Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Ant Venoms: Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Oscillatoria: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Black Widow Spider: A venomous New World spider with an hourglass-shaped red mark on the abdomen.Spider Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.D-Amino-Acid OxidaseAmino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Imino AcidsToxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.

Evidence that the lizard helospectin peptides are O-glycosylated. (1/55)

Six forms of helospectin (a vasoactive intestinal peptide analogue) were purified from the venom of the Heloderma horridum lizard. Their identification was performed by combining sequencing by automated Edman degradation and electrospray mass spectrometry analysis on the complete peptides and their tryptic fragments. The products resulting from the action of an O-glycosidase were also analysed. Two forms were identified as the previously named Hs1 and Hs2 of 38 and 37 amino-acid residues, respectively. Two forms corresponded to Hs1 and Hs2 O-glycosylated by a N-acetylhexosamine-hexose motif attached to the Ser32 residue. Two other forms were not completely characterized but might correspond to the O-glycosylated forms bearing a phosphate or a sulfate group. The glycosylation did not affect the capacity of the helospectins to recognize and to activate the human and the rat VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors.  (+info)

Positive and negative interference of the Chinese medicine Chan Su in serum digoxin measurement. Elimination of interference by using a monoclonal chemiluminescent digoxin assay or monitoring free digoxin concentration. (2/55)

An over-the-counter Chinese medicine, Chan Su, is used as a cardiotonic agent. We demonstrated significant digoxin-like immunoreactivity in various organic and aqueous extracts of Chan Su. For example, when a 20-microL aliquot of an aqueous extract of Chan Su powder (1 mg/mL) was added to a 2-mL aliquot of a drug-free serum, the observed digoxin-like immunoreactivity was 2.76 ng/mL (3.53 nmol/L) digoxin equivalent using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The magnitude of interference was much lower (0.94 ng/mL [1.20 nmol/L]) with the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), and no interference was observed with the chemiluminescent assay (CLIA). We also observed a significant positive interference of the extract with the serum digoxin measurement using FPIA. In contrast, we observed a negative interference (falsely lowered digoxin concentration) of the extract in the serum digoxin measurement with the MEIA. The extract had no effect on the serum digoxin measurement with the CLIA. By taking advantage of the high protein binding of Chan Su and only 25% protein binding of digoxin, we further demonstrated that positive interference of Chan Su in the FPIA and negative interference of Chan Su in the MEIA of digoxin could be eliminated by monitoring the free digoxin concentration.  (+info)

Interactions between 3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine and tetracaine, phencyclidine, or histrionicotoxin in the Torpedo series nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ion channel. (3/55)

3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([(125)I]TID) and [(3)H]tetracaine, an aromatic amine, are noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs) of the Torpedo species nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which have been shown by photoaffinity labeling to bind to a common site in the ion channel in the closed state. Although tetracaine and TID bind to the same site, the amine NCAs phencyclidine (PCP) and histrionicotoxin (HTX), which are also believed to bind within the ion channel, interact competitively with tetracaine but allosterically with TID. To better characterize drug interactions within the nAChR ion channel in the closed state, we identified the amino acids photoaffinity labeled by [(125)I]TID in the presence of tetracaine, PCP, or HTX. In the absence of other drugs, [(125)I]TID reacts with alphaLeu-251 (alphaM2-9) and alphaVal-255 (alphaM2-13) and the homologous residues in each of the other subunits. None of the NCAs shifted the sites of [(125)I]TID labeling to other residues within the ion channel. Tetracaine inhibited [(125)I]TID labeling of M2-9 and M2-13 without changing the relative(125)I incorporation at these positions, whereas PCP and HTX each altered the pattern of [(125)I]TID incorporation at M2-9 and M2-13. These results indicate that tetracaine and TID bind in a mutually exclusive manner to a common site in the closed channel that is spatially separated from the binding sites for PCP and HTX.  (+info)

The evolution of coloration and toxicity in the poison frog family (Dendrobatidae). (4/55)

The poison frogs (family Dendrobatidae) are terrestrial anuran amphibians displaying a wide range of coloration and toxicity. These frogs generally have been considered to be aposematic, but relatively little research has been carried out to test the predictions of this hypothesis. Here we use a comparative approach to test one prediction of the hypothesis of aposematism: that coloration will evolve in tandem with toxicity. Recently, we developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the evolutionary relationships among representative species of poison frogs, using sequences from three regions of mitochondrial DNA. In our analysis, we use that DNA-based phylogeny and comparative analysis of independent contrasts to investigate the correlation between coloration and toxicity in the poison frog family (Dendrobatidae). Information on the toxicity of different species was obtained from the literature. Two different measures of the brightness and extent of coloration were used. (i) Twenty-four human observers were asked to rank different photos of each different species in the analysis in terms of contrast to a leaf-littered background. (ii) Color photos of each species were scanned into a computer and a computer program was used to obtain a measure of the contrast of the colors of each species relative to a leaf-littered background. Comparative analyses of the results were carried out with two different models of character evolution: gradual change, with branch lengths proportional to the amount of genetic change, and punctuational change, with all change being associated with speciation events. Comparative analysis using either method or model indicated a significant correlation between the evolution of toxicity and coloration across this family. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that coloration in this group is aposematic.  (+info)

Studies on toad venom (3): effect of metals on the quality of toad venom torrefied on a metal plate. (5/55)

To study the quality of toad venom dried on different metal plates by heating at 105 degrees C, each 20 g sample of fresh toad venom collected in Hei-Long-Jiang Province, China, was dried on (1) brass, (2) copper, (3) glass, (4) acrylic resins, (5) aluminum and (6) stainless-steel, respectively. Twelve bufadienolides, including bufalin and bufotalin, in each sample were then quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. The total levels of bufadienolides in 1000.0 mg of the dried samples were (1) > (2) > (3) > (4) > (5) > (6), varying from 303.44 mg to 420.72 mg. Besides, the color of dried venom became darker in the order of (2), (4), (6), (3), (1) and (5). Though (1) was not in good color, it was superior to the others in chemical quality. These results suggest that it is possible to dry toad venom in short period by heating it at a high temperature on a tray made of brass. This will be a better method for making high quality toad venom than the traditional method. Moreover, the removal of impurities in the fresh venom by the process of filtration through silk succeeded in raising the bufadienolides content significantly.  (+info)

Granular gland transcriptomes in stimulated amphibian skin secretions. (6/55)

Amphibian defensive skin secretions are complex, species-specific cocktails of biologically active molecules, including many uncharacterized peptides. The study of such secretions for novel peptide discovery is time-limited, as amphibians are in rapid global decline. While secretion proteome analysis is non-lethal, transcriptome analysis has until now required killing of specimens prior to skin dissection for cDNA library construction. Here we present the discovery that polyadenylated mRNAs encoding dermal granular gland peptides are present in defensive skin secretions, stabilized by endogenous nucleic acid-binding amphipathic peptides. Thus parallel secretory proteome and transcriptome analyses can be performed without killing the specimen in this model amphibian system--a finding that has important implications in conservation of biodiversity within this threatened vertebrate taxon and whose mechanistics may have broader implications in biomolecular science.  (+info)

Toad venom poisoning: resemblance to digoxin toxicity and therapeutic implications. (7/55)

A healthy man developed gastrointestinal symptoms after ingesting purported aphrodisiac pills. He had severe unrelenting bradycardia, hyperkalaemia, and acidosis. He rapidly developed severe life threatening cardiac arrhythmias and died after a few hours. He was found to have positive serum digoxin concentrations, although he was not taking digoxin. Toad venom poisoning is similar to digitalis toxicity and carries a high mortality. Cardiac glycoside poisoning can occur from ingestion of various plants and animal toxins, and the venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of cardiac glycosides. Toad venom, a constituent of an aphrodisiac, was considered responsible for the development of clinical manifestations and death in this patient. Digoxin specific Fab fragment has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of toad venom poisoning. This report alerts physicians to the need to be aware of a new community toxic exposure, as prompt treatment with digoxin specific Fab fragment may be life saving. The treatment approach to patients with suspected toad venom poisoning is described.  (+info)

Skin secretion of Siphonops paulensis (Gymnophiona, Amphibia) forms voltage-dependent ionic channels in lipid membranes. (8/55)

The effect of the skin secretion of the amphibian Siphonops paulensis was investigated by monitoring the changes in conductance of an artificial planar lipid bilayer. Skin secretion was obtained by exposure of the animals to ether-saturated air, and then rinsing the animals with distilled water. Artificial lipid bilayers were obtained by spreading a solution of azolectin over an aperture of a Delrin cup inserted into a cut-away polyvinyl chloride block. In 9 of 12 experiments, the addition of the skin secretion to lipid bilayers displayed voltage-dependent channels with average unitary conductance of 258 +/- 41.67 pS, rather than nonspecific changes in bilayer conductance. These channels were not sensitive to 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid or tetraethylammonium ion, but the experimental protocol used does not permit us to specify their characteristics.  (+info)

3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([125I]TID) and [3H]tetracaine, an aromatic amine, are noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs) of theTorpedo species nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which have been shown by photoaffinity labeling to bind to a common site in the ion channel in the closed state. Although tetracaine and TID bind to the same site, the amine NCAs phencyclidine (PCP) and histrionicotoxin (HTX), which are also believed to bind within the ion channel, interact competitively with tetracaine but allosterically with TID. To better characterize drug interactions within the nAChR ion channel in the closed state, we identified the amino acids photoaffinity labeled by [125I]TID in the presence of tetracaine, PCP, or HTX. In the absence of other drugs, [125I]TID reacts with αLeu-251 (αM2-9) and αVal-255 (αM2-13) and the homologous residues in each of the other subunits. None of the NCAs shifted the sites of [125I]TID labeling to other residues within the ion channel. ...
Since characterization, the development of synthetic pathways to histrionicotoxin has been of interest to research groups due to its unusual functionality. The Kishi group proposed the first total synthesis of the parent 283A in 1985 using 89, a previously synthesized lactam used for the synthesis of other variants.[8] Treatment with acetic anhydride yielded 133 in quantitative yield. The cyclic enol ether 134 was formed through oxidative cleavage promoting intramolecular addition followed by a basic deprotection and dehydration. Bromination followed by dehydrobromination in methanol was then found to give an epimeric mixture of unsaturated 135. Hydrolysis, reduction and acetylation yielded 136. Formation of a thiolactam followed by condensation with ethyl bromoacetate gave 137. Selective deprotection of the allylic alcohol followed by oxidation gave 138. A Wittig reaction then generated a chloroalkene, which, upon base-promoted elimination of HCl, gave a terminal alkyne, which was subsequently ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE Y Comp. No. R1 R2 R3 R4 R8a R8b R8c Y.001 H H H H 4-Cl H H Y.002 CH3 H H H 4-Cl H H Y.003 CH2CH3 H H H 4-Cl H H Y.004 (CH2)2CH3 H H H 4-Cl H H Y.005 CH(CH3)2 H H H 4-Cl H H Y.006 F H H H 4-Cl H H Y.007 H H CH3 H 4-Cl H H Y.008 H H CH2CH3 H 4-Cl H H Y.009 H H (CH2)2CH3 H 4-Cl H H Y.010 H H CH(CH3)2 H 4-Cl H H Y.011 H H F H 4-Cl H H Y.012 CH3 CH3 H H 4-Cl H H Y.013 CH2CH3 CH3 H H 4-Cl H H Y.014 (CH2)2CH3 CH3 H H 4-Cl H H Y.015 CH(CH3)2 CH3 H H 4-Cl H H Y.016 F CH3 H H 4-Cl H H Y.017 CH3 H CH3 H 4-Cl H H Y.018 CH2CH3 H CH3 H 4-Cl H H Y.019 (CH2)2CH3 H CH3 H 4-Cl H H Y.020 CH(CH3)2 H CH3 H 4-Cl H H Y.021 CH3 H F H 4-Cl H H Y.022 CH2CH3 H F H 4-Cl H H Y.023 H H CH3 CH3 4-Cl H H Y.024 H H CH2CH3 CH3 4-Cl H H Y.025 H H CH(CH3)2 CH3 4-Cl H H Y.026 H H CH3 F 4-Cl H H Y.027 H H CH2CH3 F 4-Cl H H Y.028 H H (CH2)2CH3 F 4-Cl H H Y.029 H H CH(CH3)2 F 4-Cl H H Y.030 H H F F 4-Cl H H Y.031 CH3 H CH3 F 4-Cl H H Y.032 CH3 H CH2CH3 F 4-Cl H H Y.033 CH3 H (CH2)2CH3 F 4-Cl H H Y.034 CH3 H ...
Lysozymes have primarily a bacteriolytic function; those in tissues and body fluids are associated with the monocyte-macrophage system and enhance the activity of immunoagents. Has antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium S.aureus and against the Gram-negative bacterium E.coli with a MIC of 1 uM and 8 uM respectively. No antifungal activity against C.albicans.
Taxonomy of the frogs of the genus Mannophryne (Amphibia, Anura, Dendrobatidae) by Enrique La Marca; 1 edition; First published in 1994; Subjects: Mannophryne
View Test Prep - 4._Birch_Reduction from CHEM 215 at Harvard. W X W X M R O H R O H W H H X H H W H H X H H H H X H H R O H M H H W H ( R ) L i N a K C O 2 H H 3 C O C H 3 H 3 C N a , N H 3 , M e O H
The Red backed Poison Frog (Ranitomeya reticulata) is a species of frog belonging to the family Dendrobatidae. Its an arboreal insectivorous species, and is the second most poisonous species in the genus, after R. variabilis. Like many species of small poisonous frogs native to South America, its grouped with the poison dart frogs, and is a moderately toxic species, containing poison that is capable of causing serious injury to humans, and death in animals such as chickens. This frog is native to Peru and Ecuador.. Its toxins are utilized as the frogs natural defense mechanisms, making them inedible to many, if not most, of the predators in its natural area. To advertise its poison and to further reduce the risk of injury, the red backed poison frog displays its brilliant warning colors, especially its red-orange back, for which it is named. Like all dendrobatids, it doesnt manufacture the poison itself, but rather is theorized to take the toxins from the ants, mites, and beetles on which it ...
Total length to 167 mm for males, up to 181 mm for females. Usually between 110 and 140 mm. Tail usually equal to or slightly shorter than snout-vent-length. Head is flat and somewhat longer than wide. 11-13 weakly defined costal grooves present at either side of the long, cylindrical body. There is a distinctive skin fold on the throat. Well-defined parotoid glands are present at the back of the head. Coloration in this species is highly variable and is subspecies specific. Currently, there are nine subspecies recognized, mainly on morphological grounds (see Comments section for a discussion on taxonomy). S. luschani helverseni: Only a few yellow spots on back, mainly concentrated middorsally. Back otherwise dark brown. Flanks are yellow. Parotoids are dark or with some yellow. Legs and tail are brown or black. Venter translucent, showing the internal organs. The underside of the tail is orange-yellow, the throat is yellowish-pink. S. luschani flavimembris: Back dark brown with very few, small ...
The brightly colored dart poison frogs of Central and South America broadcast a visual warning to predators: Do Not Eat! Many species in the frog family Dendrobatidae ooze poison through that spectacular skin as a defense against predators. 
Stanford biologists are studying rare poison frogs as a way to answer a fundamental question: Is there more than one way to build a maternal brain?
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155chan.top is the third chan in the Triforce (180chan.info and 144chan.ws). What makes 155chan special is its new but very popular /hebe/ board where you can open any topic and posts are ...
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... proof has a computer part. Using gap, we made the observation that rk Pic(S ) H = 1 for every H ⊂ W(E 6 ) such that H 1 (H, Pic(S )) ∼ =/3. To verify the assertion, we will show injectivity. According to Lemma 3.17.i), it suffices to test this on the 3-Sylow subgroups of H and U t . But the 3-Sylow subgroup ∼ =/3×/3×/3is abelian. Thus, Lemma 3.17.ii) immediately implies the assertion. □ U (3) t 3.19. Corollary. ---- Let H ′ ⊆ H ⊆ U t be arbitrary. Then, for the restriction map res: H 1 (H, Pic(S )) −→ H 1 (H ′ , Pic(S )), there are the following limitations. i) If H 1 (H, Pic(S )) = 0 then H 1 (H ′ , Pic(S )) = 0. ii) If H 1 (H, Pic(S )) ∼ =/3and H 1 (H ′ , Pic(S )) ≠ 0 then res is an injection. iii) If H 1 (H, Pic(S )) ∼ =/3×/3then H 1 (H ′ , Pic(S )) ∼ =/3×/3or 0. In the former case, H ′ = H. In the latter case, H ′ = 0. Proof. We know from Remark 3.16.i) that both groups may be only 0,/3, or /3×/3. i) If H 1 (H ′ , Pic(S ...
Looking for online definition of Chan Su in the Medical Dictionary? Chan Su explanation free. What is Chan Su? Meaning of Chan Su medical term. What does Chan Su mean?
Research it at Best of the Web. Hand selected websites about Dendrobatidae. Free. Your guide to scientific knowledge, including the disciplines of animal husbandry,biologicalobservations, experimental investigations of ourselves, the planet, and the universe.
A recent publication in Biology Letters added a new family, Eleutherodacytlidae, to the list of frogs known to possess defensive, toxic alkaloids in their skin-the so-called poison frogs [1]. The alkaloids have attracted much attention since they are not synthesized by frogs de novo, but rather are obtained from dietary sources and subsequently sequestered in the frogs skin [2]. These cleptotoxins comprise several pumiliotoxins and other lipid-soluble alkaloids that are known or suspected to be present in the frogs prey, which includes ants, beetles, millipedes and, most notably, oribatid mites [2,3]. Four lineages of phylogenetically unrelated poison frogs that sequester prey alkaloids were previously recognized (Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Bufonidae and Myobatrachidae), and the abovementioned miniaturized eleutherodactylid frogs from Cuba [1] represent a fifth.. As with dendrobatids [2], oribatid mites were suspected to be the major dietary source for alkaloids in eleutherodactylid ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Compounds of formula (I) R R1 R2 R3 R4 29 H OCH3 OH H H 30 H OCH3 OH H H 31 H OCH3 OH H H 32 H OCH3 OH H H 33 H OCH3 OH H H 34 H OCH3 OH H H 35 H OCH3 OH H H 36 H OCH3 OH H H 37 H H H H H 38 H R1 + R2 form H H a group OCH2O 39 H NO2 H H H 40 OCH3 H H H H 41 H OCH3 H H H 42 H OH H H H 43 OC2H5 H H H H 44 OCH3 H H OCH3 H 45 OC2H5 H H H H 46 OCH3 H H OCH3 H 47 OC2H5 H H H H 48 OCH3 H H OCH3 H ...
Antimicrobial peptides in skin secretions of toads are promising methods to combat a wide spectrum of bacteria. Histone H2A is a type of DNA-binding protein that acts as a precursor for several antimicrobial peptides. In toads (family Bufonidae) buforin I and buforin II are examples of antimicrobial peptides that derived from histone H2A. This study investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis and in silico prediction of antimicrobial peptides derived from histone H2A of Duttaphrynus melanostictus and Phyrinoidis asper, which were collected from Bogor Agricultural Universitys campus area. A new set of primers (Buf_fwd and Buf_rev) were designed by using PrimerBLAST, to amplify 393 nucleotides of the histone H2A gene that codes 131 amino acids. Haplotype diversity of both species are very low. Phylogenetic analysis shows the sample D. melanostictus and P. asper are separated to each other in two different clades. Several short predicted peptides from histone H2A show a potential ...
For the first time, scientists have found a poisonous frog that takes up a toxin from its prey and then tweaks the chemical to make it a more deadly weapon. At least three species of the 4-to-5-centimeter-long Dendrobates frogs of the New World tropics modify an alkaloid to create one thats about five times as poisonous, according to a team led by John W. Daly of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in Bethesda, Md. The souped-up poison, one of a class called pumiliotoxins, ends up as a protective agent in the frogs skin, the researchers report in an upcoming Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Its an important thing, showing how chemistry connects the life of one organism to another, comments chemical ecologist Jerrold Meinwald of Cornell University. Although scientists have found that some creatures other than frogs customize a basic toxin for various purposes, I dont know of any other examples of improving a defensive weapon, ...
Ive been deliberately waiting to weigh in on this discussion - , however, my thoughts are as follows: , , 1.) Marking a module as deprecated is *not* the same thing as moving , it out of the code base. It simply means that there is no maintainer, , and something better exists in the code base to move to. , , 2.) Code areas marked as deprecated usually dont have a fixed sunset , point where the code is actually removed, which is what I think Dan , might have been pushing for. , , 3.) In order to move forward with any sort of deprecation process, in , my mind we need to ensure that chan_pjsip has considerable, if not , complete, feature parity with chan_sip. , , 4.) I also feel like the plan to make chan_pjsip capable of reading , sip.conf and perhaps even the chan_sip realtime tables a necessary , prerequisite for code removal, and perhaps even marking of the module , as deprecated. , , 5.) I think talk of pulling chan_sip completely out right now is , premature and probably freaking a lot of ...
Ranoids are a large and very diverse group. In a sense they are a radiation equivalent to the hyloids (=bufonoids). (Realize however that there is little evidence for hyloid monophyly, whereas there are data supporting ranoid monophyly, depending on the inclusion of Dendrobatidae.) Ranoids however are firmisternal, meaning that the left and right epicoracoid cartilages of the shoulder girdle are fused. In contrast, the hyloids are mostly arciferal, meaning that the cartilages overlap, and are not fused. Ranoids can be viewed as the Old World counterpart of the hylids, bufonids, and leptodactylids. Ranidae are analogous to Leptodactylidae in being a diverse, paraphyletic group of non-treefrog forms, but with their center of diversity in Africa and Southeast Asia, with a minor radiation of the genus Rana in the New World. Rhacophoridae and Hyperoliidae are the Old World ranoid treefrog types, analogous to hylids in Central and South America. Microhylids are perhaps the firmisternal ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xiao-Liang Wang, Guang-Hou Zhao, Jin Zhang, Qi-Yun Shi, Wei-Xiao Guo, Xiu-Li Tian, Jia-Zhang Qiu, Li-Zi Yin, Xu-Ming Deng, Yu Song].
This patch fixes the following test failure: , --- box/push.result Thu Jan 24 13:10:04 2019 , +++ var/001_box/push.result Thu Jan 24 13:13:08 2019 , @@ -536,17 +536,3 @@ , --- , ... , chan_disconnected:get() , ---- , -- true , -... , -chan_push:put(true) , ---- , -- true , -... , -chan_push:get() , ---- , -- Session is closed , -... , -box.schema.func.drop(do_long_and_push) , ---- , -... The problem occurs because the main fiber may close the connection before do_long_and_push sets the session.on_disconnect trigger, in which case chan_disconnected:get() will never return. Fix this by setting the trigger in the main fiber and adding another channel to wait for do_long_and_push function to start. Also, dont forget to clear the trigger once the test is complete. Fixes commit 43af2de2b129 (session: outdate a session of a closed connection). Closes #3947 --- https://github.com/tarantool/tarantool/issues/3947 https://github.com/tarantool/tarantool/commits/dv/test-fixes test/box/push.result , 15 ...
AFTER a frantic Friday night of discussion, Bafana Bafana won their battle against Kaizer Chiefs and Wits and both PSL clubs have agreed to release their combined nine players for this months African Nations Championship (Chan), which begins in Cape Town on Saturday...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Shih-Huang Chan is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Andrew Chan is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Ultimare Horse General Post entire pictures of horse ITT and ask questions and receive questionable ... - /an/ - Animals & Nature is 4chans imageboard for posting pictures of animals, pets, and nature.
After all. In a recent report bittorrent traffic is down in the US, while going up in Europe (yet overall bandwidth usage in the US has stayed relatively the same). That bespeaks of heavy US torrenters moving to VPN/seedboxes with exit nodes in EU nations. So, why not target VPN providers? After all, this guy did elude to other VPN services being attacked in similar fashion ...
im having a hard time finding many pics of this, so post whatever you have - /d/ - Hentai/Alternative is 4chans imageboard for alternative hentai images.
Do you really want to delete this prezi? Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. DeleteCancel ...
Poslat na n j arm du t kood nc a kolonu pandur , chalupu zbourat a d dka zav t na 150 let. Je extr mn spole ensky nebezpe n !!! V echny papou ky na cel m sv t zlikvidovat a p b h napsat do u ebnic.. Ty vynalo en pen ze za to rozhodn stoj !!!. To je opravdu nesl chan .. Bo e a pape i, chra n s p ed t mito hrozn mi narkotiky, men ...
Is your Firefox not allowing you to tab between all form fields or all elements? Or would you rather it didnt allow you to? The solution is to chan
Several representatives of this family of small, diurnal frogs are famous for their bright skin coloration and associated toxins. There are from four to seven genera in this family, and less than 200 species. Distribution is restricted to humid tropical America, from Nicaragua to Brazil, with the greatest diversity in northwestern South America.. Dendrobatids are the most brightly colored of any anuran group. Although the large genus Colostethus is drab-colored and non-toxic, the derived "aposematically colored dendrobatids" (members of the genera Dendrobates, Phyllobates, and their kin) have skin toxins comprised of lipophilic alkaloids, some of which can easily kill a human if ingested. The only other anuran group exhibiting both bright colors and lipophilic alkaloids are the unrelated Mantellas (Rhacophoridae). Dendrobatids are small (20-40 mm snout-vent length, though the putative basal species, the nocturnal Aromobates, attains lengths of 62 mm). Synapomorphies of this family include the ...
by T. Kawauchi. Introduction. Toad is a generic name of four kind of frogs. The four kinds are "Asiatic toad", "Japanese toad", " Japanese stream toad ", and "Marine toad. " The marine toad is a foreign toad. A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura characterized by dry, leathery skin (usually brownish-colored), short legs, and wart-like parotoid glands. Description & Taxonomy. The scientific name of Japanese toads is Bufo japonicas Temminck & Schlegel, 1838. Size is about 7-15cm. The color is usually a reddish brown. There are four aliases. The alias is"Hiki","Gamagaeru","Gama","Ibogaeru" and "Senjo". Limbs are comparatively short, and the enlarged body moves slowly. The Japanese toads web doesnt develop so much. Other frogs can jump more though than Japanese toad is a little. The mucus of white poisonous like milk is secreted from a lot of Ivo who puts out a strong venom from a big parotoid that exists in back of the head, and exists in the skin, especially the ...
Nucleophillic Substitution Conclusion we all know that dipoles exsist because last lesson we were doing some hardcore chem-cooking What is it? Why is this relevant? and each end has positive and negative polarities due to electronegativity i hope someones done cakes this week :/ we were cooking some delicious brews of 1-bromobutane so we started off wtih the butan-1-ol then chucked in some water and sodium bromide C-C-C-C-OH - H - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H O Na Br just incase you didnt know ;) then after adding the magic ingredient of sulphuric acid concentrated acid plus sodium bromide = hydrogen bromide :) this is when the magic happens C-C-C-C-OH - H - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H because the bromide ion in hyrdogen bromide is more elctronegative than the hydroxide group when it approaches the butan-1-ol it strongly attracts the positive end of the molucule with its lone pairs dragging elctrons away from the hydroxide bond towards itself until evntually bye bye hydroxide hello ...
Synonyms: Fimbriotorpedo ocellata, Narcacion pantherinus, Narcacion torpedo, Narcobatus narke, Narcobatus torpedo, Raia torpedo, Raia torpedo STEPHAN 1779, Raja torpedo, Torpedo narce, Torpedo narke, Torpedo ocellata, Torpedo oculata, Torpedo unimaculata, Torpedo (Torpedo) ...
Cinobufacini has the effects of anticancer, improving the liver function, elevation of immunity and little side effects, and is important and significant for the patients with hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatomas.. Compared with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) , the clinical effect of cinobufacini is non-inferior/ equivalent.Compared with TACE, cinobufacini is superior in security . ...
True toads are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.[1]. True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Rhinella marina, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River toad Incilius alvarius,[2] have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin. Male toads possess a Bidders organ. Under the right conditions, the organ ...
Chan është shfaqur para fansave edhe si këngëtar. Ai promovoi albumin e tij të ri me një performancë live në Tajvan.. Ylli prezantoi të mërkurën albumin "I Am Me". Albumi përmban këngë që i kushton familjes, miqve dhe anëtarëve të ekipit të Jackie Chan, Stunt Team.. "Ky album përmban këngë që praktikisht, janë rrefime të jetës sime. Janë këngë për njerëzit që kam dashur, për ata që janë larguar dhe që sdo ti shoh më kurrë, këngë të kushtuara tim biri e ndonjë gabimi të tij, këngë që i tregojnë atij se nuk duhet të dorëzohet. Unë i këndoj gjithashtu edhe gruas sime, babait e nënës, fansave të mi, miqve, paqes dhe dashurisë universale,"-tha Jakie Chan.. Aktori, i cili është i njohur për rolet në filma, tha se ishte shumë i emocionuar të këndonte disa këngë nga albumi.. ...
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Wai-Man (Jo) Chan, B.S., Research Technologist Wai-Man (Jo) Chan is a Senior Research Technologist and Lab Manager in the Engle lab. She
Read writing from Chin Chonathorn Chan on Medium. . Every day, Chin Chonathorn Chan and thousands of other voices read, write, and share important stories on Medium.
So, we hear news of a miraculous treatment for cancer. Disappointingly, the story is an old one which has somehow resurfaced on the blogosphere. When we originally published the story four years ago, it created a frenzy on the internet which took us by surprise. Our story reported a new type of treatment that in animal experiments showed promise of potentially being able to tackle most types of human cancer. We often report developments in cancer research, but nothing had ever attracted such a wave of interest. The drug involved, a simple molecule called dichloro-acetate, or DCA, appeared to work by blocking the unusual, sugar-gobbling mechanism called glycolysis by which most cancer cells generate their energy, and so which potentially marks them out from healthy cells. Exposed to DCA, cancer cells stopped making energy from sugar and resumed making it the way healthy cells do, in chambers called mitochondria. This stopped cancer cells from growing and multiplying, and caused them to wither and ...
So, we hear news of a miraculous treatment for cancer. Disappointingly, the story is an old one which has somehow resurfaced on the blogosphere. When we originally published the story four years ago, it created a frenzy on the internet which took us by surprise. Our story reported a new type of treatment that in animal experiments showed promise of potentially being able to tackle most types of human cancer. We often report developments in cancer research, but nothing had ever attracted such a wave of interest. The drug involved, a simple molecule called dichloro-acetate, or DCA, appeared to work by blocking the unusual, sugar-gobbling mechanism called glycolysis by which most cancer cells generate their energy, and so which potentially marks them out from healthy cells. Exposed to DCA, cancer cells stopped making energy from sugar and resumed making it the way healthy cells do, in chambers called mitochondria. This stopped cancer cells from growing and multiplying, and caused them to wither and ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Katherine Chan is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The online message board 8chan, linked to several recent mass shootings, plans to restrict parts of the website during a state of emergency, the sites o
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... i dont drink cause i have a slight liver problem whos some of your fav anime characters who drink?. HIKE lg wyi . blt. Alcohol-chan is my spirit animal.
All contact info about Chan W Ma , 74 from Brooklyn ,New York - address, e-mail, phone, public records, etc at People-Background-Check.com FOR FREE
Taiwanese artiste Vanness Wu (吳建豪) went to the recording studio and happened to bump into Jackie Chan (成龍) and definitely will not let go of this rare opportunity to take photo together with Jackie. Subsequently on Weibo, Vanness uploaded their photo and wrote: "Da Ge (大哥), nice bumping into you at recording studio ...
MISSISSAUGA, ONT.In Russia last month, Patrick Chan discovered a new obstacle to Olympic gold, a threat even greater than foes like Daisuke Takahashi, Yuzuru Hanyu and Evgeni Plushenko: An upset stomach.
Fifteen months ago Chan and Lam signed up a young, unknown actress named Cecilia Cheung, who has since blossomed as Hong Kongs latest It girl. The trio have collaborated on Twelve Nights.
Chan Ho Park talks to reporters about a very special problem he had with his stomach over the last few days. His teammates have zero ability to handle the
In case youve never heard of Jaycee Chan, he is the son of actor Jackie Chan. This information is crucial for understanding and caring about the following piece of news. The younger Chan has been detained in Beijing during a...
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与中文翻译。 Chen-Ning Yang Says China Should Not Build Super Particle Collider. On 7 September, Dr. C.N. Yang released an article on WeChat expressing his views that China should not build the worlds largest particle collider. His main reason, other than … Continue reading →. ...
与中文翻译。 Chen-Ning Yang Says China Should Not Build Super Particle Collider. On 7 September, Dr. C.N. Yang released an article on WeChat expressing his views that China should not build the worlds largest particle collider. His main reason, other than … Continue reading →. ...
Wang, C.; Tan, Z.; Niu, B.; Tsang, K. Y.; Tai, A.; Chan, W. C. W.; Lo, R. L. K.; Leung, K. K. H.; Dung, N. W. F.; Itoh, N.; Zhang, Michael Q.; Chan, D.; Cheah, K. S. E. ...
Film star JACKIE CHAN said that his teams LMP2 victory and overall runner-up spot in the Le Mans 24 Hours this weekend felt "exactly like when I got an Oscar." The #38 Jackie Chan DC Racing Oreca "led the race overall with just 70 minutes to go, when the recovering works Porsche 919 Hy ... Tags: People and Pop Culture. ...
The movie is TEN YEAR which we mentioed a little while ago and also stars Chris Pine, Haylie Duff, Justin Long, Scott Porter, John Krasinski, Anna Faris and her husband Chris Pratt, Brian Geraghty and Kate Mara. It is an ensemble rom-com about a group of friends reuniting 10 years after leaving school. It is scheduled for release in 2011 so best we keep our eye on it and those delightful Tatums now that they have got it off the ground. ...
http://www.vmcs.ucdavis.edu/Lasso.acgi?-database=Orders.fp3&-response=shop/shop.html&-add Vet Med Central Services shop online],br ...
http://comailab.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/ Luca Comais Lab] at the [http://genomics.ucdavis.edu/index_html.html UC Davis Genome Center],br ...
http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v20/n8/full/nn.4593.html These viruses might be helpful for transducing DRG and the CNS more easily. Ive got some to try out. Ill let you know how it goes. @RPSeal @tberta
See, I used to live in Biebrich, a mere 10 minutes walk I bet most of you US people didnt even know there was a river of that name in Germany. No offense meant, I very much doubt I would be able to name any river within the US. ;D ...
List of words make out of Noncompetitive. Anagrams of word Noncompetitive. Words made after scrabbling Noncompetitive. Word Creation helps in Anagrams and Puzzles.
Directed by Cheh Chang. With Tien-Chi Cheng, Tien Hsiang Lung, Meng Lo, Michael Wai-Man Chan. When five ninjas whose fighting styles are based on natural elements unleash their fury on a rival school, a lone survivor vows deadly revenge.
First off, I did NOT get this from 4Chan, I got it from a topic posted at GameFAQs. I posted it in YTMND form in the hope that I would get a spot in the Up and Coming for an hour or two, and an eventual 3.9, 100 votes rating. I had NO idea it would take off like it did, and frankly, I dont care. Ive read the comments that have been posted about it, and Im glad I was able to touch the hearts of as many people as I did. If you think Im all about posting sentimental crap on YTMND ...
First off, I did NOT get this from 4Chan, I got it from a topic posted at GameFAQs. I posted it in YTMND form in the hope that I would get a spot in the Up and Coming for an hour or two, and an eventual 3.9, 100 votes rating. I had NO idea it would take off like it did, and frankly, I dont care. Ive read the comments that have been posted about it, and Im glad I was able to touch the hearts of as many people as I did. If you think Im all about posting sentimental crap on YTMND ...
Hi I woke on Thursday morning last week to my machine in a constant boot loop, with a BSOD appearing over and over. I tried startup recovery and system restore, neither of which were able to make chan
Perhaps youve read it in the sidebar. In one of the random quotations I quote my friend Chan: I am instinctively suspicious of any garden writer (or garde
Bifurcating Ecologies, designed by Kenneth To (under Design Advisor, Wendy W Fok, and Project Team, Dave Cheung, Marco Chan), is a developmental...
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Bourne, G.R. 2001. Color pattern, predator avoidance, and foraging behavior in the golden frog Colostethus beebei (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Herpetological Review: 225-228.. Bourne, G.R., Collins, A.C., Holder, A.M. and McCarthy, C.L. 2001. Vocal communication and reproductive behavior of the frog Colostethus beebei in Guyana. Journal of Herpetology: 272-281.. Kok, P.J.R., MacCulloch, R.D., Gaucher, P., Poelman, E.H., Bourne, G.R., Lathrop, A., and Lenglet, G.L. 2006. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae) from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923) from its type locality. Phyllomedusa 5: 43-66.. Noble, G.K. 1923. New batrachians from the tropical research station British Guiana. Zoologica: 288-299.. ...
New York health officials have alerted the public against using an aphrodisiac based on toad venom following the death of a 35-year-old man.
TTTTT H H EEEE , , T H H E , , T HHHH EEE , , T H H E , , T H H EEEE , , , , A M M A TTTTTTT EEEEE U U RRRR , , A A M M M M A A T E U U R R , , A A M M M M A A T EEE U U RRRR , , AAAAA M MM M AAAAA T E U U R R , , A A M M A A T EEEEE UUU R R , , , , CCCC OO MM MM PPP U U TTTTT EEEE RRRR III SSS TTTTT , , C O O M M M P P U U T E R R I S T , , C O O M M M PPPP U U T EEE RRRR I S T , , C O O M M P U U T E R R I S T , , CCCC OO M M P UU T EEEE R R III SSS T , ,-------------------------------------------------------------------------, , Summer 1992 Vol 4 No. 4 , ------------------------------------------------------------------------- "The long memory is the most radical idea in America." Clara Sparks; From album "Dont Mourn-Organize: Songs of Labor songwriter Joe Hill." Table of Contents Impact of the Computer on Society: Two Views Letters to the Editor Computers for the People: A History Faces (BASIC program) Magic Square (C program) Id Hate to Be a Foreman ON UAW-CAT STRIKE America And The ...
The reasons for the evolution and maintenance of striking visual phenotypes are as widespread as the species that display these phenotypes. While study systems such as Heliconius and Dendrobatidae have been well characterized and provide critical information about the evolution of these traits, a breadth of new study systems, in which the phenotype of interest can be easily manipulated and quantified, are essential for gaining a more general understanding of these specific evolutionary processes. One such model is the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, which displays significant elytral spot and color polymorphism. Using transcriptome data from two life stages, adult and larva, we characterize the transcriptome, thereby laying a foundation for further analysis and identification of the genes responsible for the continual maintenance of spot variation in H. axyridis.. View online ...
View Notes - Chan, Gennerich - Pediatrics from ECON 123 at Pontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra. Current Clinical Strategies Pediatrics 2004 Edition Paul D. Chan, MD Jane L. Gennrich,
Stephopaedes anotis is a small forest dwelling frog of about 45mm in SVL (Channing 1993). The skin has smooth warts. The head is equally long as it is broad. The pointed snout projects beyond the mouth. The interorbital space is flat and broader than the upper eyelid (Boulenger 1907). It does not possess a tympanum or columella (Channing 1993). Vocal sacs are not present in males. Paratoid glands are large and extend to the base of the arm on the sides. Fingers and toes are short, with the toes one-third webbed. The webs are covered with granules. It has two subconical, round metatarsal tubercles. The fingers and the fourth toe have double subarticular tubercles (Boulenger 1907). Diagnosis: S. anotis can be differentiated from Wernia preussi by its presence of warts and distinct parotoid glands. It is distinguished from B. taitanus by a strongly pointed snout, less oblique lores and larger paratoid glands (Boulenger 1907). Coloration: The dorsum and sides of the head are blackish or light ...
Amy Chan, MD, MS is a Neurologist at 1470 Madison Ave 3rd Fl, New York, NY 10029. Wellness.com provides reviews, contact information, driving directions and the phone number for Amy Chan, MD, MS in New York, NY.
Full text of the opinion issued by the Department of Justice on the issue of whether the Internet constitutes mass media. Featured on-line by Chan Robles & Associates Law Firm.
Imagine a fighter jet that can fly to its target undetected, attack with two different kinds of weapons and then disappear without a trace. Now imagine that the target is a cancer cell, and that the fighter jet is a particle so small that 60 billion of them could fit on the head of a pin.. This is the principle behind a new type of nanomedicine developed by Professor Warren Chan (IBBME) and Vahid Raeesi (MSE PhD 1T6) at U of T Engineering. Their cancer-fighting nanoparticles are modular, meaning they are put together from even smaller pieces, in this case, tiny bits of gold and DNA. Each component plays a role in the multi-part mission to treat cancer more effectively while reducing the side effects relative to current options.. "Tumours within the body are complex systems," says Raeesi. "To interact with them, you need particles that are equally complex, adaptable and interactive. They need to change their properties and behaviour in order to complete different tasks at different times.". The ...
by Wang, Kai and Yuen, Siu Tsan and Xu, Jiangchun and Lee, Siu Po and Yan, Helen H N and Shi, Stephanie T and Siu, Hoi Cheong and Deng, Shibing and Chu, Kent Man and Law, Simon and Chan, Kok Hoe and Chan, Annie S Y and Tsui, Wai Yin and Ho, Siu Lun and Chan, Anthony K W and Man, Jonathan L K and Foglizzo, Valentina and Ng, Man Kin and Chan, April S and Ching, Yick Pang and Cheng, Grace H W and Xie, Tao and Fernandez, Julio and Li, Vivian S W and Clevers, Hans and Rejto, Paul A and Mao, Mao and Leung, Suet Yi ...
Latest issuances of the Bureau of Postharvest Research and Extension (BPRE). Published on the World Wide Web by The Law Firm of Chan Robles and Associates - Philippines.
Nigeria News - The home-based Super Eagles will now miss out of the party at the CHAN 2020 in Cameroon in spite of a 2-0 win against Togo.
J.P. Brady, P.J. Farber, A. Sekhar, Y.-H. Lin, R. Huang, A. Bah, T.J. Nott, H.S. Chan, A.J. Baldwin, J.D. Forman-Kay and L.E. Kay (2017). Structural and Hydrodynamic Properties of An Intrinsically Disordered Region of A Germ-Cell Specific Protein on Phase Separation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 114, E8194-E8203 [Download combined pdf file for Main Text & Supporting Information ...
Cure WorldCosplay is a free website for submitting cosplay photos and is used by cosplayers in countries all around the world. Even if youre not a cosplayer yourself, you can still enjoy looking at high-quality cosplay photos from around the world.
Bollywoods Amitabh Bachchan and martial arts movie star Jackie Chan are among celebrities who feature Monday in a massive leak of documents, some of which reveal hidden offshore assets.
After spending 56 years in the movies, Jackie Chan received an honorary Oscar in 2016, but the action star says he does not work for awards and his only motivation is his fans.
In a new "Go Tagless" TV ad campaign to promote the Hanes Tagless Undershirt, action star Jackie Chan becomes so irritated by his itchy T-shirt tag that he performs daring acrobatic feats in an effort to scratch the offending area.
Find out more information about Professor Kelvin Chan, including their areas of expertise, research publications and contact details.
by Kim, Ji-Woon and Kim, Ji-Woon and Seung, Hana and Seung, Hana and Kwon, Kyung J.a and Kwon, Kyung Ja and Ko, Mee J.ung and Ko, Mee Jung and Lee, Eun J.oo and Lee, Eun Joo and Oh, Hyun Ah and Oh, Hyun A.h and Choi, Chang S.oon and Choi, Chang Soon and Kim, Ki Chan and Kim, Ki C.han and Gonzales, Edson Luck and Gonzales, Edson L.uck and You, Jueng Soo and You, Jueng S.oo and Choi, Dong-Hee and Choi, Dong-Hee and Lee, Jongmin and Lee, Jongmin and Han, Seol-Heui and Han, Seol-Heui and Yang, Sung Min and Yang, Sung M.in and Cheong, Jae Hoon and Cheong, Jae H.oon and Shin, Chan Y.oung and Shin, Chan Young and Bahn, Geon Ho and Bahn, Geon H.o ...
Rush Hour 2 - Ora de varf 2 (2001) film online subtitrat la o calitate HD este o actiune plina de comedie care reuneste regizorul Brett Ratner cu vedetele Jackie Chan si Chris Tucker . Chan este inspectorul-sef Lee de la Royal Hong Kong Police , care se intoarce in China cu colegul ...
If you are going to continue to use the high VG Elements I would not recommend using the higher resistance coils. Those liquids are serious coil-killers and I would expect running at low(ish)-wattage needed for the 1.0 coils you will get dry hits and would be lucky to get through a couple of tanks before your coils are dead ...
Knafo S,* Sanchez-Puelles C, Palomer E, Delgado I, Draffin JE, Mingo J, Wahle T, Kaleka K, Mou L, Pereda-Perez I, Klosi E, Faber EB, Chapman HM, Lozano-Montes L, Ortega-Molina A, Ordonez-Gutierrez L, Wandosell F, Vina J, Dotti CG, Hall RA, Pulido R, Gerges NZ, Chan AM, Spaller MR, Serrano M, Venero C,* Esteban JA ...
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I'm 33 year old male, been healthy all my life until I just found out 2 days ago my hgb 8.3 and hct 25, which are both low. I've been feeling dizzy and short of breath with heart racing at 110-120 minute at rest to 135-140 when walking. So I went to the hospital and that's when they found all these
"Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms - ScienceDirect". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology. ... Amphibians[edit]. See also: amphibians. Overview[edit]. Amphibians possess two types of glands, mucous and granular (serous). ... In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands. Most living amphibians also possess granular ... Structure in Fish, Amphibians, Birds, and Reptiles[edit]. Fish[edit]. See also: Fish scales ...
ISBN 0-8143-3267-6. "'Toad Smoking' Uses Venom From Angry Amphibian to Get High". FOX News. Kansas City. 3 December 2007. ... "Missionary for Toad Venom Is Facing Charges". New York Times. 20 February 1994. "Couple Avoid Jail In Toad Extract Case". New ... 2006). "The Amphibian Tree of Life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1-370. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006 ... Behler, J.L. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Knopf; 1 edition (November 12, 1979). p ...
38 (3): 301-5. Toledo, R (1995). "Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. ... eds). (2007). Amphibian Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 64 ... Two life-history features of amphibians are often cited as a reason why amphibians are good indicators of environmental health ... Amphibia-Reptilia. 27 (2): 274-277. doi:10.1163/156853806777239887. Trueb L, Duellman WE (1994). Biology of Amphibians. ...
These teeth inject a mild amphibian-specific venom into prey, and also are used to "pop" inflated toads like a balloon to ... Northeast amphibian and reptile species of regional responsibility and conservation concern. Northeast Partners in Amphibian ... Reptiles and Amphibians: A Guide to Familiar American Species: A Golden Nature Guide. Simon and Schuster. New York. 160 pp. ( ... The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 744 pp. Smith, H.M., and ...
Some toxins and venoms produced by reptiles and amphibians are useful in human medicine. Currently, some snake venom has been ... Batrachology, the study of amphibians in particular (a somewhat outdated term, as reptiles and amphibians are commonly studied ... in which he grouped reptiles and amphibians together in the same class. There are over 6700 species of amphibians and over 9000 ... Amphibians and Reptiles portal Herping List of herpetologists List of herpetology academic journals "herpers - Community ...
... amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides , immune/inflammatory peptides, brain ... July 2002). "D-Amino acid residue in the C-type natriuretic peptide from the venom of the mammal, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, the ... such as racemization of L-amino acids to D-amino acids in platypus venom.[8] ...
... amphibian venoms MeSH D20.888.033.112 --- batrachotoxins MeSH D20.888.033.137 --- bombesin MeSH D20.888.033.163 --- bufotenin ... wasp venoms MeSH D20.888.230 --- cnidarian venoms MeSH D20.888.370 --- fish venoms MeSH D20.888.590 --- mollusk venoms MeSH ... ant venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115 --- bee venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115.060 --- apamin MeSH D20.888.065.115.580 --- melitten MeSH ... viper venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200 --- crotalid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.050 --- ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 ...
... amphibians are not known to actively inject venom. Most toxic amphibians are instead known to be poisonous to touch or eat. ... Poisonous amphibians are amphibians that produce toxins to defend themselves from predators. Except certain salamandrid ... "Venomous Amphibians (Page 1) - Reptiles (Including Dinosaurs) and Amphibians - Ask a Biologist Q&A". Askabiologist.org.uk. ... Amphibians usually sequester toxins from animals and plants on which they feed, commonly from poisonous insects or poisonous ...
The diet of night snakes consists primarily of lizards, but they will also consume smaller snakes, and amphibians. The venom of ...
There are only a few known species of venomous amphibians; certain salamandrid salamanders can extrude sharp venom-tipped ribs ... The reptiles most known to use venom are snakes, some species of which inject venom into their prey via fangs. Snake venom is ... Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another. The potency of different venoms ... Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in the venom is as complex as the proteins found in snake venom. ...
Venom[edit]. Tetrodotoxin effects in garter snakes. The saliva of a common garter snake may be toxic to amphibians and other ... 1975). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin ... Stebbins RC (2003). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series ®. Boston ... The diet of T. sirtalis consists mainly of amphibians and earthworms, but also fish, small birds, and rodents. Common garter ...
Firefly Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Toronto, Canada: Firefly Books Ltd. pp. 202-203. ISBN 1-55297-613-0. CS1 maint ... The boomslang's venom is the most potent of all rear-fanged snakes in the world based on LD50. Although its venom may be more ... Neurotoxic venom acts on the nervous system and brain. Cytotoxic venom has a localized action at the site of the bite. The ... Rapid venom evolution can also be explained by the arms race between venom targeted molecules in resistant predators, such as ...
Presumably, the neurotoxic venom is an adaptation to the prey, which largely comprise rock lizards and small amphibians. It ... The venom is not powerful enough for the dose injected at a single strike to kill an adult human, and there do not seem to be ... The Berg adder is unusual among Bitis species in that its venom is predominantly neurotoxic, so much so that the effects of the ... Such as the effects of the venom are, they take effect quickly. Symptoms of the bite have been compared to alcohol intoxication ...
Salamander venom has been shown to be toxic to mammals, birds, fishes, and even other amphibians. It has also been suggested ... He also found that the salamander could be poisoned by its own venom if it entered the salamander's bloodstream. Samandarin was ... Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Vol II. New York: Academic Press. pp. 569-584. Daly, John W.; Spande, Thomas F.; Garraffo, H ... Martin (2005). "Alkaloids from Amphibian Skin: A Tabulation of over Eight-Hundred Compounds". Journal of Natural Products. 68 ( ...
It may also prey on frogs, toads, and other amphibians. The venom of this species is not well studied, but it is believed that ... Cation exchange chromatography resolved four lethal peaks from N. a. annulata venom and six lethal peaks from N. christyi venom ... The venoms of these little-known elapids have some of the lowest intraperitoneal LD50 of any African Naja species studied thus ... Venoms of the water cobras, were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ...
Humans respond rapidly to this venom, as do mice and birds. Lizards are less affected, while amphibians may even survive a bite ... "Snake venom protein C activators". In: Tu, A., editor. Reptile venoms and Toxins. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 265-79. Mertens ... Studies of snake venom on blood coagulation. Part I: The thromboserpentin (thrombin-like) enzyme in the venoms. Thromb. Res. 2 ... V. ammodytes venom is used in the production of antivenin for the bite of other European vipers and the snake is farmed for ...
16:519-520 as mentioned in Daniels, J.C. (2002), Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians References, ser no 28, pg 219. Venom ... The quantity of venom delivered averages out at 20-114 mg. Engelmann and Obst (1981) list the venom yield at 114 mg (dry weight ... The venom of the banded krait mainly contains neurotoxins (pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins) with LD50 values of 2.4 mg/kg-3.6 ... Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) The prey is swallowed head first, after it has been rendered inactive by the venom. Little is ...
amphibian venom *Batrachotoxin. *Bombesin. *Bufotenin. *Physalaemin. *birds / quail *Coturnism. *snake venom *Alpha- ...
... by a toxic substance or venom of an animal.[1] ... amphibian venom *Batrachotoxin. *Bombesin. *Bufotenin. * ...
Such nonliving biological toxicants are generally called toxins if produced by a microorganism, plant, or fungus, and venoms if ... whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect. ...
amphibian venom *Batrachotoxin. *Bombesin. *Bufotenin. *Physalaemin. *birds / quail *Coturnism. *snake venom *Alpha- ...
Animal poisons delivered subcutaneously (e.g., by sting or bite) are also called venom. In normal usage, a poisonous organism ... The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin, and from a venom. Toxins ... The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. ... is one that is harmful to consume, but a venomous organism uses venom to kill its prey or defend itself while still alive. A ...
amphibian venom *Batrachotoxin. *Bombesin. *Bufotenin. *Physalaemin. *birds / quail *Coturnism. *snake venom *Alpha- ...
amphibian venom *Batrachotoxin. *Bombesin. *Bufotenin. *Physalaemin. *birds / quail *Coturnism. *snake venom *Alpha- ...
It has a natural tolerance to the venoms of many native snakes. The snake has 13 to 18 red rings and commonly has a dark- ... They will eat birds, small rodents, lizards, amphibians, and other snakes, including venomous species. ...
... which use venom to attack. The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs from a venom gland.[124][125] Some non- ... included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III - Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ.[10] The terms "reptile" and "amphibian" ... Further information: Venom and Evolution of snake venom. Camouflage does not always fool a predator. When caught out, snake ... "Amphibia". Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.). 1878.. *^ Laurenti, J.N. (1768): Specimen Medicum, Exhibens Synopsin Reptilium ...
Amphibian secretions for drug discovery studies: a search for new antiparasitic and antifungal compounds. Lett Drug Des Discov ... Bothrops moojeni venom kills Leishmania spp. with hydrogen peroxide generated by its L-amino acid oxidase. Biochem Biophys Res ... Bothrops pirajai snake venom L-amino acid oxidase: in vitro effects on infection of Toxoplasma gondii in human foreskin ... The effect of an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom (BpirLAAO-I) was investigated on infection of ...
Venoms are a defense that reptiles and amphibians use to protect themselves from any potential dangers or harm in their ... Reptile and amphibian venoms CDC does not recommend keeping venomous animals as pets or in household settings. ... Venoms are very toxic and can have severe and life-threatening effects. Vials of anti-venom, used to treat some bites, can cost ... Before choosing a pet reptile or amphibian. *Reptiles and amphibians might not be right for your family because of their risk ...
"Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms - ScienceDirect". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology. ... Amphibians[edit]. See also: amphibians. Overview[edit]. Amphibians possess two types of glands, mucous and granular (serous). ... In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands. Most living amphibians also possess granular ... Structure in Fish, Amphibians, Birds, and Reptiles[edit]. Fish[edit]. See also: Fish scales ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 3 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 1 shares ...
Toledo, R.C. (1995). "Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: ... Amphibians[edit]. See also: amphibians Overview[edit]. Amphibians possess two types of glands, mucous and granular (serous). ... In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands. Most living amphibians also possess granular ... Structure in Fish, Amphibians, Birds, and Reptiles[edit]. Fish[edit]. See also: Fish scales ...
Toledo RC, Jared C (1995) Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol 111:1-29CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 21:25CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... Kemparaju K, Girish KS (2006) Snake venom hyaluronidase: a therapeutic target. Cell Biochem Funct 24:7-12CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Brodie ED (2009) Toxins and venoms. Curr Biol 19:R931-R935CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 1 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 7 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 2 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 2 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 4 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 3 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 4 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 2 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 4 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 3 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 4 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 2 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 4 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 3 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 4 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 2 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 2 shares ...
Worm-like creature first known amphibian to produce venom from mouth. * * 3 shares ...
  • The venom is a potent neurotoxin, opening channels at the presynaptic nerve terminal and causing massive release of acetylcholine and norepinephrine, both of which can cause sustained muscular spasms and paralysis. (petmd.com)
  • Its venom is rich in proteins such as phospholipases A 2 , desintegrins, metalloproteases, serinoproteases, L-amino acid oxidases and others (Rodrigues et al. (scielo.br)
  • Duda TF, Vanhoye D, Nicolas P (2002) Roles of diversifying selection and coordinated evolution in the evolution of amphibian antimicrobial peptides. (springer.com)
  • In our laboratory, the biosynthesis of peptides in honeybee venom glands and, more recently, in amphibian skin has been investigated and the types of translational and post-translational reactions involved in the liberation of these peptides from larger precursors are described in this communication. (springer.com)
  • Erspamer V., Yasuhara T., Nakajima T. (1979) The New Vasoactive Peptides in Amphibian Skin. (springer.com)
  • The overriding aim of the work described in this thesis was to isolate and pharmacologically characterise novel bioactive peptides from mygalomorph spider venom, particularly those with insect-selective toxicity or actions on gastrointestinal motility. (edu.au)
  • Additionally, the project also aimed to explore possible pharmacological effects of spider venom peptides on gastrointestinal motility, due to recent leads on the discovery of polypeptides that identified from the skin secretions of amphibian and snake venom exhibiting prokinetic actions. (edu.au)
  • However, due to the usual methodological conditions, biologically active proteins are not successfully retrieved by this technique, resulting in a low rate of protein identification reported for the viscous amphibian skin secretion. (springer.com)
  • Complete loss or gain of venom use (i.e., changes in whether a secretion is used for envenomation or not) unsurprisingly entails marked consequences for the evolution of its composition over time. (springer.com)
  • Heteropteran insects are an ideal group in which to explore how large changes in trophic strategy-for example between phytophagy, entomophagy, and haematophagy, and including complete loss or gain of venom use-co-evolve with the composition of a venom/saliva secretion. (springer.com)
  • stated that a venom is a secretion produced in a specialized gland in one animal and delivered to a target animal through the infliction of a wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the feeding secretion of hematophagous specialists (e.g. vampire bats) may be regarded as a specialized subtype of venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bufotenin is also present in the skin secretion of three arboreal amphibian species of the Osteocephalus genus (Osteocephalus taurinus, Osteocephalus oophagus, and Osteocephalus langsdorfii) from the Amazon and Atlantic rain forests. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is almost impossible cut deep enough, quickly enough, or to suck hard enough to pull an adequate amount of venom out to make a difference. (reptilegardens.com)
  • The amount of venom produced also varies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shaw is Professor in Drug Discovery at Queen's School of Pharmacy, where he specializes in finding and classifying naturally occurring, biologically active agents, most notably those found in the venom of amphibians all over the world. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bücherl states that venomous animals must possess at least one venom gland, a mechanism for excretion or extrusion of the venom, and apparatus with which to inflict wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The venom apparatus in this definition encompasses both the gland and the injection device, which must be directly connected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even within the genus Atractaspis, there are clear differences in the development of the venom gland: Atractaspis microlepidota develops long venom glands, whereas Atractaspis bibronii develops short venom glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe an ion-exchange batch processing sample preparation technique that allows viscous or adhesive materials (as some amphibian skin secretions) to be further processed by classical liquid chromatography approaches. (springer.com)
  • Other studies have also shown that amphibians synthesize and secrete a range of chemicals with antimicrobial properties. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad ( Bombina variegata ). (hindawi.com)
  • AMPs were first reported from amphibian skin by Csordás and Michl in 1970, when they described the peptide bombinin, a 24-residue antimicrobial and haemolytic peptide from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Enzymes (molecular weight 13-150 KDa) make-up 80-90% of viperid and 25-70% of elapid venoms: digestive hydrolases, L-amino acid oxidase, phospholipases, thrombin-like pro-coagulant, and kallikrein-like serine proteases and metalloproteinases (hemorrhagins), which damage vascular endothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, studies have also shown that the toxicity of the venom in a particular snake can vary a small amount from season to season and even day to day. (reptilegardens.com)
  • These include strong throat musculature, consolidation of lip scales, reduction and loss of teeth, greatly reduced body size, and (due to a dinucleotide deletion in the 3FTx gene) much reduced toxicity of the venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albert Most, founder of the Church of the Toad of Light and a proponent of spiritual use of Bufo alvarius venom, published a booklet titled Bufo alvarius: The Psychedelic Toad of the Sonoran Desert in 1983 which explained how to extract and smoke the secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's the message from The University of Queensland School of Pharmacy's Dr Harendra Parekh , who is exploring how cane toad venom can be used to fight cancer. (edu.au)
  • Extracts of toad venom, containing bufotenin and other bioactive compounds, have been used in some traditional medicines such as ch'an su (probably derived from Bufo gargarizans), which has been used medicinally for centuries in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of chan'su and love stone (a related toad venom preparation used as an aphrodisiac in the West Indies) has resulted in several cases of poisoning and at least one death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The practice of orally ingesting toad venom has been referred to in popular culture and in the scientific literature as toad licking and has drawn media attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Australian cane toad is very similar to the Asiatic toad, whose venom has been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. (edu.au)
  • However, this venom has been found to contain several enzymes useful for manufacturing drugs in the treatment of diabetes, and research on the pharmacological use of its venom is ongoing. (wikipedia.org)