Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.
'Animal diseases' is a term that refers to any illness or infection that affects the health and well-being of non-human animals, caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances, which can impact individual animals, herds, or entire species, and may have implications for human health through zoonotic transmission.
A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
DNA virus infections refer to diseases caused by viruses that incorporate double-stranded or single-stranded DNA as their genetic material, replicating within host cell nucleus or cytoplasm, and including various families such as Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Papillomaviridae, and Parvoviridae.

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (1/270)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Primary structure of a visual pigment in bullfrog green rods. (2/270)

In frog retina there are special rod photoreceptor cells ('green rods') with physiological properties similar to those of typical vertebrate rods ('red rods'). A cDNA fragment encoding the putative green rod visual pigment was isolated from a retinal cDNA library of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Its deduced amino acid sequence has more than 65% identity with those of blue-sensitive cone pigments such as chicken blue and goldfish blue. Antisera raised against its C-terminal amino acid sequence recognized green rods. It is concluded that bullfrog green rods contain a visual pigment which is closely related to the blue-sensitive cone pigments of other non-mammalian vertebrates.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of single polypeptide chain of calcium-binding protein p26olf from dimeric S100B(betabeta). (3/270)

P26olf from olfactory tissue of frog, which may be involved in olfactory transduction or adaptation, is a Ca2+-binding protein with 217 amino acids. The p26olf molecule contains two homologous parts consisting of the N-terminal half with amino acids 1-109 and the C-terminal half with amino acids 110-217. Each half resembles S100 protein with about 100 amino acids and contains two helix-loop-helix Ca2+-binding structural motifs known as EF-hands: a normal EF-hand at the C-terminus and a pseudo EF-hand at the N-terminus. Multiple alignment of the two S100-like domains of p26olf with 18 S100 proteins indicated that the C-terminal putative EF-hand of each domain contains a four-residue insertion when compared with the typical EF-hand motifs in the S100 protein, while the N-terminal EF-hand is homologous to its pseudo EF-hand. We constructed a three-dimensional model of the p26olf molecule based on results of the multiple alignment and NMR structures of dimeric S100B(betabeta) in the Ca2+-free state. The predicted structure of the p26olf single polypeptide chain satisfactorily adopts a folding pattern remarkably similar to dimeric S100B(betabeta). Each domain of p26olf consists of a unicornate-type four-helix bundle and they interact with each other in an antiparallel manner forming an X-type four-helix bundle between the two domains. The two S100-like domains of p26olf are linked by a loop with no steric hindrance, suggesting that this loop might play an important role in the function of p26olf. The circular dichroism spectral data support the predicted structure of p26olf and indicate that Ca2+-dependent conformational changes occur. Since the C-terminal putative EF-hand of each domain fully keeps the helix-loop-helix motif having a longer Ca2+-binding loop, regardless of the four-residue insertion, we propose that it is a new, novel EF-hand, although it is unclear whether this EF-hand binds Ca2+. P26olf is a new member of the S100 protein family.  (+info)

The dermaseptin precursors: a protein family with a common preproregion and a variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain. (4/270)

Preprodermaseptins are a group of antimicrobial peptide precursors found in the skin of a variety of frog species. Precursors of this family have very similar N-terminal preprosequences followed by markedly different C-terminal domains that correspond to mature antimicrobial peptides. Some of these peptides are 24-34 amino acids long and form well-behaved amphipathic alpha-helices, others are disulfide-linked peptides of 20-46 residues, still others, highly hydrophobic, are the smallest antimicrobial peptides known so far being only 10-13 residues in length. All these peptides are broad-spectrum microbicides that kill many bacteria, protozoa, yeasts and fungi by destroying or permeating the microbial membrane. In frogs belonging to the genus Phyllomedusinae, preprodermaseptins encoded peptides also include dermorphins and deltorphins, D-amino acid-containing heptapeptides which are very potent and specific agonists of the mu- or delta-opioid receptors. The remarkable similarity between preproregions of precursors that give rise to peptides with very different primary structures, conformations and activities suggests that the corresponding genes originate from a common ancestor. The high conservation of the precursor prepropart indicates that this region must have an important function.  (+info)

Expression and activity of cyclic and linear analogues of esculentin-1, an anti-microbial peptide from amphibian skin. (5/270)

Esculentin-1 is a potent anti-microbial peptide present in minute amounts in skin secretions of Rana esculenta. It contains 46 amino-acid residues and a C-terminal disulfide bridge. We have explored the possibility of producing analogues of this peptide by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli of a fusion protein which is sequestered in inclusion bodies. The peptide of interest has been inserted at the N-terminus of the protein, from which it can be released by cyanogen bromide cleavage. The anti-microbial activities of the recombinant peptide as well as that of a mutant linear form devoid of the disulfide bridge are presented. The recombinant analogues retain the biological activity of the natural peptide, as tested with an inhibition zone assay against a variety of microorganisms. However, experiments on the rate of bacterial killing show that gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive to the peptides than the gram-positive bacterium, the effect of the cyclic peptide being in all cases faster than that of the linear molecule. Moreover, the activity against gram-negative bacteria for both peptides is not affected by salts, whereas the activity against Staphylococcus aureus is lost at high salt concentration.  (+info)

Host defence peptides from the skin glands of the Australian blue mountains tree-frog Litoria citropa. Solution structure of the antibacterial peptide citropin 1.1. (6/270)

Nineteen citropin peptides are present in the secretion from the granular dorsal glands of the Blue Mountains tree-frog Litoria citropa; 15 of these peptides are also present in the secretion from the submental gland. Two major peptides, citropin 1.1 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGGL-NH2), citropin 1.2 (GLFDIIKKVASVVGGL-NH2) and a minor peptide, citropin 1.3 (GLFDIIKKVASVIGGL-NH2) are wide-spectrum antibacterial peptides. The amphibian has an endoprotease which deactivates these membrane-active peptides by removing residues from the N-terminal end: loss of three residues gives the most abundant degradation products. The solution structure of the basic peptide citropin 1.1 has been determined by NMR spectroscopy [in a solvent mixture of trifluoroethanol/water (1 : 1)] to be an amphipathic alpha-helix with well-defined hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The additional four peptides produced by the dorsal glands are structurally related to the antibacterial citropin 1 peptides but contain three more residues at their C-terminus [e.g. citropin 1.1.3 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGLASP-OH)]. These peptides show minimal antibacterial activity; their role in the amphibian skin is not known.  (+info)

Bombesin-like peptides and receptors in normal fetal baboon lung: roles in lung growth and maturation. (7/270)

Previously, we have shown that bombesin-like peptide (BLP) promotes fetal lung development in rodents and humans but mediates postnatal lung injury in hyperoxic baboons. The present study analyzed the normal ontogeny of BLP and BLP receptors as well as the effects of BLP on cultured normal fetal baboon lungs. Transcripts encoding gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a pulmonary BLP, were detectable on gestational day 60 (ED60), peaked on approximately ED90, and then declined before term (ED180). Numbers of BLP-immunopositive neuroendocrine cells peaked from ED80 to ED125 and declined by ED160, preceding GRP-receptor mRNAs detected from ED125 until birth. BLP (0.1-10 nM) stimulated type II cell differentiation in organ cultures as assessed by [(3)H]choline incorporation into surfactant phospholipids, electron microscopy, and increased surfactant protein (SP) A- and/or SP-C-immunopositive cells and SP-A mRNA. BLP also induced neuroendocrine differentiation on ED60. Cell proliferation was induced by GRP, peaking on ED90. Similarly, blocking BLP degradation stimulated lung growth and maturation, which was completely reversed by a BLP-specific antagonist. The dissociation between GRP and GRP-receptor gene expression during ontogeny suggests that novel BLP receptors and/or peptides might be implicated in these responses.  (+info)

The mammalian homologues of frog Bv8 are mainly expressed in spermatocytes. (8/270)

Bv8, a protein from skin secretions of Bombina variegata, reacts with receptors present in mammalian brain and intestine (Mollay et al. (1999) Eur. J. Pharmacol. 374, 189-196). As deduced from cloned cDNAs, the murine and human Bv8 homologues have identical amino-terminal sequences and also contain 10 cysteines. From mouse testes, two forms of Bv8 mRNA have been characterized, of which one contains an additional exon which codes for 21 mostly basic amino acids. The mouse Bv8 gene is most active in mid-late pachytene spermatocytes. In mouse testes, Bv8 mRNA can first be detected at the end of the second week post partum.  (+info)

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "amphibian proteins." However, I can provide some context that might help you understand what you might be looking for.

Proteins are complex molecules that perform a wide variety of functions within organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Amphibians are a class of animals that include frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts.

If you're looking for information about proteins that are found in amphibians or are unique to amphibians, then you might be interested in researching the specific proteins that are involved in various biological processes in these animals. For example, some amphibian proteins have been studied for their potential roles in wound healing, immune response, and developmental biology.

One well-known example of an amphibian protein is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are produced by the skin of many amphibians as a defense against pathogens. These peptides have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in human medicine, particularly in the context of antibiotic resistance.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I might be able to give you a more specific answer!

Amphibians are a class of cold-blooded vertebrates that include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians. They are characterized by their four-limbed body structure, moist skin, and double circulation system with three-chambered hearts. Amphibians are unique because they have a life cycle that involves two distinct stages: an aquatic larval stage (usually as a tadpole or larva) and a terrestrial adult stage. They typically start their lives in water, undergoing metamorphosis to develop lungs and legs for a land-dwelling existence. Many amphibians are also known for their complex reproductive behaviors and vocalizations.

Chytridiomycota is a phylum that includes various species of fungi known as chytrids. These fungi are characterized by having a unique life cycle that involves a motile, flagellated stage in their reproductive process. Chytridiomycota fungi can be found in a wide range of environments, including freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Some species of chytrids are parasites that infect various organisms, such as algae, plants, and animals, while others are saprophytes that obtain nutrients by decomposing organic matter.

One notable species of Chytridiomycota is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is a pathogenic fungus that infects the skin of amphibians. This fungus has been implicated in declines and extinctions of amphibian populations worldwide, making it a significant concern for global biodiversity conservation efforts.

"Ranidae" is not a medical term. It is a biological term that refers to a family of frogs and toads, commonly known as "true frogs." These amphibians are characterized by their long legs, webbed feet, and the ability to live both in water and on land. Some examples of ranids include the American bullfrog and the green frog.

"Anura" is a term used in the field of zoology, particularly in the study of amphibians. It refers to a order that includes frogs and toads. The name "Anura" comes from the Greek language, with "an-" meaning "without," and "oura" meaning "tail." This is a reference to the fact that members of this order lack tails in their adult form.

The Anura order is characterized by several distinct features:

1. They have short, powerful legs that are well adapted for jumping or leaping.
2. Their forelimbs are smaller and less specialized than their hind limbs.
3. Most anurans have a moist, glandular skin, which helps them to breathe and absorb water.
4. Anura includes both aquatic and terrestrial species, with varying degrees of adaptations for each environment.
5. They lay their eggs in water, and their larvae (tadpoles) are aquatic, undergoing a process called metamorphosis to transform into the adult form.

Anura contains approximately 7,000 known species, making it one of the largest orders of vertebrates. They have a cosmopolitan distribution and can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Anurans play essential roles in many ecosystems as both predators and prey, contributing to the regulation of insect populations and serving as indicators of environmental health.

Bufonidae is a family of toads, characterized by the presence of parotoid glands that produce bufotoxins, a group of toxic secretions. These toads are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and some isolated islands. They vary in size, shape, and coloration, depending on the species. Some notable members of this family include the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius). It is important to note that while these toads have toxic secretions, they are not typically harmful to humans unless ingested or if their secretions come into contact with mucous membranes or broken skin.

Urodela is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in the field of biology. It refers to a group of amphibians commonly known as newts and salamanders. These creatures are characterized by their slender bodies, moist skin, and four legs. They undergo a process of metamorphosis during their development, transitioning from an aquatic larval stage to a terrestrial adult stage.

While not a medical term itself, understanding the biology and ecology of Urodela can be relevant in fields such as environmental health and toxicology, where these animals may serve as indicators of ecosystem health or potential subjects for studying the effects of pollutants on living organisms.

Salamandridae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic designation in the field of biology. It refers to a family of amphibians commonly known as newts and salamanders. These creatures are characterized by their slender bodies, moist skin, and four legs. Some species have the ability to regenerate lost body parts, including limbs, spinal cord, heart, and more.

If you're looking for a medical term, please provide more context or check if you may have made a typo in your question.

"Ambystoma" is a genus of salamanders, also known as the mole salamanders. These amphibians are characterized by their fossorial (burrowing) habits and typically have four limbs, a tail, and moist skin. They are found primarily in North America, with a few species in Asia and Europe. Some well-known members of this genus include the axolotl (A. mexicanum), which is famous for its ability to regenerate lost body parts, and the spotted salamander (A. maculatum). The name "Ambystoma" comes from the Greek words "amblys," meaning blunt, and "stoma," meaning mouth, in reference to the wide, blunt snout of these animals.

Ranavirus is a genus of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect amphibians, reptiles, and fish. It belongs to the family Iridoviridae and subfamily Ranavirinae. This virus can cause a disease known as ranaviral disease, which is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions, liver necrosis, and high mortality in infected animals. The virus can be transmitted through water, direct contact with infected animals, or consumption of infected prey. It is a significant concern for wildlife conservation and aquaculture.

Ambystoma mexicanum is the scientific name for the axolotl, a type of salamander that is native to Mexico. The axolotl is also known as the Mexican walking fish, although it is not actually a fish but an amphibian. It is unique because it exhibits neoteny, which means it can remain in its larval form throughout its entire life and never undergo complete metamorphosis into a terrestrial form.

The axolotl is a popular organism in scientific research due to its ability to regenerate lost body parts, including limbs, spinal cord, heart, and other organs. This has made it an important model organism for studying the mechanisms of regeneration and repair in mammals, including humans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Reptiles" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a class of cold-blooded, scaly-skinned animals that include snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. They are characterized by having lungs for breathing, laying eggs on land, and having a three-chambered heart. If you have any medical questions or terms, I'd be happy to help clarify those!

Amphibian venoms are toxic secretions produced by certain species of amphibians, such as frogs, toads, and salamanders. These secretions are often produced by specialized glands in the skin and can contain a variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, steroids, peptides, and proteins. Some amphibian venoms can cause painful burns or irritation upon contact with the skin, while others can be deadly if ingested or introduced into the bloodstream through wounds or mucous membranes.

The study of amphibian venoms has gained increasing attention in recent years due to their potential as sources of novel bioactive compounds with therapeutic applications. For example, some peptides found in amphibian venoms have been shown to have potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs.

It is important to note that not all amphibians produce venom, and even those that do may use their toxic secretions primarily for defense against predators rather than for hunting prey. Additionally, while some amphibian venoms can be dangerous or even lethal to humans, most cases of envenomation occur in the context of intentional handling or accidental contact with these animals in their natural habitats.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Triturus" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for newts that are native to Europe. These newts belong to the family Salamandridae and are known for their ability to regenerate various body parts. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

"Xenopus laevis" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a specific species of African clawed frog that is often used in scientific research, including biomedical and developmental studies. Therefore, its relevance to medicine comes from its role as a model organism in laboratories.

In a broader sense, Xenopus laevis has contributed significantly to various medical discoveries, such as the understanding of embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, and genetic research. For instance, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1963 to John R. B. Gurdon and Sir Michael J. Bishop for their discoveries concerning the genetic mechanisms of organism development using Xenopus laevis as a model system.

Biological metamorphosis is a complex process of transformation that certain organisms undergo during their development from embryo to adult. This process involves profound changes in form, function, and structure of the organism, often including modifications of various body parts, reorganization of internal organs, and changes in physiology.

In metamorphosis, a larval or juvenile form of an animal is significantly different from its adult form, both morphologically and behaviorally. This phenomenon is particularly common in insects, amphibians, and some fish and crustaceans. The most well-known examples include the transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly or a tadpole into a frog.

The mechanisms that drive metamorphosis are regulated by hormonal signals and genetic programs. In many cases, metamorphosis is triggered by environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, or food availability, which interact with the organism's internal developmental cues to initiate the transformation. The process of metamorphosis allows these organisms to exploit different ecological niches at different stages of their lives and contributes to their evolutionary success.

'Bufo arenarum' is the scientific name for a species of toad that is native to Argentina. This toad, also known as the Argentine Toad or the Sand Toad, produces a toxic secretion from its skin as a defense against predators. The toxicity of this secretion can be harmful or even fatal if ingested or absorbed through the mucous membranes, making handling this toad with care important.

The medical definition of 'Bufo arenarum' would typically refer to the physical characteristics and behaviors of this species, as well as any potential medical implications of its toxic secretions. It is worth noting that some people have used the dried secretion of this toad, known as "toad licks" or "toad venom," as a recreational drug, despite the significant health risks associated with its use. This practice is strongly discouraged due to the potential for serious harm or even death.

"Rana pipiens" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for the Northern Leopard Frog, a species of frog that is native to North America. This frog is commonly found in wetlands and near bodies of water in fields and forests. The Northern Leopard Frog is a smooth-skinned frog with large, well-defined spots on its back and legs. It is a common subject of study in biology and ecology due to its widespread distribution and adaptability to different habitats.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information.

"Xenopus" is not a medical term, but it is a genus of highly invasive aquatic frogs native to sub-Saharan Africa. They are often used in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology and genetics. The most commonly studied species is Xenopus laevis, also known as the African clawed frog.

In a medical context, Xenopus might be mentioned when discussing their use in research or as a model organism to study various biological processes or diseases.

'Bufo marinus' is the scientific name for a species of toad commonly known as the Cane Toad or Giant Toad. This toad is native to Central and South America, but has been introduced to various parts of the world including Florida, Australia, and several Pacific islands. The toad produces a toxic secretion from glands on its back and neck, which can be harmful or fatal if ingested by pets or humans.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

"Rana catesbeiana" is the scientific name for the American bullfrog, which is not a medical term or concept. It belongs to the animal kingdom, specifically in the order Anura and family Ranidae. The American bullfrog is native to North America and is known for its large size and distinctive loud call.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition, I apologize for any confusion. Please provide more context or specify the term you would like me to define.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ponds" is not a medical term. A pond is a body of still water, either natural or man-made, that is smaller than a lake. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Animal diseases are health conditions that primarily affect animals, including but not limited to, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and pets. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, genetic disorders, and environmental conditions. Some animal diseases can also pose a risk to human health, either directly or indirectly, through the consumption of contaminated food or water, contact with infected animals, or the spread of vectors like ticks and mosquitoes. Examples of animal diseases include rabies, avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and heartworm disease. It is important to monitor, control, and prevent the spread of animal diseases to protect animal health, food security, and public health.

"Notophthalmus viridescens" is the scientific name for a species of salamander, commonly known as the Eastern Newt or the Red-spotted Newt. It is not a medical term. The Eastern Newt is found in the eastern parts of North America and undergoes three distinct life stages: aquatic larva, terrestrial juvenile (known as an "ef," short for "effluent"), and fully aquatic adult. They are known for their distinctive coloration and toxic skin secretions, which serve as a defense against predators.

A nonmammalian embryo refers to the developing organism in animals other than mammals, from the fertilized egg (zygote) stage until hatching or birth. In nonmammalian species, the developmental stages and terminology differ from those used in mammals. The term "embryo" is generally applied to the developing organism up until a specific stage of development that is characterized by the formation of major organs and structures. After this point, the developing organism is referred to as a "larva," "juvenile," or other species-specific terminology.

The study of nonmammalian embryos has played an important role in our understanding of developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). By comparing the developmental processes across different animal groups, researchers can gain insights into the evolutionary origins and diversification of body plans and structures. Additionally, nonmammalian embryos are often used as model systems for studying basic biological processes, such as cell division, gene regulation, and pattern formation.

An endangered species is a species of animal, plant, or other organism that is at risk of becoming extinct because its population is declining or threatened by changing environmental or demographic factors. This term is defined and used in the context of conservation biology and wildlife management to identify species that need protection and preservation efforts.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a "Red List" of species, categorizing them based on their extinction risk. The categories include "Critically Endangered," "Endangered," "Vulnerable," and "Near Threatened." A species is considered endangered if it meets certain criteria indicating that it faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

The primary causes for species to become endangered include habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts often focus on protecting habitats, managing threats, and implementing recovery programs to help endangered species recover their populations and reduce the risk of extinction.

DNA virus infections refer to diseases or conditions caused by the invasion and replication of DNA viruses in a host organism. DNA viruses are a type of virus that uses DNA as their genetic material. They can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from relatively mild illnesses to severe or life-threatening conditions.

Some examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and adenoviruses. These viruses can cause a range of diseases, including cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles, cervical cancer, liver cancer, and respiratory infections.

DNA virus infections typically occur when the virus enters the body through a break in the skin or mucous membranes, such as those found in the eyes, nose, mouth, or genitals. Once inside the body, the virus infects cells and uses their machinery to replicate itself, often causing damage to the host cells in the process.

The symptoms of DNA virus infections can vary widely depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Treatment may include antiviral medications, which can help to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms, as well as prevent the spread of the virus to others. In some cases, vaccines may be available to prevent DNA virus infections.

"Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase regulates amphibian sperm motility through protein kinase A activation". Developmental Biology. ... During their studies they discovered that CAPZA3 protein was similar to IZUMO1 and is considered to be an inhibitor of ... In 2010, Visconti, Julian Sosnik, and Mariano G. Buffone studied CD9, CAPZA3, and IZUMO1 proteins. ... and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation on Capacitation and the Spontaneous Acrosome Reaction of Hamster Sperm". Biology of ...
SR proteins were discovered in the 1990s in Northern Ireland, Belfast in amphibian oocytes, and later in humans. In general, ... SR proteins are a conserved family of proteins involved in RNA splicing. SR proteins are named because they contain a protein ... SR proteins can be either shuttling SR proteins or nonshuttling SR proteins. Some SR proteins associate with RNA export factor ... RS domains regulate protein-protein interactions of SR proteins. Based on sequence analysis, SR proteins are suspected to be ...
Orthologs with the TMEM44 protein include amphibians, birds, fish, and mammals. The closest ortholog from human with TMEM44 is ... TMEM44 (Transmembrane protein 44) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM44 gene. DKFZp686O18124 is a synonym of ... "Entrez Gene: Transmembrane protein 44". Retrieved 2018-05-01. "Homo sapiens transmembrane protein 44, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE: ... The C-terminus of TMEM44 is found in the cytoplasm, and the protein is predicted to be integrated within the membrane of the ...
"Two different snoRNAs are encoded in introns of amphibian and human L1 ribosomal protein genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (25): ... which are encoded in introns of ribosomal protein L1. In yeast U18 is located in the introns of Elongation Factor 1 beta (EF1- ...
"Conserved and divergent expression patterns of the proteolipid protein gene family in the amphibian central nervous system". J ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ... Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-b is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPM6B gene. In melanocytic cells, GPM6B gene ...
"Antibodies to gap-junctional protein selectively disrupt junctional communication in the early amphibian embryo". Nature. 311 ( ... One connexin protein has four transmembrane domains Six connexin proteins create one connexon channel (hemichannel). When ... Beyer EC, Paul DL, Goodenough DA (1987). "Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver ... In turn, hemichannels of uniform protein composition are called homomeric, while those with differing proteins are heteromeric ...
In amphibians (Xenopus) a similar mass protein is contained in the utricle along with calcite. The saccule contains aragonite ... In mice the protein contains 469 amino acids, and is coded by 1906 base-pair DNA. In mice the protein is first formed at day ... It is the major protein component of the otoconia (ear dust). In mice the protein is called otoconin-90, and is coded by the ... By ten days after birth the protein is not found in any cells, but only in the acellular membranes. The otoconin-90 contains ...
This protein is found to be present in fish, amphibia and mammals. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156076 - Ensembl, May ... WIF1 is a lipid-binding protein that binds to Wnt proteins and prevents them from triggering signalling. WNT proteins are ... This gene encodes a secreted protein, which binds WNT proteins and inhibits their activities. This protein contains a WNT ... "A new secreted protein that binds to Wnt proteins and inhibits their activities". Nature. 398 (6726): 431-6. Bibcode:1999Natur. ...
Transmembrane protein 98 is highly conserved in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and other non-human mammals. It is only ... Transmembrane protein 98 is a single-pass membrane protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM98 gene. The function of this ... The protein is 24.6 kdal with an isoelectric point of 4.26. There is no signal peptide in this protein. The transmembrane ... "Entrez Gene: TMEM98 transmembrane protein 98". Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, et al. (October 2003). "The secreted protein ...
"Amphibian antimicrobial peptides". Orientations of Proteins in Membranes database (OPM). Yang M, Zhang C, Zhang X, Zhang MZ, ... The cytoplasmic membrane is a frequent target, but peptides may also interfere with DNA and protein synthesis, protein folding ... The residues undergo alteration in membrane proteins. In some Gram-negative bacteria, alteration in the production of outer ... Aurein Bacteriocin Cathelicidin Copsin Diptericin Peripheral membrane proteins Virtual colony count Ageitos JM, Sánchez-Pérez A ...
The human IGSF6 protein is most closely related to the IGSF6 protein of other mammals. Aves, reptiles, amphibians, and fish ... COFACTOR: improved protein function prediction by combining structure, sequence and protein-protein interaction information. ... protein-protein interactions, and protein processing and degradation. IGSF6 has a SUMOylation site at amino acid 190. The only ... The IGSF6 protein is found only in vertebrates with the H. sapiens IGSF6 protein being most distantly related to the fish IGSF6 ...
It contains no detergents but is created by whipping up proteins and lectins secreted by the female. The eggs of amphibians are ... Amphibians portal Cultural depictions of amphibians List of amphibians List of amphibian genera List of threatened reptiles and ... Wikispecies has information related to Amphibia. The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Amphibia Amphibians ... image and PDF formats Amphibian Specialist Group Amphibian Ark AmphibiaWeb Global Amphibian Assessment Archived April 12, 2011 ...
"Amphibian transcription factor IIIA proteins contain a sequence element functionally equivalent to the nuclear export signal of ... November 2001). "Huntingtin interacting protein 1 Is a clathrin coat binding protein required for differentiation of late ... GTF3A+protein,+human at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Transcription factor IIIA is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF3A gene. It was first purified and identified as the ...
... to be two specialized histone H1 proteins which indicate a strong relation to the chromosomal proteins of bird and amphibians. ... Two Specialized Histone H1 proteins are the major sperm of the sea anemone Urticina (Tealia) crassicornis. Victoria, BC: ... Two Specialized Histone H1 proteins are the major sperm of the sea anemone Urticina (Tealia) crassicornis. Victoria, BC: ... Urticina crassicornis's major sperm chromosomal proteins have been found ...
... and can move towards a variety of molecules that are present on the amphibian surface, such as sugars, proteins and amino acids ... The amphibians infected with these zoospores are shown to die from cardiac arrest. Besides amphibians B. dendrobatidis also ... also known as Bd or the amphibian chytrid fungus, is a fungus that causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Since its ... Some amphibian species appear to have an innate capacity to withstand chytridiomycosis infection due to symbiosis with ...
TMEM151B is present in the amphibian order Anura. TMEM151B could not be found in the amphibian order Caudata (newts and ... Transmembrane protein 151A has three transmembrane domains. The N-terminus of the protein is located in the cytosol and the C- ... Transmembrane protein 151A, also known as TMEM151A, is a protein that is encoded by the TMEM151A gene. The gene encoding ... "transmembrane protein 151A [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 27 April 2019. "Gene Cards ...
... fish and amphibians create cryoprotectants (antifreeze compounds and antifreeze proteins) in their bodies to minimize freezing ... Hydrogen bonding in aqueous solutions is important for proper protein and DNA function. Thus, as the cryoprotectant replaces ... Antifreeze protein Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources Cryoconservation of plant genetic resources Cryopreservation ... Arctic fish use antifreeze proteins, sometimes appended with sugars, as cryoprotectants. Insects most often use sugars or ...
"Geographic Protein Variation and Divergence in the Salamanders of the Plethodon Weller Group (Amphibia, Plethodontidae)". ... Amphibians of the United States, Plethodon, Amphibians described in 1931, Taxonomy articles created by Polbot). ... Lannoo, Michael (2005). Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species (1st ed.). University of ... Adler, Kraig (2007). Contributions to the History of Herpetology, Volume 2. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. p ...
It returns the proteins back to blood. Amphibian lymph hearts are made up from three tissue layers analogous to the three ... In some amphibian species, lymph hearts are in pairs, and may number as many as 200 in one animal the size of a worm, while ... In amphibians, lymph hearts lie at vein junctions. Frogs and salamanders have 10 to 20 lymph hearts, while caecilians have more ... Lymph also contains a small amount of metabolic waste and a much smaller amount of protein than that of blood. Lymph vessels ...
Several regions of this domain are conserved in c20orf196 orthologs found in mammals, amphibians, and fish. The proteins of ... C20orf196 has a high protein sequence divergence rate. It is a fast evolving protein. It evolves faster than fibrinogen, as ... protein-protein interaction networks, integrated over the tree of life". Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (Database issue): D447-52. ... The most common transcript encodes a protein that is 205 amino acids long with a molecular mass of 23 kDa. It has a predicted ...
... a pioneer in the study of Chinese amphibians and reptiles". Protein Cell. 6 (9): 625-627. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0165-1. PMC ... Handbook of North China Amphibians and Reptiles (1932) with Ch'eng-chao Liu and Shu-ch'un Chou Survey of Chinese Amphibia (1940 ... She also continued to publish research with Pope and continued to work on the taxonomy of Chinese amphibians. She specifically ... Kraig Adler (1989). Contributions to the History of Herpetology, Society for the study of amphibians and reptiles : 202 p. (CS1 ...
Within vertebrates, FAM46B is highly conserved in fish, amphibians and mammals. Common model organisms that FAM46B has been ... Protein FAM46B also known as family with sequence similarity 46 member B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM46B ... A second protein shown to physically interact with FAM46B is DAZAP2, is a proline-rich brain expressed protein. In combination ... However, the protein interactome is not yet well understood. Not every program identified interacting proteins in the same ways ...
TMEM44 orthologs includes groups such as amphibians, birds, fish, mammals. Predicted paralogous proteins of TMEM44 are C9IZ85, ... Transmembrane protein 44 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM44 gene. mRNA sequence of the TMEM44 gene is 1483 ... "Entrez Gene: Transmembrane protein 44". Retrieved 2018-05-01. "Homo sapiens transmembrane protein 44, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE: ... There are seven predicted transmembrane domains in TMEM44 protein. GSK3B (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) is a protein ...
... for an amphibian) 2.38 Gb genome and 24,548 protein-coding genes. In Western Australia the western banjo frog, Limnodynastes ... Amphibians of New South Wales, Amphibians of the Australian Capital Territory, Amphibians of Victoria (state), Amphibians of ... Waite, Edgar R. (1929): The reptiles and amphibians of South Australia. Facsimile Edition, issued to commemorate the Second ... Frost, Darrel R. (2018). "Limnodynastes dumerilii Peters, 1863". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version ...
Spiders, scorpions, and some amphibians convert ammonia, as a product of protein metabolism in the cells, to guanine, as it can ...
Amphibian PGRPs are also proven or predicted amidases and likely have similar functions to fish PGRPs. All four mammalian PGRPs ... Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 Peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 Peptidoglycan recognition protein 3 Peptidoglycan ... PGLYRP3 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 3) and PGLYRP4 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 4) are constitutively expressed in ... These are peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1), peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (PGLYRP2), peptidoglycan ...
ZNF800 has homologs in trichoplax, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Based on the found E values ... Zinc Finger Protein 800 or ZNF800 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF800 gene. The specific function of ZNF800 is ... "The Human Protein Atlas". Protein Atlas. "GEO Profiles". NCBI. "Allen Brain Atlas (Mouse)". ISH Data. "Gene2Promoter". ... A few potential interacting proteins (depicted in Figure "Proteins Predicted to Interact with ZNF800" on the right) were found ...
Lactalbumin, or whey protein, is a protein fraction of milk. It is mainly Beta-lactoglobulin, although serum albumin also ... Haefliger DN, Moskaitis JE, Schoenberg DR, Wahli W (October 1989). "Amphibian albumins as members of the albumin, alpha- ... Albumin is a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins. All of the proteins of the albumin ... It seems to carry lipidated Wnt proteins and Vitamin E around. Extracellular matrix protein 1 is a less canonical albumin. It ...
The CRACDL gene is similar and conserved in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. It is not conserved in bacteria, ... CRACD-like protein. previously known as KIAA1211L is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRACDL gene. It is highly ... The CRACD-L protein is proline rich and asparagine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine poor. The CRACD-L protein has one ... CRACD-L protein is also predicted to interact with Alpha-synuclein (SNCA), E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Mdm2 (MDM2), Serine/ ...
... also known as zinc finger CCCH-type containing protein 11B is a protein in humans that is encoded by the ZC3H11B gene. ... and amphibians. Currently, there is one paralog of ZC3H11B in the same CCCH-type zinc finger family based on BLAST analysis ( ... Dhar J, Chakrabarti P (June 2015). "Defining the loop structures in proteins based on composite β-turn mimics". Protein ... The ZC3H11B protein has three conserved domains. These include zinc finger domains, which are one of the most common or ...
"Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase regulates amphibian sperm motility through protein kinase A activation". Developmental Biology. ... During their studies they discovered that CAPZA3 protein was similar to IZUMO1 and is considered to be an inhibitor of ... In 2010, Visconti, Julian Sosnik, and Mariano G. Buffone studied CD9, CAPZA3, and IZUMO1 proteins. ... and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation on Capacitation and the Spontaneous Acrosome Reaction of Hamster Sperm". Biology of ...
... but instead exhibits sequence and structural homology to mammalian hormone carriers and amphibian biliverdin-binding proteins. ... the responsible proteins have not been identified. We use chemical approaches to show that a ~50 kDa plasma protein is the ... Longer-range movements of anuran amphibians such as mass migrations and habitat invasion have received a lot of attention, but ... Proteomic and biochemical studies establish this plasma protein to be a liver-derived alkaloid-binding globulin (ABG) that is a ...
Plasma protein and morphology of salamandra salamandra in Israel. Amphibia-Reptilia 7: 105-114. ... Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 305-323.. *Olgun K, Tok V, Arntzen JW, Turkozan O (1997) The taxonomic status of the banded newt ( ... Amphibia-Reptilia 24: 201-207.. *Pearlson O, Jackson K, Degani G (2007) The gonadal cycle in males and females of triturus ... Degani G (1986a) Growth and behavior of six species of amphibian larvae in a winter pond in Israel. Hydrobiolo 140: 5-10. ...
intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. Definitions. Medical Information Search ... PeptideProteinsReceptors, Vasoactive Intestinal PeptideReceptors, Atrial Natriuretic FactorAmphibian ProteinsEpitopes, T- ... Salivary Proteins and Peptides. Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ... Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.. ...
Among these in silico methods, the prediction of BLAST is based on protein sequence similarity, while that of machine learning ... Besides experimental explorations, a variety of computational methods have been designed to predict protein function. ... to BLAST and many other approaches in predicting the function of remotely relevant proteins and the homologous proteins of ... this study comprehensively assessed the performance of four popular algorithms applied to protein function prediction, which ...
Amphibians also have special skin glands that produce useful proteins.. Many of the medicines we use today, to fight everything ... Animals, Amphibians, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Reptiles / By Alexander Baumgartner / Updated on April 16, 2024 / 4 minutes of ... "Reptiles and amphibians are often thought of as primitive, but theyve been evolving just as long as mammals have, and theyve ... Amphibians are small vertebrates that need water, or a moist environment, to survive. ...
Bv8 is an amphibian peptide belonging to the widely distributed AVIT protein family. The mammalian orthologues of Bv8 were ... 1 The small protein Bv8, secreted by the skin of the frog Bombina variegata, belongs to a novel family of secreted proteins ... Bv8 is a small protein secreted by frog skin. Mammalian homologues of Bv8, the prokineticins PK1 and PK2, and their G-protein ... Bv8 is a small protein secreted by frog skin. Mammalian homologues of Bv8, the prokineticins PK1 and PK2, and their G-protein ...
Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More ...
Cytochemistry and polarization microscopy of amphibian sperm cell nuclei presumed to differ in basic protein composition 0 0 0 ... Cytochemistry and polarization microscopy of amphibian sperm cell nuclei presumed to differ in basic protein composition 118 ...
It is a great source of protein for reptiles, amphibians, birds and arachnids. It makes great fish bait at the pre-wing or ...
2. Protein Donuts from Scout & Zoes Summertime is picnic season, between Memorial Day, Independence Day, and hot summer ... reptiles and amphibians. And for pet owners who may be unsure what to try first, WPA is excited to present the Super Swarm ... By feeding on food waste from restaurants, fly larvae are a sustainable, low-carbon, high-protein option for dogs, cats, ... If your customers are looking for alternative protein sources for their pets, Scout & Zoes is the place to start. ...
5.5 Hatortempt 5 lbs Non-GMO Dried Mealworms-High-Protein Mealworms for Wild Bird ,Chicken, Ducks,Fish,Reptile, Tortoise , ... Amphibian,Lizard. *5.6 Manna Pro 7-Grain Ultimate Chicken Scratch , Scratch Grain Treat for Chickens and Other Birds , Non-GMO ... Hatortempt 5 lbs Non-GMO Dried Mealworms-High-Protein Mealworms for Wild Bird ,Chicken, Ducks,Fish,Reptile, Tortoise , ... SUPERIOR NUTRITION - Manna Pro Medicated Chick Starter Grower guarantees 18% protein to support weight gain and muscle ...
... genomics of actinobacteria and the exploitation of amphibian proteins for biotechnology. We use a range of techniques to study ... These modifications can be highly complicated such as the covalent and non-covalent attachment of proteins, lipids and ... glycolipids and proteins, which have been relatively well studied in these organisms (sometimes referred to as the Mycolata). ... the biology of actinobacteria including molecular genetics, protein biochemistry, genomics, microscopy, physiology, advanced ...
... a corticosterone binding protein was recognized in synapses of amphibian mind, with characteristics much like G-protein coupled ... Most ATI proteins belong to the so-called CM protein fraction of wheat, because they are soluble in chloroform and methanol ... but did not communicate this caveolar protein. However, if indicated, this membrane protein dimerizes PF 1022A with the mGR ... composed mostly by starch and non-prolamin proteins, namely albumins and globulins (A/G). Among gluten proteins, glutenins play ...
Animalia, Amphibians. UniProt:. Q2WCN8. PubMed :. 16139927. Length :. 73. Activity :. Antimicrobial. Validated :. Predicted ( ...
With males growing to 11 inches long they presumably yield a significant amount of protein, but wrangling these amphibians ... Amphibian, Bone Breaking, Cameroon, claw, claws, frog, miracles of weird, The Hairy Frog, The Horror Frog, West Africa ... The horror frog might be the most bad ass amphibian in the game. Plenty animals are willing to go to great evolutionary lengths ... "Being amphibians, it would not be surprising if some parts of the wound heal and the tissue is regenerated," Blackburn says. ...
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as a stress biomarker in several studies as well as other stress biomarker, but the ... For instance, increased HSP 70 in some species, such as fish, amphibians, arthropods, and plants, is a biomarker for detection ... stabilizing unfolded proteins, assisting with refolding of denatured proteins and preventing protein aggregation [12]. Tissues ... Chirico WJ, Waters MG, Blobel G (1988) 70K heat shock related protein stimulate protein translocation into microsomes. Nature ...
In summary Vicriviroc Malate EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes amphibians reptiles parrots marsupials and ... Numerous proteins have now been described to follow the plan of RIP similarly to APP sequential cleavages by α-secretases of ... Intro Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) is an important means of rules for a growing number of transmembrane proteins [ ... Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is definitely a prototype RIP substrate that was analysed Vicriviroc Malate in great fine ...
High in protein (21%), ~9% fat and easily digestible for reptiles, amphibians, arachnids or birds. ... Grown on a high protein grain & fresh produce diet, supplemented with vitamins & minerals. ...
... texture cylinders provide ideal place for crickets to hide Dark cylinders are removable for easy feeding of reptiles/amphibians ... Protein, vitamins and minerals are a life sustaining need for many reptiles, amphibians and birds. Crickets are the most widely ... Dark cylinders are removable for easy feeding of reptiles/amphibians/birds. *The technologically advanced lid features a ...
Amino acids 1-14 of galanin are highly conserved in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibia and fish. Shorter peptide species (e.g. ... 2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: G protein-coupled receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S23-S144. ... Pharmacology and activation of G-protein inwardly rectifying K+ channels. J Biol Chem, 273 (36): 23321-6. [PMID:9722565] ... Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse ( ...
The supernatants were subjected to the Bio-Rad protein assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) to determine protein concentrations. ... Proteins were then separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to BA85 nitrocellulose membrane (PROTRAN ... Ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19) was used as internal control. For the measurement of miRNA levels, a poly(A) tail was first added ... simple muscle protein 22 (SM22; Abcam, Cambridge, MA) (51), myocardin (R&D Systems) (1), serum response element (SRF; Cell ...
... amphibian (frog), and bird (chicken). Regions corresponding to human SUN2 Sites 1 and 2 are indicated by boxes. (C) Multiple ... Evolutionary conservation analysis of SUN2 protein sequence.. (A) Schematic of human SUN2 domain organization. (B) Multiple ... Eluted proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analyzed by western ... Eluted proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analyzed by western ...
An Important New Food for Pet Reptiles and Amphibians written by former Bronx Zoo Zoologist Frank Indiviglio and brought to you ... on their protein requirements. Mine is on a good basic diet but Im a little uncertain about protein - are there any useful ... Amphibian Conservation Amphibian Diet Amphibian Health ancient reptiles Anolis carolinensis carolinensis Burmese Pythons caring ... Canned Insects and other Invertebrates - An Important New Food for Pet Reptiles and Amphibians. Posted by: Frank Indiviglio in ...
These centres become more clearly defined and increase in the number of distinct nuclei as amphibians and reptiles are examined ... In amphibians, prolactin has been described as a larval growth hormone, and it can also prevent metamorphosis of the larva into ... When these iodinated proteins are swallowed and broken down by enzymes, the iodinated amino acids known as thyroid hormones are ... The production of a protein-rich secretion by the skin of the discus fish (called "discus milk") that is used to nourish young ...
Other amphibian genomes. *Genomes *Download Xenopus Genomes. *X. laevis v10.1 (J-Strain) on JBrowse ... UniProt Proteins (10) Accession. Species. Source. A0A7D9NMI5 (InterPro) ,A0A7D9NMI5,Uniprot ...
Silkworms are a nutritious insect for many pet reptiles and amphibians, as they are low in fat and high in protein. Asked by ... Fat and high in good quality protein and low in fat and high protein. Tree when a silk cocoon fell into her tea from a friend ... This valuable protein fiber is used to produce silk fabrics. Today silkworms have become extinct outside silk factories and ... It is a form of protein used in beauty and hair products. Here are some of the strangest pets U.S. presidents have ever ...
Algal Proteins [D12.776.037] Algal Proteins * Amphibian Proteins [D12.776.045] Amphibian Proteins ... Immediate Early Proteins. Proteins, Immediate Early. Proteins, Immediate-Early. Tree number(s):. D12.776.460. D12.776.964.925. ... Immediate-Early Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0027006. Scope note. Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the ... Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used ...
She has worked on the role of positive selection in molecular evolution and the assessment of rate heterogeneity in protein ... coding regions of mammal, bird and amphibian genomes. Additionally, she has worked on the evolution of genomic imprinting in ... 7. You will know how to use phylogenies in order to detect selective constraints on protein-coding sequences. ...
  • It is a great source of protein for reptiles, amphibians, birds and arachnids. (fivepointscricketfarm.com)
  • High in protein (21%), ~9% fat and easily digestible for reptiles, amphibians, arachnids or birds. (bugsalive.com.au)
  • Protein, vitamins and minerals are a life sustaining need for many reptiles, amphibians and birds. (carolinaaquatics.com)
  • Amino acids 1-14 of galanin are highly conserved in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibia and fish. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • These centres become more clearly defined and increase in the number of distinct nuclei as amphibians and reptiles are examined, and they are as extensive in birds as they are in mammals. (britannica.com)
  • The oxytocin-like peptide is usually isotocin (most fishes) or mesotocin (amphibians, reptiles, and birds). (britannica.com)
  • Reptiles and amphibians are often thought of as primitive, but they've been evolving just as long as mammals have, and they've adapted to a remarkable range of environments. (animalvivid.com)
  • I have long stressed the importance of dietary variety to the health of captive reptiles and amphibians. (thatpetplace.com)
  • Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. (lookformedical.com)
  • The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. (lookformedical.com)
  • The biological tasks of RIP are several-fold and include the generation of soluble extracellular domains with ligand activity formation of Aβ-like peptides launch and nuclear translocation of ICDs with transcriptional capacity and protein degradation [1] [11]. (bioerc-iend.org)
  • In summary Vicriviroc Malate EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes amphibians reptiles parrots marsupials and placental mammals and is subject to dropping γ-secretase-dependent controlled intramembrane proteolysis and proteasome-mediated degradation. (bioerc-iend.org)
  • Thyroid hormones actually direct metamorphosis in the larvae of lampreys, bony fishes, and amphibians. (britannica.com)
  • We use chemical approaches to show that a ~50 kDa plasma protein is the principal alkaloid-binding molecule in blood of poison frogs. (stanford.edu)
  • ABG represents a new small molecule binding functionality in serpin proteins, a novel mechanism of plasma alkaloid transport in poison frogs, and more broadly points toward serpins acting as tunable scaffolds for small molecule binding and transport across different organisms. (stanford.edu)
  • I was also able to tong-feed the insects to several species of "live food only" amphibians, including horned frogs, green frogs, leopard frogs (see photo), American bullfrogs (see photo, albino frogs pictured here), gray treefrogs, barking treefrogs, spotted salamanders and fire salamanders (see picture. (thatpetplace.com)
  • Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can infect aquatic food animals (e.g. finfish, crustaceans, mol uscs, amphibians) and therefore these animals do not play an epidemiological role in spreading COVID-19 to humans. (who.int)
  • B ) Multiple sequence analysis of SUN2 Site 1 (top) and Site 2 (bottom) among primates (chimpanzee, rhesus, and green monkeys), other mammals (mouse and dog) and marsupial (Oppossum), amphibian (frog), and bird (chicken). (elifesciences.org)
  • Important human pathogens such as Corynebacterium and Mycobacterium have taken cell wall decoration to extraordinary levels with the attachment of highly specialised mycolic acids, arabinomannan, glycolipids and proteins, which have been relatively well studied in these organisms (sometimes referred to as the Mycolata). (strath.ac.uk)
  • We also have an interest in evolution of metabolism, evolution of bacterial pathogens, genomics of actinobacteria and the exploitation of amphibian proteins for biotechnology. (strath.ac.uk)
  • RAAS outbreaks were defined as 2 culture-confirmed human Salmonella infections with similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and epidemiologic, laboratory or traceback evidence linking them to a common reptile/amphibian exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 362 patients/caregivers interviewed, 111 (30.7%) were aware that reptiles/amphibians can carry Salmonella. (cdc.gov)
  • This is because raw meat and other raw protein from animals can have germs like Salmonella and Listeria . (cdc.gov)
  • Intro Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) is an important means of rules for a growing number of transmembrane proteins [1] [2]. (bioerc-iend.org)
  • The tumour-associated antigen EpCAM (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule) is definitely a single transmembrane protein which is highly and frequently indicated in human being and rodent carcinomas cells progenitors embryonic and adult stem cells [12] [13]. (bioerc-iend.org)
  • We use a range of techniques to study the biology of actinobacteria including molecular genetics, protein biochemistry, genomics, microscopy, physiology, advanced spectroscopy, mathematical modeling and bioinformatics. (strath.ac.uk)
  • It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals. (bvsalud.org)
  • When these iodinated proteins are swallowed and broken down by enzymes, the iodinated amino acids known as thyroid hormones are released. (britannica.com)
  • Raw pet foods contain protein from an animal, like chicken and beef, and have not been cooked or heated to a high enough temperature to kill germs. (cdc.gov)
  • Proteínas codificadas por genes inmediatos-precoces, en ausencia de síntesis proteica de novo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression , and patterns diagnostic for diseases. (lookformedical.com)
  • Expressions of the HSP 27 gene and its protein in the GR group were decreased in the longissimus lumborum and ST muscles compared with those in the CT group at the end of grazing. (omicsonline.org)
  • Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as a stress biomarker in several studies as well as other stress biomarker, but the influence of different rearing environment on HSPs expression with other stress biomarker in cattle is unclear. (omicsonline.org)
  • Despite the proposed roles of plasma proteins as mediators of alkaloid trafficking and bioavailability, the responsible proteins have not been identified. (stanford.edu)
  • Their G-protein coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, have divergent roles that can be therapeutic target for treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neural diseases as well as pain and cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, COVID-19 outbreaks may also lead to an increase in local community consumption and/or utilisation of aquatic food animals or their products due to limited transportation and trade away from the fishing and harvesting communities or limited supplies of alternative sources of animal proteins. (who.int)
  • Here, we present a camera system that is affordable, accessible, and suitable to monitor small, cold-blooded animals historically overlooked by commercial camera traps, such as small amphibians. (stanford.edu)
  • As we learn more about our pets and how food allergies can manifest in animals, companies like Scout & Zoe's are there to bridge the gap, offering alternative protein treats and foods that won't irritate pets' skin and tummies. (worldpetassociation.org)
  • Freeze-drying, dehydrating, or freezing raw protein from animals only reduces the amount of germs. (cdc.gov)
  • The horror frog might be the most bad ass amphibian in the game. (nerdist.com)
  • With males growing to 11 inches long they presumably yield a significant amount of protein, but wrangling these amphibians isn't as simple as catching a friendly bull frog. (nerdist.com)
  • Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is a chemokine-like peptide that modulates nociceptive threshold and immuno-inflammatory processes via two G-protein-linked receptors, prokineticin receptor 1 and 2 (PKR1 and PKR2). (bvsalud.org)
  • Prokineticins (PKs) bind with high affinity to two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (bvsalud.org)
  • E ) Analysis of the stability of SUN2 WT and the indicated mutants after inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX). (elifesciences.org)
  • Grown on a high protein grain & fresh produce diet, supplemented with vitamins & minerals. (bugsalive.com.au)
  • C ) Multiple sequence analysis of nucleoplasmic sequences of human SUN1 and SUN2 proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • In 2013 he and his colleagues from the Rosario National University and the National Autonomous University of Mexico studied in vitro fertilization and suggested that pathways in head and tail have different proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules. (lookformedical.com)
  • of the heme-binding protein A (HbpA), defined the high-density fraction ( = 1.20 g/cm3) as putative OM. (siamtech.net)
  • Shibata M, Hikino Y, Matsumoto K, Yamamoto N (2014) Influence of Housing Density and Grazing on Heat Shock Protein 27 Expression in Skeletal Muscle of Beef Cattle. (omicsonline.org)
  • We used ImageJ software to quantify the gray density of protein bands. (phytid.org)
  • The ancestral protein of IRF3 and 7 seemed to possess the DPHK motif. (cdc.gov)
  • If your customers are looking for alternative protein sources for their pets, Scout & Zoe's is the place to start. (worldpetassociation.org)
  • Amphibians are small vertebrates that need water, or a moist environment, to survive . (animalvivid.com)
  • One bird that is a point of confusion is the pigeon which creates crop milk to feed its young, which is a substance that is made from protein-rich cells and fat that lines a parent bird's crop, a pouch in the throat that stores food. (animalvivid.com)
  • Interestingly, two-dimensional immunoblots indicated that LPS and members of the Hbp family of proteins did not appear to stimulate an humoral response in any infected cats. (siamtech.net)
  • From hyenas to silkworms: Looking back at more than two centuries of presidential pets BATEMAN: Geezer's Diary Part 72 - Cats & dogs If you practice yoga, thank this man who came to … Als u op zoek bent naar een eenvoudig zomerproject voor uw kinderen, dan is dat niet alleen een aloude traditie, maar ook een kans om geschiedenis en geografie te verkennen. (trnds.co)
  • Amphibians also have special skin glands that produce useful proteins. (animalvivid.com)
  • Many of the medicines we use today, to fight everything from AIDS to cancer, originate as a toxin in an amphibian skin. (animalvivid.com)
  • Sadly, these antigenic protein never have been determined, and their part in protective immune system responses can be unclear. (siamtech.net)
  • These modifications can be highly complicated such as the covalent and non-covalent attachment of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides. (strath.ac.uk)
  • During their studies they discovered that CAPZA3 protein was similar to IZUMO1 and is considered to be an inhibitor of latrunculin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteomic and biochemical studies establish this plasma protein to be a liver-derived alkaloid-binding globulin (ABG) that is a member of the serine-protease inhibitor (serpin) family. (stanford.edu)
  • PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES. (lookformedical.com)
  • Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques. (lookformedical.com)
  • The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. (bvsalud.org)
  • When purified OMs were probed with feline sera, antigenic proteins profiles were very similar to those observed with total membranes, indicating that many, but not all, of the immunoreactive proteins detected in the initial immunoblots were OM components. (siamtech.net)
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is definitely a prototype RIP substrate that was analysed Vicriviroc Malate in great fine detail owing to its central function in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. (bioerc-iend.org)
  • Our previous study shows that decrease in expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 occurred in grazed cattle by skeletal muscle proteome analysis [ 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)