Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Triturus: A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.MycosesRana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Animal DiseasesNotophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.DNA Virus InfectionsRana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Saprolegnia: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It is a parasite and pathogen of freshwater FISHES.Rana ridibunda: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.TailEmbryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.UreohydrolasesEctoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.PanamaBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/512)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes. (2/512)

In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed.  (+info)

Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (3/512)

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

Characterization of toad liver glutathione transferase. (4/512)

The major form of glutathione transferase from the toad liver previously designed as Bufo bufo liver GST-7.6 (A. Aceto, B. Dragani, T. Bucciarelli, P. Sacchetta, F. Martini, S. Angelucci, F. Amicarelli, M. Miranda and C. Di Ilio, Biochem. J. 289 (1993) 417-422) has been characterized. According to its partial amino acid sequence, the toad enzyme may be included in the pi class GST and named bbGST P2-2. However, bbGST P2-2 appears to be immunologically, structurally and kinetically distinct from any other members of pi family, including bbGST P1-1, suggesting that it may constitute a subset of pi class GST. The data support the hypothesis that the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life causes a switch of the GST amphibian pattern promoting the expression of a GST form (bbGST P2-2) able to counteract, with higher efficiency, the toxic effects of reactive metabolites of oxidative metabolism and those of hydrophobic xenobiotics.  (+info)

Peptide growth factors in amphibian embryogenesis: intersection of modern molecular approaches with traditional inductive interaction paradigms. (5/512)

Recent discoveries of the role peptide growth factors (PGFs) play in regulating embryonic patterning and differentiation have profoundly influenced research on the molecular biology of early amphibian embryogenesis. Several PGFs have been recognized to be present as endogenous components of amphibian eggs and early embryos, while other PGFs -- which are known from heterologous systems (e.g., Drosophila) -- exert remarkable effects when injected as either protein or mRNA into eggs/embryos or when added to cultured embryonic tissue. For a variety of reasons (reviewed herein) optimism abounds that an understanding in molecular terms of the classical Spemann and Nieuwkoop tissue interactions which are generally believed to drive embryonic patterning is within reach. A critical assessment of the interpretations of some of the contemporary data on PGFs (included herein) should, however, temper some of that optimism. Likely, multiple rather than single PGFs act in a combinatorial fashion to contribute to individual patterning events. As well, substantial redundancy in PGF regulatory circuits probably exists, so the heavy reliance on tissue culture assays and overexpression studies which characterize much recent research needs to be circumvented. Potential experimental approaches for "next generation" experiments are discussed.  (+info)

Histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia-Gymnophiona). (6/512)

The histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus was studied by light microscopy in semithin sections of tissue embedded in hydrophilic resin. The kidney's nephron comprises the renal corpuscle, neck segment, proximal tubule, intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule. Nephrostomes are present. This structure, the neck segment, and intermediate tubules present long cilia, and probably play important roles in the propulsion of the peritoneal fluid and glomerular filtrate. The proximal tubule cells possess loosely packed microvilli and contain abundant polymorphic granules and vesicles that assume the aspect of lysosomes in different stages of intracellular digestion. The distal tubules are characterized by large, vertically disposed mitochondria assuming the aspect of ions transporting cells. The urinary bladder is lined with a transitional epithelium, whose aspect varies according to the quantity of urine.  (+info)

Classification of loops of lampbrush chromosomes according to the arrangement of transcriptional complexes. (7/512)

The arrangement of transcriptional units in the loops of lampbrush chromosomes from oocyte nuclei of urodele amphibia and from primary nuclei of the green alga Acetabularia have been studied in the electron microscope using spread preparations. Loops with different patterns of arrangement of matrix units (i.e. to a first approximation, transcriptional units) can be distinguished: (i) loops consisting of one active transcriptional unit; (ii) loops containing one active transcriptional unit plus additional fibril-free, i.e. apparently untranscribed, intercepts that may include 'spacer' regions; (iii) loops containing two or more transcriptional units arranged in identical or changing polarities, with or without interspersed apparent spacer regions. Morphological details of the transcriptional complexes are described. The observations are not compatible with the concept that one loop reflects one and only one transcriptional unit but, rather, lead to a classification of loop types according to the arrangement of their transcriptional units. We propose that the lampbrush chromosome loop can represent a unit for the coordinate transcription of either one gene or a set of several (different) genes.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of mitsugumin29 in developing skeletal muscle and effects of the protein expressed in amphibian embryonic cells. (8/512)

The temporal appearance and subcellular distribution of mitsugumin29 (MG29), a 29-kDa transmembrane protein isolated from the triad junction in skeletal muscle, were examined by immunohistochemistry during the development of rabbit skeletal muscle. MG29 appeared in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in muscle cells at fetal day 15 before the onset of transverse tubule (T tubule) formation. In muscle cells at fetal day 27, in which T tubule and triad formation is ongoing, both SR and triad were labeled for MG29. In muscle cells at newborn 1 day, the labeling of the SR had become weak and the triads were well developed and clearly labeled for MG29. Specific and clear labeling for MG29 was restricted to the triads in adult skeletal muscle cells. When MG29 was expressed in amphibian embryonic cells by injection of the cRNA, a large quantity of tubular smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (sER) was formed in the cytoplasm. The tubular sER was 20-40 nm in diameter and appeared straight or reticular in shape. The tubular sER was formed by the fusion of coated vesicles [budded off from the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER)] and vacuoles of rER origin. The present results suggest that MG29 may play important roles both in the formation of the SR and the construction of the triads during the early development of skeletal muscle cells.  (+info)

The first response to reports of declining amphibian populations was the formation of the Declining Amphibian Population Task Force (DAPTF) in 1990. DAPFT led efforts for increased amphibian population monitoring in order to establish the extent of the problem, and established working groups to look at different issues.[42] Results were communicated through the newsletter Froglog. Much of this research went into the production of the first Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA), which was published in 2004 and assessed every known amphibian species against the IUCN Red List criteria. This found that approximately one third of amphibian species were threatened with extinction.[43] As a result of these shocking findings an Amphibian Conservation Summit was held in 2005, because it was considered "morally irresponsible to document amphibian declines and extinctions without also designing and promoting a response to this global crisis".[44]. Outputs from the Amphibian Conservation Summit included the ...
This book documents a major environmental crisis: rapidly declining amphibian populations and the developmental problems that are increasingly prevalent within many amphibian species. Horror stories on this topic have been featured in the scientific and popular press over the past fifteen years, invariably asking what amphibian declines are telling us about the state of the environment. Are declines harbingers of devastated ecosystems or simply weird reflections of a peculiar amphibian world? This compendium - presenting new data, reviews of current literature, and comprehensive species accounts - reinforces what scientists have begun to suspect: that amphibians are a lens through which the state of the environment can be viewed more clearly. And, that the view is alarming and presages serious concerns for all life, including that of our own species. The first part of this work consists of more than fifty essays covering topics from the causes of amphibian population declines to conservation, surveys
Buy Extinction in Our Times (9780195316940): Global Amphibian Decline: NHBS - James P Collins and Martha L Crump, Oxford University Press
Why are Amphibians Important. Amphibians are found worldwide and are an important link in the food chain of many ecosystems, acting as both predator and prey. Amphibians have thin and highly permeable skin that allows oxygen, water, and other chemicals to be absorbed. This means that pollutants and toxins may pass directly into the body. Consequently, environmental pollution can cause the death of amphibians directly, or have other impacts such as developmental abnormalities, altered behaviour and increased vulnerability to disease and predators.. These characteristics make amphibians, as a group, particularly sensitive to human activities that impact and result in changes in climate, habitat, and air and water quality. For this reason, amphibians are often referred to as biological indicator species and may reflect the ecological health of our waterways, wetlands and adjacent uplands.. Global Decline. Over recent decades an alarming decline in amphibian populations around the world has ...
Amphibians are an important food source for animals such as birds, snakes, raccoons, and fish. Amphibians are also important predators. As larvae, they feed mainly on small aquatic animals such as water insects. They may also feed on algae. As adults, amphibians are completely carnivorous. They may catch and eat worms, snails, and insects, as the frog inFigure below is doing. Unlike other amphibians, caecilians are burrowers. They use their head to dig in the soil, and they feed on earthworms and other annelids. Caecilians can be found in moist soil near rivers and streams in tropical regions.. ...
There are more than 6,000 species of amphibians living today. This animal class includes toads and frogs, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Amphibians have skin that is very permeable. This permeable skin helps them breathe, since oxygen passes easily through it. Amphibians lose a lot of water through their skin. This is why most amphibians are found in moist or humid environments, where they can re-load their water reserves. Amphibians are ectotherms or cold blooded, this means that amphibians cannot produce sufficient internal heat to maintain a constant body temperature. Instead an amphibians body temperature varies, depending on the surrounding temperature.. ...
The potential impact of chemical contaminants and conservation practices on amphibians in agricultural landscapes is a key research topic globally. Amphibians represent a common group in many freshwater systems and are currently experiencing worldwide population declines. Global amphibian declines may be attributed to a number of causes, including habitat loss, introduced species, global climate change, disease, and chemical contaminants; most species declines are not a function of only one factor, but a result of interacting factors and synergistic impacts. I analyzed the impact of field conservation efforts employed in the Calapooia watershed, located in the central Willamette Valley in Oregon, on amphibian species diversity using Simpsons Diversity Index. In the Calapooia watershed the value of this index increased when conservation efforts, such as retaining crop residue and riparian buffers, were present. This suggests that species diversity increased with increased conservation effort at ...
1st Course on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry. 18 to 22 of May, 2015. dBio-UA, University of Aveiro, PORTUGAL. The 1st Course on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry is an interesting and intensive course to researchers or technical staff working with amphibians and looking for more complete basis on Amphibian Conservation and Husbandry.. The course explores the principles of amphibians husbandry, nutrition and dietary needs, captive reproduction, population management, veterinary aspects (diseases, pathology, and necropsy), biosecurity and quarantine, conservation, threats and global action. Hands on demonstrations, practical and group exercises are also included (enclosure demonstrations: tank drilling, false bottoms and plumbing, filters).. Preliminary Program:. Day 1 - May 18th. ____________________. 9:00am // Participants reception. 9:30am // Greetings and Introdution. 10:30am // Overview of the amphibians global crisis. 11:30am // Introducing Aveiro University and AArk ...
CORVALLIS, Ore. - Amphibian declines around the world have forced many species to the brink of extinction, are much more complex than realized and have multiple causes that are still not fully understood, researchers conclude in a new report.. The search for a single causative factor is often missing the larger picture, they said, and approaches to address the crisis may fail if they dont consider the totality of causes - or could even make things worse.. No one issue can explain all of the population declines that are occurring at an unprecedented rate, and much faster in amphibians than most other animals, the scientists conclude in a study just published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.. The amphibian declines are linked to natural forces such as competition, predation, reproduction and disease, as well as human-induced stresses such as habitat destruction, environmental contamination, invasive species and climate change, researchers said.. "An enormous rate of change has ...
Although El Niño seems to be the ultimate climatic phenomenon affecting Atelopus declines, we further sought to differentiate among several climate-based factors associated with El Niño events that have been proposed as proximate drivers of enigmatic amphibian declines (26). The chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis proposes that increased cloud cover due to warmer oceanic temperatures leads to convergence of daytime and nighttime temperatures (i.e., a reduced diurnal temperature range) on the optimum temperature for Bd growth (11). Several mean-climate hypotheses have also been proposed for amphibian declines. These include predictions that mean temperature, mean precipitation, or an interaction between the two will be significant predictors of amphibian losses, either by directly causing declines, accelerating decomposition of leaf litter habitat, or altering interactions with natural enemies (27-31).. Finally, there is the climate-variability hypothesis, which proposes that temporal ...
Data Source ID: 99 This is a checklist of Amphibian Species in the Kihansi Gorge in the Udzungwa Tanzania. It is an important information on Biodiversity status of the Udzungwa Mountains as a Mega Biodiverse Hotspot of the Eastern Arc Mountains. It contains endemic and species with the risk of extinction (endangered, critically endangered, extinct in the wild). The studies on amphibian species commenced with the discovery of the Kihansi Spray Toad (KST) (Nectophrynoides asperginis) in December 1996 and its description in 1998 (Poynton et al., 1998). To date several species of amphibians in the Order Anura in Five different Families have been identified to exist in the Kihansi Gorge. Unfortunately Nectophrynoides asperginis went extinct in the wild mainly due to habitat alteration by the Kihansi River water abstraction where water is used for Hydro power project. Further studies are underway to establish the exact cause of the population crash of KST in the Kihansi Gorge as one of the effort to ...
The posterior genes of the HoxD cluster play a crucial role in the patterning of the tetrapod limb. This region is under the control of a global, long-range enhancer that is present in all vertebrates. Variation in limb types, as is the case in amphibians, can probably not only be attributed to variation in Hox genes, but is likely to be the product of differences in gene regulation. With a collection of vertebrate genome sequences available today, we used a comparative genomics approach to study the posterior HoxD cluster of amphibians. A frog and a caecilian were included in the study to compare coding sequences as well as to determine the gain and loss of putative regulatory sequences. We sequenced the posterior end of the HoxD cluster of a caecilian and performed comparative analyses of this region using HoxD clusters of other vertebrates. We determined the presence of conserved non-coding sequences and traced gains and losses of these footprints during vertebrate evolution, with particular focus on
The respiratory and circulatory systems of adult amphibians are adapted for life on land. In addition, adult amphibians have adaptations for obtaining food and moving. Amphibian larvae use gills to obtain oxygen, whereas adults use lungs. Lungs are organs of air-breathing vertebrates in which oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas are exchanged between the air and blood. Amphibian larvae also have a single-loop circulatory system and two-chambered heart, like that of a fish. In contrast, the circulatory system of an adult amphibian has two loops and a heart with three chambers. The two upper chambers of the heart are called atria, and the lower chamber is the ventricle. Blood moves to the lungs in one loop, and to the body in the other loop ...
Caecilians have no limbs. For this reason, the smaller species look like worms, while the larger species with lengths up to 1.5 m look similar to snakes. The tail is short and the cloaca is near the end of the body. Their skin is smooth and usually dark in colour. Some species have colorful skins, though. Inside the skin are calcite scales. Due to their underground life the eyes are small. Skin often covers them, to protect them. This has led to the idea that they are blind, which is not the case. Because of the skin cover, their seeing is limited to simple dark-light perception. They can tell the difference between dark and light. All Caecilians have two tentacles at their head. The tentacles are probably used for a second smelling capability in addition to the normal sense of smell based in the nose. Most Caecilians have lungs, except for two lungless species. Those that have lungs also use the skin or the mouth to get oxygen. Often the left lung is much smaller than the right one. This is an ...
p,Our knowledge of the broad-scale ecology of vertebrate ectotherms remains very limited. Despite ongoing declines and sensitivity to environmental change, amphibian distributions are particularly poorly understood. We present a global analysis of contemporary environmental and historical constraints on amphibian richness, the first for an ectotherm clade at this scale. Amphibians are presumed to experience environmental constraints distinct from those of better studied endothermic taxa due to their stringent water requirements and the temperature dependence of their energetic costs and performance. Single environmental predictors set upper bounds on, but do not exclusively determine, amphibian richness. Accounting for differing regional histories of speciation and extinction helps resolve triangular or scattered relationships between core environmental predictors and amphibian richness, as the relationships' intercepts or slopes can vary regionally. While the magnitude of richness is ...
More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British scientists said. In a report to the Zoological Society of London, researchers said Thursday that the most threatened species live in southern Europe, The Guardian reported. The Mediterranean climate is expected to become significantly hotter and drier, which is bad news for the Mallorcan midwife toad and the brook newt of Sardinia. "Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both extraordinary and terrifying that in just a few decades the world could lose half of all these species," said Sir David Attenborough, famed for his television nature shows. One-third of the amphibian species in the world are listed as endangered. Researchers said climate change adds to the stress caused by habitat loss and the spread of disease. Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping ...
Caecilians are definitely not worms. They are definitely amphibians, like frogs or salamanders -- class Lissamphibia, order Gymnophiona. They have spines and everything, I promise. There are a couple hundred known species (most of which are found in Mexico) but their distribution seems to be pretty wide and there are certainly lots that we dont know about. Some of them dont even have lungs, they just breathe entirely through their skin! Man, Caecilians are great. If I get a chance I will dig up the lecture notes from my herpetology class and see if I can find some more weird-ass facts about Caecilians ...
Amphibian population declines and sudden species extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost as a percentage of the current fauna can be a misleading statistic in some parts of the globe. The number of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies of single-species populations are needed, but this approach has its limits. Amphibian populations often show great annual variation in population size making it difficult, if not impossible, to use short-term studies as a basis for deciding if a population is increasing or decreasing in the long term. Aggregating single studies into databases and searching for patterns of variation is a way of overcoming this limitation. Several ...
Amphibians are cold-blooded and live both on land (breathing with lungs) and in water (breathing through gills) at different times. Three types of amphibians are frogs and toads, salamanders, and caecilians.
Amphibian. Salamander. Amphibians Class. All amphibians are cold-blooded. Amphibians live in each continent except for Antarctica. An average amphibian grows smaller then other vertebrates. Salamander Adaptation. Slideshow 98003 by DoraAna
Dr. Eric Baitchman, Zoo New England director of Veterinary Services, is the lead veterinarian for the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project. We spent some time talking to Dr. Baitchman about his interest in amphibians and what he has learned from his participation in this vital conservation project. Heres what he told us:. When did you first develop an interest in amphibians? What sparked this interest?. I cant really say when or what it was that sparked my interest in amphibians. Ive always been drawn to their diversity of shape, colors and habits, as well as to the types of environments that amphibians usually occupy. Amphibian life histories are fascinating as well, spending the first part of their lives in the water as tadpoles, undergoing metamorphosis, and then growing in to terrestrial adults-no other vertebrate undergoes such dramatic changes in their life cycle.. What has been the most rewarding aspect about your participation in the Panama Amphibian Rescue and ...
Join the AArk as a Subscribing Member - as a member of the AArk, youll receive the electronic Amphibian Ark Newsletter (available in English and Spanish) every three months, and youll be showing your support for global amphibian conservation.. Make a donation - our supporters have been amazing in their commitment to helping us, and your generous donation will help save amphibians! Take another leap towards saving amphibians by becoming a Contributing Member of the Amphibian Ark and make a tax-deductible contribution immediately.. AArk works with many partners around the world, including organizations and projects that are currently seeking external support to help with their amphibian conservation projects. Assistance may be in the form of funding, support with specialized staff or training skills, volunteering or in-kind support by providing equipment and supplies. You can contact the program managers directly, using the Contact email link, to find out more about how you can help.. Help raise ...
The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) has joined with two branches of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN/SSC) - the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and the Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) - to form the Amphibian Ark (AArk). Since 2006 the Amphibian Ark has been helping zoos and aquariums to address the captive components of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, saving as many species as possible by providing global coordination, technical guidance, training, necessary linkages to other IUCN groups, communications, and guiding publicity and capital campaigns.. The AArk vision is the worlds amphibians safe in nature, and the mission is ensuring the survival and diversity of amphibian species focusing on those that cannot currently be safe-guarded in their natural environments. The AArk coordinates captive programs implemented by partners around the world, with the first emphasis on programs within the countries where the species occur in the wild, and with a ...
Amphibians are a key indicator species of ecosystem health. Their presence or absence can tell us a lot about the general health of a wetland or riparian area in addition to giving us a sense of site water and habitat quality. When climatic and hydrologic changes occur in an ecosystem, amphibians are often the first to react. Their thin skin makes them vulnerable to temperature increases, chemical pollutants, disease, and radiation. The combinations of pollutants, habitat fragmentation and development in urban areas have had a negative impact on amphibian populations. In the Portland Metro area, everything from mutations of extra legs to complete absence of native amphibians has been documented.. read more. ...
Fig. 2. A communal wood frog (Rana sylvatica) deposition site in Concord (Middlesex County) Massachusetts from 1988 (A). Well over 100 egg masses are shown just on the surface, indicating a local population of over 200 breeding adults. Similar numbers bred at this site in the previous 2 years, but in this same time frame only two adults were ever seen outside of the breeding season. (B-F) Breeding sites for boreal toads (Bufo boreas) along Del Peurto Creek in Stanislaus County, California. B shows a pair of copulating toads with the strings of eggs wrapped around the pair. C and D show views of one ephemeral pool where a single clutch of eggs (which can be up to 10,000 individuals) has hatched in 1996. E and F show changes in a second nearby deposition site from 1995 (E) to 1999 (F). The breeding site is on the left in both panels with Del Peurto Creek on the right. Arrow in E shows the location of the small breeding pool shown in panels C and D. Because of anthropogenic activity, water flow has ...
Almost 300 people, including veterinarians, scientists and fish and wildlife managers, will meet Nov. 5-7 in Tempe, Ariz., at a conference on stopping the spread of a fungal-based amphibian disease. Hosted by the Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC)-a multilateral organization with members from the federal and state governments, zoos, the pet industry, conservation groups and others-the conference will include panels to discuss amphibian deaths related to the so-called Bd fungal disease, know …
David Gower presented the second talk of the meeting: Recent discoveries - a golden age for caecilian biology?. Various new notable caecilian species have been named in recent years: examples include the giant lungless typhlonectid Atretochoana eiselti (named in 1968, but only recognised as truly novel and given its own genus in 1995), and the tiny, terrestrial lungless caeciliid Caecilita iwokramae (only just described by Wake & Donnelly (2009): its head is shown in the adjacent images. Scale bar = 1 mm!). And new discoveries, like rotational feeding, maternal dermatophagy, protrusible eyes and hydrostatic locomotion, have brought caecilians to the widespread attention of biologists. But, Gower asked, are we really in a golden age of new insight and discovery? A graph plotting all 1000 or so caecilian-specific publications over time showed that scientific interest in caecilians rose sharply as a result of Edward Taylors work, such that about half of all caecilian research has been ...
We compiled just a few resources available on the web that might help you get involved with Amphibian Week! You can also try searching Frog or Salamander Crafts, create amphibian friendly habitat in your yard, look up your local or state wildlife management agency and see what local information they have on amphibians, or step outside and practice frog calls! Dont forget to share how you are celebrating Amphibian Week with #AmphibianWeek. ...
Environmental contamination has been suspected of being partially responsible for recent declines in amphibian populations. It is often not feasible to identify all of the compounds in an environment, nor the concentrations in which they are present. SPMDs are passive sampling devices that uptake lipophilic compounds from the environment in a manner similar to aquatic organisms. The extracts from the SPMDs, therefore, contain a composite sample of the compounds that are present in the environment. In this paper, we outline the methods from studies in which we have used extracts from SPMDs in toxicity tests on amphibian larvae. Using SPMD extracts makes it possible to establish potential links between amphibian deformities and declines and environmental contamination by lipophilic compounds....
... Frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and the rare caecilians come in a stunning array of colors, shapes, sizes, and habitats. They live both in water and on land and move in a great variety of ways from swimming, to hopping, and even flying. With a series of specially commissioned photographs, Amphibian takes a close look at the fascinating natural history of these creatures from the bright green, red-eyed tree frogs to dull, burrowing, wormlike caecilians; from startling black and yellow fire salamanders to tiny transparent glass frogs. Perfect amphibian reference book for children ages 7-adult. #AR-13398. Hardcover.
Amphibians around the world are in decline, with nearly 2000 of over 6400 described species listed as threatened with extinction [1], and a range of potential causes for these declines have been proposed [2]. The parallel timing of rapid falls in ozone levels and the beginning of rapid amphibian declines during the late 1970s and early 1980s [3,4] generated a surge of scientific interest in the idea that increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion [5] may be contributing to some amphibian declines through its lethal and sublethal effects on embryonic and larval life stages [6-8]. Research over the past two decades has shown that, in some species, UV-B exposure can cause increased mortality, reduced growth, reduced rate of development, delayed metamorphosis, reduced locomotor performance, developmental abnormalities, behavioural changes and increased susceptibility to disease (e.g. [9-16]). UV-B has also been shown to interact synergistically with the ...
For the purpose of reproduction most amphibians require fresh water although some lay their eggs on land and have developed various means of keeping them moist. A few (e.g. Fejervarya raja) can inhabit brackish water, but there are no true marine amphibians.[66] There are reports, however, of particular amphibian populations unexpectedly invading marine waters. Such was the case with the Black Sea invasion of the natural hybrid Pelophylax esculentus reported in 2010.[67]. Several hundred frog species in adaptive radiations (e.g., Eleutherodactylus, the Pacific Platymantis, the Australo-Papuan microhylids, and many other tropical frogs), however, do not need any water for breeding in the wild. They reproduce via direct development, an ecological and evolutionary adaptation that has allowed them to be completely independent from free-standing water. Almost all of these frogs live in wet tropical rainforests and their eggs hatch directly into miniature versions of the adult, passing through the ...
The dry prairie may not seem a likely spot for finding amphibians, but visiting Badlands in the spring and summer yields some surprises! Seasonal streams, ponds, and other wetlands provide breeding habitat for 6 species of amphibians. The mating calls of frogs and toads may be heard from late spring well into the summer, with different species calling at different times. Chorus frogs are the first to emerge from hibernation and make themselves heard, typically in late April and early May. The Great Plains toad, Woodhouses toad, and plains spadefoot are most vocal a little bit later, in June and July. The blotched tiger salamander does not vocalize, but lucky park visitors may see these animals-which, as adults, can reach lengths of 6 to 9 inches-in moist areas.. Amphibians are of special concern because of declining populations worldwide, even in protected areas. The reason for these declines is not yet fully understood, but numerous factors at work may include habitat loss and fragmentation, ...
Amphibians are cold-blooded with a backbone and moist skin, however, unlike reptiles, they lack scales. The name amphibian means double life describing how these animals start their life in water and then undergo metamorphosis to live on land. Unable to regulate their heat, amphibians depend on warmth from the sun to become active ...
Amphibians Amphibians are cold-blooded, smooth-skinned vertebrates. Most live some of their life in water and some on land. The most common amphibian critter is a frog but there are many others.. ...
The sensitivity of amphibians is not being tested for the registration of pesticides. It is implicitly assumed that surrogate species are at least as sensitive as amphibians. Based on literature data, it will be shown that the acute sensitivity of amphibians is comparable to the sensitivity of fish and aquatic invertebrates. It can be said, that the acute risk of pesticides to amphibians in the aquatic system is covered by the risk assessment of fish and aquatic invertebrates. Long term effects and effects on terrestrial amphibians were not compared.. ...
Posing serious hazards to native amphibians. The breakdown products of the three most commonly used organophosphorus pesticides in the Central Valley are 10 to 100 times more toxic to amphibians than their parent compounds, which are already highly toxic to amphibians, says a report Wednesday from the U.S. Geological Survey.. "Since some of the parent pesticide compounds are already at concentrations sufficient to cause significant amphibian mortality in the Sierra Nevada, the higher toxicity of the breakdown products poses a serious problem," says Gary Fellers, coauthor of the study published in the journal Environmental Pollution.. Donald Sparling, a research biologist and contaminants specialist at Southern Illinois University, and Mr. Fellers, a research biologist and amphibian specialist at the USGS Western Ecological Research Center in Sacramento, conducted laboratory tests to determine the acute toxicity -- the lethal dosage causing death in 96 hours or less -- of chlorpyrifos, malathion ...
Background for educators ,,. Introduction. This module introduces students to the world of amphibians. Few people, especially those living in urban areas, have an opportunity to experience and enjoy the beauty of a wetland. Well-established fears associated with wetlands soon disappear when one has had the opportunity to interact with the wetland ecosystem. Students will develop an understanding of the importance of water to the life cycle of amphibians, and will become more familiar with the twenty-one species that exist in Ontario. Students will examine the basic needs and habitat requirements of amphibians. Students will gain a greater understanding of how important amphibians are in detecting environmental contamination. The emphasis in this module should be placed on both global and local declines of amphibian populations, and the reasons contributing to their decline. (Note: For further background, you may wish to look at Unit 10, Case Studies which includes four case studies: "Global ...
Survey and consolidate information on amphibian populations, their range and abundance within the forest fragments comprising the Taita Hills and Mount Kasigau as a barometer of environmental health. Working thorough local counterparts, this project will train local field assistants with a view to developing a sustainable long-term monitoring program.. ...
Biology Assignment Help, Question, Ask questiImagine you are studying a group of amphibian species that vary in their habitats-some living in dense, murky water, and others living in very clear ponds. What kind of communication problems exist in each environment? What sorts of differe
Writing in the journal Nature, researchers said the fossil suggests that modern amphibians may have come from two groups, with frogs and salamanders related to an ancient amphibian known as a temnospondyl, and worm-like caecilians more closely related to the lepospondyls, another group of ancient amphibians ...
The best 25 synonyms for amphibian, including: frog, caecilian, caudate, hyla, newt, proteus, salamander, toad, amphibious, amphibious aircraft, amphibious vehicle and more... Find another word for amphibian at YourDictionary.
For the purpose of reproduction most amphibians require fresh water although some lay their eggs on land and have developed various means of keeping them moist. A few (e.g. Fejervarya raja) can inhabit brackish water, but there are no true marine amphibians.[67] There are reports, however, of particular amphibian populations unexpectedly invading marine waters. Such was the case with the Black Sea invasion of the natural hybrid Pelophylax esculentus reported in 2010.[68]. Several hundred frog species in adaptive radiations (e.g., Eleutherodactylus, the Pacific Platymantis, the Australo-Papuan microhylids, and many other tropical frogs), however, do not need any water for breeding in the wild. They reproduce via direct development, an ecological and evolutionary adaptation that has allowed them to be completely independent from free-standing water. Almost all of these frogs live in wet tropical rainforests and their eggs hatch directly into miniature versions of the adult, passing through the ...
vc_column][vc_column width="1/3″][text_output]Founded: 2004. Head Office: Owosso, Michigan. Geographic Area of Work: USA. Website: www.JoshsFrogs.com. Social Media: Facebook/ Twitter[/text_output][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width="1/1″][text_output]Joshs Frogs is an Associate Partner of the ASA.. Vision: To replace the demand for wild caught reptiles and amphibians in the pet trade with healthy, ethically produced captive bred animals.. Mission: To provide healthy, captive bred amphibians and reptiles and all the supplies needed to properly keep them. Joshs Frogs strives to be a source of knowledge on keeping amphibians and providing them with a long, healthy life in captivity. By producing captive bred animals for the pet trade, we hope to take pressure off of wild populations of the amphibians we love.[/text_output][line][text_output]Joshs Frogs is an active Alliance Partner working in the following areas:[/text_output][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row padding_top="0px" ...
Amphibian is derived from the Ancient Greek term "amphibios" which means both kinds of life. It refers to animals that live both in the water and on land. Amphibians were the first vertebrates to leave the water and begin a new era of life on land. Amphibians began evolving during the age of dinosaurs, but diversified during the late Paleozoic or Carboniferous Period (354-290 million years ago).. Zion National Park is home to 6 species of frogs and toads, and one salamander. All of Zions frogs and toads hibernate for the winter months and all of them must return to water in order to breed. In the springtime, warmer temperatures, rain and snowmelt create the right conditions for frogs and toads to begin emerging. Zions amphibian habitats include: grasslands, sandy shrub lands, marshes, meadows, pools, ponds, streams, rivers, and forest ...
In some high-elevation lakes of the Pacific Northwest it was recently shown that frog eggs allowed to develop in their native habitat were adversely affected by the amount of ultraviolet radiation present, while those that were shielded from UV light developed normally. Many populations of some montane (mountain habitat) frog species may have disappeared for this reason. This lends some credence to our concerns about holes in the ozone layer, and reminds us of the value of amphibians as environmental indicators.. In response to these declines in North America, an international group of biologists created the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP), with the goal of providing reliable methods of monitoring our native amphibians. The TAMP is being undertaken in an effort to understand the status of amphibians in our home state. The TAMP is an integral part of this larger national effort while expanding the scope of the surveys to suit special needs in the Volunteer State.. Our goal is ...
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This award-winning documentary featuring our race to find a cure for a deadly amphibian disease and to build an amphibian ark in Panama is now available for FREE. Watch the trailer below and download the full feature if you would like to see more on the itunes store for a limited time only ...
Art on Tap Series. 5:30-7 p.m. Art therapist/counselor Trish Ebbert will talk about the benefits of art for ones good mental health.. "Amphibian Declines: Around the World and in Your Backyard." 7 p.m. Fish and wildlife biologist Michelle Christman will talk about amphibian biology, threats amphibians face and general amphibian declines, both around the world and locally. The recent decision to list the Jemez Mountains salamander as an endangered species will also be discussed. No advance registration required. Free. For more information, visit PajaritoEEC.org, call 662-0460, or email [email protected] Los Alamos County and the Los Alamos League of Women Voters presents back-to-back forums at Fuller Lodge. At 5:30 p.m., the forum on the Structure-of-Government Charter Amendments. At 6:45 p.m. the forum for candidates for the Third Congressional District, will feature Democratic Candidate Ben Ray Luján and Republican Candidate Jefferson Byrd.. Downtown Dogs. A weekly walking group for ...
Amphibians: origins of amphibians, classification, reproduction, respiration, feeding habits, and life expectancy; salamanders and newts; Caecilians; Tiger salamander, Woodhouse Toad, and Pine Barrens Tree Frog species.
Only six amphibians and four land reptiles are native to Scotland.[144] The amphibians include three species of newt: the great ... A single alien amphibian is known in Scotland, the Alpine newt, a recent escapee confined to the Edinburgh area.[61] ... Only six amphibians and four land reptiles are native to Scotland, but many species of invertebrates live there that are ... "Protected species - Amphibians and reptiles" Archived 27 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. SNH. Retrieved 20 April 2012. ...
Amphibians[edit]. There is limited evidence for extinction of amphibians at the K-Pg boundary. A study of fossil vertebrates ... some amphibians do seem to have become extinct at the boundary. The relatively low levels of extinction seen among amphibians ... Gardner, J. D. (2000). "Albanerpetontid amphibians from the upper Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) of North America". ... Yet there are several species of Maastrichtian amphibian, not included as part of this study, which are unknown from the ...
In amphibians[edit]. Evolution of innate behaviors[edit]. Main article: Caridoid escape reaction § Evolution of the tail flip ...
Amphibians[edit]. Arctic frogs use glucose,[5] but Arctic salamanders create glycerol in their livers for use as a ... fish and amphibians create cryoprotectants (antifreeze compounds and antifreeze proteins) in their bodies to minimize freezing ...
Amphibians[edit]. Main article: Tadpole. The behavior of an amphibian hatchling, commonly referred to as a tadpole, is ... In oviparious biology, a hatchling is a newly hatched fish, amphibian, reptile, or bird.[1] A group of mammals called ... Duellman, W. E.; Trueb, L. (1994). Biology of amphibians. illustrated by L. Trueb. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018- ... "How neurons generate behavior in a hatchling amphibian tadpole: an outline". Front. Behav. Neurosci. 4 (16). doi:10.3389/fnbeh ...
Amphibians[edit]. *Cane toads have had serious negative effects on many ecosystems to which they have been introduced, ...
Reptiles & amphibians N/A 13.6 4.7 2.89 Equine N/A 13.3 3.9 3.41 ...
Amphibians[edit]. Paradise fish begin to hatch from a bubble nest.. Some species of frog build nests ranging from simple to ...
Amphibians. Main article: Amphibian § Respiratory system. Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians ... the skin's unique properties aid rapid gas exchange when amphibians are submerged in oxygen-rich water.[50] Some amphibians ... Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin ... The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on positive pressure ventilation. Muscles lower the floor of the oral cavity ...
Amphibians[edit]. *Ambystoma mexicanum, axolotl (2018)[46]. *Xenopus tropicalis, western clawed frog (2010)[47] ...
Amphibians[edit]. Limb regeneration in the axolotl and newt has been extensively studied and researched. Urodele amphibians, ... Brockes JP, Kumar A (August 2002). "Plasticity and reprogramming of differentiated cells in amphibian regeneration". Nature ... Echinoderms (such as the sea star), crayfish, many reptiles, and amphibians exhibit remarkable examples of tissue regeneration ... the role of Distal-less and FGF signaling in amphibian limb regeneration". Development. 122 (11): 3487-97. PMID 8951064.. ...
Amphibians are a class of animals comprising frogs, salamanders and caecilians. They are tetrapods, but the caecilians and a ... The hearts of amphibians have three chambers, two atria and one ventricle. They have a urinary bladder and nitrogenous waste ... Amphibians breathe by means of buccal pumping, a pump action in which air is first drawn into the buccopharyngeal region ... Stebbins, Robert C.; Cohen, Nathan W. (1995). A Natural History of Amphibians. Princeton University Press. pp. 24-25. ISBN 978- ...
Amphibians employ a positive pressure system to get air to their lungs, forcing air down into the lungs by buccal pumping. This ... The lungs of amphibians typically have a few narrow internal walls (septa) of soft tissue around the outer walls, increasing ... In tuataras, snakes, and some lizards, the lungs are simpler in structure, similar to that of typical amphibians.[78] ... The lungs of most frogs and other amphibians are simple and balloon-like, with gas exchange limited to the outer surface of the ...
Amphibians[edit]. Due to environmental factors, amphibians are not found in large numbers or diversity at the Sonny Bono Salton ... In addition, 41 species of mammals, 18 species of reptiles, 4 species of amphibians and 15 species of fish have been identified ...
Amphibian frog Xenopus laevis serves as an ideal model system for the study of the mechanisms of apoptosis. In fact, iodine and ... thyroxine also stimulate the spectacular apoptosis of the cells of the larval gills, tail and fins in amphibians metamorphosis ...
Reptiles and amphibians[edit]. *Aquatic. Southern bell frogs. Leopard tortoise. Red-eared sliders. Axolotl. Australian water ...
Amphibians[edit]. Main article: List of amphibians of Great Britain. The species of amphibian native to Britain are the great ...
Amphibians and reptiles[edit]. Eight species of amphibians and 31 species of reptiles live or have been recorded on and around ... the Epirus water frog and the Greek marsh frog are the representatives of the Amphibia Class. ...
Amphibians have periods of inactivity but show high vigilance (receptivity to potentially threatening stimuli) in this state. ... Sleep is observed in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and some fish, and, in some form, in insects and even in simpler ...
Amphibians and Reptiles[edit]. Frogs[edit]. Alaska has two species of frogs. They are the Columbia Spotted Frog and Wood Frog. ... The Columbia Spotted Frog is an amphibian that lives in highly aquatic environments such as lakes, rivers, ponds, and marshes. ...
Effects on reptiles and amphibians[edit]. Saskatchewan has a variety of reptile and amphibians, including two species of ... Reptiles and amphibians act as biological controls for vectors of human diseases, such as mosquitos and ticks. They also serve ... Collins, J.P. (November 2010). "Amphibian decline and extinction: What we know and what we need to learn". Diseases of Aquatic ... A significant threat to amphibian populations in the wild has been the appearance and spread of a Chytrid Fungus (specifically ...
In living amphibians, there is simply a cylindrical piece of bone below the vertebral arch, with no trace of the separate ... The sacral vertebrae are those in the pelvic region, and range from one in amphibians, to two in most birds and modern reptiles ... the number of cervical vertebrae can range from a single vertebra in amphibians, to as many as 25 in swans or 76 in the extinct ...
Reptiles and amphibians[edit]. Amphibians, where regionally accessible, have been found in the North American river otter's ... Fish is a favored food among the otters, but they also consume various amphibians (such as salamanders and frogs[3]), ... Amphibians and reptiles are more obtainable by the North American river otter during the spring and summer as a result of ... amphibians, birds (most especially moulting ducks which render the birds flightless and thus makes them easier to capture), ...
Reptiles and amphibians[edit]. Basking is common to most active diurnal reptiles. Lizards, crocodiles, terrapins, and snakes ...
Amphibians[edit]. The legless amphibians called caecilians have two short tentacles, one on each side of the head, between ...
Amphibian Health in Rocky Mountain National Park *Amphibians and Chytridiomycosis, Online resources related to amphibians and ... Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) Related Science Features. *Pesticides Found in Amphibians from Remote Areas ... Detecting Amphibian-Killing Fungus Helps Scientists Study Amphibian Declines. USGS biologists and hydrologists are ... The Amphibian Disease Chytridiomycosis. Chytridiomycosis is an infection of the skin cells of amphibians by a microscopic ...
amphibian decline; batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; chytrid fungus; frog; batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis; infectious-diseases; ... To test the susceptibility of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to amphibian chytridiomycosis, groups of captive bred, recently ... which is lethal to many other amphibian species. By demonstrating that R. catesbeiana is likely to be an efficient carrier of ...
More Research Links Atrazine to Sexual Abnormalities in Amphibians. (Beyond Pesticides, March 3, 2010) A recently published ... Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ... demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Dr. Hayes and other researchers examined a ... the use of atrazine in 2006 concluding that there was no evidence atrazine was causing adverse impacts on the amphibians ...
A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of ... Arntzen J W (2012). A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), ... Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 3682 (3): 441-453, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ ...
Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible ... This information will be valuable in continued efforts to develop a bacterial-based approach for amphibian protection as well ... Characterization of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Inhibiting Bacteria from Amphibian Populations in Costa Rica. Artículo ... Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including ...
Effect of rival males on the courtship of paedomorphic and metamorphic Triturus alpestris (Amphibia : Salamandridae). ...
Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations. ... amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the ... Rapid Global Expansion of the Fungal Disease Chytridiomycosis into Declining and Healthy Amphibian Populations. Plos Pathogens ... addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian ...
Amphibia-Reptilia On the subject. Natural Sciences Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... 2012 (English)In: Amphibia-Reptilia, ISSN 0173-5373, E-ISSN 1568-5381, Vol. 33, no 3-4, 349-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed ... amphibians, chytridiomycosis, disinfectant, infection disease, Virkon S National Category Natural Sciences Identifiers. URN: ... We suggest that further studies are needed to assess the negative effect of Virkon S on amphibians, and recommend that Virkon S ...
Before choosing a pet reptile or amphibian. *Reptiles and amphibians might not be right for your family because of their risk ... This germ can cause disease in fish and amphibians. Aeromonas can cause discoloration of the limbs of amphibians and fins of ... Housing your reptile or amphibian. *It is important that you provide your reptile or amphibian with a safe, warm, and ... Safe Handling of Pet Reptiles & Amphibians. CDC Webpage. Reptile and amphibian-associated outbreaks. US Outbreaks of Zoonotic ...
Healthy reptiles and amphibians can carry Salmonella and other germs that make people sick-especially young children. Take ... Poster: Reptiles and Amphibians and Preventing Salmonella Infections *English: After you touch amphibians or reptiles, wash ... Dont catch wild reptiles or amphibians and keep them as pets.. *Dont release unwanted reptiles or amphibians into the ... Safe Handling Tips for Reptiles and Amphibians. *Always wash your hands thoroughly after handling reptiles and amphibians, and ...
Many products featured on this site were editorially chosen. Popular Science may receive financial compensation for products purchased through this site.. Copyright © 2020 Popular Science. A Bonnier Corporation Company. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. ...
Mesozoic Amphibians". In Heatwole, H.; Carroll, R. L. Amphibian Biology: Paleontology: The Evolutionary History of Amphibians ( ... Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a ... "IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Retrieved March 30, 2012.. *^ Waddle, James Hardin (2006). Use of amphibians as ecosystem ... The study of amphibians is called batrachology, while the study of both reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology. ...
Amphibian Species of the World * AmphibiaWeb. * Declining Amphibian Population Task Force * Australian Herpetological Directory ... Living Amphibians Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. David Cannatella Click on an image to view larger ... Page: Tree of Life Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Authored by David Cannatella. The ... Living Amphibians. Frogs and toads, salamanders and newts, and caecilians. Version 28 November 2008 (under construction). http ...
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"Amphibians are the lifeblood of many environments, playing key roles in the function of ecosystems, and it is both ... More than half the frogs, toads, newts and other amphibians in Europe could be wiped out in less than 50 years, British ... One-third of the amphibian species in the world are listed as endangered. Researchers said climate change adds to the stress ... Researchers said snakes, birds and fish that prey on amphibians also appear to be dropping in numbers as their food supply ...
Adult amphibians either have lungs or continue to breathe through their skin. Amphibians have three ways of breathing. The ... Amphibians have gills when they are young or they breathe through their skin. ... Amphibians Do young amphibians breathe through lungs. ?. no because adult amphibians is breathe from lungs and young amphibian ... Amphibians Do adult amphibians have lungs. ?. When amphibians are babies, they have gills, but most adult amphibians breathe ...
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Amphibians. POTENTIAL CAUSES FOR AMPHIBIAN DECLINES IN PUERTO RICO. Fri, 07/29/2011 - 12:45 - ckass P. A. Burrowes, R. L. ... underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico:. analysis of U.S. government data archives. Conservation. Biology 15:943- ... None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian ... The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern ...
Gopher frogs will travel great distances, as much as a mile or more, to breed in temporary ponds year-round, laying eggs in shallow water. As adults, they hop into surrounding uplands, where they find a home in the active burrow of a gopher tortoise. They may also use a stump hole or the abandoned burrow of a small rodent. They are nocturnal, and seldom range far from their daytime retreat. You may be able to glimpse one by sneaking up on a gopher tortoise burrow very early in the morning.. Their call is a deep guttural snore, and heavy rains at any season may stimulate choruses, many of them calling at once. Sometimes they call from underwater, so as not to attract predators, a noise that must be detected by hydrophone.. ...
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... cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the frogs and toads (order ... amphibian, in zoology, cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the ... All living amphibians are specialized for their way of life, none representing the main amphibian stock from which the reptiles ... or limbless amphibians (order Gymnophiona, or Apoda), a little known tropical group. Amphibians, the most primitive of the ...
The Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program (TAMP) is a volunteer-based, multi-agency effort to assess the current status of ... Northeast Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative LEPAPS Frog and Toad ID Pages The Whole Frog Project ... The TAMP is being undertaken in an effort to understand the status of amphibians in our home state. The TAMP is an integral ... This lends some credence to our concerns about holes in the ozone layer, and reminds us of the value of amphibians as ...
This educational book about the first creatures to exist both on land and in the water includes colorful pictures of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians.
Pages in category "Amphibians of Kerala". This category contains only the following page. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Amphibians_of_Kerala&oldid=184644143" ...
Reptiles and amphibians: Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... Reptiles and amphibians. Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... There is some electrophysiological evidence of thermal sensitivity among amphibians; however, these organisms appear to respond ... Studies into the existence of TRP channels and other cellular thermoreception mechanisms in amphibians are ongoing. ...
  • Scientists from Northwest Nazarene University and their USGS collaborators are using the new method to investigate declining amphibian populations in parts of Panama and Costa Rica, where Bd infections are suspected. (usgs.gov)
  • Application of this new method will allow scientists to study the implications of Bd's presence in water bodies, to monitor water bodies before amphibian reintroduction efforts, to evaluate how climate change affects Bd occurrence and virulence, and to investigate how Bd spreads across the landscape. (usgs.gov)
  • ARMI is a collaborative effort of U.S. Department of the Interior agencies that is led by the USGS to determine the cause, scope, and severity of amphibian declines across the Nation. (usgs.gov)
  • Of the many suspected causes of amphibian declines around the world, we focused on climate change and disease. (upenn.edu)
  • Temperature and precipitation data from 1970-2000 were analyzed to determine the general pattern of oscillations and deviations that could be correlated with amphibian declines. (upenn.edu)
  • The 1970's and 1990's, which represent the periods of amphibian extirpations and declines, were significantly drier than average. (upenn.edu)
  • Urban pollution impinging on Puerto Rico, dust generation from Africa (potential soil pathogens), and tropical forest burning (gaseous pollutants) have all increased during the last three decades, overlapping the timing of amphibian declines in eastern Puerto Rico. (upenn.edu)
  • None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. (upenn.edu)
  • In response to these declines in North America, an international group of biologists created the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) , with the goal of providing reliable methods of monitoring our native amphibians. (tn.gov)
  • Citations: 'The cause of global amphibian declines: a developmental endocrinologist's perspective. (wired.com)
  • AZA's Conservation Education Committee , ATAG, and a special task force developed educational curriculum materials, fun family activities, and expert resources to help AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums raise awareness about amphibian declines and engage the public in their conservation efforts. (aza.org)
  • The U.S. Department of the Interior has called for the development of a national program for monitoring amphibians and understanding their declines. (usgs.gov)
  • The tetrapod fossil record identifies at least one major extinction episode that involved widespread amphibian declines: At the end-Permian [≈251 million years ago (Mya)], a diversity of 24 amphibian-like families (including reptiliomorphs and acanthrosaurs, which may be more related to modern amniotes) was reduced to 8 over a single geological stage boundary ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • We know that there are various causes for amphibian population declines, including UV-B light exposure, habitat loss, pesticide pollution, infections and other issues," said Andrew Blaustein, a professor of zoology at OSU and one of the world's leading experts on amphibian decline. (innovations-report.com)
  • They list papers on amphibian declines, their causes, and on amphibian conservation, with an emphasis on those that describe methods for monitoring and conserving amphibian populations. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Unfortunately, amphibians are experiencing major declines and humans may be losing associated ecosystem services. (umass.edu)
  • It is important to understand how declines affect ecosystem services for human societies, but these declines can also serve as natural experiments to understand the role of amphibians in ecosystems. (umass.edu)
  • Chytrid or Bd - short for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis - can cause a disease called chytridiomycosis, which is found worldwide and is a major contributor to amphibian declines and extinctions. (eurekalert.org)
  • With last fall's publication of the Global Amphibian Assessment, a joint project of IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Conservation International (CI) and NatureServe, the problem has become impossible to ignore. (nwf.org)
  • Uncertainty is so great that, for example, the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment ( 1 ) used by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) hazarded that anywhere between 9 and 122 amphibians might have gone extinct since 1980. (pnas.org)
  • The largest living amphibian is the 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) Chinese giant salamander ( Andrias davidianus ), but this is dwarfed by the extinct 9 m (30 ft) Prionosuchus from the middle Permian of Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group, which includes all living amphibians, as well as their extinct relatives, goes by two formal names: Lissamphibia or Amphibia. (tolweb.org)
  • The mission of this project is the realization of a comprehensive phylogeny of all taxa of extant and extinct amphibians. (tolweb.org)
  • Children younger than 5, people with weak immune systems, and adults older than 65 should not handle or touch amphibians, reptiles or their environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Our goal is to cover the entire state by enlisting a network of volunteers (Frogloggers) with an interest in science, herpetology (the study of amphibians and reptiles) and conservation. (tn.gov)
  • To learn more about amphibians visit frogweb.gov . (nps.gov)
  • Though less obvious than gender bending, immunosuppression could also play a part in the worldwide decline of amphibians, which have porous skin and easily absorb chemicals from rain, groundwater and even water vapor. (wired.com)
  • Even though they had the ability to evolve and survive for hundreds of millions of years - since before the time of the dinosaurs and through many climatic regimes - the massive, worldwide decline of amphibians can best be understood by their inability to keep pace with the current rate of global change, a new study suggests. (innovations-report.com)
  • This resource can be downloaded by logging in to the website, navigating to the Animal Programs database by clicking 'Animal Programs' in the left-hand menu, clicking 'Search Animal Program Documents', and then typing 'Amphibian TAG RCP' into the Search Term box. (aza.org)
  • Please feel free to browse our Reptiles & Amphibians archive below, search our site for additional information about reptiles & amphibians, or browse the full archives for this forum. (medhelp.org)
  • Scientists in Spain have confirmed one of these possibilities: rising temperatures may increase amphibians' vulnerability to the fungus. (redorbit.com)
  • The fungus-which infects the skin of amphibians, preventing them from absorbing key nutrients-appears on every continent but new research suggests that this may not have always been the case. (treehugger.com)
  • The researchers collected samples of the fungus on amphibians from around the world and sequenced DNA from across the fungus's genome (an organism's total genetic material). (nhm.ac.uk)
  • It is likely that the international trade in amphibians has directly contributed to spreading the fungus around the world. (nhm.ac.uk)
  • Researchers suggest there is strong evidence for much tighter controls on international trade in amphibians, especially from Asia, because of the high risk associated with transferring news strains of the fungus into new parts of the world. (nhm.ac.uk)
  • Adult amphibians either have lungs or continue to "breathe" through their skin. (answers.com)
  • Adult amphibians differ from reptiles in having moist skins, without scales or with small, hidden scales. (infoplease.com)
  • Maria Sepúlveda , professor of ecology and natural systems and associate head of research in Purdue's Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, is leading studies to determine how these chemicals affect amphibians. (purdue.edu)
  • But the authors warn that climate change may negatively affect amphibians in other ways such as reducing available habitat. (eurekalert.org)
  • The TAMP is sponsored by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Center For Environmental Education at Middle Tennessee State University.Participation in the Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program is voluntary and is open to all interested persons, old and young alike. (tn.gov)
  • The light at night on itself might not have too much of a negative effect on its own, however, since wildlife rarely encounter just one stressor in their natural habitat, the combination of light pollution with additional stressors may have negative impacts on amphibian populations," he said. (indiatimes.com)
  • A stunning new eBook 'The Amphibians' has been published by the Amphibian Survival Alliance (ASA) in collaboration with Meet Your Neighbours, a worldwide photography project reconnecting people with the wildlife on their own doorsteps. (iucn.org)
  • The scientific community has known that amphibians were in trouble, said Susan Walls, a research wildlife biologist with the U.S. Geological Survey who worked on the study. (dispatch.com)
  • Other studies examine the fossil evidence for the origin and evolution of the tetrapod auditory system and its implications for otic evolution and tetrapod relationships, and the origin and early evolution of the living amphibians (lissamphibians). (fieldmuseum.org)
  • With routine veterinary care and some simple habits, you can reduce your risk of getting sick from touching, petting, or owning a reptile or amphibian. (cdc.gov)