Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Triturus: A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.MycosesRana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Animal DiseasesNotophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.DNA Virus Infections

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (1/270)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Primary structure of a visual pigment in bullfrog green rods. (2/270)

In frog retina there are special rod photoreceptor cells ('green rods') with physiological properties similar to those of typical vertebrate rods ('red rods'). A cDNA fragment encoding the putative green rod visual pigment was isolated from a retinal cDNA library of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Its deduced amino acid sequence has more than 65% identity with those of blue-sensitive cone pigments such as chicken blue and goldfish blue. Antisera raised against its C-terminal amino acid sequence recognized green rods. It is concluded that bullfrog green rods contain a visual pigment which is closely related to the blue-sensitive cone pigments of other non-mammalian vertebrates.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of single polypeptide chain of calcium-binding protein p26olf from dimeric S100B(betabeta). (3/270)

P26olf from olfactory tissue of frog, which may be involved in olfactory transduction or adaptation, is a Ca2+-binding protein with 217 amino acids. The p26olf molecule contains two homologous parts consisting of the N-terminal half with amino acids 1-109 and the C-terminal half with amino acids 110-217. Each half resembles S100 protein with about 100 amino acids and contains two helix-loop-helix Ca2+-binding structural motifs known as EF-hands: a normal EF-hand at the C-terminus and a pseudo EF-hand at the N-terminus. Multiple alignment of the two S100-like domains of p26olf with 18 S100 proteins indicated that the C-terminal putative EF-hand of each domain contains a four-residue insertion when compared with the typical EF-hand motifs in the S100 protein, while the N-terminal EF-hand is homologous to its pseudo EF-hand. We constructed a three-dimensional model of the p26olf molecule based on results of the multiple alignment and NMR structures of dimeric S100B(betabeta) in the Ca2+-free state. The predicted structure of the p26olf single polypeptide chain satisfactorily adopts a folding pattern remarkably similar to dimeric S100B(betabeta). Each domain of p26olf consists of a unicornate-type four-helix bundle and they interact with each other in an antiparallel manner forming an X-type four-helix bundle between the two domains. The two S100-like domains of p26olf are linked by a loop with no steric hindrance, suggesting that this loop might play an important role in the function of p26olf. The circular dichroism spectral data support the predicted structure of p26olf and indicate that Ca2+-dependent conformational changes occur. Since the C-terminal putative EF-hand of each domain fully keeps the helix-loop-helix motif having a longer Ca2+-binding loop, regardless of the four-residue insertion, we propose that it is a new, novel EF-hand, although it is unclear whether this EF-hand binds Ca2+. P26olf is a new member of the S100 protein family.  (+info)

The dermaseptin precursors: a protein family with a common preproregion and a variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain. (4/270)

Preprodermaseptins are a group of antimicrobial peptide precursors found in the skin of a variety of frog species. Precursors of this family have very similar N-terminal preprosequences followed by markedly different C-terminal domains that correspond to mature antimicrobial peptides. Some of these peptides are 24-34 amino acids long and form well-behaved amphipathic alpha-helices, others are disulfide-linked peptides of 20-46 residues, still others, highly hydrophobic, are the smallest antimicrobial peptides known so far being only 10-13 residues in length. All these peptides are broad-spectrum microbicides that kill many bacteria, protozoa, yeasts and fungi by destroying or permeating the microbial membrane. In frogs belonging to the genus Phyllomedusinae, preprodermaseptins encoded peptides also include dermorphins and deltorphins, D-amino acid-containing heptapeptides which are very potent and specific agonists of the mu- or delta-opioid receptors. The remarkable similarity between preproregions of precursors that give rise to peptides with very different primary structures, conformations and activities suggests that the corresponding genes originate from a common ancestor. The high conservation of the precursor prepropart indicates that this region must have an important function.  (+info)

Expression and activity of cyclic and linear analogues of esculentin-1, an anti-microbial peptide from amphibian skin. (5/270)

Esculentin-1 is a potent anti-microbial peptide present in minute amounts in skin secretions of Rana esculenta. It contains 46 amino-acid residues and a C-terminal disulfide bridge. We have explored the possibility of producing analogues of this peptide by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli of a fusion protein which is sequestered in inclusion bodies. The peptide of interest has been inserted at the N-terminus of the protein, from which it can be released by cyanogen bromide cleavage. The anti-microbial activities of the recombinant peptide as well as that of a mutant linear form devoid of the disulfide bridge are presented. The recombinant analogues retain the biological activity of the natural peptide, as tested with an inhibition zone assay against a variety of microorganisms. However, experiments on the rate of bacterial killing show that gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive to the peptides than the gram-positive bacterium, the effect of the cyclic peptide being in all cases faster than that of the linear molecule. Moreover, the activity against gram-negative bacteria for both peptides is not affected by salts, whereas the activity against Staphylococcus aureus is lost at high salt concentration.  (+info)

Host defence peptides from the skin glands of the Australian blue mountains tree-frog Litoria citropa. Solution structure of the antibacterial peptide citropin 1.1. (6/270)

Nineteen citropin peptides are present in the secretion from the granular dorsal glands of the Blue Mountains tree-frog Litoria citropa; 15 of these peptides are also present in the secretion from the submental gland. Two major peptides, citropin 1.1 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGGL-NH2), citropin 1.2 (GLFDIIKKVASVVGGL-NH2) and a minor peptide, citropin 1.3 (GLFDIIKKVASVIGGL-NH2) are wide-spectrum antibacterial peptides. The amphibian has an endoprotease which deactivates these membrane-active peptides by removing residues from the N-terminal end: loss of three residues gives the most abundant degradation products. The solution structure of the basic peptide citropin 1.1 has been determined by NMR spectroscopy [in a solvent mixture of trifluoroethanol/water (1 : 1)] to be an amphipathic alpha-helix with well-defined hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The additional four peptides produced by the dorsal glands are structurally related to the antibacterial citropin 1 peptides but contain three more residues at their C-terminus [e.g. citropin 1.1.3 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGLASP-OH)]. These peptides show minimal antibacterial activity; their role in the amphibian skin is not known.  (+info)

Bombesin-like peptides and receptors in normal fetal baboon lung: roles in lung growth and maturation. (7/270)

Previously, we have shown that bombesin-like peptide (BLP) promotes fetal lung development in rodents and humans but mediates postnatal lung injury in hyperoxic baboons. The present study analyzed the normal ontogeny of BLP and BLP receptors as well as the effects of BLP on cultured normal fetal baboon lungs. Transcripts encoding gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a pulmonary BLP, were detectable on gestational day 60 (ED60), peaked on approximately ED90, and then declined before term (ED180). Numbers of BLP-immunopositive neuroendocrine cells peaked from ED80 to ED125 and declined by ED160, preceding GRP-receptor mRNAs detected from ED125 until birth. BLP (0.1-10 nM) stimulated type II cell differentiation in organ cultures as assessed by [(3)H]choline incorporation into surfactant phospholipids, electron microscopy, and increased surfactant protein (SP) A- and/or SP-C-immunopositive cells and SP-A mRNA. BLP also induced neuroendocrine differentiation on ED60. Cell proliferation was induced by GRP, peaking on ED90. Similarly, blocking BLP degradation stimulated lung growth and maturation, which was completely reversed by a BLP-specific antagonist. The dissociation between GRP and GRP-receptor gene expression during ontogeny suggests that novel BLP receptors and/or peptides might be implicated in these responses.  (+info)

The mammalian homologues of frog Bv8 are mainly expressed in spermatocytes. (8/270)

Bv8, a protein from skin secretions of Bombina variegata, reacts with receptors present in mammalian brain and intestine (Mollay et al. (1999) Eur. J. Pharmacol. 374, 189-196). As deduced from cloned cDNAs, the murine and human Bv8 homologues have identical amino-terminal sequences and also contain 10 cysteines. From mouse testes, two forms of Bv8 mRNA have been characterized, of which one contains an additional exon which codes for 21 mostly basic amino acids. The mouse Bv8 gene is most active in mid-late pachytene spermatocytes. In mouse testes, Bv8 mRNA can first be detected at the end of the second week post partum.  (+info)

*Hox genes in amphibians and reptiles

While the protein products of Hox genes are strongly involved in these fields and differentiation in amphibians and reptiles, ... Some amphibians and reptiles have the ability to regenerate limbs, eyes, spinal cords, hearts, intestines, and upper and lower ... Hox genes play a massive role in some amphibians and reptiles in their ability to regenerate lost limbs, especially HoxA and ... Most homeodomain-containing proteins function as transcription factors and fundamentally bind and regulate the activity of ...

*Ranavirus

The main structural component of the protein capsid is the major capsid protein (MCP). Ranaviral replication is well-studied ... Ranavirus infections in amphibians have been implicated as a contributing factor in the global decline of amphibian populations ... Synthesis of viral proteins begins within hours of viral entry with necrosis or apoptosis occurring as early as a few hours ... Amphibian mass mortality events due to Ranavirus have been reported in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. ...

*Pablo Visconti

"Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase regulates amphibian sperm motility through protein kinase A activation". Developmental Biology. ... During their studies they discovered that CAPZA3 protein was similar to IZUMO1 and is considered to be an inhibitor of ... "Roles of Bicarbonate, cAMP, and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation on Capacitation and the Spontaneous Acrosome Reaction of ... In 2010, Visconti, Julian Sosnik, and Mariano G. Buffone studied CD9, CAPZA3, and IZUMO1 proteins. ...

*SR protein

SR proteins were discovered in the 1990s in Drosophila and in amphibian oocytes, and later in humans. In general, metazoans ... SR proteins are a conserved family of proteins involved in RNA splicing. SR proteins are named because they contain a protein ... SR proteins can be either shuttling SR proteins or nonshuttling SR proteins. Some SR proteins associate with RNA export factor ... RS domains regulate protein-protein interactions of SR proteins. Based on sequence analysis, SR proteins are suspected to be ...

*Small nucleolar RNA SNORD18

"Two different snoRNAs are encoded in introns of amphibian and human L1 ribosomal protein genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (25): ... which are encoded in introns of ribosomal protein L1. In yeast U18 is located in the introns of Elongation Factor 1 beta (EF1- ...

*GPM6B

"Conserved and divergent expression patterns of the proteolipid protein gene family in the amphibian central nervous system". J ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ... Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-b is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPM6B gene. In melanocytic cells GPM6B gene ...

*WIF1

This protein is found to be present in fish, amphibia and mammals. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156076 - Ensembl, May ... WIF1 is a lipid-binding protein that binds to Wnt proteins and prevents them from triggering signalling. WNT proteins are ... This gene encodes a secreted protein, which binds WNT proteins and inhibits their activities. This protein contains a WNT ... "A new secreted protein that binds to Wnt proteins and inhibits their activities". Nature. 398 (6726): 431-6. doi:10.1038/18899 ...

*Gap junction

"Antibodies to gap-junctional protein selectively disrupt junctional communication in the early amphibian embryo". Nature. 311 ( ... Beyer, E. C.; Paul, DL; Goodenough, DA (1987). "Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from ... genes can produce only the proteins that make up gap junction channels. An alternative naming system based on this protein's ... The purification of the intercellular gap junction plaques enriched in the channel forming protein (connexin) showed a protein ...

*Mottled anemone

... to be two specialized histone H1 proteins which indicate a strong relation to the chromosomal proteins of bird and amphibians. ... Two Specialized Histone H1 proteins are the major sperm of the sea anemone Urticina (Tealia) crassicornis. Victoria, BC: ... Two Specialized Histone H1 proteins are the major sperm of the sea anemone Urticina (Tealia) crassicornis. Victoria, BC: ... Urticina crassicornis's major sperm chromosomal proteins have been found ...

*GTF3A

"Amphibian transcription factor IIIA proteins contain a sequence element functionally equivalent to the nuclear export signal of ... "Huntingtin interacting protein 1 Is a clathrin coat binding protein required for differentiation of late spermatogenic ... GTF3A protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Transcription factor IIIA is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF3A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122034 ...

*Amphibian

It contains no detergents but is created by whipping up proteins and lectins secreted by the female. The eggs of amphibians are ... image and PDF formats Amphibian Specialist Group Amphibian Ark AmphibiaWeb Global Amphibian Assessment Amphibian vocalisations ... Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a ... Mesozoic Amphibians". In Heatwole, H.; Carroll, R. L. Amphibian Biology: Paleontology: The Evolutionary History of Amphibians ( ...

*TMEM98

Transmembrane protein 98 is highly conserved in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and other non-human mammals. It is only ... Transmembrane protein 98 is a single-pass membrane protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM98 gene. The function of this ... The protein is 24.6 kdal with an isoelectric point of 4.26. There is no signal peptide in this protein. The transmembrane ... "Entrez Gene: TMEM98 transmembrane protein 98". Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, et al. (October 2003). "The secreted protein ...

*Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

... and can move towards a variety of molecules that are present on the amphibian surface, such as sugars, proteins and amino acids ... also known as Bd or the amphibian chytrid fungus, is a fungus that causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. In the ... The amphibians infected with these zoospores are shown to die from cardiac arrest. B. dendrobatidis can grow within a wide ... Some amphibian species appear to have an innate capacity to withstand chytridiomycosis infection due to symbiosis with ...

*Cryoprotectant

... fish and amphibians create cryoprotectants (antifreeze compounds and antifreeze proteins) in their bodies to minimize freezing ... Hydrogen bonding in aqueous solutions is important for proper protein and DNA function. Thus, as the cryoprotectant replaces ... Antifreeze protein Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources Cryopreservation Cryostasis (clathrate hydrates) List of ...

*Guanine

Spiders, scorpions, and some amphibians convert ammonia, as a product of protein metabolism in the cells, to guanine, as it can ...

*Protein FAM46B

Within vertebrates, FAM46B is highly conserved in fish, amphibians and mammals. Common model organisms that FAM46B has been ... Protein FAM46B also known as family with sequence similarity 46 member B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM46B ... A second protein shown to physically interact with FAM46B is DAZAP2, is a proline-rich brain expressed protein. In combination ... However, the protein interactome is not yet well understood. Not every program identified interacting proteins in the same ways ...

*Transmembrane protein 268

Orthologs have been found in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, sharks, fish, and a few insects. It was not found within ... Transmembrane protein 268 is a protein that in humans is encoded by TMEM268 gene. The protein is a transmembrane protein of 342 ... The protein has been identified in organisms from the common fruit fly to primates. To date, there has been no protein ... "C9orf91 - Transmembrane protein C9orf91 - Homo sapiens (Human) - C9orf91 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016-04-28 ...

*Avidin

... is a tetrameric biotin-binding protein produced in the oviducts of birds, reptiles and amphibians and deposited in the ... confirmed that the isolated egg protein was the cause of biotin deficiency or "egg white injury". At the time the protein had ... Advances in Protein Chemistry Volume. 29. pp. 85-133. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(08)60411-8. ISBN 978-0-12-034229-7. Gyorgy, P.; ... Functional avidin is found only in raw egg, as the biotin avidity of the protein is destroyed by cooking. The natural function ...

*C11orf54

The protein is moderately conserved (30-59.99% identity) in invertebrates, amphibia, Cnidaria, Mollusca, fungi and bacteria. It ... The protein of C11orf54 exists as a monomer in solution. The protein assumes a globular shape of 20 beta strands and 4 alpha ... protein-protein interaction networks, with increased coverage and integration". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (Database issue): ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...

*Regional differentiation

Similar to the amphibians and fish, the organizer does secrete Chordin, Noggin and Nodal proteins that antagonize BMP signaling ... These proteins are known to be ligands for the Notch protein. GLP-1, a Notch protein, is also required for specification of the ... mom-2 is a member of the Wnt family of proteins (i.e. the signal) and mom-5 is a member of the frizzled family of proteins (i.e ... Wnt proteins were not necessary to specify the axis, but examination of other proteins in the Wnt pathway led to the discovery ...

*Albumin

... vitamin D-binding protein and afamin. Albumin binds to the cell surface receptor albondin. Serum albumin is the main protein of ... Haefliger, Denise Nardelli; Moskaitis, John E.; Schoenberg, Daniel R.; Wahli, Walter (October 1989). "Amphibian albumins as ... Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 12 (6): 439-446. doi:10.1093/protein/12.6.439. PMID 10388840. He, Xiao Min; Carter, ... Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 12 (6): 439-446. doi:10.1093/protein/12.6.439. PMID 10388840. ""Normal Ranges for ...

*Aztec

The lake was also a rich source of proteins in the form of aquatic animals such as fish, amphibians, shrimp, insects and insect ... demonstrates that while the Aztec diet was low in animal proteins, it was rich in vegetable proteins. Ortiz also points to the ... The presence of such varied sources of protein meant that there was little use for domestic animals for meat (only turkeys and ... quantity of human protein available from sacrifices and the fact that aristocrats already had easy access to animal protein. ...

*LSMEM1

Orthologous proteins exist mainly in mammals, birds, and reptiles. There are also more distant orthologs in amphibians and ... The 3 proteins thought to interact with LSMEM1 are: MAL, APP, and LSMEM2. All three of these interacting proteins are integral ... When the human protein encoded by LSMEM1 is compared to a known quickly evolving protein (fibrinopeptides) and a known slowly ... Leucine-Rich Single-Pass Membrane Protein 1 (LSMEM1) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the LSMEM1 gene. In humans, ...

*HSH2D

The protein was well conserved across mammals as well as a few reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates. The following list is ... The protein has a molecular weight of 39.0 kilodaltons (kD) and a pI of 6.678. The main feature of the protein is the SH2 (Src ... "STRING: Protein-Protein Interaction Network". "TNK2 tyrosine kinase non receptor 2". "IL2 Interleukin 2". Clark, Peter (2012 ... Hematopoietic SH2 Domain Containing (HSH2D) protein is a protein encoded by the hematopoietic SH2 domain containing (HSH2D) ...

*Thermoregulation

... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Amphibians and reptiles ... He found that species of the same class showed very similar temperature values, those from the Amphibia examined being 38.5 °C ... This mechanism is due to overexpressing the uncoupling protein 2 in hypocretin neurons (Hcrt-UCP2), which elevated hypothalamic ... 1993). Encyclopedia of animals - Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Pages 567-568. ISBN 1- ...

*C3orf62

The unmodified C3orf62 protein is a "glycine depleted protein" relative to amounts of glycine in proteins in the rest of the ... amphibian, or bird. The most distant ortholog of C3orf62 are species of fish and amphibians. Orthologs of C3orf62 are not seen ... Inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5), Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 9 (TXNDC9), and MORF4-family associated proteins ( ... C3orf62 is a glycine depleted protein relative to the amount of glycine in proteins in the rest of the genome. C3orf62 has a ...

*Coiled-coil domain-containing 37 (FLJ40083)

The gene encodes a protein called CCDC37. This protein in 611 amino acids in length and has a molecular weight of 71.1 ... The ortholog space of CCDC37 is fairly broad including mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates, and fungi. ... CCDC37 protein is widely expressed in mus musculus but only minimally so. Most areas that express CCDC37 have an expression ... The protein has several probable post-translational modifications. It contains four possible PEST sequence at amino acids 17-36 ...
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Allied to Phyllomedusa tarsius and Phyllomedusa boliviana according to the original publication. See comments by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 66. In the Phyllomedusa tarsius group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 117-118. In the Phyllomedusa tarsius group of Barrio-Amorós, 2006, Zootaxa, 1309: 55-68. Association with the Phyllomedusa tarsius group supported by karyological data according to Paiva, Nascimento, Silva, Bernarde, and Ananias, 2010, Ital. J. Zool., 77: 116-121. Rodrigues, Noronha, Lima, and Rosa, 2011, Check List, 7: 397-399, provided a record for western and northwestern Mato Grosso, Brazil. Santos, Andrade, Castro, and Vaz-Silva, 2012, Check List, 8: 634-635, provided a record for Tangará da Serra, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.. ...
Skin secretions of R. temporaria contain antimicrobial peptides belonging to the brevinin-1 and brevinin-2 families [1]. Characteristic of this amphibian species are temporins, recovered from secretions in the range of 14-40 nmol·mg−1 dry weight [10]. Temporin D is the least abundant molecule in the secretion (1 nmol·mg−1), although its identity with the most abundant temporin C is about 84%. On the basis of the retention time in RP-HPLC as well as from the calculated mean residue hydrophobicity, temporin H is the least hydrophobic peptide, but the calculated value for the hydrophobic moment is very similar to that of magainin 2.. Although temporins contain only 13 residues, with the exception of temporin H which is 10 residues long, CD studies indicate that these molecules adopt an α-helical structure in a hydrophobic environment. Moreover, the helical-wheel projections [31] of these peptides show an amphiphilic nature (Fig. 1).. Lipid vesicle permeabilization studies demonstrate that ...
DermaSeptin Ointment is a non-prescription skin cream that provides a barrier to prevent irritation from moisture and to promote healing. Its active ingredients are Zinc Oxide and Menthol. DermaSeptin is used for skin irritations from incontinence episode
Dermaseptina é uma família de peptídeos isolados da pele de anfíbios da subfamília Phyllomedusinae. Os peptídeos antimicrobianos já foram isolados das espécies: Phyllomedusa bicolor, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Phyllomedusa distincta, Phyllomedusa tarsius, Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis, Phyllomedusa oreades, Phyllomedusa trinitatis, Pachymedusa dacnicolor, Agalychnis annae, Agalychnis callidryas, Agalychnis litodryas e Hylomantis lemur. As sequências das dermaseptinas variam muito, mas devido a presença de resíduos de lisina todas são catiônicas e a maioria têm o potencial de formar hélices anfipáticas na água ou quando integradas com a bicamada lipídica da membrana bacteriana. Uma separação clara de dois lóbulos de potencial eletrostático intramolecular positivo e negativo é considerado o fator importante na atividade citotóxica. As dermaseptinas são tipicamente constituídas de 27-34 resíduos de aminoácidos em comprimento e foram os primeiros peptídeos de vertebrados que ...
Severn Biotech, Limited : Sauvagine and Related Peptides - Electrophoresis Products PBS & Saline Solutions Hybridisation Reagents Biological Buffers & SDS Sodium Azide Solutions General Bio-chemical Products Fingerprinting Chemical Product Forensic Dyes & Chemicals HPLC Laboratory Solvents DNA / RNA Extraction Specialist Pure Water Products Protein Linker Conjugates Peptide Synthesis Reagents Alcohol Sprays Hand Sanitiser Products Customised Services Comet Assay Products Protein Antibody Reagents Scientific Plastics Catalogue Peptides Affinity Purification Materials Cytology Screening Antibodies Specials severn, biotech
NEX306 [125I]Tyr0-Sauvagine has been shown to be active in receptor binding assays and has been used for receptor autoradiography. ...
The primary targets of defense peptides are plasma membranes, and the induced irreversible depolarization is sufficient to exert antimicrobial activity although secondary modes of action might be at w
The research presented in this thesis is centred on the transcriptomic, peptidomic and pharmacological analysis of bioactive peptides which have been isolated and characterised from Australian Pe/odryadinae Frogs. In this thesis, the lyophilised skin secretions from species of the Litoria genus of Australian Pe/odryadinae Frogs, L. caeru/ea, L. aurea and L. infrafrenata, have been studied using a rapid 3 - and 5 - RACE Shot-gun cloning strategy for procurement of bioactive peptide precursor-encoding cDNAs, without causing any detrimental effects to the donor specimens. Two novel cDNAs encoding biosynthetic precursors of the neuropeptide analogue, caerulein, and several cDNAs encoding precursors of novel antimicrobial peptides, were identified for the first time. NCBI-BLAST searches revealed a unique pattern of strikingly-conserved (prepro-) regions within precursors in contrast to the sequences of obviously hypervariable mature peptide-encoding domains. This phenomenon does not only occur in ...
image source. Some indigenous groups from South America use the secretions of Phyllomedusa bicolor, the giant leaf frog, in shamanic hunting practices. The substance is said to intoxicate the hunters who ingest it, causing them to temporarily improve their sensorial capacities.. ...
Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) ( MIC= 16 microg/ml ), Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, CIB 85462) ( MIC= 32 microg/ml ), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) ( MIC= 128 microg/ml ), Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases E. coli (ESBL, CIB 84492) ( MIC= 64 ...
2K10: Conformational analysis of the broad-spectrum antibacterial peptide, ranatuerin-2CSa: Identification of a full length helix-turn-helix motif.
Five AMPs from three different frog and toad species were tested for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant strains. Initial results showed that all the peptides acted as antibacterial agents. A peptide called esculentin 1b produced an antibacterial response within 2 to 20 minutes of exposure ...
Peptides , Temporins; Temporins constitute a family of antimicrobial peptides that are mostly effective against gram-positive bacteria (including some antibiotic-resistant strains), and they have also been shown to affect some strains of gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.1,2 Temporins are among some of the smallest antimicrobial peptides discovered, being only 10 to 13 amino acids long and having a low number of positively charged amino acids.1 Active Temporins tend to have a slight cationic character, are amidated at the C-terminus, and adopt an alpha-helical conformation.3 Originally isolated from skin secretions as an innate immune response of the European red frog, Rana temporaria, various Temporins have also been discovered from other Rana species.3 Their unique properties, such as the ability to disturb the bacterial membrane and cause leakage of molecules, make it difficult for pathogen-resistance to develop.3,4 Temporins
Anuran secretions are rich sources of bioactive molecules, including antimicrobial and antitumoral compounds. The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of Physalaemus nattereri skin secretion against skin cancer cells, and to assess its cytotoxic action mechanisms on the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. Our results demonstrated that the crude secretion reduced the viability of B16F10 cells, causing changes in cell morphology (e.g., round shape and structure shrinkage), reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in phosphatidylserine exposure, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase. Together, these changes suggest that tumor cells die by apoptosis. This skin secretion was also subjected to chromatographic fractioning using RP-HPLC, and eluted fractions were assayed for antiproliferative and antibacterial activities. Three active fractions showed molecular mass components in a range compatible with peptides. Although the specific mechanisms causing the reduced cell
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Macrophagous Gilled Larvae is a solo noise project started in 2010 by a musician from Maryland, USA, who calls himself Big Frog and is also known for Phyllomedusa, olm, Crustacea Zoëa Larvae, Toad Birth, Omphalectoicxanthopsia, and Unconcentrated Faeces Otengeny. MGLs releases can be found for a free download at the official web-page phyllomedusa.bandcamp.com. Read more on Last.fm. User-contributed text is available under the Creative Commons By-SA License; additional terms may apply ...
On one trip to visit my friends, the Matses (also known as Mayaruna or cat people), I was invited to join a characteristic frog poison ordeal in which a beautiful frog, "Phyllomedusa bicolor", is used to obtain a mild poison, but loaded with peptids and amino acids. The Matses burn the surface of the skin and smear the poison on the burn. Im one who believes in abuse in moderation so I opted for 8 "pops" of this ordeal. The Matses hunters do anywhere from 5 to 10 pops! Within 2 minutes I felt my whole nervous system shutting down and went to the ground. The sensation cleared quickly and I was ready for a ten day hunt with my Matses friends ...
The Australian tree frog has a few other names like Whites tree frog, or simply the green tree frog, but its this last name we like best - the dumpy tree frog, because it is, well, dumpy. The frog was actually originally known by yet another name, the "blue frog" because a mistake in dead-specimen preservation led to the original specimens appearing to have blue skin. ...
Graves, Brent and Quinn, V S., "Temporal Persistence of Alarm Pheromones in Skin Secretions of the Salamander, Plethodon Cinereus" (2000). Journal Articles. 324 ...
For thousands of years, Nature has been considered to be essential for human beings for the treatment of their diseases. Amphibians are an important component of the Animal Kingdom and have played a significant role in sourcing many active compounds and some therapeutics. In the course of this research, genomic and proteomic techniques have been used to investigate the bioactive peptides from the skin secretions of four American amphibian species: the Central American red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas~ the South American orange-legged leaf frog, Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis, Rohdes leaf frog, Phyllomedusa rohdei and the Giant Mexican leaf frog Pachymedusa dacnicolor. The synthetic peptides all exhibited significant biological activities. Medusins were a novel family of antimicrobial peptides found in all species investigated and all possessed a broad-spectrum of antibiotic activity. Phylloseptins were found to be active against both planktonic bacteria and those within biofilms. ...
1] Kodela PG, Tindale MD (1998) The reduction of Acacia burkittii to Acacia acuminata subsp. burkittii (Acacia sect Juliflorae: Fabaceae, Mimosoideae). Telopea 7: 415-417.. [2] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.. [3] Maslin BR, McDonald MW (2004) AcaciaSearch-evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for southern Australia. Rural Industries Research Development Corporation Publication No. 03/017, Canberra.. [4] Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (1992) Plants of Western New South Wales, Inkata Press, Port Melbourne, Victoria.. [5] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf Accessed March 2008]. [6] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, ...
Stock photo Edible green frog (Rana esculenta), is a medium-thick-set tailless animals, up to 12 cm in length, but usually smaller. Edible green frog is actually a hybrid between a small green frog ...
2014 Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) and Amphibian Survival Alliance (ASA). All Rights Reserved. The ASA is a Fiscally Sponsored Program of Global Wildlife Conservation a registered 501(c)(3). Tax ID #26-2887967 ...
Buy Sabes algo sobre anfibios? (Do You Know about Amphibians?) from Dymocks online BookStore. Find latest reader reviews and much more at Dymocks
A fragile grasp on how things really work Online or off is much the common thing. This doesnt mean one is a fool or jerk. If just a lit ...
Saturable high and low affinity binding sites for [3H]saxitoxin were identified in myometrial membranes of pregnant rats, with dissociation constants of 0.53 and 27 nM, respectively. The maximal binding capacity of the low affinity binding sites was about 10 times higher than that of the high affinity binding sites. The dissociation constants obtained from association and dissociation kinetics of [3H]saxitoxin were similar to those obtained from equilibrium binding. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin specifically displaced [3H]saxitoxin binding at both types of sites. Isradipine (1-10 microM) and amiloride (50-100 microM) were without effect on the binding of [3H]saxitoxin. At high concentrations (10-100 microM), veratridine induced a partial inhibition of [3H]saxitoxin binding. In dispersed myometrial cells, [3H]saxitoxin binding revealed the presence of both high and low affinity binding sites, with KD values similar to those obtained in myometrial membranes. Sodium currents were studied in both ...
Saxitoxin binding protein (STXBP) is a functional classification which describes all proteins capable of binding to the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST), saxitoxin (STX). Based on this functionality, this group includes the voltage gated sodium channels (VGSCs), pufferfish STX and tetrodotoxin (TTX) binding proteins (PSTBPs) and saxiphilin (SXPN) which was been isolated from the amphibian Rana catesbeiana. Various activities and relationships of bullfrog SXPN have been elucidated including the ability to inhibit papain, human cathepsin Band L and the substantial homology of the amino acid sequence to transferrins (TFs). However, the biological role of SXPN has not been thoroughly examined and remains a mystery. It is likely that a detoxification mechanism exists in animals exposed to PSTs, and may explain the defined STX binding activity of soluble STXBPs. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis was to examine various aspects of the biological relationship between STX and soluble STXBPs to ...
Two of the four parameters in the rule of five, molecular weight and log P, which can be detected and predicted by mass spectrometry and compound retention on reversed-phase HPLC, were used as guidelines in natural product isolation. A new aporphine alkaloid, (6aR)-normecambroline (1), was isolated from the bark of Neolitsea dealbata (R. Br.) Merr. Its structure was determined on the basis of NMR, MS and CD analysis. It is the first time the absolute configuration of the roemerine-N-oxide was assigned for both roemerine-N α-oxide (3) and roemerine-Nβ-oxide (4). Physico-chemical property evaluation demonstrated all alkaloids had no Lipinski violation. Compound 1 inhibited selectively against cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with an IC50 of 4.0 μM. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Now, researchers have found a source for potentially revolutionary new drugs in frog skin, ones that may be effective in fighting antibiotic-resistant infections. Particular compounds found in frog skin secretions function as effective bacteriostats and bacteriocides. However, their pharmaceutical development has been hampered by the fact that they are too easily disabled by the human bodys immune system.. But chemists were able to alter some of the frog compounds to make them both more effective at targeting antibiotic-resistant bacteria and longer-lasting inside the bloodstream. Thus, the researchers are now collecting and screening frog skin secretions from around the world with renewed hope.. A news release from the American Chemical Society summarized the research presented at their national meeting, which was held in Boston August 22-26.2 In a cursory statement about how frogs acquired this advanced chemical technology, Michael Conlon, a chemist at the United Arab Emirates University, ...
Introduction: Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats exhibit innate preference for alcohol along with anxious phenotype. In these animals, two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in position -1,836 and -2,097 from the first start codon of the CRF1-R transcript have been found. Materials and Methods: Here, we examined whether these point mutations account for the heightened anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness of msP rats. We rederived the msP rats to obtain two distinct lines carrying the wild-type (GG) and point mutations (AA), respectively. Results: CRF1-R gene expression analysis revealed significant dysregulation of the system in the extended amygdala of AA rats. At the behavioral level, using the elevated plus maze, we found that both AA and GG lines had higher basal anxiety compared to Wistar rats. In the defensive burying test, AA rats showed decreased burying behavior compared to the GG and the unselected Wistar lines. Freezing/immobility did not differ among AA and GG ...
The CRF1 receptor is a Gs-coupled GPCR expressed in the brain and pituitary gland that binds to several neuropeptides, including corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin, and the amphibian peptide sauvagine. CRF plays a predominant role in stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and alterations in CRF and its receptors CRF1 and CRF2 appear to be linked to depression and anxiety. In comparison to the CRF2 receptor, the CRF1 receptor has received considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as adrenocorticotropin hypersecretion, increased colonic motility and exaggerated fear and anxiety-related behavior.
The cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile is the most widely distributed producer of the potent neurotoxin saxitoxin in freshwaters. In this work, total and extracellular saxitoxin and the transcriptional response of three genes linked to saxitoxin biosynthesis (sxtA) and transport (sxtM, sxtPer) were assessed in Aphanizomenon gracile UAM529 cultures under temperatures covering its annual cycle (12 °C, 23 °C, and 30 °C). Temperature influenced saxitoxin production being maximum at high temperatures (30 °C) above the growth optimum (23 °C), concurring with a 4.3-fold increased sxtA expression at 30 °C. Extracellular saxitoxin transport was temperature-dependent, with maxima at extremes of temperature (12 °C with 16.9% extracellular saxitoxin; and especially 30 °C with 53.8%) outside the growth optimum (23 °C), coinciding with a clear upregulation of sxtM at both 12 °C and 30 °C (3.8-4.1 fold respectively), and yet with just a slight upregulation of sxtPer at 30 °C (2.1-fold). Nitrate depletion
Braida, L., 2002: Distribution and status of Bombina pachypus Anura Discoglossidae in Liguria Distribuzione e status di Bombina pachypus Anura Discoglossidae in Liguria
African Clawed Frog Facts Webring,African clawed frog ring that is dedicated to the xenopus laevis or any other frog species. The more information that is made available to others the more knowledgeable we become about our pets and th
Years of combing tropical mountain forests, shining flashlights under rocks and listening for croaks in the night have paid off for a team of Indian scientists which has discovered 12 new frog species plus three others thought ...
There are two main types of secretions from the skin: sebum and sweat. The sebaceous glands secrete sebum, an oily substance that is excreted from the hair follicles. Sweat is secreted through one of...
Pine Barrens Tree Frog is a very recognizable species. However, as the frogs habitat is being depleted, the animals are quickly becoming endangered. Learn more about the Pine Barrens Tree Frog below.
Aquatic Detail European Frogs: 2 assigned downloads, like European edible frog sitting on a water lily leaf in a pond Rana esculenta from stock-photos
Struktur des Paarungsrufes und der Revierrufe bei triploiden Teichfröschen (Rana esculenta) (Amphibia: Salientia: Ranidae) pp. 1-8 ...
fifty_of_the_leading_amphibian_researchers_in_the_world_have_called_for_a_new_amphibian_survival_alliance_a_400_million_initiative_to_help_reduce_and_prevent_amphibian_declines_and_extinctions_an_ecological_crisis_of_growing_proportion_that_is_continuing_to_get_worse in_a_policy_statement_to_be_published_friday_in_the_journal_science_the_scientists_say_that_32_percent_of_all_amphibian_spec
Medium, 4-5. Rana catesbeiana are usually available year round. Add 10% for sexing. Desired Date of Arrival can be entered during checkout. If you are ordering living organisms …
Top 10 Amphibian Bacterial Infections that owners are most concerned about. Diagnosis, prevention, treatments - find the right solution for your Amphibian.
Friday was a day for shopping. Yesterday was a day for giving. Today is a day to say thanks! The Amphibian Survival Alliance would like to thank you for your support, shout-outs and donations during ‪#GivingTuesday. We are extremely grateful for all the ways you support our efforts - as are the amphibians! Together we
Companion slide set to the video demonstration, Defending Against Microbes, showing how best to teach the lesson of the same name. Students investigate the human immune system and solve a crossword puzzle featuring vocabulary related to the immune system and microbes.Students use evidence to determine whether a patient has a cold, flu or strep infection, and discover the differences between bacterial and viral infections.
Hyla arborea schelkownikowi is one of the leaf frog species inhabiting the southern territories of Russia and the former USSR. This frog species is a member of the Hylidae Rafinesque, 1815 batrachians family. The present study deals with the previously uninvestigated peptidome of the Hyla arborea schelkownikowi skin secretion. Nano-electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (nanoESI-FTMS) of the skin secretion, in the intact form and after acetylation, was selected as the general method of analysis. Electron-capture dissociation (ECD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation were both employed, while de novo sequencing was performed by manual interpretation of the MS data. The suppression of the cyclization of b-ions in the mass spectrometer by the acetylation reaction proved to be very efficient for the de novo sequencing of short peptides. Ten skin peptides were found and all of them, except for bradykinin, had not previously been reported. Six of the peptides ...
1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.. [2] Doran JC, Turnbull JW (eds.) (1997) Australian Trees and Shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra [ACIAR books online: http://www.aciar.gov.au/publication/MN024] [3] Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (1992) Plants of Western New South Wales, Inkata Press, Port Melbourne, Victoria .. [4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf Accessed March 2008]. [5] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.. [6] Maslin BR, McDonald MW (2004) AcaciaSearch-evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for southern ...
Examination of serial sections of the oesophagus and stomach of Rana esculenta and Bombina variegata revealed that oesophageal peptic glands were only present in Rana, where gastric glandular cells performed only one functional role, represented by HCl production. In contrast, in Bombina the gastric glands were mainly of oxynticopeptic cells with dual oxyntic and peptic roles, reflected morphologically by distinct different areas of their cytoplasm. During activity of the oxynticopeptic cells cytoplasmic differences were reduced because the tubular profiles, carrying HCl, and zymogen granules emerged at the cell apex.
The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives freezing over winter. The African clawed frog,Xenopus laevis, withstands substantial dehydration seasonally. The effects of environment on these frogs‟ immunity were investigated with a focus on antimicrobial peptides. Expression of brevinin-1SY was analyzed during freezing, dehydration, anoxia, and development in R. sylvatica. Brevinin-1SY responded differently to each stress, suggesting environmentally regulated expression. Upregulation of hepcidin mRNA was demonstrated during dehydration in X. laevis liver, as were hepcidin agonists, STAT 3 andcMYC. Alternatively, hepcidin antagonizing TGF-β-mediated SMADs weredownregulated and the BMP-mediated SMADs, promoters of hepcidin expression, did not change. Molecular controls of X. laevis skeletal muscle growth were also explored during dehydration. Myostatin, a muscle growth antagonizer, was downregulated during dehydration, whereas cMYC, a muscle growth agonizer, and GLUT 4, a glucose transporter, were ...
Photo/image Edible frog (Rana esculenta), Family: Ranidae. Location Midtsjælland, Denmark. Photographer: S Drozd Lund, Photoid 98255
Three novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), named panurgines (PNGs), were isolated from the venom of the wild bee Panurgus calcaratus. The dodecapeptide of the sequence LNWGAILKHIIK-NH2 (PNG-1) belongs
The Mediterranean tree frog or stripeless tree frog is a species of frog found in Europe. It resembles the European tree frog, but is larger, has longer hind legs, and the flank stripe only reaches to the front
A frog species native to Israels north which was declared extinct in 1996 has been re-discovered and dubbed a living fossil by the scientists of Jerusalems Hebrew University. Jim Drury has more.
interval1066 writes Ars Technica reports that a paper by biologists Catherine E. Newmana, Jeremy A. Feinbergb, Leslie J. Risslerc, Joanna Burgerb, and H. Bradley Shaffer, in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (abstract of paywalled article), describes a new subspecies of leopard frog has been f...
Verucerfont is a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonist with IC50s of ~6.1, >1000 and >1000 nM for CRF1, CRF2, and CRF-BP, respectively. Buy Verucerfont (GSK561679) from AbMole BioScience.
September 30, 2016 - Toughie, the worlds last Rabbs Fringe-limbed Tree Frog and a symbol of the extinction crisis, has died at his home in the Atlanta Botanical Garden. He lives on through Joel Sartores Photo Ark Project.
Turnigy 4500mAh 3S 30C Lipo Pack w/XT-90. Turnigy batteries are known the world over for performance, reliability and price. Its no surprise to us that Turnigy Lipoly packs are the ones to use for those in the know.
Amphibian Mercedes Concept - With all the energy and resources in the automotive sector focusing on alternative energy, you rarely hear any talk about creating multi terrain te...
Archeys Frog, a critically endangered amphibian and nearly extinct in the wild. Please support Archeys Frog and become an Amazing Amphibians partner.
Archeys Frog, a critically endangered amphibian and nearly extinct in the wild. Please support Archeys Frog and become an Amazing Amphibians partner.
Background CCR5 is a CC chemokine receptor mixed up in migration of effector leukocytes including macrophages, NK, and T cells into inflamed tissue. IL-17+Compact disc4+…. Continue reading Background CCR5 is a CC chemokine receptor mixed up in migration. Comments closed ...
In August 2009, we compared the trophic spectrum of syntopic Bombina variegata and Rana temporaria populations from the Bratia Valley in the Iezer Mountains. The separation of the trophic niche observed between the juveniles and the adults of R. temporaria...
My current research focuses on the behavioral and physiological ecology of vertebrate animals and amphibian conservation. My students and I are studying the complex interactions among amphibian skin secretions and their antimicrobial properties, epibiotic bacteria, and how these regulate and potentially inhibit growth of microbial pathogens such as chytrid fungus. We also are studying behavior and energetics of amphibians using techniques such as analysis of vocalizations, muscle biochemistry, and respirometry. Finally, I have been an active member of the research team investigating resiliance to development in the Belgrade Lakes Watershed ...
Reptiles have scaly skin while amphibians have slimy porous skin. This can be demonstrated using hard boiled eggs. The reptile represents an egg with the shell on while the amphibian represents the egg with the shell removed. You can demonstrate the permeability of the different skin/body coverings using food dye in a simple experiment. This…
Cholinesterases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. There are two types of cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which differ in their distribution in the body. Currently, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) represent the treatment of choice for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). In this paper, we report the synthesis and inhibitory effect on both enzymes of four new peptides structurally related to P1-Hp-1971 (amphibian skin peptide found in our previous work. Sequence: TKPTLLGLPLGAGPAAGPGKR-NH2). The bioassay data and cytotoxicity test show that some of the compounds possess a significant AChE and BChE inhibition and no toxic effect. The present work demonstrates that diminution of the size of the original peptide could potentially result in new compounds with significant cholinesterase inhibition activity, although it appears that there is an optimal size for the sequence. We also conducted an exhaustive ...
Photos/images of padderkrybdyr, Family Ranidae: Agile frog (Rana dalmatina), Common Frog (Rana temporaria), Edible frog (Rana esculenta), Moor Frog, Swedish Swamp Frog (Rana arvalis), etc.
(Hyla arborea) The European tree frog is amongst the floppiest creatures. Its vanity is so great that it changes its color depending on the environment in which it occurs. Green against the green. Information on buying property in Nikopol and Pleven region.
Hey guys, I need some help! I have an 8 year old whites tree frog. I was recently out of town for two weeks, had a friend watching her and my other...
I confirmed your identification, but it actually isnt possible to tell whether the frog in the picture is a bullfrog or a green frog. A clear picture of the back and head would have helped with identification. The backs of bullfrogs are smooth, while green frogs have a pair of ridges that run the length of the back, extending from just above their ear.. ...
The most aquatic of Pacific newts, the rough-skinned newt is identified by its warty skin and its small eyes, with dark lower lids. It searches for its invertebrate prey both on land and in the water, and its toxic skin secretions repel most of its enemies. In the breeding season, the males skin temporarily becomes smooth and his vent swells. Unlike other western newts, the female rough-skinned lays her eggs one at a time, rather than in masses, on submerged plants or debris. The eggs hatch into aquatic larvae. ...
Rana catesbeiana. American bullfrog preserved in safe, nontoxic Carolinas Perfect Solution® and shipped immersed in preservation fluid in a sealed pail. Specimen is 6+ and single injected (red arteries). Prices listed are for 1 specimen.
Amphibians Amphibians are cold-blooded, smooth-skinned vertebrates. Most live some of their life in water and some on land. The most common amphibian critter is a frog but there are many others.. ...
HaHaReptiles.com has Bullfrogs for sale (Rana catesbeiana) at wholesale prices. Free Shipping/500.00 More! No Box Charge! Min Order 200.00!
... ,The XT-2000i is a compact, high performance, automated hematology analyzer that provides accurate and precise CBC result including a fully automated WBC 5-part differential, and comprehensive test results for enhanced screening ability.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
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Data on the helminths of edible frog Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758 (Anura, Amphibia) in Middle-Volga region. - Chikhlaev I.V., Fayzulin A.I., and Zamaletdinov R.I. - Data on the helminths of edible frog (Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758) from the Middle-Volga region are resulted for the first time. These data were obtained during dissection of 15 specimens gathered in Tatarstan Republic and the Samara region in 2007 - 2008. The specific composition counts 11 species, namely: Trematoda - 10, Nematoda - 1. Among the helminths the adult trematoda forms transmitting with food (9 species) predominate, which is due to eating water invertebrates and young amphibians. The fraction of the larval forms of helminths (1) and geonematodes not circulating through trophic chains (1) is insignificant. Key words: edible frog, Rana esculenta, helminth, trematoda, nematod. -------------- next part -------------- A non-text attachment was scrubbed... Name: Chihlayev et. al., 2009.pdf Type: application/pdf Size: 309789 ...
Photo: Water Frog (Rana esculenta, Pelophylax kl. Esculentus) on blossoming Water Lily (Nymphaea) Author: Stefan HuwilerDate: DOWNLOAD
Antimicrobial peptides in skin secretions of toads are promising methods to combat a wide spectrum of bacteria. Histone H2A is a type of DNA-binding protein that acts as a precursor for several antimicrobial peptides. In toads (family Bufonidae) buforin I and buforin II are examples of antimicrobial peptides that derived from histone H2A. This study investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis and in silico prediction of antimicrobial peptides derived from histone H2A of Duttaphrynus melanostictus and Phyrinoidis asper, which were collected from Bogor Agricultural Universitys campus area. A new set of primers (Buf_fwd and Buf_rev) were designed by using PrimerBLAST, to amplify 393 nucleotides of the histone H2A gene that codes 131 amino acids. Haplotype diversity of both species are very low. Phylogenetic analysis shows the sample D. melanostictus and P. asper are separated to each other in two different clades. Several short predicted peptides from histone H2A show a potential ...
1999. Salbilla, Brian A., et al. "Analysis of Cell Surface Properties Using Derivatized Agarose Beads." Acta Histochemica 101: 271-79.. 1999. Oppenheimer SB. "Valuing Scientists as Educators." Science 286: 1297.. 1999. Latham, Virginia H., Monica J. Tully, and Steven B. Oppenheimer. "A Putative Role for Carbohydrates in Sea Urchin Gastrulation." Acta Histochemica 101: 293-303.. 1999. Latham, Virginia H., and Steven B. Oppenheimer. "A Simple Image Analysis Method for Evaluating Cell Binding to Derivatized Beads." Acta Histochemica 101: 263-70.. 1999-2000. Halloy, M. and R. E. Espinoza. Territorial encounters and threat displays in the Neotropical frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura: Hylidae). Herpetological Natural History 7:175-180.. 1999. Alfaro, A.C. and R.C. Carpenter. Physical and biological processes influencing zonation patterns of a subtidal population of the marine snail, Lithopoma undosa. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 240:259-283.. 1999. Ben-David, M., C. J. McColl, R. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Interprets this as "Lithobates AND pipiens" so will return all records that have the character string "Lithobates pipiens" anywhere within a record: e.g., all members of the Lithobates pipiens complex ...
This family includes only two genera, Barbourula and Bombina. Barbourula occurs in the Philippine Islands (Barbourula busuangensis) and Borneo (Barbourula kalimantanensis). The approximately eight species of Bombina are found in Europe, western Asia, China, Vietnam, and Korea.. Bombina are warty, aquatic toads, and tend to be gregarious. The vocal behavior of some Bombina is unusual in that the call is produced during inhalation rather than exhalation as in other frogs. They lay pigmented eggs in ponds. The tadpoles have beaks, two upper and three lower rows of denticles, and a median spiracle (typical Orton Type 3). Species of Bombina have bright red or yellow mottling on the venter. The German word Unke means toad. Bombina exhibit an unken reflex when bothered. The animal will arch its back and limbs to expose the bright belly, and may turn over on its back. This acts as a warning to predators. Not surprisingly, the skin toxins of Bombina are distasteful.. Barbourula are not as brightly ...
An epithelial tumor with acidophilic intranuclear inclusions frequently occurs in the kidneys of leopard frogs. This tumor usually has the appearance of an infiltrating and destructive adenocarcinoma, which, when large, not uncommonly metastasizes; less often it is more orderly and adenomatous.. When inoculated as living fragments or cell suspensions into the lymph sacs, the cranial cavity, or the abdomen, no significant local growth results and the implanted material is resorbed. However, in approximately 20 per cent of the frogs surviving inoculation for more than 6 months, tumors develop in the kidney, which are like the "spontaneous" neoplasms. The incidence far exceeds that in the controls.. Desiccated and glycerinated tumor injected into the abdomen gives the same result as inoculation with living tumor; in somewhat over 20 per cent of animals surviving more than 6 months kidney tumors occur.. In alien species of frogs, no such tumors are produced by inoculation either with living or with ...
When a dead red eyed tree frogs egg is used as food by fly larvae, that is an important part of the decomposition of living material. Frog flies tend to choose dead eggs but can lay on others that are healthy nearby.
According to recent research studies on 4 species of tiny tree frogs that live on these tepuis, evolutionary biologists are able to use their DNA molecular clock and compared them to their closest lowland relatives to determine how long ago their common ancestor existed before it accumulated new mutations and diverged into separate species. It was discovered that the common ancestor of these 4 frog species lived about 5.3 million years ago, and not 70 million years ago. This means there is a possibility that the frogs scaled up the colossal cliffs to the tepuis and became separate species only several hundred thousand years ago. ...
Avhandlingar om ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES. Sök bland 89654 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
The Reptile Report is your one stop for the most interesting news, stories, and photos of reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates.
Reblogged From Scientific American: The rebirth of an extinct frog species may come from the freezer, not the stomach. The gastric brooding frog, when it existed on Earth, swallowed its eggs, transformed its stomach into a womb and vomited up its young once sufficiently grown. But the frog disappeared from the mountains of southern Australia shortly…
Amphibians live in and out of the water, with many species being found in wetlands or marsh areas. Many amphibians have slimy bodies that need rehydration, which is why many live near a water...
A stunning new eBook The Amphibians has been published by the Amphibian Survival Alliance (ASA) in collaboration with Meet Your Neighbours, a world...
C, B, CRF01_AE, A, G, CRF02_AG, D, CRF06_cpx, F, CRF07_BC, CRF45_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF09_cpx, CRF10_CD, G + CRF02_AG, B + CRF01_AE, CRF11_cpx, CRF12_BF, CRF49_cpx, A + G ...
Prothymosin alpha (PTMA) is a small acidic protein abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in mammals and involved in different biological activities. Until now, its specific function in spermatogenesis has never been properly investigated. Recently, the isolation of a cDNA encoding for PTMA from the testis of the frog Rana esculenta has been reported: ptma transcript is highly expressed throughout the frog reproductive cycle, peaking in September/October, in concomitance with the germ cell maturation; it is specifically localized in the cytoplasm of primary and secondary spermatocytes and, at a lower level, in the interstitial compartment, in Leydig cells. In this article we support the involvement of PTMA in the meiotic phases of frog spermatogenesis. The expression of ptma mRNA increases in the testis of frogs treated with the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate, which blocks the II meiotic division and induces an increase in SPC cysts; on the contrary, it highly decreases in the testis of animals ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is considered to be the primary hypophysiotropin for corticotropin (ACTH) in vertebrates. In non-mammalian species, CRF induces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion by the anterior pituitary. Recent studies in the chicken (Gallus gallus) showed that CRF-induced TSH secretion is mediated by the type 2 CRF receptor (CRF2). Based on these results we hypothesized that TSH secretion by the tadpole pituitary is mediated by the CRF2 receptor. Using dispersed bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) anterior pituitary cells in culture we found that CRF, Xenopus laevis urocortin 1 (xUCN1), mouse urocortin 2 (mUCN2), X. laevis urocortin 3 (xUCN3), and sauvagine (SVG) all markedly enhanced the release of immunoassayable TSH. The CRF-induced TSH release was completely blocked by the general CRF receptor antagonist astressin and by the CRF2 receptor specific antagonist antisauvagine-30; whereas, the type 1 CRF receptor specific antagonist antalarmin had no effect on TSH ...
We proposed to test the hypothesis that ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures will increase susceptibility of metamorphic amphibians to a fungal pathogen known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, or Bd. Bd has received considerable attention as one of the causes of declining amphibian populations. We hypothesized that exposure to the contaminants in the larval stage would cause increased pathogen load, decreased growth, and increased mortality of amphibians. Our amphibians included 2 species of tree frogs (Spring Peepers and Pacific tree frogs), 1 toad species (Western Toads), and 2 true frog species (Leopard frogs and Cascades frogs). Each species of frog was split into five different pesticide treatments: high herbicide, low herbicide, high insecticide, low insecticide, and a control treatment. Half of the frogs in each pesticide treatment were exposed as tadpoles and half were exposed as metamorphs. In the end, three of the five species showed significant mortality rates. ...
It has been reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in the regulation of norepinephrine neuron responses to stress such as an immobilized stress. Furthermore, systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection upregulates the transcription of the genes encoding CRF and CRF type 1 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We have already reported that an increase in norepinephrine turnover within the murine locus coeruleus is accompanied by septic shock triggered by LPS intraperitoneal injection. We also elucidated that the expression levels of the enzymes involved in the catecholamine biosynthesis were altered by peripheral LPS injection. Collectively, the effects of CRF on the expression levels of the enzymes at murine locus coeruleus were investigated by peripherally injecting CP-154,526, a CRF receptor type 1 antagonist. Pretreatment with CP-154,526 attenuated the increase in expression levels of GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA due to intraperitoneal LPS injection at 4 h

Proteomic and phenotypic profiling of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis shows that genotype is linked to...Proteomic and phenotypic profiling of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis shows that genotype is linked to...

S1 Scans of the four 2D protein gels that were used for peptide fragment fingerprinting Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. ... Pascale Van Rooij, An Martel, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host ... Cristian Altaba, Extinction Resilience of Island Species: An Amphibian Case and a Predictive Model, Diversity, 2014, 6, 1, 43. ... A. Woodward, L. Berger, L.F. Skerratt, In vitro sensitivity of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04041.x/full?globalMessage=0

Ranaviruses : Detection, differentiation and host immune responseRanaviruses : Detection, differentiation and host immune response

The differentiation of isolates was accomplished with REA of the viral DNApol and neurofilament-triplet H1-like protein genes. ... Ranaviruses cause systemic infection in fish, amphibians and reptiles. Disease outbreaks associated with ranaviruses have been ...
more infohttps://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/33935?show=full

Amphibian proteins synonyms, Amphibian proteins antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comAmphibian proteins synonyms, Amphibian proteins antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for Amphibian proteins. 3 synonyms for amphibian: amphibious vehicle, amphibious aircraft, amphibious. What are ... Amphibian proteins synonyms, Amphibian proteins antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/Amphibian+proteins ... amphibian. (redirected from Amphibian proteins). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia. #vtZoom,.vt-link{cursor: ... Amphibian proteins provided by ,a style=color:#000 href=https://www.freethesaurus.com/Amphibian+proteins,FreeThesaurus.com ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/Amphibian+proteins

Localization of the nucleolar protein NO38 in amphibian oocytes. | JCBLocalization of the nucleolar protein NO38 in amphibian oocytes. | JCB

Localization of the nucleolar protein NO38 in amphibian oocytes.. B A Peculis, J G Gall ... we studied the nucleolar protein NO38 of amphibian oocytes. We synthesized NO38 transcripts in vitro, injected them into the ... The injected RNA contained a short sequence encoding an epitope derived from the human c-myc protein. We used an mAb against ... To identify protein domains involved in this nucleolus-specific accumulation, we prepared a series of carboxy-terminal ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/116/1/1

Positive Tested Species Reactivity: All-species-for-fusion-proteins, AmphibianPositive Tested Species Reactivity: All-species-for-fusion-proteins, Amphibian

Hybridoma technology is used to fuse fusion a B cell and myeloma to form a hybridoma that produces identical monoclonal antibodies.
more infohttps://dshb.biology.uiowa.edu/monoclonal/custitem34/All-species-for-fusion-proteins,Amphibian

Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding...Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding...

While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. In zebrafish, both ... Here we report the cloning and identification of 13 PKR genes from 8 teleost fish and amphibian species, including zebrafish, ... At least five duplications occurred independently in fish and amphibian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the kinase ... which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general inhibition of protein synthesis. Although ...
more infohttps://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-6-12

Xenopus XVLG1 protein
     Summary Report | CureHunterXenopus XVLG1 protein Summary Report | CureHunter

... a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila vasa; MW 78,238 Da; pI 5.54; amino acid sequence given in first source ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Amphibian Proteins*Xenopus Proteins*Xenopus XVLG1 protein ... Xenopus XVLG1 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Xenopus XVLG1 protein a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila ... XVLG1 protein, Xenopus; Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 product, Xenopus; vasa-like 1 protein, Xenopus ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC086637-Xenopus-XVLG1-protein.do

Amelotin: an enamel matrix protein that experienced distinct evolutionary histories in amphibians, sauropsids and mammals | BMC...Amelotin: an enamel matrix protein that experienced distinct evolutionary histories in amphibians, sauropsids and mammals | BMC...

Its functions were conserved in amphibians and sauropsids while a change occurred early in the mammalian lineage, modifying its ... such as the enamel matrix proteins (EMPs). Furthermore, AMTN was characterized in rodents only. In this study, we applied ... PCRs and transcriptome sequencing to characterize AMTN sequences in sauropsids and amphibians, and compared them to available ... is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) family, which originated ...
more infohttps://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12862-015-0329-x/figures/4

The effect of estradiol-17ß and insulin on protein synthesis in primary monocultures of amphibian hepatocytes. :: Dartmouth...The effect of estradiol-17ß and insulin on protein synthesis in primary monocultures of amphibian hepatocytes. :: Dartmouth...

Proteins -- Synthesis. ; Insulin. ; Hormones. ; Amphibians. Issuing Body Dartmouth Dissertations are made available through the ... THE EFFECT OF ESTRADIOL-173 AND INSULIN ON PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN PRIMARY MONOLAYER CULTURES OF AMPHIBIAN HEPATOCYTES A Thesis ... The effect of estradiol-17ß and insulin on protein synthesis in primary monocultures of amphibian hepatocytes. ... THE EFFECT OF ESTRADIOL-173 AND INSULIN ON PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN PRIMARY MONOLAYER CULTURES OF AMPHIBIAN HEPATOCYTES A Thesis ...
more infohttp://libarchive.dartmouth.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/dcdis/id/255143/rec/22

Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding...Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding...

While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. In zebrafish, both ... Here we report the cloning and identification of 13 PKR genes from 8 teleost fish and amphibian species, including zebrafish, ... At least five duplications occurred independently in fish and amphibian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the kinase ... which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general inhibition of protein synthesis. Although ...
more infohttps://0-bmcbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-6-12

Amelotin: an enamel matrix protein that experienced distinct evolutionary histories in amphibians, sauropsids and mammals | BMC...Amelotin: an enamel matrix protein that experienced distinct evolutionary histories in amphibians, sauropsids and mammals | BMC...

Amphibian amelotin. In amphibians, AMTN was found to be composed either of 10 exons (absence of exons 3b and 9) in P. waltl ( ... Amelotin: an enamel matrix protein that experienced distinct evolutionary histories in amphibians, sauropsids and mammals. ... A review of protein structure and gene organisation for proteins associated with mineralised tissue and calcium phosphate ... Amelotin-a novel secreted, ameloblast-specific protein. J Dent Res. 2005;84:1127-32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12862-015-0329-x

Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Host defence peptides from the skin glands of the Australian Blue Mountains tree-frog Litoria...Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Host defence peptides from the skin glands of the Australian Blue Mountains tree-frog Litoria...

Skin; Animals; Anura; Peptides; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; Proteins; Amphibian Proteins; Anti-Infective Agents; Circular ... The amphibian has an endoprotease which deactivates these membrane-active peptides by removing residues from the N-terminal end ... their role in the amphibian skin is not known. ...
more infohttps://hekyll.services.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/12153

Recent questions and answers in Receptors, Biogenic Amine - lookformedical.comRecent questions and answers in Receptors, Biogenic Amine - lookformedical.com

Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the ... Proteins (4) * Albumins (0) * Algal Proteins (0) * Amphibian Proteins (0) * Amyloid (0) ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/en/chemicals-and-drugs/amino-acids-peptides-and-proteins/proteins/membrane-proteins/receptors-cell-surface/receptors-biogenic-amine

No questions in Photoreceptors, Microbial - lookformedical.comNo questions in Photoreceptors, Microbial - lookformedical.com

Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate ... Proteins (12) * Albumins (0) * Algal Proteins (0) * Amphibian Proteins (0) * Amyloid (0) ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/en/chemicals-and-drugs/amino-acids-peptides-and-proteins/proteins/photoreceptors-microbial

Keyword: regenerationKeyword: regeneration

Amphibians unique proteins cast doubt on existence of latent potential for regeneration. The ability of some animals to ... Protein cue that allows limb re-growth. 11/03/2007 4:39:05 AM PDT · by CarrotAndStick · 5 replies · 111+ views The Times of ... The protein called nAG, produced by nerve and skin cells, apparently plays a key role in stimulating blastema... ... Biologists have long been intrigued at how newts and other amphibians can re-grow severed limbs, never fully understanding the ...
more infohttp://freerepublic.com/tag/regeneration/index

Characterization of a Major Secretory Protein in the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) Choroid Plexus as an Amphibian Lipocalin-type...Characterization of a Major Secretory Protein in the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) Choroid Plexus as an Amphibian Lipocalin-type...

Characterization of a Major Secretory Protein in the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) Choroid Plexus as an Amphibian Lipocalin-type ... The toad protein bound all-trans retinal, bile pigment, and thyroid hormones with high affinities (Kd = 0.17 to 2.00 μM). The ... The toad protein bound all-trans retinal, bile pigment, and thyroid hormones with high affinities (Kd = 0.17 to 2.00 μM). The ... The Km value for PGH2 (17 μM) of the toad protein was almost the same as that of rat L-PGDS (14 μM), whereas the turnover ...
more infohttps://oxfordindex.oup.com/oi/viewindexcard/10.1093$002fjb$002fmvm016

www.bioquicknews.com | BioQuick News--Life Science News from Around the Globewww.bioquicknews.com | BioQuick News--Life Science News from Around the Globe

First Protein Toxin in Amphibians Identified. Mon, 08/17/2009 - 10:53 - bioquicknews The first gene-encoded protein toxin in an ... Oegema and colleagues showed that the evolutionarily conserved HYLS1 protein is, in fact, a centriolar protein that is ... none has previously been found in amphibians or birds. In the case of poisonous amphibians, like the tropical poison dart frogs ... In protein sequence and structure, anntoxin is very similar to dendrotoxins (the venoms found in cobras and other mamba snakes ...
more infohttp://www.bioquicknews.com/node?page=461

Stress-Inducible Processes in Higher Eukaryotic Cells | SpringerLinkStress-Inducible Processes in Higher Eukaryotic Cells | SpringerLink

Drosophila Mammalia amphibians apoptosis biology gene gene expression genes olive protein resistance ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4899-0069-2

Hoskisson lab - HomeHoskisson lab - Home

We also have an interest in the genomics of Actinobacteria and the exploitation of amphibian proteins for biotechnology. ​We ... use a range of techniques to study the biology of actinobacteria including molecular genetics, protein biochemistry, genomics, ...
more infohttp://paulhoskisson.weebly.com

Ancient pheromone blend as an alternative for copulation in internally fertilizing salamanders [PeerJ Preprints]Ancient pheromone blend as an alternative for copulation in internally fertilizing salamanders [PeerJ Preprints]

Surprisingly, our finding of side-by-side secretion of Late Palaeozoic diverged proteins in a single species suggests that ... Here we show that uncleaved glycosylated SPF protein pheromones, secreted during courtship, are sufficient to elicit such ... evolution, phylogeny, gene duplications, amphibians, protein pheromones. Copyright. © 2014 Van Bocxlaer et al.. Licence. This ... 1 Amphibian Evolution Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium 2 Laboratory of Immunobiology, Department of ...
more infohttps://peerj.com/preprints/457/

Browse by UCL Departments and Centres - UCL DiscoveryBrowse by UCL Departments and Centres - UCL Discovery

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Amphibian Development. In: Zwilling, R and Stocker, W, (eds.) The Astacins - Structure and ... The Pax protein Noi is required for commissural axon pathway formation in the rostral forebrain. DEVELOPMENT , 124 (12) pp. ... Role of GTP-binding proteins in FceR1 signalling. In: Hamway, MM, (ed.) IgE Receptor (FceR1) Function in Mast Cells and ... Distribution of Pax6 protein during eye development suggests discrete roles in proliferative and differentiated visual cells. ...
more infohttp://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/view/UCL/CDB/1997.html

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Amphibian Proteins, metabolism, Animals, Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides, CHO Cells, Calorimetry, Differential Scanning, ... Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases, drug effects, metabolism, Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases, Calcium, Circular Dichroism, ... Amino Acid Sequence, Amino Acid Substitution, Arginine, chemistry, Computer Simulation, HIV Envelope Protein gp41, genetics, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Biochimica+et+Biophysica+Acta+1788%EA%B6%8C+9%ED%98%B8

Acquisition of pluripotency in the chick embryo occurs during intrauterine embryonic development via a unique transcriptional...Acquisition of pluripotency in the chick embryo occurs during intrauterine embryonic development via a unique transcriptional...

Hinkley CS, Martin JF, Leibham D, Perry M. Sequential expression of multiple POU proteins during amphibian early development. ... Wegner M. From head to toes: the multiple facets of Sox proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:1409-20.CrossRefPubMed ... Alignment and conservation of protein sequences. In order to identify the percent identities of chicken NANOG, POUV, SOX2, and ... Protein sequence alignment of chicken NANOG, POUV, SOX2, and SOX3 with candidate vertebrate species ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40104-018-0246-0

Hoskisson, P.<...Hoskisson, P.<...

... genomics of actinobacteria and the exploitation of amphibian proteins for biotechnology. We use a range of techniques to study ... the biology of actinobacteria including molecular genetics, protein biochemistry, genomics, microscopy, physiology, advanced ...
more infohttps://pureportal.strath.ac.uk/en/persons/paul-hoskisson
  • The amphibian has an endoprotease which deactivates these membrane-active peptides by removing residues from the N-terminal end: loss of three residues gives the most abundant degradation products. (edu.au)
  • SR proteins are important in constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, genome stabilization, nonsense-mediated decay, and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As RNA Polymerase II is transcribing DNA into RNA, SR proteins attach to newly made pre-mRNA to prevent the pre-mRNA from binding to the coding DNA strand to increase genome stabilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topoisomerase I and SR proteins also interact to increase genome stabilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated levels of PKR after interferon induction sensitizes cells to react even more strongly to viral pathogens leading to a general inhibition of protein synthesis and potentially to apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we applied various approaches, including in silico screening of databases, PCRs and transcriptome sequencing to characterize AMTN sequences in sauropsids and amphibians, and compared them to available mammalian and coelacanth sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its functions were conserved in amphibians and sauropsids while a change occurred early in the mammalian lineage, modifying its expression pattern during amelogenesis and its gene structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The toad protein also catalysed the L-PGDS activity, which was accelerated in the presence of GSH or DTT, similar to the mammalian enzyme. (oup.com)
  • We use a range of techniques to study the biology of actinobacteria including molecular genetics, protein biochemistry, genomics, microscopy, physiology, advanced spectroscopy, mathematical modeling and bioinformatics. (weebly.com)
  • Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) family, which originated in early vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similar to EMPs, AMTN is a proline/glutamine (P/Q) rich protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) family, which comprises proteins involved in mineralization of bone and tooth (dentin and enamel) tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report the enzymatic and ligand-binding properties of a major secretory protein in the choroid plexus of cane toad, Bufo marinus , whose protein is homologous with lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) and is recombinantly expressed in Xenopus A6 cells and Escherichia coli . (oup.com)
  • The SBPs in Bufo consist exclusively of two protamines (Pl, P2), and those in Xenopus consist of 6 proteins (SPl-6) in addition to four nucleosomal core histones. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have analyzed two gene products expressed in the early endoderm of Xenopus laevis: Xlhbox-8, a pancreas-specific transcription factor and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), a marker of small intestinal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • The protamine-removing activity (PRA) was purified from egg extracts as the unique, heat-stable proteins with mobilities of l4OkD and 36kD on native- and SDS-PAGE, respectively, with the isoelectric points in the range 4.2 - 4.5, and possessing amino acid composition quite similar to that reported for Xenopus nucleoplasmin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SR proteins are located in two different types of nuclear speckles, interchromatin granule clusters and perichromatin fibrils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • After screening the adult heart cDNA library with a bait construct encoding the ANK motif of TNNI3K, antioxidant protein 1 (AOP-1) was isolated. (chemweb.com)
  • SR proteins are ~200-600 amino acids in length and composed of two domains, the RNA recognition motif (RRM) region and the RS domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until now, stem cells have been obtained from mice, primates and humans, but never from amphibians. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The key protein in humans, called Oct4, which governs the process of unlimited division of stem cells, has an equivalent in the African clawed frog, called PouV. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Indeed, embryonic stem cells lacking the Oct4 protein stop dividing and become specialised. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the study, Dr Gillian Morrison introduced frog PouV proteins into mouse embryonic stem cells lacking Oct4 and found that the frog proteins "rescued" the stem cells ?in other words, the cells recovered their ability to divide without limit. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This suggests that the PouV proteins are holding the cells in an uncommitted state, waiting for the time to come when they will decide what type of cell they are going to be. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It was very exciting, and humbling, to find that the proteins from such an ancient animal such as the frog can rescue the behaviour of 'modern' mouse embryonic stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Surprisingly, our finding of side-by-side secretion of Late Palaeozoic diverged proteins in a single species suggests that these molecules already had a courtship function in stem salamanders about 300 million years ago, rendering them one of the oldest vertebrate pheromone systems. (peerj.com)
  • The toad protein bound all- trans retinal, bile pigment, and thyroid hormones with high affinities ( K d = 0.17 to 2.00 μM). (oup.com)
  • SR proteins were discovered independently through the use of two different monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1985 ) Regulation of the biosynthesis of two distinct fatty acid-binding proteins in rat liver and intestine. (biologists.org)
  • We also have an interest in the genomics of Actinobacteria and the exploitation of amphibian proteins for biotechnology. (weebly.com)
  • We also have an interest in evolution of metabolism, evolution of bacterial pathogens, genomics of actinobacteria and the exploitation of amphibian proteins for biotechnology. (strath.ac.uk)
  • SR proteins are named because they contain a protein domain with long repeats of serine and arginine amino acid residues, whose standard abbreviations are "S" and "R" respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RRM domain mediates the RNA interactions of the SR proteins by binding to exon splicing enhancer sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of RNA from these constructs showed that the essential domain was not sufficient to target the hybrid proteins to the nucleolus. (rupress.org)
  • Here we show that uncleaved glycosylated SPF protein pheromones, secreted during courtship, are sufficient to elicit such behaviour in palmate newts (Lissotriton h. helveticus), indicating that these molecules obviate the need for copulation in these salamanders. (peerj.com)
  • In the case of poisonous amphibians, like the tropical poison dart frogs, their toxins are usually small chemicals like alkaloids that are extracted from insects and secreted onto the animal's skin. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad ( Bombina variegata ). (hindawi.com)
  • Based on their primary structures and/or secondary structural characteristics, AMPs isolated from amphibian skin can be classified into three broad groups [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • AMPs were first reported from amphibian skin by Csordás and Michl in 1970, when they described the peptide bombinin, a 24-residue antimicrobial and haemolytic peptide from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The quadruple Gly 39 Ser/Ala 75 Ser/Ser 140 Thr/Phe 142 Tyr mutant of the toad protein, resembling mouse L-PGDS, showed a 1.6 fold increase in the turnover number and a shift in the optimum pH for the PGDS activity from 9.0 to 8.5. (oup.com)
  • 1988 ) Inhibition of NIH 3T3 cell proliferation by a mutant ras protein with preferential affinity for GDP. (biologists.org)
  • The K m value for PGH 2 (17 μM) of the toad protein was almost the same as that of rat L-PGDS (14 μM), whereas the turnover number (6 min −1 ) was approximately 28 fold lower than that of rat L-PGDS. (oup.com)
  • From NMR, the RRM domain of SRSF1, an SR protein, has a RNA binding fold structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis based on a modeled structure of the toad protein revealed that Cys 59 and Thr 61 residues were crucial for the PGDS activity. (oup.com)
  • Our results suggest that the toad protein is a prototype of L-PGDS with a highly functional ligand-binding pocket and yet with a primitive catalytic pocket. (oup.com)
  • To find out exactly what function PouV proteins perform in frog embryo. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To find out exactly what function PouV proteins perform in frog embryos, Dr Morrison injected special compounds into very young e mbryos, to inactivate the native PouV proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • There has been substantial progress in studies on non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) during the last decade. (chemweb.com)
  • During their studies they discovered that CAPZA3 protein was similar to IZUMO1 and is considered to be an inhibitor of latrunculin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the mTOR pathway and interactions with polyribosomes, SR proteins can increase translation of mRNA. (wikipedia.org)