A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
Amides of salicylic acid.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)
An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (1/566)

(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences.  (+info)

Electrophysiological examination of the effects of sustained flibanserin administration on serotonin receptors in rat brain. (2/566)

5-HT1A receptor agonists have proven to be effective antidepressant medications, however they suffer from a significant therapeutic lag before depressive symptoms abate. Flibanserin is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist developed to possibly induce a more rapid onset of antidepressant action through its preferential postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Flibanserin antagonized the effect of microiontophoretically-applied DOI in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following 2 days of administration, indicating antagonism of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. This reduction in the effect of locally-applied DOI was no longer present following 7-day flibanserin administration. Two-day flibanserin administration only marginally reduced the firing activity of dorsal raphe (DRN) 5-HT neurons. Following 7 days of administration, 5-HT neuronal firing activity had returned to normal and the somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors were desensitized. The responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located on CA3 hippocampus pyramidal neurons and mPFC neurons, examined using microiontophoretically-applied 5-HT and gepirone, was unchanged following a 7-day flibanserin treatment. As demonstrated by the ability of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 to selectively increase the firing of hippocampal neurons in 2- and 7-day treated rats, flibanserin enhanced the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in this brain region. The results suggest that flibanserin could be a therapeutically useful compound putatively endowed with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action.  (+info)

Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female sex steroids. (3/566)

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose relationship of selegline and desmethylselegiline pharmacokinetics within the selegiline dose range from 5 to 40 mg. METHODS: Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethlylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication. RESULTS: The total AUC and Cmax of selegiline were 10-to 20-fold higher in those subjects taking oral steroids compared with subjects with no concomitant medication; this finding was consistent and statistically significant at all the four dose levels. The dose linearity of selegiline pharmacokinetics failed to be demonstrated in both groups. The AUC and Cmax of desmethylselegiline were only moderately higher (about 1.5-fold; P=NS at each dose level) in the subjects taking oral steroids than in those not receiving concomitant medication. The AUC values of desmethylselegiline increased in a dose linear manner in subjects with no concomitant medication, but not in the oral steroid group. The metabolic ratio (AUC(desmethylselegiline)/AUC(selegiline)) was several-fold lower in the group receiving oral steroids compared with the no-concomitant-medication group (P<0.005 at all the four dose levels). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of oral contraceptives caused a drastic (20-fold) increase in the oral bioavailability of selegiline. The highly significant difference in the metabolic ratio between the groups provides evidence that the mechanism of the interaction between selegiline and female sex steroids involves reduced T-demethylation of selegiline. The present results suggest that concomitant use of selegiline with exogenous female sex steroids should be avoided or the dosage of selegiline should be reduced in order to minimize the risks of selegiline related adverse drug reactions.  (+info)

Amphetamines induce apoptosis and regulation of bcl-x splice variants in neocortical neurons. (4/566)

Amphetamineanalogs have emerged as popular recreational drugs of abuse. The number of reports of these substances producing severe acute toxicity and death is increasing. In 'Ecstasy' -associated deaths, focal necrosis in the liver and individual myocytic necrosis has been reported. Furthermore, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell damage has been observed in experimental amphetamine intoxication in laboratory animals. Here we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to D-amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') results in significant neurotoxicity in rat neocortical neurons in vitro. This neuronal cell death is accompanied by endonucleosomal DNA cleavage and differential expression of anti- and proapoptotic bcl-xL/S splice variants. In addition, we observed pronounced induction of cell stress-associated transcription factor c-jun and translation initiation inhibitor p97 after amphetamine treatment. These data support that the neurotoxic effects of different amphetamines are extended to rat neocortical neurons and that apoptotic pathways are involved in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.  (+info)

Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex. (5/566)

Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound.  (+info)

The evolution of cerebral blood flow in the developing brain: evaluation with iodine-123 iodoamphetamine SPECT and correlation with MR imaging. (6/566)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although it is well established that brain maturation correlates temporally with the functions the newborn or infant performs at various stages of development, the precise relationship between function and anatomic brain maturation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in infants and children using iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These findings were correlated with the MR imaging appearance of the brain and with known developmental changes. METHODS: Twenty-one 123I-IMP SPECT examinations of 17 patients, ranging in age from neonates to 2 years, were reviewed retrospectively. All children had had transient neurologic events in the neonatal period that did not significantly affect subsequent neuropsychological development. MR studies were performed in 12 of these patients and the MR findings were correlated with the SPECT results. RESULTS: SPECT studies showed a consistent pattern of evolving changes in 123I-IMP uptake, most likely reflecting evolution of rCBF. From the 34th postconceptional week until the end of the second month after term delivery, there was predominant uptake in the thalami, brain stem, and paleocerebellum, with relatively less cortical activity. Radionuclide uptake in both the perirolandic and occipital cortices was well seen around the 40th postconceptional week and increased rapidly thereafter, with a predominance of parietal activity. By 3 months, radionuclide uptake in the cerebellar hemispheres and parietofrontal cortices increased. Frontal and temporal activity increased by age 6 to 8 months. Uptake in the basal ganglia increased by 8 months. By the beginning of the second year, rCBF showed a similar topographic pattern to that in adults. CONCLUSION: The time course of the changes in 123I-IMP uptake in the developing brain as detected by SPECT is similar to that of myelination and most likely reflects an overall topologic maturational pattern of the brain.  (+info)

Direct agonists for serotonin receptors enhance locomotor function in rats that received neural transplants after neonatal spinal transection. (7/566)

We analyzed whether acute treatment with serotonergic agonists would improve motor function in rats with transected spinal cords (spinal rats) and in rats that received transplants of fetal spinal cord into the transection site (transplant rats). Neonates received midthoracic spinal transections within 48 hr of birth; transplant rats received fetal (embryonic day 14) spinal cord grafts at the time of transection. At 3 weeks, rats began 1-2 months of training in treadmill locomotion. Rats in the transplant group developed better weight-supported stepping than spinal rats. Systemic administration of two directly acting agonists for serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes, quipazine and (+/-)-1-[2, 5]-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane), further increased weight-supported stepping in transplant rats. The improvement was dose-dependent and greatest in rats with poor to moderate baseline weight support. In contrast, indirectly acting serotonergic agonists, which block reuptake of 5-HT (sertraline) or release 5-HT and block its reuptake (D-fenfluramine), failed to enhance motor function. Neither direct nor indirect agonists significantly improved locomotion in spinal rats as a group, despite equivalent upregulation of 5-HT(2) receptors in the lumbar ventral horn of lesioned rats with and without transplants. The distribution of immunoreactive serotonergic fibers within and caudal to the transplant did not appear to correspond to restoration of motor function. Our results confirm our previous demonstration that transplants improve motor performance in spinal rats. Additional stimulation with agonists at subtypes of 5-HT receptors produces a beneficial interaction with transplants that further improves motor competence.  (+info)

Evidence for a role for central 5-HT2B as well as 5-HT2A receptors in cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetized rats. (8/566)

1. The effects of injections i.c.v. of quipazine, (2 micromol kg-1) and 1-(2,5-di-methoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 2 micromol kg-1) on renal sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were investigated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats pretreated with a peripherally acting 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 2. Quipazine or DOI caused a rise in MAP which was associated with a tachycardia and renal sympathoinhibition in rats pretreated (i.c.v.) with the antagonist vehicle 10% PEG. These effects of quipazine were completely blocked by pretreatment with cinanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and attenuated by spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the sympathoinhibition, while pretreatment with SB204741 (a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist) reversed the sympathoinhibition to excitation as it also did for DOI. Quipazine also caused renal sympathoexcitation in the presence (i.v.) of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked by quipazine alone and in the presence of SB204741 caused an immediate fall in MAP. For quipazine alone the renal sympathoinhibition was slowly reversed to an excitation, while the renal sympathoexcitation observed in the presence of SB204741 was potentiated. In both, the quipazine-evoked tachycardia was unaffected. 4. The data indicate that cardiovascular responses caused by i.c.v. quipazine and DOI are primarily due to activation of central 5-HT2A receptors, which causes the release of vasopressin and a tachycardia. This released vasopressin appears to suppress a 5-HT2A receptor-evoked central increase in sympathetic outflow, which involves the activation of central 5-HT2B receptors indirectly by the released vasopressin.  (+info)

The following are some common amphetamine-related disorders:

1. Amphetamine Use Disorder (AUD): This is a chronic condition characterized by the excessive and compulsive use of amphetamines, despite negative consequences. Individuals with AUD may experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug, and may continue to use to avoid these symptoms or to achieve a "high."
2. Stimulant Psychosis: This is a condition in which an individual experiences hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking due to the use of amphetamines. It is often seen in individuals who have a history of substance abuse and/or mental health issues.
3. Amphetamine-Induced Psychotic Disorder: This condition is similar to stimulant psychosis, but it is specifically caused by the use of amphetamines. It can include hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking.
4. Cognitive Impairment: Long-term use of amphetamines can lead to cognitive impairments, such as memory loss, difficulty with attention, and decreased problem-solving skills.
5. Sleep Disturbances: Amphetamine use can disrupt sleep patterns, leading to insomnia or other sleep disorders.
6. Malnutrition: Individuals who use amphetamines may neglect their nutritional intake, leading to malnutrition and related health problems.
7. Cardiovascular Problems: Amphetamine use can increase heart rate and blood pressure, which can lead to cardiovascular problems such as heart attack, stroke, and arrhythmias.
8. Dental Problems: The dry mouth caused by amphetamine use can lead to tooth decay and other dental problems.
9. Infectious Diseases: Sharing needles or engaging in other risky behaviors to obtain amphetamines can increase the risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.
10. Financial and Legal Problems: The high cost of maintaining an amphetamine habit can lead to financial problems, and criminal activity to support the habit can lead to legal problems.

It is important to note that the specific risks associated with amphetamine use can vary depending on the individual, their health status, and the dose and duration of use. If you or someone you know is struggling with amphetamine addiction, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

Substance-induced psychoses can be caused by a variety of drugs, including:

* Alcohol
* Benzodiazepines (such as diazepam)
* Cannabis
* Hallucinogens (such as LSD or psilocybin)
* Inhalants (such as solvents or aerosols)
* Opioids (such as heroin or prescription painkillers)
* Stimulants (such as cocaine or amphetamines)

Substance-induced psychoses can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as brain injury or infection.

Symptoms of substance-induced psychosis can vary depending on the drug or substance used, but may include:

* Hallucinations (hearing, seeing, or feeling things that are not there)
* Delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality)
* Disorganized thinking and speech
* Disorganized or catatonic behavior
* Changes in mood, such as depression or anxiety

Substance-induced psychosis can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, based on a combination of the following:

* A thorough medical history and physical examination
* Laboratory tests to rule out other causes of the symptoms
* A mental status examination to assess cognitive function and thought content
* Imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans) to rule out other causes of the symptoms

Treatment for substance-induced psychosis typically involves stopping the use of the drugs or substances that are causing the symptoms. In some cases, medications such as antipsychotics or antidepressants may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Behavioral therapy and support groups can also be helpful in addressing the underlying issues that led to the development of the psychosis.

Preventing substance-induced psychosis is often challenging, as it can be difficult to predict which individuals are at risk of developing psychotic symptoms. However, some strategies for prevention include:

* Avoiding the use of drugs or substances that have been linked to psychosis
* Seeking professional help if symptoms of psychosis develop
* Getting support from friends and family
* Participating in therapy and support groups to address underlying issues

It is important to note that substance-induced psychosis can be a serious condition, and seeking medical attention as soon as possible is essential. With appropriate treatment, many individuals are able to recover from the symptoms of psychosis and go on to lead fulfilling lives.

* Anxiety
* Depression
* Fatigue
* Insomnia
* Muscle and bone pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Sweating
* Tremors

The specific symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance being withdrawn from, but some common symptoms include:

* Alcohol: tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, headaches, and seizures
* Opioids: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, muscle aches, sweating, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and depression
* Benzodiazepines: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and seizures

The diagnosis of substance withdrawal syndrome is typically made based on the patient's history of substance use and the presence of withdrawal symptoms. A healthcare provider may also order laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome usually involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain management, as well as medication to manage withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical professionals may also recommend a gradual tapering of the substance over a period of time to minimize withdrawal symptoms.

It is important for individuals who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as untreated withdrawal can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and dehydration. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with substance withdrawal syndrome can recover fully and successfully overcome their addiction.

Hyperkinesis can manifest in different ways, including:

1. Excessive movement or restlessness: This can include fidgeting, pacing, or other forms of constant motion.
2. Involuntary movements: These can include tremors, tics, or other sudden, uncontrolled movements.
3. Overactive behavior: This can include rapid speaking, excessive talking, or other behaviors that are not typical for the individual.
4. Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet: This can be due to an inability to focus or a sense of inner restlessness or agitation.
5. Increased energy levels: This can result in excessive physical activity, such as running, jumping, or other forms of high-energy behavior.

Hyperkinesis can have a significant impact on daily life, making it difficult to focus, complete tasks, and maintain relationships. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as hyperkinesis can be a sign of an underlying neurological or psychiatric condition that requires treatment.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

There are several types of narcolepsy, including:

* Type 1 narcolepsy: This is the most common form of the disorder, and it is characterized by the presence of cataplexy and low levels of hypocretin-1, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and wakefulness.
* Type 2 narcolepsy: This form of narcolepsy is similar to type 1, but it does not involve cataplexy. Instead, people with type 2 narcolepsy may experience other symptoms such as memory loss, anxiety, and depression.
* Narcolepsy with cataplexy: This is a subtype of type 1 narcolepsy that is characterized by the presence of both cataplexy and low levels of hypocretin-1.
* Narcolepsy without cataplexy: This is a subtype of type 2 narcolepsy that is characterized by the absence of cataplexy and low levels of hypocretin-1.

There is no cure for narcolepsy, but medications such as stimulants, modafinil, and sodium oxybate can help manage symptoms. Behavioral interventions such as scheduled napping and exercise can also be helpful in managing the disorder.

It is important to note that catalepsy is not the same as catatonia, which is a more specific condition characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including immobility, mutism, negativism, and emotional dysregulation. However, catalepsy and catatonia do share some similarities, and the terms are often used interchangeably in clinical practice.

The exact cause of catalepsy is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to dysfunction in certain areas of the brain, such as the neocortex and basal ganglia. In some cases, catalepsy may be a side effect of medication or drug intoxication.

Treatment for catalepsy typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause, such as managing seizures or withdrawing from drugs. In some cases, medications such as benzodiazepines or antipsychotics may be used to help manage symptoms. Other approaches, such as physical therapy and behavioral interventions, may also be helpful in improving mobility and function.

1. Cocaine dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes psychologically and physiologically dependent on cocaine, and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug.
2. Cocaine intoxication: This is a state of altered consciousness that can occur when an individual takes too much cocaine, and can cause symptoms such as agitation, confusion, and hallucinations.
3. Cocaine-induced psychosis: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a break from reality, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.
4. Cocaine-associated cardiovascular problems: Cocaine use can increase heart rate and blood pressure, and can cause damage to the heart and blood vessels.
5. Cocaine-associated respiratory problems: Cocaine use can constrict the airways and make breathing more difficult, which can lead to respiratory failure.
6. Cocaine-associated neurological problems: Cocaine use can cause nerve damage and seizures, particularly in individuals who use the drug frequently or in large quantities.
7. Cocaine withdrawal syndrome: This is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using cocaine, including depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
8. Cocaine-related anxiety disorders: Cocaine use can exacerbate anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
9. Cocaine-related mood disorders: Cocaine use can also exacerbate mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.
10. Cocaine-related cognitive impairment: Chronic cocaine use can impair cognitive function, particularly in areas such as attention, memory, and decision-making.

It is important to note that the effects of cocaine can vary depending on the individual, the dose and frequency of use, and other factors such as the method of administration and any underlying medical conditions. If you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine addiction, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

Bread & Amphetamines (Khlyab i amfeti) (Bulgarian: "Хляб и амфети") is the fourth solo studio album by Bulgarian rapper Big Sha ...
The term "amphetamines" also refers to a chemical class, but, unlike the class of substituted amphetamines, the "amphetamines" ... ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... Following amphetamine uptake at VMAT2, amphetamine induces the collapse of the vesicular pH gradient, which results in the ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ...
Look up amphetamine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Amphetamine is a stimulant drug. Amphetamine may also refer to: ... "Amphetamine", a song by Everclear from So Much for the Afterglow History and culture of amphetamines This disambiguation page ... amphetamine), the drug's levorotatory enantiomer Adderall, a brand of mixed amphetamine salts Lisdexamfetamine, a prodrug of ... Substituted amphetamine, a class of chemical compounds based upon the amphetamine structure Dextroamphetamine (dexamfetamine, ( ...
Amphetamine was first produced at the end of the 19th century. By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds ... Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds ... For example, (S)-amphetamine, commonly known as d-amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, displays five times greater psychostimulant ... Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, ...
Amphetamine (Chinese: 安非他命; Jyutping: on1 fei1 taa1 ming6) is a 2010 Hong Kong film starring Byron Pang and Thomas Price. It ... Byron Pang as Kafka Tom Price as Daniel Linda So as May Winnie Leung as Linda 安非他命_(電影) Amphetamine (film) An uncut version of ... 安非他命》雞姦戲變「黑畫面」准上映 [Amphetamine anal intercourse shots are changed to blackout for public screening]. Ming Pao (in Chinese). 1 ... The next morning, Daniel does amphetamine with Kafka, and Kafka confesses that despite everything he's done wrong, he
... refers to a state of psychological dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class. Stimulants such as ... Amphetamine use within teenagers can have lasting effects on their brain, in particular the prefrontal cortex. Amphetamine use ... When substituted amphetamines are used, drug tolerance develops rapidly. Amphetamine dependence has shown to have the highest ... this will combine the amphetamine with a negative thing or opposite stimulus. Treatment for amphetamines is growing at ...
"A Synthesis of Amphetamine. J. Chem. Educ. 51, 671 (1974)". Erowid.org. Retrieved 9 January 2011. Otto Snow (2002). Amphetamine ... Land Speed Record is an allusion to Hüsker Dü's amphetamine use.[citation needed] Amphetamine was widely abused in the 1980s ... Asia & Pacific Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Information Centre "Oliver Sacks: on amphetamines, Oliver Sacks Foundation". YouTube ... Other examples include the song "Amphetamine" by Alternative rock band Everclear, "Amphetamine" by Three Souls in My Mind, "20 ...
"Amphetamine Reptile Records Documentary The Color Of Noise". mxdwn.com. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2020. "Amphetamine ... Amphetamine Reptile Records (or AmRep Industries) is a record label founded in 1986 by Tom Hazelmyer in Washington state. The ... "Protonic Reversal Ep169: Tom Hazelmyer (Amphetamine Reptile)". protonicreversal.com. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020. ... Amphetamine Reptile Tour - Friday, October 30, 1992, at The Ritz List of record labels Riemenschneider, Chris (October 3, 2005 ...
... amphetamine psychosis. Amphetamine, the parent compound of amphetamine-type stimulants was first synthesized by Romanian ... After its discovery, amphetamine was purified and put into medical use in the 1900s. Amphetamine was originally sold as a ... However, amphetamine-type stimulants is not prescribed for this use legally. Amphetamine is frequently used for pleasure and ... However, the urinary excretion of amphetamine and other ATS is highly dependent on the pH. A small amount of amphetamine is ...
Specific Amphetamine Reptile Records at Discogs (Discographies of American record labels, Amphetamine Reptile Records). ... Amphetamine Reptile Records is an American record label founded in 1986 by American musician Tom Hazelmyer. General " ... "Amphetamine Reptile Records Discography". amphetaminereptile.com. Retrieved June 23, 2020. ...
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Amphetamine Cocaine Douglass J, Daoud S (March 1996). "Characterization of the human cDNA and genomic DNA encoding CART: a ... cocaine-+and+amphetamine-regulated+transcript+protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ( ... Zhang M, Han L, Xu Y (November 2011). "Roles of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the central nervous system". ...
... (DOEF; also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine) is a lesser-known psychedelic ... Substituted amphetamines, Fluoroethyl compounds, All stub articles, Psychoactive drug stubs). ...
"Amphetamines". AIC. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011. "Hallucinogens". AIC. Archived from the ... Over two tonnes of precursor chemicals for the production of meth/amphetamines were detected at the Australian border in 2008- ... had used amphetamines in the past 12 months. According to the Australian Crime Commission, there is an increase in the number ... "the majority of amphetamines consumed in Australia is produced in this country in clandestine laboratories." Community impact ...
The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1; however, ... Methylone does not substitute for amphetamine or for the hallucinogenic DOM in animals trained to discriminate between these ... In New Zealand, although methylone is not explicitly scheduled and falls outside the strict definitions of an "amphetamine ... However, Methylone bears the exact chemical difference between amphetamine and cathinone - and cathinone is listed as not being ...
ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ... Amphetamine modulates the activity of most psychoactive drugs. In particular, amphetamine may decrease the effects of sedatives ...
ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sex addictions, which are ... Kraemer T, Maurer HH (August 1998). "Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or ... the metabolites of amphetamine. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are amphetamine, 4‑hydroxyamphetamine, 4‑ ... of 647 individuals with amphetamine dependence reporting six or more signs of amphetamine withdrawal listed in the DSM when the ...
Listed as a Schedule 1 as it is an analogue of amphetamine. The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing ... Unlike many other substituted amphetamines, however, it is not primarily a stimulant. DOI has a stereocenter and R-(−)-DOI is ... 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Substituted Amphetamines DOF DOB DOC "D101 DOI hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC), solid". Retrieved 13 April 2008. ... "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act : Legislative history · Schedule I · Section 19: Tramadol [Proposed]; Amphetamines". ...
In Thailand, amphetamines are classified as Type 1 Narcotics. In the United Kingdom, amphetamines are regarded as Class B drugs ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... In South Korea, amphetamines are prohibited. In Taiwan, amphetamines including Adderall are Schedule 2 drugs with a minimum ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ...
Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS (January 2001). "Amphetamine-type central ... amphetamine, or heroin.[dubious - discuss] The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of ... Amphetamines.com. 19 November 2002. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011. Ryzik M (10 June ... such as ecstasy or amphetamines), as well as with heroin and benzodiazepines use, and can be considered as a bridge between the ...
ISBN 978-1-4786-1318-3. Goldberg, R (2009). "Cocaine amphetamines". Drugs Across the Spectrum. Brooks Cole. ISBN 978-0-495- ...
Gordon Alles Benzedrine Amphetamine Rasmussen, Nicolas, On speed : the many lives of amphetamine, New York University Press, ( ... Profetamine is the name of a generic form of amphetamine sulfate which was introduced in the 1940s. Apparently, it was a ...
"Captagon, ISIS's favorite amphetamine, explained". Vox. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2017. Henley, Jon (13 January ... "WW II German soldiers, civilians dropped amphetamines to give them boost to battle allies". NY Daily News. Retrieved 5 January ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ... Todd, Brian; McConnell, Dugald (21 November 2015). "Syria fighters may be fueled by amphetamines". CNN. Retrieved 22 November ...
95% of cannabis users also drank alcohol; 26% took amphetamines; 19% took ecstasy and only 2.7% reported not having used any ... This was found to be comparatively higher than hallucinogens (26%) and amphetamines (22%). Long-term cannabis users are at risk ...
β-PEA was also as effective as amphetamine in its ability to produce conditioned place preference (i.e., the process by which ... Administration of D-amphetamine and methylphenidate resulted in a markedly increased urinary excretion of PEA,20,60 suggesting ... Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators". Journal of Neurochemistry. 90 (2): 257-71. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ... doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2015.01.001 Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacology ...
2-FA may be considered to be an analog of amphetamine, thus falling under the Federal Analog Act. As of October 2015 2-FA is a ... 2-Fluoroamphetamine (2-FA) is a stimulant drug from the amphetamine family which has been sold as a designer drug. 2- ... doi:10.1016/s0022-1139(02)00201-4. Costa E, Garattini S (1970). Amphetamines and Related Compounds. New York: Raven Press. p. ... Substituted amphetamines, Fluoroarenes, Designer drugs, Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents). ...
Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators". Journal of Neurochemistry. 90 (2): 257-271. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ... Freye, E. (2009). Pharmacology and abuse of cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy and related designer drugs: a comprehensive review ...
The Royal Commissioner studied, examined and reported upon the following drugs - cannabis; narcotics; heroin; amphetamines, ...
I'd never had amphetamines. I was working for Brian Wilson at 3:30 AM when he wanted to have his amphetamines." It was also ... "had a fondness for amphetamines" at the time. Parks hesitantly confirmed this, but added, "Those were his amphetamines. They ... interview included an off-the-cuff comment by Brian Wilson saying that it was Parks who introduced him to LSD and amphetamines ...
... compared to amphetamine. Exceptions include 4-MTA, a para-substituted, non-neurotoxic amphetamine. The LD50 (mouse; i.p.) of 4- ... "4-Methyl-amphetamine: a health threat for recreational amphetamine users". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 27 (9): 817-822. doi: ... The subjective effects of 4-fluoroamphetamine include euphoria which some find similar to the effects of MDMA and amphetamine, ... Harvey, J. A. (1978). "Neurotoxic Action of Halogenated Amphetamines". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 305 (1): 289 ...
However, amphetamines are on the official banned substances list; and can/do help swimming performance. Wikinews has related ... Mellouli has since admitted that he took the ADD medication Adderall, a stimulant and a form of amphetamine. (Already in June ... amphetamine... and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). (p. 7) This passage ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Home , Community , Links , Amphetamines , Amphetamines use Statistics in real-time - DopeStats. This site includes paid links. ... Amphetamines use Statistics in real-time - DopeStats. Average prices and total economic cost reported for over 300 substances ...
... 17 Books by Futurist Keynote Speaker / Author - The Truth About Drugs ... Amphetamines are widely abused, addictive drugs. They are usually sniffed as powder or injected.The effects begin with a very ... Rebound depression, lethargy and intense hunger follows withdrawal.Amphetamines postpone the need for rest and food, replacing ...
Amphetamines are drugs. They can be legal or illegal. They are legal when they are prescribed by a doctor and used to treat ... There are different kinds of street amphetamines. Common ones and some of their slang terms are:. *Amphetamine: goey, louee, ... Some people use amphetamines to help them stay awake on the job or to study for a test. Others use them to boost their ... Amphetamines are drugs. They can be legal or illegal. They are legal when they are prescribed by a doctor and used to treat ...
Amphetamine Use Soars in Locked Down Finland: Study. Finns may be known for their love of vodka and beer, but growing numbers ... Amphetamines can be used to treat medical conditions such as ADHD, but is also taken recreationally, sometimes under the name " ... Use of amphetamines in the country of 5.5 million people has tripled since 2013 according to wastewater studies, Gunnar said. ... Although researchers could not directly link the spike in drug use to the lockdown, "the fact remains that amphetamine use has ...
Sreenivasan VR Problems in Identification of Methylenediony and Methoxy Amphetamines Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology & ... "Problems in Identification of Methylenediony and Methoxy Amphetamines". Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology & Police Science. ... Amphetamine and methamphetamine are two well-known phenylethylamines. For a number of years, these stimulating agents are being ... A new series of amphetamines, in which the hydrogen atoms in the phenyl ring are substituted by method or methylenedio_, groups ...
Systematic review of treatment for amphetamine-related disorders  World Health Organization. Management of Substance ...
Amphetamines Define Amphetamines History of Amphetamines Amphetamines Effects Amphetamines Facts Amphetamines Street Names List ... Amphetamine Addiction Amphetamine Abuse Amphetamine Withdrawal Amphetamine Detox Amphetamine Addiction Treatment Amphetamines ... Amphetamines Articles and Refs. * Cocaine or Amphetamines: Which Recovery Program is More Difficult? ... Cocaine or Amphetamines: Which Recovery Program is More Difficult?. Learn More What is Projection and How does it Affect Your ...
This report describes cases of workers who developed heat-related illnesses after taking amphetamines and working in a hot ... This report describes cases of workers who developed heat-related illnesses after taking amphetamines and working in a hot ... and four qualitative screening tests detected amphetamine or amphetamine analogs in workers without amphetamine prescriptions. ... The most common medically important amphetamine-class substances are amphetamine and its two enantiomers (levoamphetamine and ...
This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience ...
The four most common drugs that led clients to seek treatment were alcohol (37%), amphetamines (24%), cannabis (19%) and... ... Classification of amphetamines in the AODTS NMDS Expand AODTS NMDS data for amphetamines correspond to the Australian Standard ... For information on amphetamine use and harms, please see:. *Tobacco, alcohol and other drugs in Australia: Meth/amphetamine and ... Clients who report injecting amphetamines may be using any form of amphetamines, as each form (base, crystal and powder) can be ...
... amphetamine (AMPH) from saline in a two-lever, food-maintained paradigm or to discriminate intragastrically administered AMPH ...
... beat amphetamines drug testing / screening: Amphetamine (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine), also known as speed or crank, is a ... Drug Information for AMPHETAMINES. Amphetamine (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine), also known as speed or crank, is a stimulant, and ... Marijuana , Meth , Cocaine , Heroin , Ecstasy , Amphetamines , Inhalants. LSD , Rohypnol , GHB , Ketamine , Steroids , ... However, amphetamines last longer in the body than methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, etc.), and tend to have stronger side- ...
In the Media: Young People on Amphetamines for ADHD Have Twice the Psychosis Risk Compared to Other Stimulants March 20, 2019. ...
These days, methamphetamine is a demon drug, but its close relatives in the amphetamine family, amphetamine-type stimulants ... For some, amphetamines had replaced cocaine; now, perhaps, cocaine was replacing amphetamine. ... amphetamines, meth and other. by Anonymous, September 05, 2008, 02:05pm I firmly believe a large part of the "Methadrine ... But by the 1940s, amphetamine tablets by the millions were being used by soldiers on all sides of World War II as energy- and ...
Analysis of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine in Whole Blood by Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry ...
Alprazolam, Amphetamine, Ultram, Diazepam Online: +1(775)773-5306. Posted 3 months ago ...
A preliminary report of an in vivo investigation of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in schizophrenia.. James Brasic, ... A preliminary report of an in vivo investigation of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in schizophrenia. ... A preliminary report of an in vivo investigation of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in schizophrenia. ... A preliminary report of an in vivo investigation of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in schizophrenia. ...
Psychemedics developed the first amphetamine hair drug test for MDMA (Ecstasy) and received an FDA-cleared assay for ... What Do Amphetamines Look Like?. Amphetamine - Illicit amphetamine appears as crystals, chunks, and fine to coarse powders, off ... More Information About Amphetamines. Short Term Effects. Amphetamines, like adrenaline, affect not only the brain but also the ... What is Amphetamines?. Descriptions. Amphetamine - A psychostimulant drug that is known to produce increased wakefulness and ...
Amphetamine and related derivatives are widely abused central- and psychostimulants. Detection of certain derivatives, such as ... The proposed assay is precise and accurate for confirmation of amphetamine and derivatives in urine. The complementary approach ... Marais, AAS & Laurens, JB 2008,Rapid GC-MS confirmation of amphetamines in urine by extractive acylation,Forensic Science ... Rapid GC-MS confirmation of amphetamines in urine by extractive acylation. Login ...
The project focuses on amphetamines and their similarity to other compound structures. ... 1- "Amphetamine." National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database, U.S. National Library of Medicine, ... 16.1: Amphetamines and the Brain is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts. ... Amphetamines then disrupt the storage of these monoamines in the neuron. This leads to higher amounts of monoamines in the ...
Amphetamine in different forms are divided into various different types. ... Buy Amphetamine (Crystal Meth) Compare the Best Online Pharmacies. ... Do Amphetamine Make You Happy?. How to Get Amphetamine (Crystal Meth) Guaranteed Shipping. They use Amphetamine to feel more ... How many days can you go without Amphetamine?. Buy Cheap Amphetamine Up to 70% Off Drugs. A person can buy Amphetamine online ...
Use of amphetamine-type stimulants in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2004-2015: a review ... ABSTRACT Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are the second most commonly used illicit drugs in the world, after cannabis. The ... Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are one of the main forms of stimulant drugs. Most ATS are chemical compounds synthesized ... In Australia, the use amphetamines more than 5 times in the past year was in found 3.9% of the population aged 15 to 64 and ATS ...
info [at] davidpowell [dot] nl. ...
Both of those amphetamines and methamphetamines are addictive. Check with your Health care provider if you grow to be dependent ... Tension is shown to precipitate spontaneous https://traviscawpi.fare-blog.com/16613202/amphetamines-an-overview. ...
It is important for you to know the variety of amphetamine street names since the usage among our teens and young adults is on ... Some of the street names of amphetamine dont related to the effects at all but more so to the types of drugs that amphetamines ... There are a wide variety of different street names used for amphetamines. Many of the amphetamine street names that you will ... The most common amphetamine street names are uppers or speed but there are many other terms that can be used to describe the ...
CD, Released by Myron Elkins, in genre Rock & Pop, on 01/13/2023
Amphetamine Crash. All the drugs in this world wont save you from yourself. *About Us! ...
Explore the structures and analogues of Amphetamine, 1-Phenylpropan-2-amine, A, AMP in book II of PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story ... Amphetamines. Wikipedia. Amphetamine. PsychonautWiki. Amphetamine. Rhodium. Direct amination of phenylpropenes to amphetamines ... Amphetamine. aipsin.com. Amphetamine (Iss. 24, Dec 2021: V-18). aipsin.com. Amphetamine (Iss. 3, Jun-Sep 2019: X-29) ... Resolution of racemic amphetamines into d- and l-amphetamines. Rhodium. A review of amphetamine and methamphetamine reduction ...
It is important to mention that the effect of caffeine in amphetamine samples is desired by many users, as the pure amphetamine ... there is a risk that users overdose when using pure amphetamine due to the more subtle and later onset effect of amphetamine.. ... Amphetamine belongs to the group of stimulants and is classified as a phenethylamine. The term speed is usually understood to ... The amphetamine content of the samples handed in at the DIZ has been relatively constant between 50 % and 60 % since 2018. ...
  • three postmortem blood assays detected methamphetamine, and four qualitative screening tests detected amphetamine or amphetamine analogs in workers without amphetamine prescriptions. (cdc.gov)
  • Amphetamine and methamphetamine are two well-known phenylethylamines. (erowid.org)
  • AODTS NMDS data for amphetamines correspond to the Australian Standard Classification of Drugs of Concern (ASCDC) for the general 'amphetamines' classification, in which methamphetamine is a sub-classification (ABS 2011). (aihw.gov.au)
  • Data on different forms of amphetamines-methamphetamine specifically-have not been separately reported over time due to the nature of the classification structure used in this collection. (aihw.gov.au)
  • Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) such as "ecstasy" and methamphetamine now rank as Africa's second most widely abused drug type. (who.int)
  • Amphetamines are central nervous system stimulants that can induce hyperthermia independently or in combination with other risk factors ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are the second most commonly used illicit drugs in the world, after cannabis. (who.int)
  • La présente étude a pour objectif d'évaluer la situation de la consommation de stimulants de type amphétamines en République islamique d'Iran. (who.int)
  • Les résultats indiquent que la consommation auto-déclarée de methamphétamine et d'ectasie en 2016 était inférieure à 1 % dans la population générale et parmi les étudiants en universités et les élèves du secondaire, mais que la prévalence des stimulants de type amphétamines était plus élevée parmi certains groupes. (who.int)
  • Multi-analyte confirmations for amphetamine type stimulants are therefore required, but traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods necessitate lengthy analytical procedures with prolonged sample turn-around times. (up.ac.za)
  • Amphetamine belongs to the group of stimulants and is classified as a phenethylamine. (saferparty.ch)
  • Amphetamine-type stimulants : a global view. (who.int)
  • Amphetamine - Illicit amphetamine appears as crystals, chunks, and fine to coarse powders, off-white to yellow in color, and supplied loose (in plastic or foil bags) or in capsules or tablets of various sizes and colors. (psychemedics.com)
  • Recommended methods for testing illicit ring-substituted amphetamine derivatives : manual for use by national narcotics laboratories. (who.int)
  • In addition, very small amounts of ketamine, cocaine, MDMA and phenylacetone were analysed in 5.5 % of the amphetamine samples in 2021. (saferparty.ch)
  • The Role of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) in Cancer: A Systematic Review. (bvsalud.org)
  • The functions of cocaine - and amphetamine -regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide encoded by the CARTPT gene vary from modifying behavior and pain sensitivity to being an antioxidant . (bvsalud.org)
  • In 2020-21, amphetamines were reported as a drug of concern (either principal or additional) in 3 in 10 treatment episodes (31% or 69,600 episodes) (Table Drg.4). (aihw.gov.au)
  • Amphetamine and related derivatives are widely abused central- and psychostimulants. (up.ac.za)
  • The proposed assay is precise and accurate for confirmation of amphetamine and derivatives in urine. (up.ac.za)
  • Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nine (26.5%) of these 34 workers tested positive for an amphetamine-class substance. (cdc.gov)
  • Two cases involved legal use of prescription amphetamines to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and both persons who used legal prescription amphetamines died. (cdc.gov)
  • Amphetamine is a category of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system and the brain and is often prescribed for people with narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (trupathrecovery.com)
  • We describe five patients with complications following amphetamine overdose. (amphetamines.com)
  • Overdose) where to buy Amphetamine your health and where to buy Amphetamine your life. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Thus, there is a risk that users overdose when using pure amphetamine due to the more subtle and later onset effect of amphetamine. (saferparty.ch)
  • Where to buy Amphetamine substances all cause a risk (i. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • In 2021, 72 % of the amphetamine samples submitted contained at least one pharmacologically active extender (such as also caffeine), one or more synthetic impurities or contamination (smear contamination in minigrips already used with other substances). (saferparty.ch)
  • The most frequently detected unexpected psychoactive substances in amphetamine samples are still caffeine and synthesis by-products. (saferparty.ch)
  • Opioids get the headlines, while amphetamines are mounting a stealth assault in the drugs-of-abuse landscape. (psychemedics.com)
  • MDMA or Ecstasy (3-4-methylenedioxymethampheta-mine), is a synthetic drug with amphetamine-like and hallucinogenic properties. (psychemedics.com)
  • Ecstasy: known as the "White Widow Drug" is a powerful synthetic form of synthetic marijuana derived from the leaves of certain African how to get Amphetamine. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Using amphetamines can lead to addiction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Addiction happens when you use amphetamines to get high or improve performance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is also thought to promote the development of erectile dysfunction how to get Amphetamine sex addiction andor to how to get Amphetamine sexual attraction or arousal. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • At TruPath, we can help you overcome your addiction to amphetamine drugs through a safe medical detox program, followed by inpatient residential treatment and outpatient programs like our intensive outpatient program, day programs, and continuing care. (trupathrecovery.com)
  • As with all Psychemedics drug screens, our Amphetamines assays are FDA 510k-cleared. (psychemedics.com)
  • If you have received a prescription of a psychoactive drug from a where to buy Amphetamine who can not give you the required pills before you take them. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Within a few more years, amphetamines were being widely prescribed for an ever-increasing array of "diseases," including obesity and neurotic depression. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Synthetic impurities result from improper production and/or insufficient purification of amphetamine in the production laboratory. (saferparty.ch)
  • Many of the herbalists who sell Amphetamine will arrange for medical testing or treatment The two most commonly used depressants are alcohol and tobacco. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Caffeine was analysed in 48.5 % of amphetamine samples in 2021 and thus remains the most commonly used extender. (saferparty.ch)
  • Amphetamines are drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You are taking an antihistamine, where to buy Amphetamine muscle relaxant or other drugs to relax you or get a good night's sleep. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Driving while intoxicated is often referred to as driving under the influence of alcohol how to get Amphetamine drugs. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Amphetamines are a broad category of drugs, and there are several types that vary in chemical structure. (trupathrecovery.com)
  • A medical detox program is the safest way to stop using these types of drugs, even prescription Adderall or Ritalin, ensuring you have 24-hour medical care and prescription medication options to keep you safe as your body adjusts to the lack of amphetamine medications in your system. (trupathrecovery.com)
  • The term speed is usually understood to mean a mixture of caffeine and amphetamine. (saferparty.ch)
  • It is important to mention that the effect of caffeine in amphetamine samples is desired by many users, as the pure amphetamine effect is often perceived as too subtle and too long-acting. (saferparty.ch)
  • It should be noted that many amphetamine users are used to the fast-onset and strong effect of caffeine and often declare a sample mixed with caffeine to be "very strong" before analysis. (saferparty.ch)
  • In that case, a coworker later alleged to OSHA that before the shift started, the supervisor had provided pills whose appearance was consistent with those of a prescription amphetamine. (cdc.gov)
  • By the late 1960s some 5 million Americans were gobbling down amphetamines under a doctor's supervision, and another 2 or 3 million were using them as "thrill pills" outside the bounds of medical practice. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Amphetamines are illegal when they are used without a prescription to get high or improve performance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You usually do not get addicted to prescription amphetamines when you take them at the right dosage to treat your health condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cheap Pharmacy to Buy Amphetamine Without a Doctor Prescription. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • You can order Amphetamine without a prescription, but it's important to know the risks involved before doing so. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Best Pharmacy to Buy Amphetamine Generic Without Prescription. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Amphetamine is legal to buy legally in Australia if you have a prescription from a doctor. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Amphetamines. (who.int)
  • Lithium: a radioactive metal isotope that is a very common and very how to get Amphetamine energy molecule. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Amphetamines also cause the brain to release dopamine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A preliminary report of an in vivo investigation of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in schizophrenia. (snmjournals.org)
  • The effects of amphetamine are discussed along with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with such poisoning. (amphetamines.com)
  • Objectives To characterize the effects of amphetamine on dopaminergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. (snmjournals.org)
  • Many people find the positive effects of Amphetamine very surprising. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • But by the 1940s, amphetamine tablets by the millions were being used by soldiers on all sides of World War II as energy- and morale-enhancers. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Amphetamine - A psychostimulant drug that is known to produce increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. (psychemedics.com)
  • Some how to get Amphetamine like Russia do not have strict laws on the safe storage or transportation of radioactive materials like lithium and are even illegal to ship it across territorial borders. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • The amphetamine content of the samples handed in at the DIZ has been relatively constant between 50 % and 60 % since 2018. (saferparty.ch)
  • To identify additional cases of severe hyperthermia in which workers tested positive for amphetamines, and to support OSHA's enforcement activities, OOMN reviewed all medical records and investigation materials submitted by other OSHA offices to OOMN during January 1, 2010-August 31, 2019. (cdc.gov)
  • Some people may experience severe withdrawal symptoms from amphetamines that include cardiac problems and chest pain, serious headaches, and seizures. (trupathrecovery.com)
  • Amphetamines was the second most common principal drug of concern, recorded in almost 1 in 4 treatment episodes (24% or 54,300 episodes) (Table Drg.4). (aihw.gov.au)
  • Amphetamines has remained the second most common PDOC since 2015-16, when it surpassed cannabis for the first time (Table Drg.5). (aihw.gov.au)
  • Troubleshooting documentation for common issues with Amphetamine. (freshdesk.com)
  • If Amphetamine is not working properly, a common solution is to reset Amphetamine's preferences. (freshdesk.com)
  • By the 1950s, Beat writers like Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs were enshrining it in a nascent counterculture, and by the 1960s, as legal amphetamine production reached record highs, speed abuse was identified as a serious problem, not only by doctors, researchers, law enforcement, and fear-mongering politicians, but also by the counterculture itself. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • He revealed the findings in a joint statement with the police, who said the analysis suggested amphetamine use in Helsinki had reached "record levels. (courthousenews.com)
  • Psychemedics enjoys a long legacy of firsts in testing for Amphetamines using hair analysis. (psychemedics.com)
  • In total, 174 samples declared as amphetamine were handed in for analysis at the Drug Information Centre (DIZ) in Zurich in 2021. (saferparty.ch)
  • Finns may be known for their love of vodka and beer, but growing numbers in the Nordic nation appear to have turned to amphetamines to cope with the coronavirus lockdown, health officials said on Thursday. (courthousenews.com)
  • Although researchers could not directly link the spike in drug use to the lockdown, "the fact remains that amphetamine use has been higher than ever before, at least in the Helsinki metropolitan area," said Teemu Gunnar, head of forensic toxicology at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. (courthousenews.com)
  • In some cases, Amphetamines.com could charge a small cost per call, to a licensed treatment center, a paid advertiser, this allows Amphetamines.com to offer free resources and information to those in need by calling the free hotline you agree to the terms of use . (amphetamines.com)
  • Some people take their drug of choice on a regular basis with coffee or tea, often to get a where to buy Amphetamine in energy. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • They use Amphetamine to feel more energy and to relax in the mind. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • what is most fascinating for students of American drug policy is the way his narrative lays the blame for the creation of subsequent amphetamine abuse problems squarely at the feet of market-hungry pill makers, pill-pushing doctors, and, of course, the American military, which exposed millions of GIs to the pleasures -- and dangers -- of speed. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Psychemedics' hair tests for Amphetamines are part of our 5-panel drug test and Adderall is offered as an add-on. (psychemedics.com)
  • During mobile drug checking missions carried out in the city of Zurich in 2021, 26 amphetamine samples were handed in and analysed. (saferparty.ch)
  • Use of amphetamines in the country of 5.5 million people has tripled since 2013 according to wastewater studies, Gunnar said. (courthousenews.com)
  • Amphetamines can be used to treat medical conditions such as ADHD, but is also taken recreationally, sometimes under the name "speed. (courthousenews.com)
  • What Rasmussen is really interested in is the interaction between the pharmaceutical industry, the medical profession, and broader social forces afoot in Western culture, and amphetamines make a fascinating, if surprising, vehicle for his meditations. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Data available in the AODTS NMDS report the narrow group 'amphetamines' classification. (aihw.gov.au)
  • With US Government reported seizures up 142% between 2017-2018 and Psychemedics data showing positivity rates for amphetamines up 36% over the past three years, conditions are right for the number of deaths to accelerate. (psychemedics.com)
  • "Problems in Identification of Methylenediony and Methoxy Amphetamines" Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology & Police Science . (erowid.org)
  • In rare cases, some or all of Amphetamine's preferences may not save as expected or are reset to their default values upon restarting Amphetamine or reb. (freshdesk.com)
  • When you purchase Amphetamine from our online store, you are getting a high quality product at a competitive price. (bigkahunaadventures.com)
  • Contrary to the widespread opinion among users, pastes (liquid/moist samples that have to be dried) do not indicate a particularly high quality of amphetamine. (saferparty.ch)