Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Tyrocidine: An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Comparative StudyConditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Prenalterol: A partial adrenergic agonist with functional beta 1-receptor specificity and inotropic effect. It is effective in the treatment of acute CARDIAC FAILURE, postmyocardial infarction low-output syndrome, SHOCK, and reducing ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION in the SHY-RAGER SYNDROME.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (1/566)

(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences.  (+info)

Electrophysiological examination of the effects of sustained flibanserin administration on serotonin receptors in rat brain. (2/566)

5-HT1A receptor agonists have proven to be effective antidepressant medications, however they suffer from a significant therapeutic lag before depressive symptoms abate. Flibanserin is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist developed to possibly induce a more rapid onset of antidepressant action through its preferential postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Flibanserin antagonized the effect of microiontophoretically-applied DOI in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following 2 days of administration, indicating antagonism of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. This reduction in the effect of locally-applied DOI was no longer present following 7-day flibanserin administration. Two-day flibanserin administration only marginally reduced the firing activity of dorsal raphe (DRN) 5-HT neurons. Following 7 days of administration, 5-HT neuronal firing activity had returned to normal and the somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors were desensitized. The responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located on CA3 hippocampus pyramidal neurons and mPFC neurons, examined using microiontophoretically-applied 5-HT and gepirone, was unchanged following a 7-day flibanserin treatment. As demonstrated by the ability of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 to selectively increase the firing of hippocampal neurons in 2- and 7-day treated rats, flibanserin enhanced the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in this brain region. The results suggest that flibanserin could be a therapeutically useful compound putatively endowed with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action.  (+info)

Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female sex steroids. (3/566)

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose relationship of selegline and desmethylselegiline pharmacokinetics within the selegiline dose range from 5 to 40 mg. METHODS: Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethlylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication. RESULTS: The total AUC and Cmax of selegiline were 10-to 20-fold higher in those subjects taking oral steroids compared with subjects with no concomitant medication; this finding was consistent and statistically significant at all the four dose levels. The dose linearity of selegiline pharmacokinetics failed to be demonstrated in both groups. The AUC and Cmax of desmethylselegiline were only moderately higher (about 1.5-fold; P=NS at each dose level) in the subjects taking oral steroids than in those not receiving concomitant medication. The AUC values of desmethylselegiline increased in a dose linear manner in subjects with no concomitant medication, but not in the oral steroid group. The metabolic ratio (AUC(desmethylselegiline)/AUC(selegiline)) was several-fold lower in the group receiving oral steroids compared with the no-concomitant-medication group (P<0.005 at all the four dose levels). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of oral contraceptives caused a drastic (20-fold) increase in the oral bioavailability of selegiline. The highly significant difference in the metabolic ratio between the groups provides evidence that the mechanism of the interaction between selegiline and female sex steroids involves reduced T-demethylation of selegiline. The present results suggest that concomitant use of selegiline with exogenous female sex steroids should be avoided or the dosage of selegiline should be reduced in order to minimize the risks of selegiline related adverse drug reactions.  (+info)

Amphetamines induce apoptosis and regulation of bcl-x splice variants in neocortical neurons. (4/566)

Amphetamineanalogs have emerged as popular recreational drugs of abuse. The number of reports of these substances producing severe acute toxicity and death is increasing. In 'Ecstasy' -associated deaths, focal necrosis in the liver and individual myocytic necrosis has been reported. Furthermore, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell damage has been observed in experimental amphetamine intoxication in laboratory animals. Here we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to D-amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') results in significant neurotoxicity in rat neocortical neurons in vitro. This neuronal cell death is accompanied by endonucleosomal DNA cleavage and differential expression of anti- and proapoptotic bcl-xL/S splice variants. In addition, we observed pronounced induction of cell stress-associated transcription factor c-jun and translation initiation inhibitor p97 after amphetamine treatment. These data support that the neurotoxic effects of different amphetamines are extended to rat neocortical neurons and that apoptotic pathways are involved in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.  (+info)

Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex. (5/566)

Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound.  (+info)

The evolution of cerebral blood flow in the developing brain: evaluation with iodine-123 iodoamphetamine SPECT and correlation with MR imaging. (6/566)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although it is well established that brain maturation correlates temporally with the functions the newborn or infant performs at various stages of development, the precise relationship between function and anatomic brain maturation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in infants and children using iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These findings were correlated with the MR imaging appearance of the brain and with known developmental changes. METHODS: Twenty-one 123I-IMP SPECT examinations of 17 patients, ranging in age from neonates to 2 years, were reviewed retrospectively. All children had had transient neurologic events in the neonatal period that did not significantly affect subsequent neuropsychological development. MR studies were performed in 12 of these patients and the MR findings were correlated with the SPECT results. RESULTS: SPECT studies showed a consistent pattern of evolving changes in 123I-IMP uptake, most likely reflecting evolution of rCBF. From the 34th postconceptional week until the end of the second month after term delivery, there was predominant uptake in the thalami, brain stem, and paleocerebellum, with relatively less cortical activity. Radionuclide uptake in both the perirolandic and occipital cortices was well seen around the 40th postconceptional week and increased rapidly thereafter, with a predominance of parietal activity. By 3 months, radionuclide uptake in the cerebellar hemispheres and parietofrontal cortices increased. Frontal and temporal activity increased by age 6 to 8 months. Uptake in the basal ganglia increased by 8 months. By the beginning of the second year, rCBF showed a similar topographic pattern to that in adults. CONCLUSION: The time course of the changes in 123I-IMP uptake in the developing brain as detected by SPECT is similar to that of myelination and most likely reflects an overall topologic maturational pattern of the brain.  (+info)

Direct agonists for serotonin receptors enhance locomotor function in rats that received neural transplants after neonatal spinal transection. (7/566)

We analyzed whether acute treatment with serotonergic agonists would improve motor function in rats with transected spinal cords (spinal rats) and in rats that received transplants of fetal spinal cord into the transection site (transplant rats). Neonates received midthoracic spinal transections within 48 hr of birth; transplant rats received fetal (embryonic day 14) spinal cord grafts at the time of transection. At 3 weeks, rats began 1-2 months of training in treadmill locomotion. Rats in the transplant group developed better weight-supported stepping than spinal rats. Systemic administration of two directly acting agonists for serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes, quipazine and (+/-)-1-[2, 5]-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane), further increased weight-supported stepping in transplant rats. The improvement was dose-dependent and greatest in rats with poor to moderate baseline weight support. In contrast, indirectly acting serotonergic agonists, which block reuptake of 5-HT (sertraline) or release 5-HT and block its reuptake (D-fenfluramine), failed to enhance motor function. Neither direct nor indirect agonists significantly improved locomotion in spinal rats as a group, despite equivalent upregulation of 5-HT(2) receptors in the lumbar ventral horn of lesioned rats with and without transplants. The distribution of immunoreactive serotonergic fibers within and caudal to the transplant did not appear to correspond to restoration of motor function. Our results confirm our previous demonstration that transplants improve motor performance in spinal rats. Additional stimulation with agonists at subtypes of 5-HT receptors produces a beneficial interaction with transplants that further improves motor competence.  (+info)

Evidence for a role for central 5-HT2B as well as 5-HT2A receptors in cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetized rats. (8/566)

1. The effects of injections i.c.v. of quipazine, (2 micromol kg-1) and 1-(2,5-di-methoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 2 micromol kg-1) on renal sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were investigated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats pretreated with a peripherally acting 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 2. Quipazine or DOI caused a rise in MAP which was associated with a tachycardia and renal sympathoinhibition in rats pretreated (i.c.v.) with the antagonist vehicle 10% PEG. These effects of quipazine were completely blocked by pretreatment with cinanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and attenuated by spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the sympathoinhibition, while pretreatment with SB204741 (a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist) reversed the sympathoinhibition to excitation as it also did for DOI. Quipazine also caused renal sympathoexcitation in the presence (i.v.) of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked by quipazine alone and in the presence of SB204741 caused an immediate fall in MAP. For quipazine alone the renal sympathoinhibition was slowly reversed to an excitation, while the renal sympathoexcitation observed in the presence of SB204741 was potentiated. In both, the quipazine-evoked tachycardia was unaffected. 4. The data indicate that cardiovascular responses caused by i.c.v. quipazine and DOI are primarily due to activation of central 5-HT2A receptors, which causes the release of vasopressin and a tachycardia. This released vasopressin appears to suppress a 5-HT2A receptor-evoked central increase in sympathetic outflow, which involves the activation of central 5-HT2B receptors indirectly by the released vasopressin.  (+info)

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THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Adolescents appear to underreport their nonmedical amphetamine use, which may be in part due to lacking awareness that Adderall is an amphetamine, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.. Joseph J. Palamar, Ph.D., M.P.H., from New York University Langone Medical Center, and Austin Le, from New York University College of Dentistry, examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015). They analyzed prevalence and correlates of discordant responses among past-year Adderall users, defined as reporting past-year nonmedical Adderall use but not past-year nonmedical amphetamine use.. The researchers found that while 6.9 percent of respondents reported nonmedical Adderall use and 7.9 percent reported nonmedical amphetamine use, 28.7 percent of Adderall users reported no amphetamine use. ...
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One special danger with Adderall is the fact that its often prescribed to children suffering from ADHD. In fact, it is much easier for a child to overdose on Adderall than an adult because of the difference in body mass. The fatal amount of Adderall varies from person to person. And even normal doses of Adderall can (infrequently) cause sudden death. In general, 20-25 mg/kg of a persons body weight is considered a fatal dose.. In children - The typical dose of Adderall is only 2.5-5mg per day. It should never be given in doses larger than 40/mg per day.. In adults - Adults may receive anywhere from 5-60 mg of Adderall per day, depending on their situation. But even at normal therapeutic doses it can be dangerous and cause stroke or sudden death. As little as 30 mg of Adderall can be dangerous to some people, while doses as high as 500 mg have been reported as safe in people with chronic exposure and histories of Adderall abuse. 70 mg in one day is considered the maximum safe daily dose.In a ...
Adderall is a popular and effective prescription drug commonly used in the treatment of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, as shown on a recent episode of a popular health program, Adderall addiction is a growing diet drug problem with housewives desperate to lose weight. The following discusses what Adderall is, symptoms and dangers of its abuse, what Adderall withdrawal and detoxification is like and what kind of effective treatment is available for desperate housewives addicted to this diet drug.. What is Adderall. Adderall is a drug that belongs under the classification of amphetamine. Its use in the treatment of ADHD is based on its ability to increase levels of dopamine-a neurotransmitter chemical that acts on the pleasure center of the brain. Adderall increases a persons energy, ability to concentrate, alertness, libido, and has a side effect of weight loss. All of these factors contribute to making Adderall a very addictive drug for ...
Although millions of students are prescribed Adderall for their ADHD, the consequences of Adderall abuse can be fatal. Some of the dangerous physiological effects of Adderall abuse are hypertension, seizures, and mydriasis (dilation of the pupil) (2, 4). Another dangerous side effect is the increase in blood pressure, which is most likely caused by the continued release of norepinephrine (2). Other physical consequences of Adderall are irregular heartbeat, cardiovascular failure, abnormally high body temperatures, and erectile dysfunction (2, 4). High doses of Adderall can potentially lead to some very serious mental issues. Students often believe that they can go back to their normal lifestyle by stopping Adderall use, but this is not always the case (2). Long-term misuse of Adderall can lead to an altered or even permanently damaged brain. This is because Adderall tricks the brain into thinking that it doesnt need to make anymore dopamine, and unfortunately dopamine is the only chemical in ...
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Although there are many different options for ADHD and narcolepsy treatment, the two most popular drugs are those that contain methylphenidate or mixed amphetamine salts such as Focalin and Adderall. So, Focalin and Adderall are not the same thing, they are different, however they also have many similarities. Immediate release form of Focalin and immediate release form of Adderall both last for about 4-6 hours after administration. Their extended release forms (Focalin XR and Adderall XR) have also comparable effect lasting, which is about 12 hours. Their mechanisms of action are similar as they both work by inhibiting reuptake of stimulatory catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine increasing their extracellular levels of each, but Adderall also triggers presynaptic release from presynaptic neurons of these neurotransmitters. However, both products contain chemically different active ingredients, and Adderall is a combination of two active ingredients. Adderall is ...
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Main / Syringes with Needles / Does concerta help with adderall withdrawal 1 Answer - Posted in: adderall, concerta - Answer: koukla, dont be paranoid about your rejewvenate.info seem to have shaken. Join Date: Jun ; Posts: 3, Amphetamine withdrawal is mainly psychological. To that end, the only things I can think of that would help would be caffeine or maybe some Sudafed. Maybe this is a wake-up call for you.. However, I did not require the side affects in myself of bleeding, headache, anxiety, fresher as being related to the Adderall. get the pimples or such, even though the intriguing level of the last in your system would be sufficient for you to do and get some help with the ADD does concerta help with adderall withdrawal. My counter is will I get that "There" if I switch from Adderall to Concerta. up as i have major doe concerta help with adderall withdrawal and dissolution disorder, concerta really helps with my allergies. i am just all over rectal and talkative. the things that get to ...
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This means that youngsters might remove dextroamphetamine in 49.5 hours (2.06 days) and also levoamphetamine in 55 hrs (2.29 days). Comparative, youngsters could get rid of Adderall almost 22 hrs quicker than grownups (perhaps requiring up to 77 hrs for removal). Though unsubstantiated by research, it is reasonable to consider that elderly individuals could exhibit prolonged removal rate of Adderall compared to kids and healthy and balanced grownups.. Long term removal speed in senior people could be related to age-related clinical conditions and/or any medications made use of to treat those problems. It is additionally comprehended that senior individuals might show age-related decrease in efficiency of kidney and/or renal feature, each which is recognized to expand elimination time. That claimed, senior people healthy [with no decline] could remove Adderall from their system as promptly as healthy and balanced adults.. Body make-up: Your body make-up may partly determine how much time Adderall ...
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Adderall is a commonly prescribed medication that is used to help control symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Adderall (Adderall XR) is a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy in children and adults.
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Adderall is prescribed for the treatment of ADHD & for narcolepsy. Since Adderall contains amphetamine, its not unusual for a person to develop tolerance.
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add is not my sons only medical challenge. He was 12 yrs when he started having seizures. He is 19 now and wants so badly to graduate from high school and has only one more final to pass. He has just started taking adderall. Ritalin would interfer with his seizure medication. The doctor feels that adderall would not. Please let us know your experience. Thanks Maggie ...
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As we all learn more about Adderall, the ADD medication that gives people without ADD laser-sharp focus and concentration, more questions are emerging.
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Pregnancy is a time when Adderall can be especially helpful for women with ADHD. But is that safe? Find out what you need to know.
Adderall has a reputation for being used as a study aid, with students reportedly taking it to stay up and finish projects or papers.
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When all else has failed my shrink thought maybe Adderall might give me a boost maybe lift the depression somewhat....has this ever helped anyone else? If so, how...
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角皆 潤 , 土岐 知弘 , 中山 典子 , 蒲生 俊敬 , 加藤 博之 , 金子 将 地球化学 37(3), 101-109, 2003 CiNii 外部リンク 機関リポジトリ DOI 参考文献10件 被引用文献1件 ...
In this study we assessed regional cerebral blood flow in patients with signs and symptoms of acute stroke using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). Twenty-five patients with acute cerebral infarction had both IMP brain perfusion studies and CT scans performed within one week of each other; 22 had positive and three had negative perfusion studies. Of the 22 patients who had positive perfusion studies, six had negative CT studies initially. In the 16 patients who had abnormal CT studies, eight of the studies depicted areas of edema that were smaller than the perfusion deficits noted on the IMP studies and eight had areas of edema that were approximately equal in size to the perfusion defect. Of the three patients with normal IMP studies, two had normal CT studies and one had a positive CT study showing a 3-mm lacunar infarction. Using eight control patients, mean count rates per tissue volume normalized for the injected dose was ...
Adderall is a popular psycho stimulant that is used to augment the quantity of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. It is known for its effective mechanism for enhancing the alertness, complete cognitive act and concentration of libido in the body. Generic Adderall is used world wide under different brand names. There are different pharmaceutical companies which produce Adderall generic but supply in the market with their own brand name, but the chemical composition of the medicine supplied remains the same. Adderall is manufactured by using various chemical compounds which are the core of its function; compounds like racemic amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine saccharide, dextroamphetamine sulfate, aspartate monohydrate and racemic amphetamine sulfate are used in the preparation of one Adderall capsule. All its functions and properties are derived from the compounds that are used in preparation of this generic drug. There are two formulations in which generic Adderall ...
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A sample of 985 self-admitted amphetamine users was compared with a sample of airmen who had no known record of drug abuse. Results of this study indicate that there is a very strong likelihood for amphetamine users to abuse other drugs. There are relationships between amphetamine use and geographic area of enlistment, religious preference, aptitude scores, educational level, and age at enlistment. Amphetamine use is also related to the likelihood of getting an undesirable discharge and to lower APR ratings. (Author)*Amphetamines
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Beta blockers and adderall - I have pots, since I started taking beta blockers I rarely have any symptoms anymore, can I take adderall (dextroamphetamine and racemic amphetamine)? Speak with Cards. The beta blockers slow the resting heart and help prevent the sudden increased rates that are seen in pots in additon to the synocopal episodes. Adderall (dextroamphetamine and racemic amphetamine) and all stimulants tend to increase the heart rate. Your cardiologist should be consulted prior to making that decison.
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The Golden Triangle is closing a dramatic period of opium reduction", wrote UNODC Executive Director Antonio Maria Costa in his preface to the 2007 survey on Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia. "A decade long process of drug control is clearly paying off." According to the survey, the region produced one-third of world opium production in 1998, now down to only about 5 percent. The once notorious region "can no longer be called Golden Triangle on the reason of opium production alone." There has clearly been a significant decline in opium production in Southeast Asia over the past decade in spite of a resurgence in Burma (Myanmar) in the last two years. In this study, we try to assess the causes and consequences, and come to the conclusion that the region is suffering a variety of withdrawal symptoms, leaving little reason for optimism. The rapid decline has caused major suffering among former poppy growing communities in Burma and Laos, making it difficult to characterise developments ...
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People who use amphetamines could be at an increased risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Apart from their illegal use amphetamines such as Benzedrine and Dexedrine are often prescribed for people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, as weight-loss pills and are also used to treat traumatic brain injury. Researchers from the U.S. health organisation Kaiser Permanente studied 66,348 people who were initially studied between 1964 and 1973 and re-evaluated in 1995. 1,154 people had been diagnosed with Parkinsons by the end of the study. The participants were asked about their use of amphetamines - either as weight-loss pills or in the form of Benzedrine or Dexedrine. There was no increase in risk for the people who used amphetamines for weight loss but those who took Benzadrine or Dexedrine were nearly 60% more likely to develop Parkinsons. Amphetamines are known to affect the release and uptake of dopamine, the most important neurotransmitter involved in ...
Synonyms for Amphetamines in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Amphetamines. 4 synonyms for amphetamine: speed, pep pill, upper, speed. What are synonyms for Amphetamines?
Health,Houston Texas (PRWEB) May 25 2013 For college students few events can be more stressful than finals week. Increasingly they are turning to prescription stimulants like Adderall to help them stay awake and study. For more on this go to http://www.scienceda,Addiction,and,Drug,Abuse:,Study,Drug,Adderall,Abuse,Spikes,During,Finals,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
By Colin Harris | Staff Writer Joe Haden, Richard Sherman, Cedric Griffin, Bruce Irvin, Miguel Tejada and Carlos Ruiz. Besides being elite athletes, the other common denominator between all of these of these NFL and MLB players is that they have been suspended over the use of Adderall. A stimulant typically used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Adderall has been brought into focus recently in the sports world because of a flurry of debate over its use as a
The concomitant serotonergic agents immediately if the above symptoms occur, and its metabolites to 13.8 hours). The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication with amphetamines include a detailed psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and 4-hydroxy-amphetamine are both d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) for a family history of) ever abused or lead to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately three-fold from 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 to 10 years of age; however, it is anticipated that they will depend upon the probability of auto-inhibition and the lack of information on the sleep EEG. Manifestations of chronic amphetamine use ...
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The American Academy of Pediatrics doesnt even have guidelines for amphetamine prescription for children below 4 years old. However, it can be expected that at such a young age, children will quickly develop a dependence on these drugs, setting the state for addiction to other amphetamines later in life including methamphetamine.. That is exactly what happens to a lot of people who use amphetamines, methamphetamine. Just imagine how badly a human being would be messed up if they did amphetamines starting at age 2.. A recent survey found that 7.5% of children ages 6-17 are currently on prescription medications for some type of mental illness, ADHD medications make up 80% of them.. This has to stop. It seems in American society today, the gap between the consciousness levels of people is getting wider. In other words, it seems a certain part of our population is getting more and more aware, intelligent, conscious, and deliberate of their actions. At the same time, another part of our population ...
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Amphetamines including the drug popularly known as Ecstasy can rever...The researchers caution that the findings in animals do not suggest Pa...The new study also shows that amphetamines -- normally thought to act ...Parkinsons disease stems from the degeneration of neurons in a brain ...The researchers led by James B. Duke professor of cell biology Marc C...,Amphetamines,reverse,Parkinsons,disease,symptoms,in,mice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
According to the FDA, you should not take Adderall if you have heart problems. Heres why: Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2-4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3-6 bpm)... and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with preexisting hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia ...
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Broncos wide receiver Wes Welker has been suspended for four games for using amphetamines. Welker says he would never intentionally take a substance to gain a competitive advantage, and said the NFLs.... WBIR.com is the official website for WBIR-TV, Channel 10, your trusted source for breaking news, weather and sports in Knoxville, TN. WBIR.com
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Amphetamine, methamphetamine, illicit designer phenethylamines (MDA, MDEA, MDMA, MBDB, and BDMPEA), and other phenethylamines (benzyl-1-phenylethylamine, cathinone, ephedrine, fenfluramine, norfenfluramine, phentermine, 1-phenylethylamine, phenylpropanolamine, and propylhexedrine) were extracted from serum using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The extracts were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). The drugs were separated on ODS column in acetonitrile/50mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0) (25:75) as a mobile phase. Full-scan mass spectra of drugs examined by means of APCI with collision-induced dissociation showed protonated molecular ions and fragments typical for particular drugs. LC-APCI-MS allowed an unequivocal differentiation of all drugs involved. The quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions and fragments of drugs involved and their deuterated ...
Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. They are used to induce a state of alert wakefulness and euphoria, and since they inhibit appetite, they also serve as diet pills. After World War II, they were widely prescribed by physicians as diet pills, but they are generally no longer recommended for weight loss programs since there are too many hazards in the prolonged use of amphetamines. Prolonged exposure may result in organ impairment, affecting particularly the kidneys. Amphetamines are addictive and may lead to compulsive behavior, hallucinations, paranoia, and suicidal actions. Their medical use has currently been narrowed to treating only two disorders. One is a condition known as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. When used to treat overactive children, amphetamines are carefully administered under controlled situations as part of a larger program. The other condition for which ...
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... are drugs that cause hallucinations & distortions in a persons perceptions of reality, including seeing images, hearing sounds, and feeling sensations that seem real but do not exist. Some hallucinogens also produce rapid, intense emotional swings. Hallucinogens cause these distortions by disrupting the interaction of nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin. Distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, the serotonin system is involved in the control of behavioral, perceptual, and regulatory systems, including mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception. LSD is the drug most commonly identified with the term "hallucinogen" and the most widely used in this class of drugs.. Hallucinogens made synthetically include LSD, PCP, and DMT. Some hallucinogens, including MDA, MDMA (Ecstasy), and STP (DOM), have a chemical structure related to amphetamine.. Hallucinogens obtained from plants include mescaline from the peyote cactus, and ...
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents. The structural formula of any substituted phenethylamine contains a phenyl ring that is joined to an amino (NH) group via an ethyl (−CH2-CH2−) sidechain. Hence, any substituted phenethylamine can be classified according to the substitution of hydrogen (H) atoms on phenethylamines phenyl ring, sidechain, or amino group with a specific group of atoms. Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants (e.g., amphetamine), hallucinogens (e.g., dl-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine a.k.a. DOM), entactogens (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine ...

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Urban Dictionary: AmphetamineUrban Dictionary: Amphetamine

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more infohttps://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Amphetamine

amphetamineamphetamine

The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. Evekeo is sometimes used to treat obesity in people ... Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... What is the most important information I should know about amphetamine?. Amphetamine may be habit-forming. Tell your doctor if ... What is amphetamine?. Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ...
more infohttps://www.rexhealth.com/rh/health-library/document-viewer/?id=d00803a1

Amphetamine on the Mac App StoreAmphetamine on the Mac App Store

Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.10 ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... What Else Does Amphetamine Do? == Amphetamine is the most powerful and customizable keep-awake utility ever created for macOS. ...
more infohttps://itunes.apple.com/app/amphetamine/id937984704

Amphetamine on the Mac App StoreAmphetamine on the Mac App Store

Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.8 ... Amphetamine is 100% free (no ads, no in-app purchases).. After you launch Amphetamine, you must activate it by clicking on its ... Amphetamine is a little app that lives in your menu bar. With Amphetamine, you can effortlessly override your energy saver ... If you have previously written a review of Amphetamine, please consider updating it.. If youre brand new to Amphetamine and ...
more infohttps://itunes.apple.com/us/app/amphetamine/id937984704?mt=12&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

Amphetamine Logic - Everything2.comAmphetamine Logic - Everything2.com

Everything2 is a community for fiction, nonfiction, poetry, reviews, and more. Get writing help or enjoy nearly a half million pieces of original writing.
more infohttps://everything2.com/user/Amphetamine_Logic

Amphetamine Lyrics - Peter LaughnerAmphetamine Lyrics - Peter Laughner

Lyrics to Amphetamine by Peter Laughner: Take the guitar player for a ride / Never he is left bein satisfied / Thinks is all ... Amphetamine Lyrics Languages Arabic Deutsch Greek English Spanish French Italian Japanese Korean Netherlands Portuguese Russian ...
more infohttps://www.lyricsfreak.com/p/peter+laughner/amphetamine_20903613.html

Mixing amphetamine and sildenafil? : DrugsMixing amphetamine and sildenafil? : Drugs

you know how the viagra commercials say something like do not take viagra if you have a heart condition ? well, amphetamine ...
more infohttps://www.reddit.com/r/Drugs/comments/d81ih/mixing_amphetamine_and_sildenafil/

Amphetamines, not Molly, ensnared Scandrick - ProFootballTalkAmphetamines, not "Molly," ensnared Scandrick - ProFootballTalk

Doesnt MDMA contain amphetamines by definition?. MethyleneDioxyMethAmphetamine?. Im no chemical engineer but the drug may ... While amphetamines consumed on game day can enhance performance, amphetamines taken on vacation in the offseason wont do ... While amphetamines consumed on game day can enhance performance, amphetamines taken on vacation in the offseason wont do ... 57 responses to "Amphetamines, not "Molly," ensnared Scandrick" * Steeler Nation is so far above you and your lowly franchise. ...
more infohttp://profootballtalk.nbcsports.com/2014/08/12/amphetamines-not-molly-ensnared-scandrick/related/
  • Because people rarely call them "amphetamines," it can help to be aware of other names for amphetamines, from brand names like Ritalin or Adderall to nicknames like Bennies or Black Mollies. (kidshealth.org)
  • Amphetamines have been used since then in the development of a variety of drugs, most notably Adderall and Ritalin, which treat ADD and ADHD. (livescience.com)
  • An amphetamine-based medication, such as Adderall or Ritalin, increases dopamine production in the connections between the prefrontal cortex and other locations in the brain, Franssen explained. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamines also cause the brain to release dopamine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called dopamine, increasing it so the user feels a "high. (kidshealth.org)
  • It appears that the main action of amphetamines is to increase the synaptic activity of the dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems. (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamine, through activation of a trace amine receptor, increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erdős's friends worried about his drug use, and in 1979 Graham bet Erdős $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. (aleph.se)
  • Even after users stop taking amphetamines, they may still have problems such as aggression, anxiety, and strong cravings for the drugs. (teenshealth.org)
  • Amphetamines are usually swallowed, but also can be inhaled, injected, or dabbed (when someone licks a finger and dips it in the powder before eating it). (kidshealth.org)
  • Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. (kidshealth.org)
  • Amphetamines are white, bitter tasting, crystal powder. (prezi.com)
  • Amphetamines can be taken as pills, ingested, smoked, in a form of powder, or it can be snorted through the nose. (prezi.com)
  • There's some evidence that amphetamines may treat obesity by acting as appetite suppressants. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamine may cause unusual thoughts or behavior, especially if you have a history of depression, mental illness, or bipolar disorder. (rexhealth.com)
  • Amphetamines became a cure-all for helping truckers to complete their long routes without falling asleep, for weight control, for helping athletes to perform better and train longer, and for treating mild depression . (factbites.com)
  • In chronic high-dose cocaine (75) or amphetamine abuse (49), energy and euphoria induced by active drug administration is replaced in withdrawal by rebound dysphoric and anergic symptoms that appear to occur whether or not the stimulant abuser meets the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder (74). (factbites.com)
  • At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. (wikipedia.org)
  • During my work on the Paris talk I began to wonder whether Paul Erdős (who I used as an example of a respected academic who used cognitive enhancers) could actually have been shown to have benefited from his amphetamine use, which began in 1971 according to Hill (2004) . (aleph.se)
  • Yet despite all the changes, many see Vyvanse as a variation on a familiar theme of amphetamines. (motherjones.com)
  • What to do if a friend Overdoses: You can't fatally Overdose on Amphetamines, it is possible if you inject it though, if your friend takes to much and complains about stomach upset theres nothing you can really do exept try to chill them out. (urbandictionary.com)
  • The problem for Scandrick and, apparently, other NFL players who have tested positive for PEDs this offseason is that the MDMA they have taken on a recreational basis wasn't pure, and it contained amphetamines. (nbcsports.com)
  • Amphetamine may cause dizziness , blurred vision , or restlessness , and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamines that are used as medicines, such as dexamphetamine, are usually small white pills. (knowthescore.info)
  • Doctors began prescribing "rainbow pills," amphetamines named for their bright colors, in the 1940s and '50s to help people lose weight. (motherjones.com)
  • Although amphetamines are used in medicines, they are available only through a limited prescription. (kidshealth.org)
  • These medicines may interact with amphetamine and cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. (rexhealth.com)
  • Amphetamines produce considerable side effects and are especially toxic in large quantities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines are usually given orally and their effects can last for hours. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines produce their effects by altering chemicals that transmit nerve messages in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The effects of amphetamine can last up to 20 hours after the medication has last been taken. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1929, Gordon Alles, a U.S. biochemist, discovered that amphetamine had physiological effects. (livescience.com)
  • Early investigations of the properties of amphetamine focused on the peripheral effects and found that amphetamine was a sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator properties. (factbites.com)
  • this may be important for understanding effects of amphetamine use during pregnancy. (factbites.com)
  • Educate patients on the toxic effects of amphetamines and that amphetamines are not a safe alternative to cocaine use. (factbites.com)
  • Possession of amphetamines can get you up to five years in jail or an unlimited fine or both. (knowthescore.info)
  • It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, patients who have taken MAO inhibitors, a type of antidepressant, within the last 14 days should not receive amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients taking amphetamines should always tell their physicians and dentists that they are using this medication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients should consult their physician before taking any over-the-counter medication while taking amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • General practitioners rely increasingly on amphetamine to treat overweight and mildly depressed patients, as well as alcoholics and drug addicts. (nymag.com)
  • FDA scientists have found a "non-natural" amphetamine-like compound in nine dietary supplements, according to a scientific journal article. (usatoday.com)
  • Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine, while N-methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine that differs only in the placement of the methyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine products were categorized as federally controlled substances with strict regulation of when and how they could be prescribed. (motherjones.com)
  • Amphetamine is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is not known whether it will be harmful to an unborn baby. (factbites.com)
  • You usually DO NOT get addicted to prescription amphetamines when you take them at the right dosage to treat your health condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you're brand new to Amphetamine and think it is useful, please consider writing a review. (apple.com)
  • The body does not maintain activity of amphetamines in the blood stream after 18-36 hours of ingestion. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Amphetamines are helpful to all these people: they do lift the mood, curb the appetite and energize the body. (nymag.com)
  • As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body. (wikipedia.org)