.com)
  • Herp enthusiasts take a stand along my side to stand up for the right to own exotic pets including lizards, snakes, amphibians, frogs, and turtles. (bellaonline.com)
  • Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping in numbers as their food supply dwindles. (redorbit.com)
  • Amphibians have smaller range sizes than do birds or mammals, so if there is habitat loss in an area, they are more likely to be affected," says Chanson. (nwf.org)
  • A three-year effort involving more than 520 scientists from 60 nations, the assessment concludes that 1,856 of 5,743 known amphibian species-or nearly a third-are threatened with extinction. (nwf.org)
  • In Ecuador, scientists found an Atelopus species not seen since 1995 as part of a Conservation International global project to locate 100 "lost" amphibians. (reuters.com)
  • Many scientists believe that amphibians lived as many as 370 million years ago. (wisegeek.com)
  • It is widely accepted by a broad spectrum of scientists and philosophers that non-human animals can perceive pain, including pain in amphibians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gopher frogs and other amphibians are unusually sensitive to habitat loss and degradation. (nwf.org)
  • During the first hour, investigative reporter Linda Moulton Howe discussed the ongoing decline of amphibians as well as the extinction of coral reefs. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Though less obvious than gender bending, immunosuppression could also play a part in the worldwide decline of amphibians, which have porous skin and easily absorb chemicals from rain, groundwater and even water vapor. (wired.com)
  • Typically amphibians undergo a metamorphosis from an aquatic, water-breathing, limbless larva (called a tadpole) to a terrestrial or partly terrestrial, air-breathing, four-legged adult. (infoplease.com)
  • Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, according to Hayes, chytrid is only the most apparent amphibian affliction. (wired.com)
  • In California's High Sierra, meadows rich with the call of amphibians such as the Yosemite toad and the yellow-legged frog became eerily silent. (nwf.org)
  • Amphibian herpesviruses might never have been studied had Lucké (1934) not discovered that cells of the renal adenocarcinoma of the common leopard frog, Rana pipiens , frequently contain intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies similar to those found in herpes simplex infections and other viral diseases. (springer.com)
  • The Chinese giant salamander and the Goliath frog are considered examples of the largest amphibians. (wisegeek.com)
  • The other traits all amphibians share are a life cycle in which part of the animals life i. (reference.com)
  • The majority of this group of limbless, wormlike amphibians live underground in humid tropical regions throughout the world. (britannica.com)
  • Examples of the three modern orders of amphibians The possibility that amphibians and other non-human animals may experience pain has a long history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both extraordinary and terrifying that in just a few decades the world could lose half of all these species," said Sir David Attenborough, famed for his television nature shows. (redorbit.com)
  • One-third of the amphibian species in the world are listed as endangered. (redorbit.com)
  • With last fall's publication of the Global Amphibian Assessment, a joint project of IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Conservation International (CI) and NatureServe, the problem has become impossible to ignore. (nwf.org)
  • They are nevertheless a fascinating group of highly specialized amphibians about which there is still much to be learned. (britannica.com)
  • The earliest amphibians evolved in the Devonian period from sarcopterygian fish with lungs and bony-limbed fins, features that were helpful in adapting to dry land. (wikipedia.org)
  • David Wake, a University of California-Berkeley biologist who has studied amphibians for 40 years, recalls the first time he returned to Monteverde after the crash: "I had the perspective of the forest becoming silent, of what had been just an incredible experience suddenly turning into nothing. (nwf.org)
  • Where do amphibians live? (reference.com)
  • Amphibians live in and out of the water, with many species being found in wetlands or marsh areas. (reference.com)
  • Many amphibians have slimy bodies that need rehydration, which is why many live near a water source. (reference.com)
  • An amphibian does not need to live submerged in the water, but just have access to a water source. (reference.com)
  • There are a few species that can live in arid, dry climates like a desert, but most amphibians are found near water sources. (reference.com)
  • Atrazine also suppresses immune function in snails, which often carry amphibian-infesting parasites, and feeds the algae on which snails live. (wired.com)
  • The TAMP is sponsored by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Center For Environmental Education at Middle Tennessee State University.Participation in the Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program is voluntary and is open to all interested persons, old and young alike. (tn.gov)
  • This large amphibian can be found crawling around the bottoms of clear, silt-free mountain streams. (fws.gov)