Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.

Evidence that the lizard helospectin peptides are O-glycosylated. (1/55)

Six forms of helospectin (a vasoactive intestinal peptide analogue) were purified from the venom of the Heloderma horridum lizard. Their identification was performed by combining sequencing by automated Edman degradation and electrospray mass spectrometry analysis on the complete peptides and their tryptic fragments. The products resulting from the action of an O-glycosidase were also analysed. Two forms were identified as the previously named Hs1 and Hs2 of 38 and 37 amino-acid residues, respectively. Two forms corresponded to Hs1 and Hs2 O-glycosylated by a N-acetylhexosamine-hexose motif attached to the Ser32 residue. Two other forms were not completely characterized but might correspond to the O-glycosylated forms bearing a phosphate or a sulfate group. The glycosylation did not affect the capacity of the helospectins to recognize and to activate the human and the rat VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors.  (+info)

Positive and negative interference of the Chinese medicine Chan Su in serum digoxin measurement. Elimination of interference by using a monoclonal chemiluminescent digoxin assay or monitoring free digoxin concentration. (2/55)

An over-the-counter Chinese medicine, Chan Su, is used as a cardiotonic agent. We demonstrated significant digoxin-like immunoreactivity in various organic and aqueous extracts of Chan Su. For example, when a 20-microL aliquot of an aqueous extract of Chan Su powder (1 mg/mL) was added to a 2-mL aliquot of a drug-free serum, the observed digoxin-like immunoreactivity was 2.76 ng/mL (3.53 nmol/L) digoxin equivalent using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The magnitude of interference was much lower (0.94 ng/mL [1.20 nmol/L]) with the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), and no interference was observed with the chemiluminescent assay (CLIA). We also observed a significant positive interference of the extract with the serum digoxin measurement using FPIA. In contrast, we observed a negative interference (falsely lowered digoxin concentration) of the extract in the serum digoxin measurement with the MEIA. The extract had no effect on the serum digoxin measurement with the CLIA. By taking advantage of the high protein binding of Chan Su and only 25% protein binding of digoxin, we further demonstrated that positive interference of Chan Su in the FPIA and negative interference of Chan Su in the MEIA of digoxin could be eliminated by monitoring the free digoxin concentration.  (+info)

Interactions between 3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine and tetracaine, phencyclidine, or histrionicotoxin in the Torpedo series nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ion channel. (3/55)

3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([(125)I]TID) and [(3)H]tetracaine, an aromatic amine, are noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs) of the Torpedo species nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which have been shown by photoaffinity labeling to bind to a common site in the ion channel in the closed state. Although tetracaine and TID bind to the same site, the amine NCAs phencyclidine (PCP) and histrionicotoxin (HTX), which are also believed to bind within the ion channel, interact competitively with tetracaine but allosterically with TID. To better characterize drug interactions within the nAChR ion channel in the closed state, we identified the amino acids photoaffinity labeled by [(125)I]TID in the presence of tetracaine, PCP, or HTX. In the absence of other drugs, [(125)I]TID reacts with alphaLeu-251 (alphaM2-9) and alphaVal-255 (alphaM2-13) and the homologous residues in each of the other subunits. None of the NCAs shifted the sites of [(125)I]TID labeling to other residues within the ion channel. Tetracaine inhibited [(125)I]TID labeling of M2-9 and M2-13 without changing the relative(125)I incorporation at these positions, whereas PCP and HTX each altered the pattern of [(125)I]TID incorporation at M2-9 and M2-13. These results indicate that tetracaine and TID bind in a mutually exclusive manner to a common site in the closed channel that is spatially separated from the binding sites for PCP and HTX.  (+info)

The evolution of coloration and toxicity in the poison frog family (Dendrobatidae). (4/55)

The poison frogs (family Dendrobatidae) are terrestrial anuran amphibians displaying a wide range of coloration and toxicity. These frogs generally have been considered to be aposematic, but relatively little research has been carried out to test the predictions of this hypothesis. Here we use a comparative approach to test one prediction of the hypothesis of aposematism: that coloration will evolve in tandem with toxicity. Recently, we developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the evolutionary relationships among representative species of poison frogs, using sequences from three regions of mitochondrial DNA. In our analysis, we use that DNA-based phylogeny and comparative analysis of independent contrasts to investigate the correlation between coloration and toxicity in the poison frog family (Dendrobatidae). Information on the toxicity of different species was obtained from the literature. Two different measures of the brightness and extent of coloration were used. (i) Twenty-four human observers were asked to rank different photos of each different species in the analysis in terms of contrast to a leaf-littered background. (ii) Color photos of each species were scanned into a computer and a computer program was used to obtain a measure of the contrast of the colors of each species relative to a leaf-littered background. Comparative analyses of the results were carried out with two different models of character evolution: gradual change, with branch lengths proportional to the amount of genetic change, and punctuational change, with all change being associated with speciation events. Comparative analysis using either method or model indicated a significant correlation between the evolution of toxicity and coloration across this family. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that coloration in this group is aposematic.  (+info)

Studies on toad venom (3): effect of metals on the quality of toad venom torrefied on a metal plate. (5/55)

To study the quality of toad venom dried on different metal plates by heating at 105 degrees C, each 20 g sample of fresh toad venom collected in Hei-Long-Jiang Province, China, was dried on (1) brass, (2) copper, (3) glass, (4) acrylic resins, (5) aluminum and (6) stainless-steel, respectively. Twelve bufadienolides, including bufalin and bufotalin, in each sample were then quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. The total levels of bufadienolides in 1000.0 mg of the dried samples were (1) > (2) > (3) > (4) > (5) > (6), varying from 303.44 mg to 420.72 mg. Besides, the color of dried venom became darker in the order of (2), (4), (6), (3), (1) and (5). Though (1) was not in good color, it was superior to the others in chemical quality. These results suggest that it is possible to dry toad venom in short period by heating it at a high temperature on a tray made of brass. This will be a better method for making high quality toad venom than the traditional method. Moreover, the removal of impurities in the fresh venom by the process of filtration through silk succeeded in raising the bufadienolides content significantly.  (+info)

Granular gland transcriptomes in stimulated amphibian skin secretions. (6/55)

Amphibian defensive skin secretions are complex, species-specific cocktails of biologically active molecules, including many uncharacterized peptides. The study of such secretions for novel peptide discovery is time-limited, as amphibians are in rapid global decline. While secretion proteome analysis is non-lethal, transcriptome analysis has until now required killing of specimens prior to skin dissection for cDNA library construction. Here we present the discovery that polyadenylated mRNAs encoding dermal granular gland peptides are present in defensive skin secretions, stabilized by endogenous nucleic acid-binding amphipathic peptides. Thus parallel secretory proteome and transcriptome analyses can be performed without killing the specimen in this model amphibian system--a finding that has important implications in conservation of biodiversity within this threatened vertebrate taxon and whose mechanistics may have broader implications in biomolecular science.  (+info)

Toad venom poisoning: resemblance to digoxin toxicity and therapeutic implications. (7/55)

A healthy man developed gastrointestinal symptoms after ingesting purported aphrodisiac pills. He had severe unrelenting bradycardia, hyperkalaemia, and acidosis. He rapidly developed severe life threatening cardiac arrhythmias and died after a few hours. He was found to have positive serum digoxin concentrations, although he was not taking digoxin. Toad venom poisoning is similar to digitalis toxicity and carries a high mortality. Cardiac glycoside poisoning can occur from ingestion of various plants and animal toxins, and the venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of cardiac glycosides. Toad venom, a constituent of an aphrodisiac, was considered responsible for the development of clinical manifestations and death in this patient. Digoxin specific Fab fragment has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of toad venom poisoning. This report alerts physicians to the need to be aware of a new community toxic exposure, as prompt treatment with digoxin specific Fab fragment may be life saving. The treatment approach to patients with suspected toad venom poisoning is described.  (+info)

Skin secretion of Siphonops paulensis (Gymnophiona, Amphibia) forms voltage-dependent ionic channels in lipid membranes. (8/55)

The effect of the skin secretion of the amphibian Siphonops paulensis was investigated by monitoring the changes in conductance of an artificial planar lipid bilayer. Skin secretion was obtained by exposure of the animals to ether-saturated air, and then rinsing the animals with distilled water. Artificial lipid bilayers were obtained by spreading a solution of azolectin over an aperture of a Delrin cup inserted into a cut-away polyvinyl chloride block. In 9 of 12 experiments, the addition of the skin secretion to lipid bilayers displayed voltage-dependent channels with average unitary conductance of 258 +/- 41.67 pS, rather than nonspecific changes in bilayer conductance. These channels were not sensitive to 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid or tetraethylammonium ion, but the experimental protocol used does not permit us to specify their characteristics.  (+info)

Amphibian venoms are toxic secretions produced by certain species of amphibians, such as frogs, toads, and salamanders. These secretions are often produced by specialized glands in the skin and can contain a variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, steroids, peptides, and proteins. Some amphibian venoms can cause painful burns or irritation upon contact with the skin, while others can be deadly if ingested or introduced into the bloodstream through wounds or mucous membranes.

The study of amphibian venoms has gained increasing attention in recent years due to their potential as sources of novel bioactive compounds with therapeutic applications. For example, some peptides found in amphibian venoms have been shown to have potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs.

It is important to note that not all amphibians produce venom, and even those that do may use their toxic secretions primarily for defense against predators rather than for hunting prey. Additionally, while some amphibian venoms can be dangerous or even lethal to humans, most cases of envenomation occur in the context of intentional handling or accidental contact with these animals in their natural habitats.

Amphibians are a class of cold-blooded vertebrates that include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians. They are characterized by their four-limbed body structure, moist skin, and double circulation system with three-chambered hearts. Amphibians are unique because they have a life cycle that involves two distinct stages: an aquatic larval stage (usually as a tadpole or larva) and a terrestrial adult stage. They typically start their lives in water, undergoing metamorphosis to develop lungs and legs for a land-dwelling existence. Many amphibians are also known for their complex reproductive behaviors and vocalizations.

Crotalid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by the members of the Crotalinae subfamily, also known as pit vipers. This group includes rattlesnakes, cottonmouths (or water moccasins), and copperheads, which are native to the Americas, as well as Old World vipers found in Asia and Europe, such as gaboon vipers and saw-scaled vipers.

Crotalid venoms are complex mixtures of various bioactive molecules, including enzymes, proteins, peptides, and other low molecular weight components. They typically contain a variety of pharmacologically active components, such as hemotoxic and neurotoxic agents, which can cause extensive local tissue damage, coagulopathy, cardiovascular dysfunction, and neuromuscular disorders in the victim.

The composition of crotalid venoms can vary significantly between different species and even among individual specimens within the same species. This variability is influenced by factors such as geographic location, age, sex, diet, and environmental conditions. As a result, the clinical manifestations of crotalid envenomation can be highly variable, ranging from mild local reactions to severe systemic effects that may require intensive medical treatment and supportive care.

Crotalid venoms have been the subject of extensive research in recent years due to their potential therapeutic applications. For example, certain components of crotalid venoms have shown promise as drugs for treating various medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, pain, and inflammation. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action of these venom components and to develop safe and effective therapies based on them.

Bee venom is a poisonous substance that a honeybee (Apis mellifera) injects into the skin of a person or animal when it stings. It's produced in the venom gland and stored in the venom sac of the bee. Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, and other compounds. The main active components of bee venom include melittin, apamin, and phospholipase A2.

Melittin is a toxic peptide that causes pain, redness, and swelling at the site of the sting. It also has hemolytic (red blood cell-destroying) properties. Apamin is a neurotoxin that can affect the nervous system and cause neurological symptoms in severe cases. Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that can damage cell membranes and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Bee venom has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, particularly in China and other parts of Asia. It's believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and immunomodulatory effects. Some studies suggest that bee venom may have therapeutic potential for a variety of medical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the safety and efficacy of bee venom therapy.

It's important to note that bee stings can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in some people, which can be life-threatening. If you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, or hives after being stung by a bee, seek medical attention immediately.

Venom is a complex mixture of toxic compounds produced by certain animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine creatures like cone snails and stonefish. These toxic substances are specifically designed to cause damage to the tissues or interfere with the normal physiological processes of other organisms, which can lead to harmful or even lethal effects.

Venoms typically contain a variety of components, including enzymes, peptides, proteins, and small molecules, each with specific functions that contribute to the overall toxicity of the mixture. Some of these components may cause localized damage, such as tissue necrosis or inflammation, while others can have systemic effects, impacting various organs and bodily functions.

The study of venoms, known as toxinology, has important implications for understanding the evolution of animal behavior, developing new therapeutics, and advancing medical treatments for envenomation (the process of being poisoned by venom). Additionally, venoms have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and ongoing research continues to uncover novel compounds with potential applications in modern pharmacology.

Cobra venoms are a type of snake venom that is produced by cobras, which are members of the genus Naja in the family Elapidae. These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and other molecules that have evolved to help the snake immobilize and digest its prey.

Cobra venoms typically contain a variety of toxic components, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. Neurotoxins target the nervous system and can cause paralysis and respiratory failure. Hemotoxins damage blood vessels and tissues, leading to internal bleeding and organ damage. Cytotoxins destroy cells and can cause tissue necrosis.

The specific composition of cobra venoms can vary widely between different species of cobras, as well as between individual snakes of the same species. Some cobras have venoms that are primarily neurotoxic, while others have venoms that are more hemotoxic or cytotoxic. The potency and effects of cobra venoms can also be influenced by factors such as the age and size of the snake, as well as the temperature and pH of the environment.

Cobra bites can be extremely dangerous and even fatal to humans, depending on the species of cobra, the amount of venom injected, and the location of the bite. Immediate medical attention is required in the event of a cobra bite, including the administration of antivenom therapy to neutralize the effects of the venom.

"Viper venoms" refer to the toxic secretions produced by members of the Viperidae family of snakes, which include pit vipers (such as rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths) and true vipers (like adders, vipers, and gaboon vipers). These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that can cause a wide range of symptoms in prey or predators, including local tissue damage, pain, swelling, bleeding, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as coagulopathy, cardiovascular shock, and respiratory failure.

The composition of viper venoms varies widely between different species and even among individuals within the same species. However, many viper venoms contain a variety of enzymes (such as phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and serine proteases) that can cause tissue damage and disrupt vital physiological processes in the victim. Additionally, some viper venoms contain neurotoxins that can affect the nervous system and cause paralysis or other neurological symptoms.

Understanding the composition and mechanisms of action of viper venoms is important for developing effective treatments for venomous snakebites, as well as for gaining insights into the evolution and ecology of these fascinating and diverse creatures.

Wasp venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules produced by wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to defend themselves and paralyze prey. The main components include:

1. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2): Enzymes that can cause pain, inflammation, and damage to cell membranes.
2. Hyaluronidase: An enzyme that helps spread the venom by breaking down connective tissues.
3. Proteases: Enzymes that break down proteins and contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.
4. Antigen 5: A major allergen that can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in sensitive individuals.
5. Mastoparan: A peptide that induces histamine release, leading to localized inflammation and pain.
6. Neurotoxins: Some wasp venoms contain neurotoxins that can cause paralysis or neurological symptoms.

The composition of wasp venoms may vary among species, and individual sensitivity to the components can result in different reactions ranging from localized pain, swelling, and redness to systemic allergic responses.

Elapid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by elapid snakes, a family of venomous snakes that includes cobras, mambas, kraits, and coral snakes. These venoms are primarily composed of neurotoxins, which can cause paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or predators.

Elapid venoms work by targeting the nervous system, disrupting communication between the brain and muscles. This results in muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually respiratory failure if left untreated. Some elapid venoms also contain hemotoxins, which can cause tissue damage, bleeding, and other systemic effects.

The severity of envenomation by an elapid snake depends on several factors, including the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the size and health of the victim. Prompt medical treatment is essential in cases of elapid envenomation, as the effects of the venom can progress rapidly and lead to serious complications or death if left untreated.

Chytridiomycota is a phylum that includes various species of fungi known as chytrids. These fungi are characterized by having a unique life cycle that involves a motile, flagellated stage in their reproductive process. Chytridiomycota fungi can be found in a wide range of environments, including freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Some species of chytrids are parasites that infect various organisms, such as algae, plants, and animals, while others are saprophytes that obtain nutrients by decomposing organic matter.

One notable species of Chytridiomycota is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is a pathogenic fungus that infects the skin of amphibians. This fungus has been implicated in declines and extinctions of amphibian populations worldwide, making it a significant concern for global biodiversity conservation efforts.

Spider venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by the specialized glands of spiders. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. They contain a variety of molecules such as neurotoxins, proteases, peptides, and other biologically active substances. Different spider species have unique venom compositions, which can cause different reactions when they bite or come into contact with humans or other animals. Some spider venoms can cause mild symptoms like pain and swelling, while others can lead to more severe reactions such as tissue necrosis or even death in extreme cases.

Scorpion venoms are complex mixtures of neurotoxins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that are produced by the venom glands of scorpions. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. The neurotoxins found in scorpion venoms can cause a variety of symptoms in humans, including pain, swelling, numbness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Scorpion venoms are being studied for their potential medical applications, such as in the development of new pain medications and insecticides. Additionally, some components of scorpion venom have been found to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful in the development of new antibiotics.

Arthropod venoms are toxic secretions produced by the venom glands of various arthropods, such as spiders, scorpions, insects, and marine invertebrates. These venoms typically contain a complex mixture of bioactive molecules, including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and small molecules, which can cause a range of symptoms and effects in humans and other animals.

The specific composition of arthropod venoms varies widely depending on the species and can be tailored to serve various functions, such as prey immobilization, defense, or predation. Some arthropod venoms contain neurotoxins that can disrupt nerve function and cause paralysis, while others may contain cytotoxins that damage tissues or hemotoxins that affect the blood and cardiovascular system.

Arthropod venoms have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, as some of their bioactive components have shown promise in treating various medical conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurological disorders. However, it is important to note that arthropod venoms can also cause severe allergic reactions and other adverse effects in susceptible individuals, making it essential to exercise caution when handling or coming into contact with venomous arthropods.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "amphibian proteins." However, I can provide some context that might help you understand what you might be looking for.

Proteins are complex molecules that perform a wide variety of functions within organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Amphibians are a class of animals that include frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts.

If you're looking for information about proteins that are found in amphibians or are unique to amphibians, then you might be interested in researching the specific proteins that are involved in various biological processes in these animals. For example, some amphibian proteins have been studied for their potential roles in wound healing, immune response, and developmental biology.

One well-known example of an amphibian protein is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are produced by the skin of many amphibians as a defense against pathogens. These peptides have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in human medicine, particularly in the context of antibiotic resistance.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I might be able to give you a more specific answer!

"Ranidae" is not a medical term. It is a biological term that refers to a family of frogs and toads, commonly known as "true frogs." These amphibians are characterized by their long legs, webbed feet, and the ability to live both in water and on land. Some examples of ranids include the American bullfrog and the green frog.

"Anura" is a term used in the field of zoology, particularly in the study of amphibians. It refers to a order that includes frogs and toads. The name "Anura" comes from the Greek language, with "an-" meaning "without," and "oura" meaning "tail." This is a reference to the fact that members of this order lack tails in their adult form.

The Anura order is characterized by several distinct features:

1. They have short, powerful legs that are well adapted for jumping or leaping.
2. Their forelimbs are smaller and less specialized than their hind limbs.
3. Most anurans have a moist, glandular skin, which helps them to breathe and absorb water.
4. Anura includes both aquatic and terrestrial species, with varying degrees of adaptations for each environment.
5. They lay their eggs in water, and their larvae (tadpoles) are aquatic, undergoing a process called metamorphosis to transform into the adult form.

Anura contains approximately 7,000 known species, making it one of the largest orders of vertebrates. They have a cosmopolitan distribution and can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Anurans play essential roles in many ecosystems as both predators and prey, contributing to the regulation of insect populations and serving as indicators of environmental health.

"Bothrops" is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as lancehead vipers, found primarily in Central and South America. The name "Bothrops" comes from the Greek words "bothros," meaning pit, and "ops," meaning face, referring to the deep pits on the sides of their heads that help them detect heat and locate prey. These snakes are known for their aggressive behavior and potent venom, which can cause severe pain, swelling, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects if left untreated.

The genus "Bothrops" includes over 30 species of pit vipers, many of which are considered medically important due to their ability to inflict serious envenomations in humans. Some notable examples include Bothrops asper (the terciopelo or fer-de-lance), Bothrops atrox (the common lancehead), and Bothrops jararaca (the jararaca).

If you encounter a snake of this genus, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately if bitten, as the venom can cause significant harm if not treated promptly.

Bufonidae is a family of toads, characterized by the presence of parotoid glands that produce bufotoxins, a group of toxic secretions. These toads are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and some isolated islands. They vary in size, shape, and coloration, depending on the species. Some notable members of this family include the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius). It is important to note that while these toads have toxic secretions, they are not typically harmful to humans unless ingested or if their secretions come into contact with mucous membranes or broken skin.

Antivenins, also known as antivenoms, are medications created specifically to counteract venomous bites or stings from various creatures such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine animals. They contain antibodies that bind to and neutralize the toxic proteins present in venom. Antivenins are usually made by immunizing large animals (like horses) with small amounts of venom over time, which prompts the animal's immune system to produce antibodies against the venom. The antibody-rich serum is then collected from the immunized animal and purified for use as an antivenin.

When administered to a victim who has been envenomated, antivenins work by binding to the venom molecules, preventing them from causing further damage to the body's tissues and organs. This helps minimize the severity of symptoms and can save lives in life-threatening situations. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if bitten or stung by a venomous creature, as antivenins should be administered as soon as possible for optimal effectiveness.

Fish venoms are toxic substances produced by some species of fish, primarily found in their spines, fins, or skin. These venoms are used for defense against predators and can cause painful injuries to humans who come into contact with them. The venomous fishes belong to various taxonomic groups, including catfishes (order Siluriformes), stingrays (superorder Batoidea), scorpionfishes (family Scorpaenidae), weevers (family Trachinidae), and stonefishes (family Synanceiidae).

The composition of fish venoms varies among species, but they typically contain a mixture of proteins, enzymes, and small molecules that can induce local and systemic effects. Local reactions usually involve pain, swelling, and redness at the site of the injury, while systemic symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, paralysis, or even death in severe cases.

Immediate medical attention is required for fish venom injuries to manage pain, prevent infection, and treat potential systemic effects. Treatment usually involves removing any remaining venomous spines or fragments, immersing the wound in hot water (>45°C/113°F) to denature the proteins in the venom, and administering appropriate analgesics, antibiotics, and supportive care as needed.

Ant venoms are toxic secretions produced by various species of ants as a defense mechanism against predators and to incapacitate their prey. The composition of ant venoms varies among different species, but they typically contain a mixture of alkaloids, peptides, and proteins that can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild irritation and pain to severe allergic reactions.

The venom of some ant species, such as the fire ants (Solenopsis spp.), contains alkaloids that can cause painful pustules and itching, while the venom of other species, like the bulldog ants (Myrmecia spp.), contains proteins that can induce severe allergic reactions and even anaphylactic shock in sensitive individuals.

Understanding the composition and effects of ant venoms is important for developing effective treatments for ant stings and for studying their potential therapeutic applications, such as using ant venom components in pain management or as leads for new drug development.

Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes, also known as elapids. This family includes many well-known species such as cobras, mambas, death adders, and sea snakes. Elapids are characterized by their fixed fangs, which are located at the front of the upper jaw and deliver venom through a hollow canal. The venom of these snakes is typically neurotoxic, causing paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or attackers.

Elapids are found throughout the world, with the greatest diversity occurring in tropical regions. They vary widely in size, from small species like the death adders that measure only a few inches long, to large species like the king cobra, which can reach lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

Elapids are generally shy and avoid confrontations with humans whenever possible. However, they will defend themselves aggressively if threatened or cornered. Bites from elapid snakes can be medically significant and may require antivenom treatment.

Mollusk venoms are toxic substances produced by certain species of mollusks, a group of marine animals that includes snails, slugs, clams, octopuses, and squids. These venoms are primarily used for defense against predators or for hunting prey. They can contain a variety of bioactive molecules, such as proteins, peptides, and neurotoxins, which can cause a range of effects on the victim's body, from mild irritation to paralysis and death.

One well-known example of a mollusk venom is that of the cone snail, which uses its venom to capture prey. The venom of some cone snails contains compounds called conotoxins, which are highly selective for specific ion channels in the nervous system and can cause paralysis or death in their victims. These conotoxins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as pain relief and treatment for neurological disorders.

It's important to note that while some mollusk venoms can be dangerous or even deadly to humans, most species of mollusks are not harmful to people. However, it's always a good idea to exercise caution when handling any marine animals, as even non-venomous species can cause injury with their sharp shells or other structures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

Urodela is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in the field of biology. It refers to a group of amphibians commonly known as newts and salamanders. These creatures are characterized by their slender bodies, moist skin, and four legs. They undergo a process of metamorphosis during their development, transitioning from an aquatic larval stage to a terrestrial adult stage.

While not a medical term itself, understanding the biology and ecology of Urodela can be relevant in fields such as environmental health and toxicology, where these animals may serve as indicators of ecosystem health or potential subjects for studying the effects of pollutants on living organisms.

ISBN 978-0-03-910284-5. Toledo, R.C.; Jared, C. (May 1995). "Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms". Comparative ... In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands. Most living amphibians also possess granular ... Amphibians possess two types of glands, mucous and granular (serous). Both of these glands are part of the integument and thus ... Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier, especially regarding the passage of chemicals via skin, and is often subject to osmosis ...
38 (3): 301-5. Toledo, R (1995). "Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. ... Amphibians of Canada, Amphibians of the United States, Taxa named by Spencer Fullerton Baird, Amphibians described in 1850). ... eds). (2007). Amphibian Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 64 ... Two life-history features of amphibians are often cited as a reason why amphibians are good indicators of environmental health ...
"Morphological Evidence for an Oral Venom System in Caecilian Amphibians". iScience. 23 (7): 101234. Bibcode:2020iSci...23j1234M ... Amphibians portal Caecilians of the Western Ghats Frost, Darrel R. (2019). "Gymnophiona Müller, 1832". Amphibian Species of the ... "New amphibian family found in India". CBC News. Associated Press. 21 February 2012. San Mauro, D.; Gower, D. J.; Oommen, O. V ... Unlike other modern amphibians (frogs and salamanders) the skull is compact and solid, with few large openings between plate- ...
ISBN 978-0-8143-3267-2. "'Toad Smoking' Uses Venom From Angry Amphibian to Get High". FOX News. Kansas City. 3 December 2007. ... Amphibians of Mexico, Amphibians of the United States, Fauna of the Sonoran Desert, Amphibians described in 1859, Taxa named by ... "Missionary for Toad Venom Is Facing Charges". The New York Times. 20 February 1994. "Couple Avoid Jail In Toad Extract Case". ... 2006). "The Amphibian Tree of Life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1-370. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006 ...
These teeth inject a mild amphibian-specific venom into prey. The fangs receive the venom from the snake's Duvernoy's gland. ... It will also consume other amphibians, such as frogs and salamanders. Because it is a toad feeding specialist, its venom has ... Behler, J.L., and F.W. King (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York:Alfred ... Klemens, MW (1993). "Amphibians and Reptiles of Connecticut and Adjacent Regions". State Geological and Natural History Survey ...
Phisalix began to work on snake venom antidotes, and won a prize for her doctoral research on reptile and amphibian venoms. She ... She studied the blood and tissue of lower vertebrates and their venom and anti-venom. She showed that the production of venom, ... She studied the comparative anatomy of the organs that create venom as well as the pathology of their delivery. She became ... Marie Félicie Phisalix (née Picot) (20 November, 1861 - January 18, 1946) was a French scientist who researched snake venom and ...
Although this venom is deadly to other reptiles and amphibians, it is not considered dangerous to adults. If bitten, the bite ... To immobilize and kill prey, D. psammophis lash out and inject toxic venom, slowing and eventually killing their prey. ... Updated Seventh Edition.) "REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF AUSTRALIA." ISBN 0-646-00006-3. (Demansia psammophis, p. 50). "Demansia ... Cogger, Harold (2014). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia (7 ed.). CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 9780643109773. Covacevich, Jeanette ...
Some toxins and venoms produced by reptiles and amphibians are useful in human medicine. Currently, some snake venom has been ... "Amphibians as indicators of environmental health". Amphibian Ark. Retrieved 2023-09-27. "How venoms are shaping medical ... of amphibians and reptiles. Amphibians or reptiles can be used as model organisms for specific questions in these fields, such ... HerpMapper is a database of reptile and amphibian sightings Amphibian and Reptile Atlas of Peninsular California, San Diego ...
... amphibian venoms MeSH D20.888.033.112 - batrachotoxins MeSH D20.888.033.137 - bombesin MeSH D20.888.033.163 - bufotenin MeSH ... wasp venoms MeSH D20.888.230 - cnidarian venoms MeSH D20.888.370 - fish venoms MeSH D20.888.590 - mollusk venoms MeSH D20.888. ... ant venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115 - bee venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115.060 - apamin MeSH D20.888.065.115.580 - melitten MeSH D20.888 ... viper venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200 - crotalid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.050 - ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 - ...
doi:10.1007/s12542-010-0074-9 Morphological Evidence for an Oral Venom System in Caecilian Amphibians - NCBI Venom glands ... Venoms have adapted to serve a wide variety of purposes. Their intended effects can range from mild fleeting discomfort to ... Venom". Australian Academy of Science. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2022. Funnel-web Spiders Archived 27 June 2009 at ... Gianechini, F.A., Agnolín, F.L. and Ezcurra, M.D. (2010). "A reassessment of the purported venom delivery system of the bird- ...
... amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides, immune/inflammatory peptides, brain ... More exotic manipulations do occur, such as racemization of L-amino acids to D-amino acids in platypus venom. Nonribosomal ... July 2002). "D-Amino acid residue in the C-type natriuretic peptide from the venom of the mammal, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, the ...
2002). Firefly Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Toronto, Canada: Firefly Books Ltd. pp. 202-203. ISBN 978-1-55297-613-5 ... The boomslang's venom is the most potent of all rear-fanged snakes in the world based on LD50. Although its venom may be more ... Snake venom is injected by unique fangs during a bite, whereas some species are also able to spit venom. The glands that ... Cytotoxic venom has a localized action at the site of the bite. The effect of the venom of proteroglyphous snakes (sea snakes, ...
There are only a few species of venomous amphibians; certain salamandrid salamanders can extrude sharp venom-tipped ribs. ... Shrew handbook Shrew venom Northern short-tailed shrew venom Platypus venom Slow Loris Research by a toxicologist - includes ... the venom apparatus, which delivers the venom by injection during a bite or sting. The venom apparatus in this definition ... The absence of venom spurs in non-Mammaliaformes cynodonts suggests that venom was an ancient mammalian synapomorphy and ...
They have large fangs with 2.5 cm, and can inject a lot of venom. They usually feed on amphibians and rodents. They are ... The venom contains cytotoxins, hemotoxins and myotoxins, one study with 29 bites of jararacussu in the state of São Paulo, ... "LD50 and venom yields ,". Retrieved 2020-03-12. Pereira, I. C.; Barbosa, A. M.; Salvador, ... Two myotoxins with PLA2 structure, BthTX-I and BthTX-II were isolated from the venom of B. jararacussu, BthTX-I induces various ...
Venomous Amphibians (Page 1) - Reptiles (Including Dinosaurs) and Amphibians - Ask a Biologist Q&A. ... Venoms are often complex mixtures of toxins of differing types. Toxins from venom are used to treat a wide range of medical ... Snake venom may have originated with duplication of genes that had been expressed in the salivary glands of ancestors. Venom is ... Venoms cause their biological effects via the many toxins that they contain; some venoms are complex mixtures of toxins of ...
The diet of night snakes consists primarily of lizards, but they will also consume smaller snakes, and amphibians. The venom of ...
Salamander venom has been shown to be toxic to mammals, birds, fishes, and even other amphibians. It has also been suggested ... He also found that the salamander could be poisoned by its own venom if it entered the salamander's bloodstream. Samandarin was ... Daly, John W.; Spande, Thomas F.; Garraffo, H. Martin (2005). "Alkaloids from Amphibian Skin: A Tabulation of over Eight- ... Samandaridine Habermehl, G. (1971). Bucherl, W.; Buckley, E. (eds.). Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Vol II. New York: ...
Presumably, the neurotoxic venom is an adaptation to the prey, which largely comprise rock lizards and small amphibians. It ... The venom is not powerful enough for the dose injected at a single strike to kill an adult human, and no records of human ... The atropos adder is unusual among Bitis species in that its venom is predominantly neurotoxic, so much so that the effects of ... Such as the effects of the venom are, they take effect quickly. Symptoms of the bite have been compared to alcohol intoxication ...
It may also prey on frogs, toads, and other amphibians. The venom of this species is not well studied, but it is believed that ... Cation exchange chromatography resolved four lethal peaks from N. a. annulata venom and six lethal peaks from N. christyi venom ... The venoms of these little-known elapids have some of the lowest intraperitoneal LD50 values of any African Naja species ... Venoms of the water cobras were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ...
... and two species of frogs with venom-tipped bone spurs on their skulls, amphibians are not known to actively inject venom. An ... Poisonous amphibians are amphibians that produce toxins to defend themselves from predators. Most toxic amphibians are ... "Venomous Amphibians (Page 1) - Reptiles (Including Dinosaurs) and Amphibians - Ask a Biologist Q&A". ... These amphibians usually sequester toxins from animals and plants on which they feed, commonly from poisonous insects or ...
Humans respond rapidly to this venom, as do mice and birds. Lizards are less affected, while amphibians may even survive a bite ... "Snake venom protein C activators". In: Tu, A., editor. Reptile venoms and Toxins. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 265-79. Mertens ... Studies of snake venom on blood coagulation. Part I: The thromboserpentin (thrombin-like) enzyme in the venoms. Thromb. Res. 2 ... Vipera ammodytes venom is used in the production of antivenin for the bite of other European vipers and the snake is farmed for ...
... amphibians, arthropods (such as scorpions, to whose venom they are immune), reptiles, small birds (such as the southern ... Primarily insectivorous, meerkats feed heavily on beetles and lepidopterans, arthropods, amphibians, small birds, reptiles, and ...
The saliva of a common garter snake may be toxic to amphibians and other small animals. Garter snakes have a mild venom in ... On the offensive side, the snake's venom can be toxic to some of its smaller prey, such as mice and other rodents. On the ... The diet of T. sirtalis consists mainly of amphibians and earthworms, but also leeches, slugs, snails, insects, crayfish, fish ... 148-149). Stebbins RC (2003). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series ...
It feeds on a wide variety of prey, including birds, mammals, lizards, amphibians, lizard eggs and even other snakes. The venom ... The venom of this species appears to be as active as that of Philodryas olfersii, and has a protein content of 863.9 µg, which ... Studies with rats have shown that venom from this species is capable of causing bleeding in different organs and morphological ... P. nattereri is opisthoglyphous; due to this dentition, it has difficulty injecting venom into large prey. Philodryas nattereri ...
Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (CAAR). "The Most Common Myths About Coral Snakes , The Venom Interviews". ... Red on black venom lack" "Red touches black, it's a friend of Jack. Red touches yellow, it's bad for a fellow." Due to the many ... Harding, James; Mifsud, David (2017). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan ... Milk Snake, Reptiles and Amphibians of Iowa (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, Short description is ...
It has a natural tolerance to the venoms of many native snakes. The snake has 13 to 18 red rings and commonly has a dark- ... They will eat birds, small rodents, lizards, amphibians, and other snakes, including venomous species. ...
Initially, the process of extracting venom from snakes for pharmaceutical companies to prepare anti-venom drugs was undertaken ... semi-technical and popular contents on reptiles and amphibians. To aid and assist research on reptiles and amphibians including ... The park has a museum of preserved specimens of reptiles and amphibians and a library with a stock of books and journals on ... To canvas public support for the protection and conservation of reptiles and amphibians. The park covers an area of 1 acre in ...
"Australian Venom Research Unit". 13 January 2021. Cogger HG (2014). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, Seventh Edition. ... The average venom ejection of P. guttatus is unknown. When mice are bitten, the snake's venom is the second most toxic of all ...
Brown gives an average venom yield of 410 mg (dried venom), along with LD50 values of 1.3-2.4 mg/kg IV, 1.7-3.0 mg/kg IP and ... ISBN 0-486-26629-X. Conant R (1975). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second ... Although the venom does not activate platelets, the production of fibrin strands can result in a reduced platelet count, as ... Norris R (2004). "Venom Poisoning in North American Reptiles". In: Campbell JA, Lamar WW (2004). The Venomous Reptiles of the ...
This species is not able to "spit" its venom. Forest cobras will feed on a wide variety of prey, including amphibians, fish, ... The venom yield per bite ranges drastically among sources; a maximal dose of 500 mg has been recorded while another venom yield ... If the snake becomes cornered or is agitated, it can quickly attack the aggressor, and because a large amount of venom is ... According to Brown and Fry of the Australian Venom and Toxin Database, the murine intraperitoneal LD50 value is 0.324 mg/kg. ...
ISBN 978-0-03-910284-5. Toledo, R.C.; Jared, C. (May 1995). "Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms". Comparative ... In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands. Most living amphibians also possess granular ... Amphibians possess two types of glands, mucous and granular (serous). Both of these glands are part of the integument and thus ... Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier, especially regarding the passage of chemicals via skin, and is often subject to osmosis ...
Fangtastic: Venom Glands Similar to Those of Snakes Found for First Time in Amphibians ... First "Unmistakable" Triassic-Era Caecilian Fossils Discovered, Revealing Origins of Living Amphibians TOPICS:AmphibiansFossils ... The find also fills a gap of at least 87 million years in the known historical fossil record of the amphibian-like creature. ... Fangtastic: They May Not Be Snakes, but These Amphibians Have a Venomous Bite ...
Cnidarians appeared to have more diverse venoms than amphibians and fish; about the same diversity as insects, gastropods, and ... The appearance and diversification of venoms seems to be repeatable but simultaneously limited in scope. It may be that venoms ... venom, and compares the diversity and evolution of cnidarian venom to other venomous animals (e.g., snakes and arachnids). The ... In summary, if venoms evolved after the Fall, then they appear to have done so many times independently. However, the types of ...
A new study suggests that legless burrowers called caecilians may be the first known amphibian to have venom glands in their ... The unfortunate amphibian likely fell victim to an otter, which skinned it to avoid ingesting the deadly toxins found in its ... Heres How You Can Help Amphibians in the Fight Against Extinction. We now know that the killer chytrid fungus originated in ... Worlds Deadliest Pathogen On Record Devastates More Than 500 Amphibian Species-and We Dont Know How To Stop It. The powerful ...
Shaw C. Advancing drug discovery with reptile and amphibian venom peptides - venom-based medicines. Biochem Evol. 2009:34-7. ... Venom peptides as therapeutics: advances, challenges and the future of venom-peptide discovery. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2017:1-9 ... peptides derived from the venom of predatory marine cone snails of the genus Conus that discriminate between nAChR isoforms [26 ... including many variations found in the venom of some spiders, wasps, snakes, and marine snails [18]. These effective and highly ...
How does smoking amphibian venom work?. Admin. December 8, 2021. Move over, ayahuasca. Despite the fact that celebs like ...
Poison is absorbed, or ingested, and venom is always actively injected. Wild amphibians use poison to defend themselves. ... Antimicrobial activity of alkaloids from amphibian venoms and effects on the ultrastructure of yeast cells. Toxicon 13:285-89. ... Amphibians display a greater array of chemical defenses than any other group of vertebrates. All amphibians have glands in ... Biological roles of amphibian skin secretions. In Amphibian biology. Vol. 1. The Integument, ed. H. Heatwole and G. T. ...
... snake venom resistance in an unexpected species-the legless amphibians known as caecilians. The research has been published in ... How an unlikely amphibian survived its judgment day. An international team of researchers has uncovered "unprecedented" ... But their venom also contains active substances that could be used against bacterial ... ...
Identification of resibufogenin, a component of toad venom, as a novel senolytic compound in vitro and for potential skin ...
9. Classification, phylogeny and distribution of poisonous amphibians, evolutionary strategy. Stucture of the poison apparats, ... W. Bücherl, E. E. Buckley, V. Deulofeu: Venomous animals and their venoms I-III., Academic Press, 1971 ... Application of drugs, poison and venoms in the natural therapy and in the drug industry. ...
The skin, as well as many other organs in the amphibian body, has undergone the most extensive rearrangement in the adaptation ... Structural and physiological features of skin in amphibians are presented within this review. We aim to procure extensive and ... updated information on the evolutionary history of amphibians and their transition from water to land-that is, the changes seen ... Amphibian skin is a particularly complex organ that is primarily responsible for respiration, osmoregulation, thermoregulation ...
To provide support for your feet, the Venom have been designed by inserting an internal stabilizer in nylon stabilizer, ... Viper tactical amphibians Venom They combine comfort, performance and design to offer you the best experience during trekking, ... Viper tactical amphibians Venom They combine comfort, performance and design to offer you the best experience during trekking, ... Decrease quantity for Venom Boots Coyote Increase quantity for Venom Boots Coyote ...
Toledo RC, Jared C: Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms. Comp Biochem Phys A 1995, 111(1):l-29. ... The Amazon fauna also provides the highest number of anuran species in the world and venom glands from frogs contain a variety ... Skin secretions from the amphibian anurans Leptodactylus knudseni and Phyllomedusa vaillantii caused significant mortality (p ... Erspamer V: Biogenic amines and active polypeptides 6516 of the amphibian skin. Annu Rev Pharmacol 1971, 11: 327-350. ...
Mucus and mucus glands are important features of the amphibian cutis. In tree frogs, the mucus glands and their secretions are ... Toledo RC, Jared C. Cutaneous granular glands and amphibian venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol. 1995; 111A:1-29. ... Locally clustered amphibian glands are also termed macroglands [17]. In amphibians, several granular macroglands have been ... The morphology of the dorsal glands agrees with general descriptions for amphibian mucus glands [14, 15, 17, 19, 45, 46]. The ...
In general, these spiders are harmless and do not possess a strong venom. Additionally, many of the spiders that can be found ... usually small amphibians, insects, and other spiders. Its diet also includes rodents, snakes, and even other tarantulas, hence ... Despite its fearsome reputation, the Goliath Birdeater is a carnivore and uses its powerful venom to paralyze its prey, ...
More recently, some peptides derived from venoms of animals - including scorpions, spiders, amphibians, snakes and marine ... mediated effects of scorpion venom: an experimental study of the effects of a second challenge with scorpion venom. Intensive ... The authors were studying Bothrops jararaca venom and reported that extracts of this snake venom or trypsin, when incubated ... So far, only seven BPPs have been identified in the arthropod venoms (Table 1). In 1993, Ferreira et al. (91) isolated and ...
A group of peptides comprises bacterial or antibiotic peptides, plant peptides, invertebrate peptides, fungal peptides, venom ... peptides, skin or amphibian peptides, anticancer or cancer peptides, inflammatory peptides, vaccine peptides, ingestive ...
Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 50: 146-159. 5. Braswell, A.L.; Palmer, W.M. & Beane, J.C. 2003. ... Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 316: 1-4. 33. Slowinski J B. 1995. A phylogenetic analysis of the New World ... Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp. 21. Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ ... A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston 9. Conant,R. & ...
These snakes have a very mild venom that they use to hunt small mammals, amphibians, and insects. However, they are harmless to ... The venom of a prairie rattlesnake has a complex mix of various proteins, including both hemotoxic and neurotoxic properties. ... Never try to kill the snake or take it with you; even a dead rattlesnake still has venom and can still bite. Instead, call ... Prairie rattlesnakes have hollow fangs that they use to inject venom into their prey. These fangs are also hinged, so that the ...
Coral snakes are venomous and their venom has been known to be potent enough to kill humans. Despite being venomous, in "Metal ... Reptiles and Amphibians Names Japan Islands China Snake Rodents Chinese Language The Color Black Japanese Language Green Other ... red on black venom lack". In the game, Snake thought the milk snake tasted terrible. ...
Specializing in reptile and amphibian natural history, biological pedagogy, and animal venoms ...
Visitors to Mtoxins Venom Lab in Oshkosh can watch live extractions and learn about the surprising ways snakes have helped ... Hes been keeping reptiles and amphibians since he was 6.. "As a little kid I wanted to keep venomous snakes, and as I got ... MToxins Venom Lab owner Nathaniel Frank holds a container of snake venom Monday, Dec. 7, 2020, in Oshkosh. Angela Major/WPR ... Nathaniel Frank pushes on the head of a black mamba to extract venom Monday, Dec. 7, 2020, at MToxins Venom Lab in Oshkosh. ...
Diet: The neurotoxic venom is an adaptation to the prey, which largely comprise rock lizards and small amphibians. It does, ...
However, it is slightly venomous, and uses its venom to subdue small lizards and amphibians. If you want to hike a trail in ... While their venom is potent, their fangs are short and their venom glands are small, and so cant hold much venom by volume. ... The effects of rattlesnake venom include: Arizonas coral snakes have the potent neurotoxic venom of all U.S. snakes. If you ... When they hunt and bite their prey, their venom has an incapacitative effect. They produce venom, but lack a large reservoir, ...
The species usually hunts by striking its prey rapidly and injecting its deadly venom to kill the victim. It often preys on ... small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and ground nesting birds. The prairie rattlesnake does not attack normally but can bite ...
Nature of venom and structure of venom apparatus. Interaction of humans with venomous animals: nuisance, phobias and allergens ... Biology and ecology of venomous animals: aquatic fauna, terrestrial arthropods, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. ...
  • A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed. (
  • He's been keeping reptiles and amphibians since he was 6. (
  • Costa Rica has one of the highest densities of herpetofauna in the world with more than 440 species of reptiles and amphibians. (
  • Now, an international team of 114 scientists, led by Northeastern Illinois University and Penn State , reports the most comprehensive study of aging and longevity to date comprising data collected in the wild from 107 populations of 77 species of reptiles and amphibians worldwide. (
  • Anecdotal evidence exists that some reptiles and amphibians age slowly and have long lifespans, but until now no one has actually studied this on a large scale across numerous species in the wild," said David Miller, senior author and associate professor of wildlife population ecology at Penn State University. (
  • If we can understand what allows some animals to age more slowly, we can better understand aging in humans, and we can also inform conservation strategies for reptiles and amphibians, many of which are threatened or endangered. (
  • Cold-blooded animals such as reptiles and amphibians have some of the longest lifespans for their size. (
  • While most research on aging variation in animals has focused on birds and mammals, this team examined 77 different species of reptiles and amphibians in the wild. (
  • Reptiles and amphibians that had protective traits-such as a hard shell, scales, or a venomous bite-aged more slowly than those without them. (
  • These insights can help inform conservation strategies for reptiles and amphibians in the wild, many of which are threatened or endangered. (
  • All amphibians have glands in their skin that contain toxic secretions, including non-dendrobatid frogs found in your own backyard. (
  • Mucus and mucus glands are important features of the amphibian cutis. (
  • Rattlesnakes, by contrast, have long fangs and large venom glands. (
  • These oral glands develop from the dental tissue, and this is the same developmental origin we find in the venom glands of reptiles," said Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana , whose colleague Edmund Brodie added , "If we can verify the secretions are toxic, these glands could indicate an early evolutionary design of oral venom organs, they may have evolved in caecilians earlier than in snakes. (
  • While these amphibians have no fangs to flash, and no grooves or slits on their teeth through which to pump venom as snakes do, they still have poisonous glands at the base of their sharp teeth. (
  • When the team examined the chemical composition of this slimy substance, they discovered a cell type which was chemically similar to the venom glands of the poisonous Texas alligator lizard . (
  • Thus, the presence of dental glands both in upper and lower jaws as seen in caecilians [is ancestral] in relation to the reptile venomous system," adding that it is likely "caecilians developed the ability to actively inoculate toxins through their teeth early in their evolutionary history, probably representing one of the first terrestrial vertebrates having an oral venom system. (
  • A pair of multilobed labial venom glands (modified submandibular glands) lie in the anterior portion of the lower jaw. (
  • This study presents the first protein-based investigation of staurozoan (stalked jellyfish) venom, it expands what we know about hydrozoan and anthozoan (anemones and corals) venom, and compares the diversity and evolution of cnidarian venom to other venomous animals (e.g., snakes and arachnids). (
  • However, on occasion they will also eat reptiles , other snakes, amphibians , and sometimes even ground-nesting birds . (
  • Can Venomous Snakes Bite Without Injecting Venom? (
  • And besides rattlers and coral snakes, there are a few other species that have reasonably potent venom. (
  • Rather than relying on their venom to defend themselves, coral snakes will try to avoid people. (
  • The effects of rattlesnake venom include: Arizona's coral snakes have the potent neurotoxic venom of all U.S. snakes. (
  • Adults eat mostly mice but also small birds, lizards, small snakes, amphibians and insects (especially cicadas). (
  • In sequencing the snake's genome, we identified markers that enabled us to compare toxin genes with genes in the same position in the genomes of other animals, such as snakes without venom, lizards and amphibians. (
  • Just as the United States and the Soviet Union were involved in an arms race centered around nuclear weapons during the Cold War, so are venomous snakes and their prey & predators involved in arms races centered around their primary weapon-venom. (
  • Caecilians are secretive burrowing amphibians that somewhat resemble snakes , but they couldn't be more different from the reptiles they look like. (
  • This is something common in venomous snakes, but was never thought to occur in any amphibian. (
  • Most snakes inject venom by biting and allowing it to enter their prey's bloodstream through the grooves in their fangs that caecilians lack. (
  • Viperine snakes use their venom to immobilize their prey, which consists mainly of fish and amphibians. (
  • Eastern garter snakes do not have front fangs to inject a poisonous venom. (
  • The venom apparatus is much less sophisticated than that of most venomous snakes. (
  • more than 200 chemical toxins beneficial in medical research have been isolated from just a small percentage of the world's amphibian species, including dendrobatids. (
  • Furthermore, venoms and their toxins have been considered good tools for prospecting for new active drugs or models for new therapeutic drugs. (
  • In this review, we discuss some possibilities of using different toxins, especially those from arachnid venoms, which have shown some potential application in diseases involving pain, hypertension, epilepsy and erectile dysfunction. (
  • Some amphibians are poisonous, they produce toxins to defend themselves against predators or bacterial and fungal pathogens. (
  • In an article published in PNAS, researchers affiliated with Butantan Institute describe the genome of Bothrops jararaca and suggest the origin of genes responsible for toxins in its venom. (
  • Our study located elements that will help scientists understand the evolution of toxins and the mechanisms that led to the recruitment of certain genes to perform this new function in the production of venom," said Diego Dantas Almeida, first author of the article. (
  • In the jararaca, the copies must have come under selective pressure to produce two families of toxins that account for most of the venom's action: snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and phospholipases A2 (PLA2). (
  • On the other side, vipers that had venom with toxins that were, for example, slightly more painful or fast-acting, might have been more likely to survive a predatory attack. (
  • A decade after publication of the first edition, the Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles PDF responds to extensive changes in the field of toxinology to endure as the most comprehensive review of reptile venoms on the market. (
  • Despite its fearsome reputation, the Goliath Birdeater is a carnivore and uses its powerful venom to paralyze its prey, usually small amphibians, insects, and other spiders. (
  • Prairie rattlesnakes have hollow fangs that they use to inject venom into their prey. (
  • The prairie rattlesnake waits in its hiding spot until its prey passes by, then strikes and inject its toxic venom. (
  • The neurotoxic venom is an adaptation to the prey, which largely comprise rock lizards and small amphibians. (
  • The species usually hunts by striking its prey rapidly and injecting its deadly venom to kill the victim. (
  • Copperheads have fangs that release a hemolytic venom, a venom that causes the breakdown of red blood cells, used to subdue prey. (
  • Despite their intimidating appearance, they are not a threat to humans and mainly prey on small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. (
  • At first, their predators were probably not very good at resisting the effects of the venom, especially if the predator's physiology was similar to that of their prey, and venom would have made a very good defense mechanism. (
  • Venomous mammals are mammals that manufacture venom and utilize it to kill or cripple prey, protect themselves against predators or conspecifics, or in agonistic confrontations. (
  • Mark Dufton of the University of Strathclyde has proposed that contemporary mammalian predators do not require venom since they can kill rapidly with their teeth or claws, but venom, no matter how sophisticated, requires time to cripple prey. (
  • Despite the scarcity of venom among extant mammals, poisonous spurs similar to those of the contemporary platypus may be found in the majority of non-therian Mammaliaformes groups. (
  • Poisonous skin secretions are definitely an amphibian thing. (
  • It often preys on small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and ground nesting birds. (
  • Biology and ecology of venomous animals: aquatic fauna, terrestrial arthropods, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. (
  • Mammalian venoms are a diverse group with varying compositions and mechanisms of action, originating in three orders of mammals: Eulipotyphla, Monotremata, and Chiroptera. (
  • Asp Vipers feed on small mammals and birds, and their venom can cause serious harm to humans. (
  • An international team of researchers has uncovered "unprecedented" snake venom resistance in an unexpected species-the legless amphibians known as caecilians. (
  • It started when the University of Queensland in Australia reached out to see if Frank could provide venom for research from one of his rare species. (
  • This species primarily feeds on small fish, amphibians, and invertebrates, and is an important predator in its ecosystem. (
  • The Amphibian Foundation's Conservation Research Bridge Program offers unique 1 to 3 semester opportunities for adults to conduct conservation & biological research in a collaborative and mentored scientific environment, including opportunities to contribute directly to the conservation of endangered species. (
  • However, amphibian aging rates were associated with the number of eggs they laid each year: Species that laid more eggs per year tended to age more quickly. (
  • However, it is slightly venomous, and uses its venom to subdue small lizards and amphibians. (
  • Previous to this find, the 87-million-year gap in the fossil record hid the early evolutionary history of caecilians, leading to a decades-long debate amongst scientists over the relationships of caecilians to their amphibian relatives, frogs and salamanders. (
  • Modern caecilians are limbless amphibians with cylindrical bodies with a compact, bullet-shaped skull that helps them burrow underground. (
  • Visitors might get a chance to lock eyes with a king cobra before Frank presses its head toward a sterilized chalice until its fangs pierce a clear covering and its venom collects inside. (
  • However, due to the small size of the snake (less venom), smaller mouth, and small fangs (less effective means of delivery), the venom does not pose as much danger to humans as that of rattlesnakes. (
  • Even just-hatched copperheads have fully functional fangs capable of injecting venom that is just as toxic as an adult's venom. (
  • Even newborn copperheads have fully functional fangs capable of injecting venom that is just as toxic as an adult's venom. (
  • Its half-inch fangs deliver a huge dose, up to seven milliliters of venom, or about one-quarter of a whiskey shot glass. (
  • More recently, however, animal venoms have been attracting attention and studies have been successful in addressing treatment of accidents. (
  • A new generation of drugs is likely to emerge from peptides, including those found in animal venoms. (
  • Weekly positions are available in the live collections labs (amphibian and reptile) of the Amphibian Foundation, which consists of 5 labs and over 700 animals. (
  • Corythomantis greeningi , Aparasphenodon brunoi ), amphibians are not known to actively inject venom into bodies of other organisms. (
  • Given that this group of frogs is one of the best studied of all amphibians, scientists know a lot about these animals. (
  • Their venom does not affect humans, but amphibians and small animals may experience minor toxicity from a garter snake bite. (
  • It is not how kingsnake resistance to viper venom works. (
  • We don't actually have a very exact understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms behind how kingsnakes resist the toxic effects of viper venom. (
  • At least some of their resistance comes from antibodies -chemicals in their blood that interfere with the venom- because mice injected with kingsnake blood survive viper venom better than those that aren't , and the chemical composition of kingsnake blood changes after exposure to viper venom . (
  • Just A Few Labs Produce Snake Venom Used To Make Antivenom. (
  • Now Mtoxins is one of fewer than a dozen labs across the globe producing the venom that goes into antidotes for snake bites and scorpion stings, Frank said. (
  • Each snake can give venom about every two weeks. (
  • No fatalities have been reported for the Arizona coral snake despite their deadly venom. (
  • This is how antivenom is made, how people become resistant to snake venom , and also how vaccines against infectious diseases work. (
  • salamandrid salamanders can extrude sharp venom-tipped ribs. (
  • Young prairie rattlesnakes have toxic venom as soon as they are born and look very similar to adult rattlesnakes. (
  • You often hear people say that kingsnakes are resistant or immune to the venom of copperheads, cottonmouths, and rattlesnakes. (
  • This is why kingsnakes are immune to the venom of copperheads, cottonmouths, and North American rattlesnakes, but not to the venom of, for example, king cobras or black mambas. (
  • Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. (
  • Biology of amphibians. (
  • This greatly expanded handbook offers a unique resource for biologists, biochemists, toxicologists, physicians, clinicians, and epidemiologists, as well as informed laypersons interested in the biology of venomous reptiles, the biochemistry and molecular biology of venoms, and the effects and treatment of human envenomation. (
  • We aim to procure extensive and updated information on the evolutionary history of amphibians and their transition from water to land-that is, the changes seen in their skin from the larval stages to adulthood from the points of morphology, physiology, and immunology. (
  • Amphibians have undergone behavioral, morphological, and lifestyle-based evolutionary processes that have tolerated their existence for millions of years, before and after dinosaurs [ 1 ]. (
  • Increasing evolutionary pressure and the vast untouched niches of the land powered the evolutionary changes in amphibians to gradually become more and more land-based. (
  • The venom of a prairie rattlesnake has a complex mix of various proteins, including both hemotoxic and neurotoxic properties. (
  • Their saliva contains a mild neurotoxin designed to incapacitate small amphibians and rodents. (
  • 1992). Obojživelníci Amphibia. (
  • In most anuran amphibians, acoustic communication is of prime importance for mate localization and selection. (
  • There is also a possibility that it contains additional substances found in the skin secretions of other amphibians, though that has not yet been proven. (
  • The skin, as well as many other organs in the amphibian body, has undergone the most extensive rearrangement in the adaptation from water to land. (
  • Eventually, all the kingsnakes without these venom resistance traits had been killed by vipers that they tried to eat, and only the resistant ones remained. (
  • The protective phenotypes hypothesis suggests that animals with physical or chemical traits that confer protection-such as armor, spines, shells or venom-have slower aging and greater longevity. (
  • Traits such as venom, shells, and armor may help animals live longer by protecting them from predators. (
  • Vipers also exhibit flipping, jerking, "body bridging" and other escape behaviors as a defense against kingsnakes -suggesting, since they do not try to bite kingsnakes in defense, that their venom is essentially useless as an anti-kingsnake defense mechanism by now and that kingsnakes have "won" this arms race. (
  • Nature of venom and structure of venom apparatus. (
  • Kingsnake predators that were slightly better able to tolerate the effects of the venom were more likely to survive. (
  • Mtoxins also offers venom from centipedes, spiders and scorpions. (
  • Now visitors can watch live venom extractions and learn about the important role venomous animals have played in our own understanding of human evolution. (
  • Nathaniel Frank pushes on the head of a black mamba to extract venom Monday, Dec. 7, 2020, at MToxins Venom Lab in Oshkosh. (
  • An eastern diamondback sits in a habitat Monday, Dec. 7, 2020, at MToxins Venom Lab in Oshkosh. (
  • Venom is conducted from each lobe through a single duct ( H horridum ) or a series of ducts ( H suspectum ) and is deposited into a labial mucosal pocket adjacent to the anterior teeth. (
  • Venom diseases / by Sherman A. Minton. (
  • In warmer environments, reptiles aged more quickly, while amphibians aged more slowly. (
  • While amphibians that began to reproduce at later ages lived longer, they did not age more slowly. (
  • Venom is conducted via capillary action along these grooves into the victim's tissues as the lizard bites and chews. (
  • [ 2 ] The more irritated the lizard is when it bites, the more it salivates and the greater the venom yield. (
  • SARAPIQUÍ, COSTA RICA - The III Amphibian and Reptiles Conservation International Symposium and Field Exploration was recently held at Selva Verde Lodge & Rainforest Reserve amidst primary forest in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. (
  • Facilities such as the Frosted Flatwoods Salamander Lab, Striped Newt Lab, Amphibian Research & Conservation Center (outdoor lab), Amphibian Lab, Squamate Lab, Venom Lab, and Special Collections. (