Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Tyrocidine: An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Comparative StudyConditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Prenalterol: A partial adrenergic agonist with functional beta 1-receptor specificity and inotropic effect. It is effective in the treatment of acute CARDIAC FAILURE, postmyocardial infarction low-output syndrome, SHOCK, and reducing ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION in the SHY-RAGER SYNDROME.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (1/566)(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences. (+info)
Electrophysiological examination of the effects of sustained flibanserin administration on serotonin receptors in rat brain. (2/566)5-HT1A receptor agonists have proven to be effective antidepressant medications, however they suffer from a significant therapeutic lag before depressive symptoms abate. Flibanserin is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist developed to possibly induce a more rapid onset of antidepressant action through its preferential postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Flibanserin antagonized the effect of microiontophoretically-applied DOI in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following 2 days of administration, indicating antagonism of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. This reduction in the effect of locally-applied DOI was no longer present following 7-day flibanserin administration. Two-day flibanserin administration only marginally reduced the firing activity of dorsal raphe (DRN) 5-HT neurons. Following 7 days of administration, 5-HT neuronal firing activity had returned to normal and the somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors were desensitized. The responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located on CA3 hippocampus pyramidal neurons and mPFC neurons, examined using microiontophoretically-applied 5-HT and gepirone, was unchanged following a 7-day flibanserin treatment. As demonstrated by the ability of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 to selectively increase the firing of hippocampal neurons in 2- and 7-day treated rats, flibanserin enhanced the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in this brain region. The results suggest that flibanserin could be a therapeutically useful compound putatively endowed with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action. (+info)
Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female sex steroids. (3/566)AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose relationship of selegline and desmethylselegiline pharmacokinetics within the selegiline dose range from 5 to 40 mg. METHODS: Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethlylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication. RESULTS: The total AUC and Cmax of selegiline were 10-to 20-fold higher in those subjects taking oral steroids compared with subjects with no concomitant medication; this finding was consistent and statistically significant at all the four dose levels. The dose linearity of selegiline pharmacokinetics failed to be demonstrated in both groups. The AUC and Cmax of desmethylselegiline were only moderately higher (about 1.5-fold; P=NS at each dose level) in the subjects taking oral steroids than in those not receiving concomitant medication. The AUC values of desmethylselegiline increased in a dose linear manner in subjects with no concomitant medication, but not in the oral steroid group. The metabolic ratio (AUC(desmethylselegiline)/AUC(selegiline)) was several-fold lower in the group receiving oral steroids compared with the no-concomitant-medication group (P<0.005 at all the four dose levels). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of oral contraceptives caused a drastic (20-fold) increase in the oral bioavailability of selegiline. The highly significant difference in the metabolic ratio between the groups provides evidence that the mechanism of the interaction between selegiline and female sex steroids involves reduced T-demethylation of selegiline. The present results suggest that concomitant use of selegiline with exogenous female sex steroids should be avoided or the dosage of selegiline should be reduced in order to minimize the risks of selegiline related adverse drug reactions. (+info)
Amphetamines induce apoptosis and regulation of bcl-x splice variants in neocortical neurons. (4/566)Amphetamineanalogs have emerged as popular recreational drugs of abuse. The number of reports of these substances producing severe acute toxicity and death is increasing. In 'Ecstasy' -associated deaths, focal necrosis in the liver and individual myocytic necrosis has been reported. Furthermore, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell damage has been observed in experimental amphetamine intoxication in laboratory animals. Here we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to D-amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') results in significant neurotoxicity in rat neocortical neurons in vitro. This neuronal cell death is accompanied by endonucleosomal DNA cleavage and differential expression of anti- and proapoptotic bcl-xL/S splice variants. In addition, we observed pronounced induction of cell stress-associated transcription factor c-jun and translation initiation inhibitor p97 after amphetamine treatment. These data support that the neurotoxic effects of different amphetamines are extended to rat neocortical neurons and that apoptotic pathways are involved in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. (+info)
Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex. (5/566)Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound. (+info)
The evolution of cerebral blood flow in the developing brain: evaluation with iodine-123 iodoamphetamine SPECT and correlation with MR imaging. (6/566)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although it is well established that brain maturation correlates temporally with the functions the newborn or infant performs at various stages of development, the precise relationship between function and anatomic brain maturation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in infants and children using iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These findings were correlated with the MR imaging appearance of the brain and with known developmental changes. METHODS: Twenty-one 123I-IMP SPECT examinations of 17 patients, ranging in age from neonates to 2 years, were reviewed retrospectively. All children had had transient neurologic events in the neonatal period that did not significantly affect subsequent neuropsychological development. MR studies were performed in 12 of these patients and the MR findings were correlated with the SPECT results. RESULTS: SPECT studies showed a consistent pattern of evolving changes in 123I-IMP uptake, most likely reflecting evolution of rCBF. From the 34th postconceptional week until the end of the second month after term delivery, there was predominant uptake in the thalami, brain stem, and paleocerebellum, with relatively less cortical activity. Radionuclide uptake in both the perirolandic and occipital cortices was well seen around the 40th postconceptional week and increased rapidly thereafter, with a predominance of parietal activity. By 3 months, radionuclide uptake in the cerebellar hemispheres and parietofrontal cortices increased. Frontal and temporal activity increased by age 6 to 8 months. Uptake in the basal ganglia increased by 8 months. By the beginning of the second year, rCBF showed a similar topographic pattern to that in adults. CONCLUSION: The time course of the changes in 123I-IMP uptake in the developing brain as detected by SPECT is similar to that of myelination and most likely reflects an overall topologic maturational pattern of the brain. (+info)
Direct agonists for serotonin receptors enhance locomotor function in rats that received neural transplants after neonatal spinal transection. (7/566)We analyzed whether acute treatment with serotonergic agonists would improve motor function in rats with transected spinal cords (spinal rats) and in rats that received transplants of fetal spinal cord into the transection site (transplant rats). Neonates received midthoracic spinal transections within 48 hr of birth; transplant rats received fetal (embryonic day 14) spinal cord grafts at the time of transection. At 3 weeks, rats began 1-2 months of training in treadmill locomotion. Rats in the transplant group developed better weight-supported stepping than spinal rats. Systemic administration of two directly acting agonists for serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes, quipazine and (+/-)-1-[2, 5]-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane), further increased weight-supported stepping in transplant rats. The improvement was dose-dependent and greatest in rats with poor to moderate baseline weight support. In contrast, indirectly acting serotonergic agonists, which block reuptake of 5-HT (sertraline) or release 5-HT and block its reuptake (D-fenfluramine), failed to enhance motor function. Neither direct nor indirect agonists significantly improved locomotion in spinal rats as a group, despite equivalent upregulation of 5-HT(2) receptors in the lumbar ventral horn of lesioned rats with and without transplants. The distribution of immunoreactive serotonergic fibers within and caudal to the transplant did not appear to correspond to restoration of motor function. Our results confirm our previous demonstration that transplants improve motor performance in spinal rats. Additional stimulation with agonists at subtypes of 5-HT receptors produces a beneficial interaction with transplants that further improves motor competence. (+info)
Evidence for a role for central 5-HT2B as well as 5-HT2A receptors in cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetized rats. (8/566)1. The effects of injections i.c.v. of quipazine, (2 micromol kg-1) and 1-(2,5-di-methoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 2 micromol kg-1) on renal sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were investigated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats pretreated with a peripherally acting 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 2. Quipazine or DOI caused a rise in MAP which was associated with a tachycardia and renal sympathoinhibition in rats pretreated (i.c.v.) with the antagonist vehicle 10% PEG. These effects of quipazine were completely blocked by pretreatment with cinanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and attenuated by spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the sympathoinhibition, while pretreatment with SB204741 (a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist) reversed the sympathoinhibition to excitation as it also did for DOI. Quipazine also caused renal sympathoexcitation in the presence (i.v.) of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked by quipazine alone and in the presence of SB204741 caused an immediate fall in MAP. For quipazine alone the renal sympathoinhibition was slowly reversed to an excitation, while the renal sympathoexcitation observed in the presence of SB204741 was potentiated. In both, the quipazine-evoked tachycardia was unaffected. 4. The data indicate that cardiovascular responses caused by i.c.v. quipazine and DOI are primarily due to activation of central 5-HT2A receptors, which causes the release of vasopressin and a tachycardia. This released vasopressin appears to suppress a 5-HT2A receptor-evoked central increase in sympathetic outflow, which involves the activation of central 5-HT2B receptors indirectly by the released vasopressin. (+info)
Most commercial amphetamine immunoassay screening tests cross-react significantly with MDA and major metabolites of MDMA, but ... MDA is rarely sought after as a recreational drug compared to other drugs in the amphetamine family, however it remains an ... In relation to other phenethylamines and amphetamines, it is the 3,4-methylenedioxy, α-methyl derivative of β-phenylethylamine ... Muszynski, I.E. (1961). "Production of some amphetamine derivatives". Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 18: 471-478. PMID 14477621. ...
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Drugs of abuse that can be detected include Cannabis, Cocaine, Amphetamines and drugs new to the UK such as Mephedrone. In ... Erowid Amphetamine Vault : Drug Testing. Erowid.org. Retrieved on September 5, 2013. Erowid Methamphetamine Vault : Drug ... Various panels are used for screening urine samples for common substances, e.g. triage 8 that detects amphetamines, ... Amphetamine, Ecstasy/MDMA, Methadone, Ketamine, PCP, PMA, DMT, MDPV, and may detect rapidly evolving synthetic designer drugs. ...
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Substituted phenethylamines such as the 2C family and substituted amphetamines such as the DOx family have also caused a ... Snyder SH, Faillace L, Hollister L (1967). "2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (STP): a new hallucinogenic drug". Science. 158 ...
... produces amphetamine as a metabolite, and was withdrawn in many countries following problems with abuse, but it is ... 1968 Mar;13(3):Suppl:273-6. Tognoni G, Morselli PL, Garattini S. Amphetamine concentrations in rat brain and human urine after ... Metabolic precursors to amphetamine and methamphetamine. Forensic Science Reviews 1993; 5:109. Pelissier-Alicot AL, Piercecchi- ... Fenproporex (Perphoxene) is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which was developed in the ...
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The term "amphetamines" also refers to a chemical class, but, unlike the class of substituted amphetamines, the "amphetamines" ... amphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine aspartate") is excessively long, this article exclusively refers to this amphetamine ... ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... Following amphetamine uptake at VMAT2, amphetamine induces the collapse of the vesicular pH gradient, which results in the ...
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Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Cocaine Amphetamine Douglass J, Daoud S (March 1996). "Characterization of the human cDNA and genomic DNA encoding CART: a ... cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) Peptides". anaspec.com. Retrieved 10 February 2009. Upadhya MA, Nakhate KT ...
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ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sex addictions, which are ... Kraemer T, Maurer HH (August 1998). "Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or ... the metabolites of amphetamine. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are amphetamine, 4‑hydroxyamphetamine, 4‑ ... of 647 individuals with amphetamine dependence reporting six or more signs of amphetamine withdrawal listed in the DSM when the ...
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2001). "Amphetamine-Type Central Nervous System Stimulants Release Norepinepehrine more Potently than they Release Dopamine and ... ISBN 978-0-312-42226-4. "Jeevan Vasagar: cocaine-based "wonder drug" tested on concentration camp inmates". Amphetamines.com. ... Medicine portal Black cocaine Coca alkaloids Coca eradication Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript Cocaine Anonymous ... amphetamine, or heroin. The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the ...
Many Teenagers Unaware That Adderall Is an Amphetamine | Physician's Weekly for Medical News, Journals & Articles
THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Adolescents appear to underreport their nonmedical amphetamine use, which may be in part due to lacking awareness that Adderall is an amphetamine, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.. Joseph J. Palamar, Ph.D., M.P.H., from New York University Langone Medical Center, and Austin Le, from New York University College of Dentistry, examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015). They analyzed prevalence and correlates of discordant responses among past-year Adderall users, defined as reporting past-year nonmedical Adderall use but not past-year nonmedical amphetamine use.. The researchers found that while 6.9 percent of respondents reported nonmedical Adderall use and 7.9 percent reported nonmedical amphetamine use, 28.7 percent of Adderall users reported no amphetamine use. ...
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One special danger with Adderall is the fact that its often prescribed to children suffering from ADHD. In fact, it is much easier for a child to overdose on Adderall than an adult because of the difference in body mass. The fatal amount of Adderall varies from person to person. And even normal doses of Adderall can (infrequently) cause sudden death. In general, 20-25 mg/kg of a persons body weight is considered a fatal dose.. In children - The typical dose of Adderall is only 2.5-5mg per day. It should never be given in doses larger than 40/mg per day.. In adults - Adults may receive anywhere from 5-60 mg of Adderall per day, depending on their situation. But even at normal therapeutic doses it can be dangerous and cause stroke or sudden death. As little as 30 mg of Adderall can be dangerous to some people, while doses as high as 500 mg have been reported as safe in people with chronic exposure and histories of Adderall abuse. 70 mg in one day is considered the maximum safe daily dose.In a ...
Adderall is a popular and effective prescription drug commonly used in the treatment of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, as shown on a recent episode of a popular health program, Adderall addiction is a growing diet drug problem with housewives desperate to lose weight. The following discusses what Adderall is, symptoms and dangers of its abuse, what Adderall withdrawal and detoxification is like and what kind of effective treatment is available for desperate housewives addicted to this diet drug.. What is Adderall. Adderall is a drug that belongs under the classification of amphetamine. Its use in the treatment of ADHD is based on its ability to increase levels of dopamine-a neurotransmitter chemical that acts on the pleasure center of the brain. Adderall increases a persons energy, ability to concentrate, alertness, libido, and has a side effect of weight loss. All of these factors contribute to making Adderall a very addictive drug for ...
Although millions of students are prescribed Adderall for their ADHD, the consequences of Adderall abuse can be fatal. Some of the dangerous physiological effects of Adderall abuse are hypertension, seizures, and mydriasis (dilation of the pupil) (2, 4). Another dangerous side effect is the increase in blood pressure, which is most likely caused by the continued release of norepinephrine (2). Other physical consequences of Adderall are irregular heartbeat, cardiovascular failure, abnormally high body temperatures, and erectile dysfunction (2, 4). High doses of Adderall can potentially lead to some very serious mental issues. Students often believe that they can go back to their normal lifestyle by stopping Adderall use, but this is not always the case (2). Long-term misuse of Adderall can lead to an altered or even permanently damaged brain. This is because Adderall tricks the brain into thinking that it doesnt need to make anymore dopamine, and unfortunately dopamine is the only chemical in ...
The National Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Strategy 2008-2011 (the Strategy) has been developed within the existing legislative framework and focuses on prevention, supply reduction and treatment in a partnership framework.. Page last updated: September 2008 ...
Although there are many different options for ADHD and narcolepsy treatment, the two most popular drugs are those that contain methylphenidate or mixed amphetamine salts such as Focalin and Adderall. So, Focalin and Adderall are not the same thing, they are different, however they also have many similarities. Immediate release form of Focalin and immediate release form of Adderall both last for about 4-6 hours after administration. Their extended release forms (Focalin XR and Adderall XR) have also comparable effect lasting, which is about 12 hours. Their mechanisms of action are similar as they both work by inhibiting reuptake of stimulatory catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine increasing their extracellular levels of each, but Adderall also triggers presynaptic release from presynaptic neurons of these neurotransmitters. However, both products contain chemically different active ingredients, and Adderall is a combination of two active ingredients. Adderall is ...
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Main / Syringes with Needles / Does concerta help with adderall withdrawal 1 Answer - Posted in: adderall, concerta - Answer: koukla, dont be paranoid about your rejewvenate.info seem to have shaken. Join Date: Jun ; Posts: 3, Amphetamine withdrawal is mainly psychological. To that end, the only things I can think of that would help would be caffeine or maybe some Sudafed. Maybe this is a wake-up call for you.. However, I did not require the side affects in myself of bleeding, headache, anxiety, fresher as being related to the Adderall. get the pimples or such, even though the intriguing level of the last in your system would be sufficient for you to do and get some help with the ADD does concerta help with adderall withdrawal. My counter is will I get that "There" if I switch from Adderall to Concerta. up as i have major doe concerta help with adderall withdrawal and dissolution disorder, concerta really helps with my allergies. i am just all over rectal and talkative. the things that get to ...
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This means that youngsters might remove dextroamphetamine in 49.5 hours (2.06 days) and also levoamphetamine in 55 hrs (2.29 days). Comparative, youngsters could get rid of Adderall almost 22 hrs quicker than grownups (perhaps requiring up to 77 hrs for removal). Though unsubstantiated by research, it is reasonable to consider that elderly individuals could exhibit prolonged removal rate of Adderall compared to kids and healthy and balanced grownups.. Long term removal speed in senior people could be related to age-related clinical conditions and/or any medications made use of to treat those problems. It is additionally comprehended that senior individuals might show age-related decrease in efficiency of kidney and/or renal feature, each which is recognized to expand elimination time. That claimed, senior people healthy [with no decline] could remove Adderall from their system as promptly as healthy and balanced adults.. Body make-up: Your body make-up may partly determine how much time Adderall ...
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Adderall is a commonly prescribed medication that is used to help control symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Adderall (Adderall XR) is a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy in children and adults.
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first of all, Crazy Joe, your avatar is hilarious. Is that you @ the denteeest or are you a dentist? Yes, you should exercise. start out slow. Exercise is good for get adderall out get adderall out of your system in 24 hours of your system in 24 hours you. Best Answer: Adderall is water soluble so drinking a lot of water will flush it from your...
Adderall is prescribed for the treatment of ADHD & for narcolepsy. Since Adderall contains amphetamine, its not unusual for a person to develop tolerance.
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add is not my sons only medical challenge. He was 12 yrs when he started having seizures. He is 19 now and wants so badly to graduate from high school and has only one more final to pass. He has just started taking adderall. Ritalin would interfer with his seizure medication. The doctor feels that adderall would not. Please let us know your experience. Thanks Maggie ...
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Bittersweet Haze With The Devil : A true, personal story from the experience, I Am Addicted to Adderall. Hello, I am 17 years old and a girl, in her senior year at high school. My relationship with Adderall has been a Bittersweet haze. My diagnosis is unclear, doctors are not sure whether I have Bipolar...
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Adverse reactions or quality problems experienced with the use of these products may be reported to the FDAs MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program either online, by regular mail or by fax, using the contact information at the bottom of this page. ...
By artificially triggering the adrenergic system, recreational use of adderall increases the discharge of the crucial neurotransmitters to your CNS. The outcome is a selection of effects feature of amphetamine stimulants like increased heart rate and blood pressure,greater energy levels and improved concentration, alertness and focus.. ...
Both drugs, Concerta, and Adderall are classified as psychostimulant medicines which are being used for ADHD. They have a similar mechanism of action and ...
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As we all learn more about Adderall, the ADD medication that gives people without ADD laser-sharp focus and concentration, more questions are emerging.
Adderall XR. Description drugs: indications, contraindications, precautions, dosage and method of use, overdose storage conditions.
Pregnancy is a time when Adderall can be especially helpful for women with ADHD. But is that safe? Find out what you need to know.
Adderall has a reputation for being used as a study aid, with students reportedly taking it to stay up and finish projects or papers.
This portion of the eMedTV library takes a look at some of the most common Adderall XR side effects, including weight loss, emotional changes, and nausea. This page also highlights some of the more serious and rare side effects seen with the drug.
When all else has failed my shrink thought maybe Adderall might give me a boost maybe lift the depression somewhat....has this ever helped anyone else? If so, how...
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In this study we assessed regional cerebral blood flow in patients with signs and symptoms of acute stroke using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). Twenty-five patients with acute cerebral infarction had both IMP brain perfusion studies and CT scans performed within one week of each other; 22 had positive and three had negative perfusion studies. Of the 22 patients who had positive perfusion studies, six had negative CT studies initially. In the 16 patients who had abnormal CT studies, eight of the studies depicted areas of edema that were smaller than the perfusion deficits noted on the IMP studies and eight had areas of edema that were approximately equal in size to the perfusion defect. Of the three patients with normal IMP studies, two had normal CT studies and one had a positive CT study showing a 3-mm lacunar infarction. Using eight control patients, mean count rates per tissue volume normalized for the injected dose was ...
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Beta blockers and adderall - I have pots, since I started taking beta blockers I rarely have any symptoms anymore, can I take adderall (dextroamphetamine and racemic amphetamine)? Speak with Cards. The beta blockers slow the resting heart and help prevent the sudden increased rates that are seen in pots in additon to the synocopal episodes. Adderall (dextroamphetamine and racemic amphetamine) and all stimulants tend to increase the heart rate. Your cardiologist should be consulted prior to making that decison.
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People who use amphetamines could be at an increased risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Apart from their illegal use amphetamines such as Benzedrine and Dexedrine are often prescribed for people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, as weight-loss pills and are also used to treat traumatic brain injury. Researchers from the U.S. health organisation Kaiser Permanente studied 66,348 people who were initially studied between 1964 and 1973 and re-evaluated in 1995. 1,154 people had been diagnosed with Parkinsons by the end of the study. The participants were asked about their use of amphetamines - either as weight-loss pills or in the form of Benzedrine or Dexedrine. There was no increase in risk for the people who used amphetamines for weight loss but those who took Benzadrine or Dexedrine were nearly 60% more likely to develop Parkinsons. Amphetamines are known to affect the release and uptake of dopamine, the most important neurotransmitter involved in ...
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By Colin Harris | Staff Writer Joe Haden, Richard Sherman, Cedric Griffin, Bruce Irvin, Miguel Tejada and Carlos Ruiz. Besides being elite athletes, the other common denominator between all of these of these NFL and MLB players is that they have been suspended over the use of Adderall. A stimulant typically used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Adderall has been brought into focus recently in the sports world because of a flurry of debate over its use as a
The concomitant serotonergic agents immediately if the above symptoms occur, and its metabolites to 13.8 hours). The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication with amphetamines include a detailed psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and 4-hydroxy-amphetamine are both d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) for a family history of) ever abused or lead to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately three-fold from 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 to 10 years of age; however, it is anticipated that they will depend upon the probability of auto-inhibition and the lack of information on the sleep EEG. Manifestations of chronic amphetamine use ...
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The American Academy of Pediatrics doesnt even have guidelines for amphetamine prescription for children below 4 years old. However, it can be expected that at such a young age, children will quickly develop a dependence on these drugs, setting the state for addiction to other amphetamines later in life including methamphetamine.. That is exactly what happens to a lot of people who use amphetamines, methamphetamine. Just imagine how badly a human being would be messed up if they did amphetamines starting at age 2.. A recent survey found that 7.5% of children ages 6-17 are currently on prescription medications for some type of mental illness, ADHD medications make up 80% of them.. This has to stop. It seems in American society today, the gap between the consciousness levels of people is getting wider. In other words, it seems a certain part of our population is getting more and more aware, intelligent, conscious, and deliberate of their actions. At the same time, another part of our population ...
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Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. They are used to induce a state of alert wakefulness and euphoria, and since they inhibit appetite, they also serve as diet pills. After World War II, they were widely prescribed by physicians as diet pills, but they are generally no longer recommended for weight loss programs since there are too many hazards in the prolonged use of amphetamines. Prolonged exposure may result in organ impairment, affecting particularly the kidneys. Amphetamines are addictive and may lead to compulsive behavior, hallucinations, paranoia, and suicidal actions. Their medical use has currently been narrowed to treating only two disorders. One is a condition known as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. When used to treat overactive children, amphetamines are carefully administered under controlled situations as part of a larger program. The other condition for which ...
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Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents. The structural formula of any substituted phenethylamine contains a phenyl ring that is joined to an amino (NH) group via an ethyl (−CH2-CH2−) sidechain. Hence, any substituted phenethylamine can be classified according to the substitution of hydrogen (H) atoms on phenethylamines phenyl ring, sidechain, or amino group with a specific group of atoms. Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants (e.g., amphetamine), hallucinogens (e.g., dl-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine a.k.a. DOM), entactogens (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine ...
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Amphetamines: What Parents Need to Know
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Amphetamines by Asvitha Kuhapalan on Prezi
Did you know Amphetamines was 1st introduced in the 1930s as a remedy for nasal congestion named Benzedrine.. Amphetamines. ... Amphetamines is also man made.. Speed. 3 Types of. Amphetamines. Dexedrine. Adderall. Vyvanse. 1) Dizziness 2) Dry Mouth 3) ... Transcript of Amphetamines. Amphetamines are white, bitter tasting, crystal powder.. First Introduced in 1887 in. Canada. (cc) ... Dont sell Amphetamines,. illgally you can end up in prison for 14 years!!. By: Asvitha. (legal only for medical use). Hi ...https://prezi.com/usfs3_zptjyv/amphetamines/
Amphetamines Kept German Troops Going | Military.com
The same intense uppers that Hitlers dubious physician, Dr. Theodor Morell, gave him were also dispensed to German soldiers during battle. http://www.youtube.com/user/smithsonianchannel/videoshttps://www.military.com/video/operations-and-strategy/second-world-war/amphetamines-kept-german-troops-going/3390043551001
Amfetamine - Drugs.com
A list of US medications equivalent to Amfetamine is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Amfetamine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Adderall (Amfetamine and Dexamfetamine). Teva, United States. *Adderall XR (Amfetamine and Dexamfetamine). Shire, United States ...https://www.drugs.com/international/amfetamine.html
Urban Dictionary: Amphetamine
What to do if a friend Overdoses: You can't fatally Overdose on Amphetamines, it is possible if you inject it though, if ... Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various other slang names that ... Amphetamineunknown. Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various ... Amphetamineunknown. First developed and marketed in the 1930's as Benzedrine to fight narcolepsy, Amphetamines are now ...https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Amphetamine
The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. Evekeo is sometimes used to treat obesity in people ... Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... What is the most important information I should know about amphetamine?. Amphetamine may be habit-forming. Tell your doctor if ... What is amphetamine?. Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ...https://www.rexhealth.com/rh/health-library/document-viewer/?id=d00803a1
Amphetamine on the Mac App Store
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.10 ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... What Else Does Amphetamine Do? == Amphetamine is the most powerful and customizable keep-awake utility ever created for macOS. ...https://itunes.apple.com/app/amphetamine/id937984704
Amphetamine on the Mac App Store
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.8 ... Amphetamine is 100% free (no ads, no in-app purchases).. After you launch Amphetamine, you must activate it by clicking on its ... Amphetamine is a little app that lives in your menu bar. With Amphetamine, you can effortlessly override your energy saver ... If you have previously written a review of Amphetamine, please consider updating it.. If youre brand new to Amphetamine and ...https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/amphetamine/id937984704?mt=12&ign-mpt=uo%3D4
Amphetamine Logic - Everything2.com
Everything2 is a community for fiction, nonfiction, poetry, reviews, and more. Get writing help or enjoy nearly a half million pieces of original writing.https://everything2.com/user/Amphetamine_Logic
Amphetamine Lyrics - Peter Laughner
Lyrics to Amphetamine by Peter Laughner: Take the guitar player for a ride / Never he is left bein satisfied / Thinks is all ... Amphetamine Lyrics Languages Arabic Deutsch Greek English Spanish French Italian Japanese Korean Netherlands Portuguese Russian ...https://www.lyricsfreak.com/p/peter+laughner/amphetamine_20903613.html
Mixing amphetamine and sildenafil? : Drugs
you know how the viagra commercials say something like do not take viagra if you have a heart condition ? well, amphetamine ...https://www.reddit.com/r/Drugs/comments/d81ih/mixing_amphetamine_and_sildenafil/
Amphetamines, not "Molly," ensnared Scandrick - ProFootballTalk
Doesnt MDMA contain amphetamines by definition?. MethyleneDioxyMethAmphetamine?. Im no chemical engineer but the drug may ... While amphetamines consumed on game day can enhance performance, amphetamines taken on vacation in the offseason wont do ... While amphetamines consumed on game day can enhance performance, amphetamines taken on vacation in the offseason wont do ... 57 responses to "Amphetamines, not "Molly," ensnared Scandrick" * Steeler Nation is so far above you and your lowly franchise. ...http://profootballtalk.nbcsports.com/2014/08/12/amphetamines-not-molly-ensnared-scandrick/related/
MethamphetamineDextroamphetamineAdderallNarcolepsyAddictiveStimulantsSupports Retina displaysDopamineStop taking ampheDose of amphetaminesADHDPowderAddictionObesityDepressionDefinitionEuphoria1971VyvanseOverdoseMDMAMixingDizzinessPillsMedicinesEffectsPossessionBelongsPatientsCompoundControlled substancesHealthcareDependentPregnancyTreatBrandBody
- Some generic names of amphetamines include amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. (encyclopedia.com)
- These chemicals are the basis on which amphetamines (including methamphetamine) were created. (livescience.com)
- Only two years later, in 1887, Lazar Edeleanu, a Romanian chemist, synthesized amphetamine from ephedrine, according to the University of Arizona's Methamphetamine and Other Illicit Drug Education (MethOIDE) program. (livescience.com)
- Addiction to amphetamines has been an issue since the 1940s, but it escalated in the 1980s with increased illicit production of methamphetamine , a very addictive stimulant known for its euphoric effects. (livescience.com)
- Sustained high-dose administration of amphetamines (especially methamphetamine ) to experimental animals produces a persistent depletion of DA which is associated with terminal degeneration (62, 182, 195), as well as neuronal chromatolysis in the brain stem, cortex and striatum (42, 182). (factbites.com)
- Andy Warhol's drug of choice was Obetrol, a popular diet pill composed of amphetamine salts, including methamphetamine. (motherjones.com)
- It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine is made up of 2 specific compounds: pure dextroamphetamine and pure levoamphetamine. (prezi.com)
- Amphetamine , dextroamphetamine , and mixed amphetamine salts increase effective use of dopamine and norepinephrine in parts of the brain that regulate attention and behavior in order to control symptoms associated with ADHD and improve functioning. (factbites.com)
- Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets are also used to treat narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep ). (factbites.com)
- Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine combination should not be taken in the late afternoon or evening because it may cause difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. (factbites.com)
- The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine should not be used to treat excessive tiredness that is not caused by narcolepsy . (factbites.com)
- Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. (wikipedia.org)
- Because people rarely call them "amphetamines," it can help to be aware of other names for amphetamines, from brand names like Ritalin or Adderall to nicknames like Bennies or Black Mollies. (kidshealth.org)
- Amphetamines have been used since then in the development of a variety of drugs, most notably Adderall and Ritalin, which treat ADD and ADHD. (livescience.com)
- An amphetamine-based medication, such as Adderall or Ritalin, increases dopamine production in the connections between the prefrontal cortex and other locations in the brain, Franssen explained. (livescience.com)
- Amphetamines stimulate the nervous system and are used in the treatment of depression, attention-deficit disorder, obesity , and narcolepsy , a disorder that causes individuals to fall asleep at inappropriate times during the day. (encyclopedia.com)
- The typical dose for amphetamines in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults ranges from 5 mg to 60 mg per day. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, also called psycho-stimulants, that are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD and ADHD), narcolepsy, Parkinson's disease and obesity, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR) at the University of Maryland. (livescience.com)
- Additional clinical trials found that amphetamine had positive effects on weight loss, narcolepsy and depression. (livescience.com)
- Amphetamines are used in treatments for ADD and ADHD , obesity, narcolepsy, and Parkinson's disease, according to CESAR. (livescience.com)
- The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. (rexhealth.com)
- Amphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity ( ADHD ). (factbites.com)
- Amphetamines were originally developed to treat asthma, sleep disorders ( narcolepsy ) and hyperactivity. (factbites.com)
- Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications, particularly for depression and chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamines are commonly abused recreational drugs and are highly addictive. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are highly addictive and should be used only if alternative approaches have failed. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are highly addictive! (prezi.com)
- Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants that accelerate functions in the brain and body. (teenshealth.org)
- Amphetamines are stimulants. (kidshealth.org)
- Amphetamines are a class of stimulants often included in cold medications. (livescience.com)
- Amphetamines belongs to the Stimulants catergory because these drugs speed up the messages between the brain and the body. (prezi.com)
- Amphetamines or speed, ups, stimulants, diet pills are science's latest contribution to the turn-on generation. (nymag.com)
- Amphetamines also cause the brain to release dopamine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called dopamine, increasing it so the user feels a "high. (kidshealth.org)
- It appears that the main action of amphetamines is to increase the synaptic activity of the dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems. (factbites.com)
- Amphetamine, through activation of a trace amine receptor, increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
- Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (rexhealth.com)
- An amphetamine, it was until this year marketed exclusively to treat ADHD. (motherjones.com)
- Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
- Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD. (wikipedia.org)
- One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for ADHD in children that found an average increase of 4.5 IQ points, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamines are usually swallowed, but also can be inhaled, injected, or dabbed (when someone licks a finger and dips it in the powder before eating it). (kidshealth.org)
- Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. (kidshealth.org)
- Amphetamines are white, bitter tasting, crystal powder. (prezi.com)
- Amphetamines can be taken as pills, ingested, smoked, in a form of powder, or it can be snorted through the nose. (prezi.com)
- Amphetamine may cause unusual thoughts or behavior, especially if you have a history of depression, mental illness, or bipolar disorder. (rexhealth.com)
- Amphetamines became a cure-all for helping truckers to complete their long routes without falling asleep, for weight control, for helping athletes to perform better and train longer, and for treating mild depression . (factbites.com)
- In chronic high-dose cocaine (75) or amphetamine abuse (49), energy and euphoria induced by active drug administration is replaced in withdrawal by rebound dysphoric and anergic symptoms that appear to occur whether or not the stimulant abuser meets the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder (74). (factbites.com)
- At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. (wikipedia.org)
- What to do if a friend Overdoses: You can't fatally Overdose on Amphetamines, it is possible if you inject it though, if your friend takes to much and complains about stomach upset theres nothing you can really do exept try to chill them out. (urbandictionary.com)
- The problem for Scandrick and, apparently, other NFL players who have tested positive for PEDs this offseason is that the MDMA they have taken on a recreational basis wasn't pure, and it contained amphetamines. (nbcsports.com)
- Amphetamines produce considerable side effects and are especially toxic in large quantities. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are usually given orally and their effects can last for hours. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines produce their effects by altering chemicals that transmit nerve messages in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
- The effects of amphetamine can last up to 20 hours after the medication has last been taken. (encyclopedia.com)
- In 1929, Gordon Alles, a U.S. biochemist, discovered that amphetamine had physiological effects. (livescience.com)
- Early investigations of the properties of amphetamine focused on the peripheral effects and found that amphetamine was a sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator properties. (factbites.com)
- this may be important for understanding effects of amphetamine use during pregnancy. (factbites.com)
- Educate patients on the toxic effects of amphetamines and that amphetamines are not a safe alternative to cocaine use. (factbites.com)
- Possession of amphetamines can get you up to five years in jail or an unlimited fine or both. (knowthescore.info)
- It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, patients who have taken MAO inhibitors, a type of antidepressant, within the last 14 days should not receive amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patients taking amphetamines should always tell their physicians and dentists that they are using this medication. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patients should consult their physician before taking any over-the-counter medication while taking amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
- General practitioners rely increasingly on amphetamine to treat overweight and mildly depressed patients, as well as alcoholics and drug addicts. (nymag.com)
- FDA scientists have found a "non-natural" amphetamine-like compound in nine dietary supplements, according to a scientific journal article. (usatoday.com)
- Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine, while N-methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine that differs only in the placement of the methyl group. (wikipedia.org)
- You usually DO NOT get addicted to prescription amphetamines when you take them at the right dosage to treat your health condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- The body does not maintain activity of amphetamines in the blood stream after 18-36 hours of ingestion. (urbandictionary.com)
- Amphetamines are helpful to all these people: they do lift the mood, curb the appetite and energize the body. (nymag.com)
- As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body. (wikipedia.org)