Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (1/566)(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences. (+info)
Electrophysiological examination of the effects of sustained flibanserin administration on serotonin receptors in rat brain. (2/566)5-HT1A receptor agonists have proven to be effective antidepressant medications, however they suffer from a significant therapeutic lag before depressive symptoms abate. Flibanserin is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist developed to possibly induce a more rapid onset of antidepressant action through its preferential postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Flibanserin antagonized the effect of microiontophoretically-applied DOI in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following 2 days of administration, indicating antagonism of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. This reduction in the effect of locally-applied DOI was no longer present following 7-day flibanserin administration. Two-day flibanserin administration only marginally reduced the firing activity of dorsal raphe (DRN) 5-HT neurons. Following 7 days of administration, 5-HT neuronal firing activity had returned to normal and the somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors were desensitized. The responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located on CA3 hippocampus pyramidal neurons and mPFC neurons, examined using microiontophoretically-applied 5-HT and gepirone, was unchanged following a 7-day flibanserin treatment. As demonstrated by the ability of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 to selectively increase the firing of hippocampal neurons in 2- and 7-day treated rats, flibanserin enhanced the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in this brain region. The results suggest that flibanserin could be a therapeutically useful compound putatively endowed with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action. (+info)
Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female sex steroids. (3/566)AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose relationship of selegline and desmethylselegiline pharmacokinetics within the selegiline dose range from 5 to 40 mg. METHODS: Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethlylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication. RESULTS: The total AUC and Cmax of selegiline were 10-to 20-fold higher in those subjects taking oral steroids compared with subjects with no concomitant medication; this finding was consistent and statistically significant at all the four dose levels. The dose linearity of selegiline pharmacokinetics failed to be demonstrated in both groups. The AUC and Cmax of desmethylselegiline were only moderately higher (about 1.5-fold; P=NS at each dose level) in the subjects taking oral steroids than in those not receiving concomitant medication. The AUC values of desmethylselegiline increased in a dose linear manner in subjects with no concomitant medication, but not in the oral steroid group. The metabolic ratio (AUC(desmethylselegiline)/AUC(selegiline)) was several-fold lower in the group receiving oral steroids compared with the no-concomitant-medication group (P<0.005 at all the four dose levels). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of oral contraceptives caused a drastic (20-fold) increase in the oral bioavailability of selegiline. The highly significant difference in the metabolic ratio between the groups provides evidence that the mechanism of the interaction between selegiline and female sex steroids involves reduced T-demethylation of selegiline. The present results suggest that concomitant use of selegiline with exogenous female sex steroids should be avoided or the dosage of selegiline should be reduced in order to minimize the risks of selegiline related adverse drug reactions. (+info)
Amphetamines induce apoptosis and regulation of bcl-x splice variants in neocortical neurons. (4/566)Amphetamineanalogs have emerged as popular recreational drugs of abuse. The number of reports of these substances producing severe acute toxicity and death is increasing. In 'Ecstasy' -associated deaths, focal necrosis in the liver and individual myocytic necrosis has been reported. Furthermore, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell damage has been observed in experimental amphetamine intoxication in laboratory animals. Here we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to D-amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') results in significant neurotoxicity in rat neocortical neurons in vitro. This neuronal cell death is accompanied by endonucleosomal DNA cleavage and differential expression of anti- and proapoptotic bcl-xL/S splice variants. In addition, we observed pronounced induction of cell stress-associated transcription factor c-jun and translation initiation inhibitor p97 after amphetamine treatment. These data support that the neurotoxic effects of different amphetamines are extended to rat neocortical neurons and that apoptotic pathways are involved in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. (+info)
Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex. (5/566)Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound. (+info)
The evolution of cerebral blood flow in the developing brain: evaluation with iodine-123 iodoamphetamine SPECT and correlation with MR imaging. (6/566)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although it is well established that brain maturation correlates temporally with the functions the newborn or infant performs at various stages of development, the precise relationship between function and anatomic brain maturation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in infants and children using iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These findings were correlated with the MR imaging appearance of the brain and with known developmental changes. METHODS: Twenty-one 123I-IMP SPECT examinations of 17 patients, ranging in age from neonates to 2 years, were reviewed retrospectively. All children had had transient neurologic events in the neonatal period that did not significantly affect subsequent neuropsychological development. MR studies were performed in 12 of these patients and the MR findings were correlated with the SPECT results. RESULTS: SPECT studies showed a consistent pattern of evolving changes in 123I-IMP uptake, most likely reflecting evolution of rCBF. From the 34th postconceptional week until the end of the second month after term delivery, there was predominant uptake in the thalami, brain stem, and paleocerebellum, with relatively less cortical activity. Radionuclide uptake in both the perirolandic and occipital cortices was well seen around the 40th postconceptional week and increased rapidly thereafter, with a predominance of parietal activity. By 3 months, radionuclide uptake in the cerebellar hemispheres and parietofrontal cortices increased. Frontal and temporal activity increased by age 6 to 8 months. Uptake in the basal ganglia increased by 8 months. By the beginning of the second year, rCBF showed a similar topographic pattern to that in adults. CONCLUSION: The time course of the changes in 123I-IMP uptake in the developing brain as detected by SPECT is similar to that of myelination and most likely reflects an overall topologic maturational pattern of the brain. (+info)
Direct agonists for serotonin receptors enhance locomotor function in rats that received neural transplants after neonatal spinal transection. (7/566)We analyzed whether acute treatment with serotonergic agonists would improve motor function in rats with transected spinal cords (spinal rats) and in rats that received transplants of fetal spinal cord into the transection site (transplant rats). Neonates received midthoracic spinal transections within 48 hr of birth; transplant rats received fetal (embryonic day 14) spinal cord grafts at the time of transection. At 3 weeks, rats began 1-2 months of training in treadmill locomotion. Rats in the transplant group developed better weight-supported stepping than spinal rats. Systemic administration of two directly acting agonists for serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes, quipazine and (+/-)-1-[2, 5]-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane), further increased weight-supported stepping in transplant rats. The improvement was dose-dependent and greatest in rats with poor to moderate baseline weight support. In contrast, indirectly acting serotonergic agonists, which block reuptake of 5-HT (sertraline) or release 5-HT and block its reuptake (D-fenfluramine), failed to enhance motor function. Neither direct nor indirect agonists significantly improved locomotion in spinal rats as a group, despite equivalent upregulation of 5-HT(2) receptors in the lumbar ventral horn of lesioned rats with and without transplants. The distribution of immunoreactive serotonergic fibers within and caudal to the transplant did not appear to correspond to restoration of motor function. Our results confirm our previous demonstration that transplants improve motor performance in spinal rats. Additional stimulation with agonists at subtypes of 5-HT receptors produces a beneficial interaction with transplants that further improves motor competence. (+info)
Evidence for a role for central 5-HT2B as well as 5-HT2A receptors in cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetized rats. (8/566)1. The effects of injections i.c.v. of quipazine, (2 micromol kg-1) and 1-(2,5-di-methoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 2 micromol kg-1) on renal sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were investigated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats pretreated with a peripherally acting 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 2. Quipazine or DOI caused a rise in MAP which was associated with a tachycardia and renal sympathoinhibition in rats pretreated (i.c.v.) with the antagonist vehicle 10% PEG. These effects of quipazine were completely blocked by pretreatment with cinanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and attenuated by spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the sympathoinhibition, while pretreatment with SB204741 (a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist) reversed the sympathoinhibition to excitation as it also did for DOI. Quipazine also caused renal sympathoexcitation in the presence (i.v.) of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked by quipazine alone and in the presence of SB204741 caused an immediate fall in MAP. For quipazine alone the renal sympathoinhibition was slowly reversed to an excitation, while the renal sympathoexcitation observed in the presence of SB204741 was potentiated. In both, the quipazine-evoked tachycardia was unaffected. 4. The data indicate that cardiovascular responses caused by i.c.v. quipazine and DOI are primarily due to activation of central 5-HT2A receptors, which causes the release of vasopressin and a tachycardia. This released vasopressin appears to suppress a 5-HT2A receptor-evoked central increase in sympathetic outflow, which involves the activation of central 5-HT2B receptors indirectly by the released vasopressin. (+info)
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THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents appear to underreport their nonmedical amphetamine use, which may be in part due to lacking awareness that Adderall is an amphetamine, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.. Joseph J. Palamar, Ph.D., M.P.H., from New York University Langone Medical Center, and Austin Le, from New York University College of Dentistry, examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015). They analyzed prevalence and correlates of discordant responses among past-year Adderall users, defined as reporting past-year nonmedical Adderall use but not past-year nonmedical amphetamine use.. The researchers found that while 6.9 percent of respondents reported nonmedical Adderall use and 7.9 percent reported nonmedical amphetamine use, 28.7 percent of Adderall users reported no amphetamine ...
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Adderall is a popular and effective prescription drug commonly used in the treatment of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, as shown on a recent episode of a popular health program, Adderall addiction is a growing diet drug problem with housewives desperate to lose weight. The following discusses what Adderall is, symptoms and dangers of its abuse, what Adderall withdrawal and detoxification is like and what kind of effective treatment is available for desperate housewives addicted to this diet drug.. What is Adderall. Adderall is a drug that belongs under the classification of amphetamine. Its use in the treatment of ADHD is based on its ability to increase levels of dopamine-a neurotransmitter chemical that acts on the pleasure center of the brain. Adderall increases a persons energy, ability to concentrate, alertness, libido, and has a side effect of weight loss. All of these factors contribute to making Adderall a very addictive drug for ...
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Why should I buy Adderall 7.5 mg online?. Adderall 7.5mg is a prescription drug used for treating patients suffering from Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder. When patients buy Adderall 7.5mg online, they are provided with a prescription drug along with a prescription used for the treatment of Narcolepsy as well as ADHD. Adderall 7.5mg is a combinational medicine consisting of four Amphetamine salts which belong to the family of drugs acknowledged as stimulants. Adderall 7.5 once used works within the brain, changing the amount of few natural substances present inside the human body. Once patients use Adderall 7.5mg, it helps them by increasing their ability to pay attention, handle behavior problems, and focus on any task or activity. The patients can also use Adderall 7.5mg tablets for treating sleeping disorders like Narcolepsy as it helps them stay awake for the entire day. However, patients should not use these tablets for treating exhaustion or hold off sleep in people who do not ...
Although there are many different options for ADHD and narcolepsy treatment, the two most popular drugs are those that contain methylphenidate or mixed amphetamine salts such as Focalin and Adderall. So, Focalin and Adderall are not the same thing, they are different, however they also have many similarities. Immediate release form of Focalin and immediate release form of Adderall both last for about 4-6 hours after administration. Their extended release forms (Focalin XR and Adderall XR) have also comparable effect lasting, which is about 12 hours. Their mechanisms of action are similar as they both work by inhibiting reuptake of stimulatory catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine increasing their extracellular levels of each, but Adderall also triggers presynaptic release from presynaptic neurons of these neurotransmitters. However, both products contain chemically different active ingredients, and Adderall is a combination of two active ingredients. Adderall is ...
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Main / Syringes with Needles / Does concerta help with adderall withdrawal 1 Answer - Posted in: adderall, concerta - Answer: koukla, dont be paranoid about your rejewvenate.info seem to have shaken. Join Date: Jun ; Posts: 3, Amphetamine withdrawal is mainly psychological. To that end, the only things I can think of that would help would be caffeine or maybe some Sudafed. Maybe this is a wake-up call for you.. However, I did not require the side affects in myself of bleeding, headache, anxiety, fresher as being related to the Adderall. get the pimples or such, even though the intriguing level of the last in your system would be sufficient for you to do and get some help with the ADD does concerta help with adderall withdrawal. My counter is will I get that "There" if I switch from Adderall to Concerta. up as i have major doe concerta help with adderall withdrawal and dissolution disorder, concerta really helps with my allergies. i am just all over rectal and talkative. the things that get to ...
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Stimulants like Adderall increase alertness, suppress hunger and improve attention span. While its not exactly known how the drug works to improve focus and reduce hyperactivity in the brain, its believed that it increases the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. Norepinephrine is a chemical that transmits signals to other nerve cells in the brain, while dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in reward-driven behavior.. Adderall and alcohol can be a very dangerous combination. The drug itself can be risky when taken without a prescription, but combining it with alcohol can lead to serious injuries or death. Alcohol has a depressant effect on the central nervous system, which means that it slows down brain activity. When Adderall is taken with alcohol, the combination of the two drugs can result in severe injuries due to impaired judgment, balance and reflexes.. Allergic reactions to Adderall are rare, but they do happen. An allergic reaction. As with any medication, there is always ...
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This means that youngsters might remove dextroamphetamine in 49.5 hours (2.06 days) and also levoamphetamine in 55 hrs (2.29 days). Comparative, youngsters could get rid of Adderall almost 22 hrs quicker than grownups (perhaps requiring up to 77 hrs for removal). Though unsubstantiated by research, it is reasonable to consider that elderly individuals could exhibit prolonged removal rate of Adderall compared to kids and healthy and balanced grownups.. Long term removal speed in senior people could be related to age-related clinical conditions and/or any medications made use of to treat those problems. It is additionally comprehended that senior individuals might show age-related decrease in efficiency of kidney and/or renal feature, each which is recognized to expand elimination time. That claimed, senior people healthy [with no decline] could remove Adderall from their system as promptly as healthy and balanced adults.. Body make-up: Your body make-up may partly determine how much time Adderall ...
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Adderall is a commonly prescribed medication that is used to help control symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Adderall (Adderall XR) is a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy in children and adults.
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... (DOEF), also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine&oldid=903372537" ...
... (Voranil) was developed by Ciba in the 1960s and is an anorectic drug of the amphetamine class. It is the 2- ... Sannerud, C. A.; Brady, J. V.; Griffiths, R. R. (1989). "Self-Injection in Baboons of Amphetamines and Related Designer Drugs ...
α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine). *β-Methylphenethylamine. *m-Methylphenethylamine. *N-Methylphenethylamine. *o- ...
Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... MDEA is a substituted amphetamine and a substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine. MDEA acts as a serotonin, norepinephrine, and ... Freudenmann RW, Spitzer M (2004). "The Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA ...
... (also known as 3-FMC) is a chemical compound of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes ... "Analysis of Amphetamine-Derived Designer Drugs by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry". Journal of Analytical Toxicology ...
α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine). *β-Methylphenethylamine. *m-Methylphenethylamine. *N-Methylphenethylamine. *o- ...
α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine). *β-Methylphenethylamine. *m-Methylphenethylamine. *N-Methylphenethylamine. *o- ...
Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
... (DOPR) is a psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It was ... Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
... (2-FA) is a stimulant drug from the amphetamine family which has been sold as a designer drug. 2- ... Costa E, Garattini S (1970). Amphetamines and Related Compounds. New York: Raven Press. p. 28.. ... 2-FA may be considered to be an analog of amphetamine, thus falling under the Federal Analog Act. ...
Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... Partilla JS, Dempsey AG, Nagpal AS, Blough BE, Baumann MH, Rothman RB (October 2006). "Interaction of amphetamines and related ...
3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine analogues alkylated on the dioxole ring". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 22 (10): 1264-7. doi: ... Trachsel D, Hadorn M, Baumberger F (March 2006). "Synthesis of fluoro analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine (MDA) and ...
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Amphetamine: "alpha-methyl-phenethylamine". *Gestapo: Geheime Staatspolizei (secret state police). *Radar: "radio detection and ...
Is Phentermine An Amphetamine Or Narcotic? Is It Safe?. Oct 12, 2016James HariHealthComments Off on Is Phentermine An ... Is Phentermine An Amphetamine or Narcotic?. Phentermine has been classified as controlled substance as it is often been abused ... Phentermine is a stimulant and is considered to be closely linked to the amphetamines. It is commonly used as appetite ... The Phentermine is considered as narcotic and has same structure as that of amphetamine. It has the ability to decrease ...
In recent years a number of drugs have been manufactured and marketed to replace amphetamines as appetite suppressants. These ... They produce many of the effects of the amphetamines, but are generally less potent. Abuse patterns of some of them have not ... yet been established, but all are controlled because of the similarity of their effects to those of the amphetamines. ...
The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine ... Amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and metabolites of the catecholamine ... Furthermore, the discovery that amphetamines, including 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy"), are potent rTAR1 ... An extensive pharmacological survey revealed that psychostimulant and hallucinogenic amphetamines, numerous ergoline ...
Similar to an amphetamine, phentermine is a stimulant that acts as an appetite suppressant by affecting the central nervous ... People who are allergic to it or to those who are allergic to diet pills, amphetamines, stimulants, or cold medications ...
Is phentermine an amphetamine?. No, it is not. However, phentermine is similar to amphetamine in its chemical structure and ... Phentermine does possess similar biochemical properties to amphetamine and can illicit false-positives on urinalysis testing. ...
Just seems like a couple of weeks ago we opened the 2017 ... Review comparing Phentermine results & amphetamines. Side effects ...
Amphetamine (Adderall). *Benzphetamine (Didrex, Regimex). *Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin XR, Focalin). *Dextroamphetamine ( ...
... are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... What Are Amphetamines?. Amphetamines are stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pill, tablet, ... When amphetamines get into the body, they go to work on the central nervous system. Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called ... Avoiding Amphetamines. Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. Because people rarely call ...
Definition Amphetamines are a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system . Some of the brand names of ... amphetamines sold in the United States  are Dexedrine, Biphetamine, Das, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Spancap No 1, ... Amphetamines World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a family of chemical ... Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and ...
Amphetamines Outmoded. Br Med J 1971; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5743.288 (Published 30 January 1971) Cite this as: ...
Ban on Amphetamines. Br Med J 1970; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5725.770-b (Published 26 September 1970) Cite this as ...
Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... Amphetamines are swallowed, smoked, snorted, or injected.. What It Does:. No matter how a person takes amphetamines, these ... Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pills or tablets. ... Even after users stop taking amphetamines, they may still have problems such as aggression, anxiety, and strong cravings for ...
Amphetamines are powerful psychostimulants that are commonly used to treat ADHD, narcolepsy or obesity, but they can be highly ... How amphetamines work. Amphetamines are used in treatments for ADD and ADHD, obesity, narcolepsy, and Parkinsons disease, ... Amphetamine side effects. When taken properly, amphetamine-based medications can be safe and effective. But as with any ... Amphetamines, particularly methamphetamine, can be highly addictive.. Amphetamine can cause the brain to produce such high ...
Amphetamines are drugs. They can be legal or illegal. They are legal when they are prescribed by a doctor and used to treat ... There are different kinds of street amphetamines. Common ones and some of their slang terms are:. *Amphetamine: goey, louee, ... Some people use amphetamines to help them stay awake on the job or to study for a test. Others use them to boost their ... Amphetamines are drugs. They can be legal or illegal. They are legal when they are prescribed by a doctor and used to treat ...
Amphetamines are man-made stimulant drugs.. Their effects usually last for several hours and include stimulation of the central ... Amphetamines can be snorted, swallowed, injected, dissolved in a drink or smoked. ... Effects of prolonged use of amphetamines include sleep disturbances, anxiety, decreased appetite; changes in dopamine brain ...
Bread & Amphetamines (Khlyab i amfeti) (Bulgarian: "Хляб и амфети") is the fourth solo studio album by Bulgarian rapper Big Sha ...
The same intense uppers that Hitlers dubious physician, Dr. Theodor Morell, gave him were also dispensed to German soldiers during battle. http://www.youtube.com/user/smithsonianchannel/videos
A new study reveals how cocaine and amphetamines affect the brain, and researchers hope the findings will lead to new addiction ... Currently, there are no approved drug therapies for amphetamine abuse, and people addicted to amphetamines and cocaine have a ... "Addiction to amphetamines and cocaine devastates lives, families and communities in Oregon and across the U.S. Our research ... home/mental health center/ mental health a-z list/ how amphetamines, cocaine harm the brain article ...
Dr Peter Yellowlees discusses a recent Cochrane review on the safety and efficacy of amphetamines for ADHD in children and ... Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD, yet despite their addictive potential, we ... The researchers found that many of the trials were of poor quality, and while amphetamines did seem efficacious at reducing the ... They found no evidence that supported any one specific amphetamine derivative over another, and the review did not reveal any ...
Amphetamine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking amphetamine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amphetamine, other stimulant medications ... If you or your child are taking amphetamine for ADHD, your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of amphetamine and ... Alcohol can make the side effects from amphetamine worse.. *you should know that amphetamine should be used as part of a total ...
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.8 ... Amphetamine is 100% free (no ads, no in-app purchases).. After you launch Amphetamine, you must activate it by clicking on its ... Amphetamine is a little app that lives in your menu bar. With Amphetamine, you can effortlessly override your energy saver ... If you have previously written a review of Amphetamine, please consider updating it.. If youre brand new to Amphetamine and ...
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.10 ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... What Else Does Amphetamine Do? == Amphetamine is the most powerful and customizable keep-awake utility ever created for macOS. ...
Amphetamines. 1.2 Group The members of this group include: Amphetamine. Benzphetamine. Chlorphentermine. Clortermine. ... There is no antidote to amphetamine poisoning.. 10.5.2 Children There is no antidote to amphetamine poisoning.. 10.6 Management ... amphetamine. New Engl J Med, 279:329.. Kramer JC, Fischman VS & Littlefield DC (1967) Amphetamine abuse. Pattern and effects of ... Therefore lactating mothers are advised not to take or use amphetamine.. 9.5 Other Amphetamine withdrawal syndrome: Abrupt ...
... ,For the qualitative detection of single and multiple drugs and drug metabolites in human urine, ...
Kansas City Royals catcher Jason Kendall will be in court this morning in his bitter child custody fight, and weve learned hell be asked about his use…
DerivativesPsychostimulantIllicitNeurotransmittersInteract with amphetamineADHDAddictiveSulfateAdderall XRCocaineStimulateDosageAddictionSupports Retina displaysMedicationsTabletsStop taking ampheDose of amphetaminesTreatment with amphetamineCaptagonRacemicUses amphetaminesStimulants amphetaminePrescription amphetaminesSuspended 25 gamesNorepinephrine and dopamineObesityPharmaceuticalPsychologicallyVyvanseAlertnessDiscovered in 1887Release of dopamineEuphoriaEffectsMedicinesSymptomsPatientsOrallyAntacidsDopamine transporterStimulant knownPowderAcute
- It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter and/or stimulate the efflux of transmitter from intracellular stores. (mdma.net)
- These medicines may interact with amphetamine and cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. (rexhealth.com)
- Which drugs or supplements interact with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
- A total of 529 drugs (3907 brand and generic names) are known to interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine . (drugs.com)
- Show all medications in the database that may interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine. (drugs.com)
- The following drugs may interact with amphetamine. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Citrus juices and caffeinated beverages and foods may interact with amphetamine. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Amphetamines have been used since then in the development of a variety of drugs, most notably Adderall and Ritalin, which treat ADD and ADHD. (livescience.com)
- Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD, yet despite their addictive potential, we really don't know how safe or efficacious they are. (medscape.com)
- A team of investigators from the University of Alberta, Canada, have used standard Cochrane methodology to evaluate the safety and efficacy of amphetamines for ADHD in children and adolescents. (medscape.com)
- The researchers found that many of the trials were of poor quality, and while amphetamines did seem efficacious at reducing the core symptoms of ADHD in the short term, they were associated with a greater number of adverse events, such as decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain, nausea, headaches, and anxiety. (medscape.com)
- The evidence confirms that amphetamines have an established role in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, but from a clinical perspective they should be part of a wider, individually customized biopsychosocial treatment plan. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: Efficacy and Safety of Amphetamines in ADHD - Medscape - Apr 14, 2016. (medscape.com)
- Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
- Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
- Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD. (wikipedia.org)
- One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for ADHD in children that found an average increase of 4.5 IQ points, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity. (wikipedia.org)
- An amphetamine, it was until this year marketed exclusively to treat ADHD. (motherjones.com)
- But its latest incarnation actually represents something of a return to its roots: Before they became ADHD drugs, amphetamines, of course, were diet drugs. (motherjones.com)
- Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (rexhealth.com)
- Reuters Health) - Children and young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are treated with the stimulants amphetamine or methylphenidate face a small but significant risk of developing psychosis, with amphetamine products twice as likely to spark at problem, researchers say. (reuters.com)
- Amphetamine works in the treatment of ADHD by increasing attention and decreasing restlessness in children and adults who are overactive, cannot concentrate for very long, or are easily distracted and impulsive. (mayoclinic.org)
- Amphetamines are commonly abused recreational drugs and are highly addictive. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are highly addictive and should be used only if alternative approaches have failed. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants. (kidshealth.org)
- Addiction to amphetamines and cocaine devastates lives, families and communities in Oregon and across the U.S. Our research pinpoints how these addictive drugs interfere with the dopamine transporter and normal signaling in the brain, bringing us closer to developing effective treatments for people who are addicted to cocaine and amphetamines," Eric Gouaux, a senior scientist at the university's Vollum Institute, said in a university news release. (medicinenet.com)
- Amphetamines are highly addictive! (prezi.com)
- Amphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that promotes the release of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine. (mendeley.com)
- Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants that accelerate functions in the brain and body. (teenshealth.org)
- Field sampling was then followed up with an artificial stream experiment to determine how amphetamine - a biologically active, highly addictive, and widely used drug - affects stream life. (eurekalert.org)
- TUESDAY, May 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new study reveals how cocaine and amphetamines affect the brain, and researchers hope the findings will lead to new addiction treatments. (medicinenet.com)
- Currently, there are no approved drug therapies for amphetamine abuse, and people addicted to amphetamines and cocaine have a high relapse rate, the researchers said. (medicinenet.com)
- Amphetamines and cocaine block dopamine signaling by interfering with the functioning of the dopamine transporter, the researchers explained. (medicinenet.com)
- This groundbreaking research arms the pharmaceutical industry with specific information about targets for treatment, opening the door for new therapeutic approaches for blocking the effects of cocaine and amphetamine. (medicinenet.com)
- In chronic high-dose cocaine (75) or amphetamine abuse (49), energy and euphoria induced by active drug administration is replaced in withdrawal by rebound dysphoric and anergic symptoms that appear to occur whether or not the stimulant abuser meets the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder (74). (factbites.com)
- Educate patients on the toxic effects of amphetamines and that amphetamines are not a safe alternative to cocaine use. (factbites.com)
- DAT can also bind amphetamine, cocaine, and other psychostimulants, which inhibit dopamine reuptake, and, in the case of amphetamine, also stimulate the release of dopamine through DAT. (innovations-report.com)
- There are different types of stimulants which are commonly abused, and two of them are amphetamines and cocaine. (drugrehab.org)
- Much like cocaine, there are many ways to use and abuse amphetamines. (drugrehab.org)
- You usually do not get addicted to prescription amphetamines when you take them at the right dosage to treat your health condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- We need to prescribe amphetamines carefully, using the minimum effective dosage, and with drug holidays if possible. (medscape.com)
- What is the dosage for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
- Using amphetamines can lead to addiction. (medlineplus.gov)
- Addiction happens when you use amphetamines to get high or improve performance. (medlineplus.gov)
- These effects further emphasize the need for amphetamine rehab for the addicted individual, as only proper treatment can help stop the cycle of addiction. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- Use caution when taking amphetamine if you've ever had substance addiction problems or a family history of addiction. (healthline.com)
- When an individual uses amphetamines in a binge-like fashion, that is, in increasing amounts and frequencies, there is a much higher risk of abuse or addiction. (drugrehab.org)
- The interaction between over-the-counter cold medications with amphetamine, for instance, is particularly dangerous because this combination can significantly increase blood pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are a class of stimulants often included in cold medications. (livescience.com)
- Soon after Alles' discovery, pharmaceutical companies developed amphetamine medications for treating congestion and asthma, according to a review published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2008. (livescience.com)
- Certain formulations of amphetamine, typically pseudoephedrine, are used in medications that treat cold symptoms , such as Sudafed, Franssen said. (livescience.com)
- A 2015 clinical trial published in the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology reported that patients who took amphetamine medications experienced increased weight loss and motivation. (livescience.com)
- When taken properly, amphetamine-based medications can be safe and effective. (livescience.com)
- Amphetamine is in a class of medications called central nervous system stimulants. (medlineplus.gov)
- Patients receiving antihypertensive medications may experience loss of blood pressure control with amphetamine. (medicinenet.com)
- Amphetamine medications are taken by mouth, in the morning, with or without food, exactly as prescribed by your healthcare professional. (factbites.com)
- Amphetamine medications should be avoided in individuals who have a heart defect (structural abnormalities), uncontrolled high blood pressure , or a disorder of the heart or blood vessels. (factbites.com)
- Amphetamine/dextroamphetamine belongs to a class of medications often called stimulants. (colourlovers.com)
- In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of amphetamine medications in the treatment of conditions like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (eurekalert.org)
- Eight billion amphetamine tablets are officially produced in the U.S. annually, enough to supply 40 doses to every man, woman and child. (nymag.com)
- The amphetamine business became a vast and profitable economic enterprise: by 1958, some eight billion pills and tablets were produced legally each year in the United States, in addition to the sizable illegal market, and to clandestine imports from Mexico, and by 1971, legal production had risen to twelve billion pills. (psu.edu)
- No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine tablets in geriatric patients. (mayoclinic.org)
- Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension and extended-release oral disintegrating tablets in the geriatric population. (mayoclinic.org)
- Separate investigations by the news agency Reuters and Time magazine have found that the growing trade in Syrian-made Captagon - an amphetamine widely consumed in the Middle East but almost unknown elsewhere - generated revenues of millions of dollars inside the country last year, some of which was almost certainly used to fund weapons, while combatants on both sides are reportedly turning to the stimulant to help them keep fighting. (wnd.com)
- The amphetamines were labeled captagon, the street name for a drug whose chemical base is fenethylline. (ap.org)
- The stimulant, called fenethylline and by its trade name Captagon, is a super-boosted amphetamine, they said, and has unique chemical complexities allowing it to induce potent psychoactive effects far more rapidly than amphetamines alone. (reuters.com)
- Using mice and their own manufactured Captagon in a lab, the team discovered that the drug produces its distinctive effects from a functional synergy between theophylline, a drug traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases, and amphetamine, a stimulant. (reuters.com)
- Over the long term, a person who uses amphetamines regularly will find that the short-term side effects of using the drug are exaggerated. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- AMPHETAMINES International Programme on Chemical Safety Poison Information Monograph(Group PIM) G009 Pharmaceutical 1. (inchem.org)
- AS A distinguished pharmacologist with experience in both the pharmaceutical industry and policy-making, Iversen uses his broad knowledge to good effect in this study of amphetamines, the third on psychoactive drugs that he has written for OUP. (newscientist.com)
- Today's users take their amphetamines and pharmaceutical amphatamine derivatives in order to lose weight, cheer up, work harder, think faster, or just for fun. (libcom.org)
- Amphetamines produce increased alertness and a feeling of euphoria. (stlukesonline.org)
- By far the biggest speed-pusher in history was the armed services, which from the second world war through Vietnam distributed amphetamines lavishly to service people undertaking tasks requiring alertness and wakefulness: we are talking in terms of multi-billion pill quantities. (psu.edu)
- It has been shown that amphetamines can trigger release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine and cause sudden bursts in neurotransmission, leading to a feeling of alertness, increased muscular activity, and reduced fatigue. (eurekalert.org)
- Amphetamine activates nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to increase motor activity and alertness and lessen drowsiness and fatigue. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the midbrain inhibits the activity of dopamine neurons through activation of D2 dopamine autoreceptors. (mendeley.com)
- Amphetamine desensitizes the mGluR-mediated hyperpolarization through release of dopamine, activation of postsynaptic alpha1 adrenergic receptors, and suppression of InsP3-induced calcium release from internal stores. (mendeley.com)
- Through this mechanism, amphetamine may enhance phasic release of dopamine, which is important in the neural processing of reward. (mendeley.com)
- Amphetamines produce considerable side effects and are especially toxic in large quantities. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are usually given orally and their effects can last for hours. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines produce their effects by altering chemicals that transmit nerve messages in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
- The effects of amphetamine can last up to 20 hours after the medication has last been taken. (encyclopedia.com)
- In 1929, Gordon Alles, a U.S. biochemist, discovered that amphetamine had physiological effects. (livescience.com)
- What are the side effects of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
- Mothers taking amphetamines should refrain from nursing their infants because these drugs are excreted in human milk and can have undesirable effects on the child. (medicinenet.com)
- What are some of the positive effects of Amphetamines? (flashcardmachine.com)
- There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby amphetamines produce mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how those effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Sandra Black and her team at the Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre are conducting tests to determine whether patients treated with amphetamine recover better from paralysis, sensory loss, language deficits and other effects of stroke. (streetdirectory.com)
- Another way to think about the effects of amphetamines is to remember that they act in a similar way to adrenaline, a hormone produced naturally in the body. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
- Early investigations of the properties of amphetamine focused on the peripheral effects and found that amphetamine was a sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator properties. (factbites.com)
- this may be important for understanding effects of amphetamine use during pregnancy. (factbites.com)
- Amphetamine oral tablet doesn't cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects. (healthline.com)
- Amphetamines mediate their behavioral effects by stimulating dopaminergic signaling throughout reward circuits of the brain. (innovations-report.com)
- In a new study published in the open-access journal PLoS Biology, Aurelio Galli, Jason Williams and colleagues used a model of Type I diabetes in rats to uncover how insulin signaling regulates DAT-mediated amphetamine effects. (innovations-report.com)
- This study verifies in vivo that insulin signaling can dynamically influence the neuronal effects of amphetamine-like psychostimulants. (innovations-report.com)
- Amphetamines are stimulants that can cause heart effects such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure, and increased risk of heart attack, stroke and aneurysm rupture, the researchers said. (health24.com)
- We found that when artificial streams were exposed to amphetamine at a concentration similar to what we found in parts of the Gwynns Falls watershed, there were measurable and concerning effects to the base of the aquatic food web. (eurekalert.org)
- Amphetamines are often mixed with other drugs or alcohol, making the effects even more intensified. (drugrehab.org)
- Amphetamines are used for a number of medical disorders, and when used illicitly, may cause a variety of uncomfortable, and even dangerous, side effects. (drugrehab.org)
- Although amphetamines are used in medicines, they are available only through a limited prescription. (kidshealth.org)
- Amphetamine-form medicines might be pattern-forming. (colourlovers.com)
- Amphetamines that are used as medicines, such as dexamphetamine, are usually small white pills. (knowthescore.info)
- In addition, patients who have taken MAO inhibitors, a type of antidepressant, within the last 14 days should not receive amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patients taking amphetamines should always tell their physicians and dentists that they are using this medication. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patients should consult their physician before taking any over-the-counter medication while taking amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
- Whilst some patients show signs of toxicity at blood concentrations of 20 g/L, chronic abusers of amphetamine have been known to have blood concentration of up to 3000 g/L. (inchem.org)
- A pilot clinical trial exploring the benefit of d-amphetamine combined with physical therapy for stroke patients found no evidence that the regimen improved post-stroke motor recovery. (news-medical.net)
- Amphetamine is also used for weight reduction in obese patients. (mayoclinic.org)
- This property of amphetamine relies on its actions at the dopamine transporter (DAT), a presynaptic plasma membrane protein responsible for the reuptake of extracellular dopamine. (innovations-report.com)
- 2004) N-Terminal Phosphorylation of the Dopamine Transporter Is Required for Amphetamine-Induced Efflux. (innovations-report.com)
- Amphetamines are usually swallowed, but also can be inhaled, injected, or dabbed (when someone licks a finger and dips it in the powder before eating it). (kidshealth.org)
- Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. (kidshealth.org)
- Amphetamines are white, bitter tasting, crystal powder. (prezi.com)
- Amphetamines can be taken as pills, ingested, smoked, in a form of powder, or it can be snorted through the nose. (prezi.com)