A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
Amides of salicylic acid.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)
An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (1/566)

(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences.  (+info)

Electrophysiological examination of the effects of sustained flibanserin administration on serotonin receptors in rat brain. (2/566)

5-HT1A receptor agonists have proven to be effective antidepressant medications, however they suffer from a significant therapeutic lag before depressive symptoms abate. Flibanserin is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist developed to possibly induce a more rapid onset of antidepressant action through its preferential postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Flibanserin antagonized the effect of microiontophoretically-applied DOI in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following 2 days of administration, indicating antagonism of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. This reduction in the effect of locally-applied DOI was no longer present following 7-day flibanserin administration. Two-day flibanserin administration only marginally reduced the firing activity of dorsal raphe (DRN) 5-HT neurons. Following 7 days of administration, 5-HT neuronal firing activity had returned to normal and the somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors were desensitized. The responsiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located on CA3 hippocampus pyramidal neurons and mPFC neurons, examined using microiontophoretically-applied 5-HT and gepirone, was unchanged following a 7-day flibanserin treatment. As demonstrated by the ability of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 to selectively increase the firing of hippocampal neurons in 2- and 7-day treated rats, flibanserin enhanced the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in this brain region. The results suggest that flibanserin could be a therapeutically useful compound putatively endowed with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action.  (+info)

Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female sex steroids. (3/566)

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose relationship of selegline and desmethylselegiline pharmacokinetics within the selegiline dose range from 5 to 40 mg. METHODS: Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethlylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication. RESULTS: The total AUC and Cmax of selegiline were 10-to 20-fold higher in those subjects taking oral steroids compared with subjects with no concomitant medication; this finding was consistent and statistically significant at all the four dose levels. The dose linearity of selegiline pharmacokinetics failed to be demonstrated in both groups. The AUC and Cmax of desmethylselegiline were only moderately higher (about 1.5-fold; P=NS at each dose level) in the subjects taking oral steroids than in those not receiving concomitant medication. The AUC values of desmethylselegiline increased in a dose linear manner in subjects with no concomitant medication, but not in the oral steroid group. The metabolic ratio (AUC(desmethylselegiline)/AUC(selegiline)) was several-fold lower in the group receiving oral steroids compared with the no-concomitant-medication group (P<0.005 at all the four dose levels). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of oral contraceptives caused a drastic (20-fold) increase in the oral bioavailability of selegiline. The highly significant difference in the metabolic ratio between the groups provides evidence that the mechanism of the interaction between selegiline and female sex steroids involves reduced T-demethylation of selegiline. The present results suggest that concomitant use of selegiline with exogenous female sex steroids should be avoided or the dosage of selegiline should be reduced in order to minimize the risks of selegiline related adverse drug reactions.  (+info)

Amphetamines induce apoptosis and regulation of bcl-x splice variants in neocortical neurons. (4/566)

Amphetamineanalogs have emerged as popular recreational drugs of abuse. The number of reports of these substances producing severe acute toxicity and death is increasing. In 'Ecstasy' -associated deaths, focal necrosis in the liver and individual myocytic necrosis has been reported. Furthermore, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell damage has been observed in experimental amphetamine intoxication in laboratory animals. Here we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to D-amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') results in significant neurotoxicity in rat neocortical neurons in vitro. This neuronal cell death is accompanied by endonucleosomal DNA cleavage and differential expression of anti- and proapoptotic bcl-xL/S splice variants. In addition, we observed pronounced induction of cell stress-associated transcription factor c-jun and translation initiation inhibitor p97 after amphetamine treatment. These data support that the neurotoxic effects of different amphetamines are extended to rat neocortical neurons and that apoptotic pathways are involved in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.  (+info)

Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex. (5/566)

Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound.  (+info)

The evolution of cerebral blood flow in the developing brain: evaluation with iodine-123 iodoamphetamine SPECT and correlation with MR imaging. (6/566)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although it is well established that brain maturation correlates temporally with the functions the newborn or infant performs at various stages of development, the precise relationship between function and anatomic brain maturation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in infants and children using iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These findings were correlated with the MR imaging appearance of the brain and with known developmental changes. METHODS: Twenty-one 123I-IMP SPECT examinations of 17 patients, ranging in age from neonates to 2 years, were reviewed retrospectively. All children had had transient neurologic events in the neonatal period that did not significantly affect subsequent neuropsychological development. MR studies were performed in 12 of these patients and the MR findings were correlated with the SPECT results. RESULTS: SPECT studies showed a consistent pattern of evolving changes in 123I-IMP uptake, most likely reflecting evolution of rCBF. From the 34th postconceptional week until the end of the second month after term delivery, there was predominant uptake in the thalami, brain stem, and paleocerebellum, with relatively less cortical activity. Radionuclide uptake in both the perirolandic and occipital cortices was well seen around the 40th postconceptional week and increased rapidly thereafter, with a predominance of parietal activity. By 3 months, radionuclide uptake in the cerebellar hemispheres and parietofrontal cortices increased. Frontal and temporal activity increased by age 6 to 8 months. Uptake in the basal ganglia increased by 8 months. By the beginning of the second year, rCBF showed a similar topographic pattern to that in adults. CONCLUSION: The time course of the changes in 123I-IMP uptake in the developing brain as detected by SPECT is similar to that of myelination and most likely reflects an overall topologic maturational pattern of the brain.  (+info)

Direct agonists for serotonin receptors enhance locomotor function in rats that received neural transplants after neonatal spinal transection. (7/566)

We analyzed whether acute treatment with serotonergic agonists would improve motor function in rats with transected spinal cords (spinal rats) and in rats that received transplants of fetal spinal cord into the transection site (transplant rats). Neonates received midthoracic spinal transections within 48 hr of birth; transplant rats received fetal (embryonic day 14) spinal cord grafts at the time of transection. At 3 weeks, rats began 1-2 months of training in treadmill locomotion. Rats in the transplant group developed better weight-supported stepping than spinal rats. Systemic administration of two directly acting agonists for serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes, quipazine and (+/-)-1-[2, 5]-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane), further increased weight-supported stepping in transplant rats. The improvement was dose-dependent and greatest in rats with poor to moderate baseline weight support. In contrast, indirectly acting serotonergic agonists, which block reuptake of 5-HT (sertraline) or release 5-HT and block its reuptake (D-fenfluramine), failed to enhance motor function. Neither direct nor indirect agonists significantly improved locomotion in spinal rats as a group, despite equivalent upregulation of 5-HT(2) receptors in the lumbar ventral horn of lesioned rats with and without transplants. The distribution of immunoreactive serotonergic fibers within and caudal to the transplant did not appear to correspond to restoration of motor function. Our results confirm our previous demonstration that transplants improve motor performance in spinal rats. Additional stimulation with agonists at subtypes of 5-HT receptors produces a beneficial interaction with transplants that further improves motor competence.  (+info)

Evidence for a role for central 5-HT2B as well as 5-HT2A receptors in cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetized rats. (8/566)

1. The effects of injections i.c.v. of quipazine, (2 micromol kg-1) and 1-(2,5-di-methoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 2 micromol kg-1) on renal sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were investigated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats pretreated with a peripherally acting 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 2. Quipazine or DOI caused a rise in MAP which was associated with a tachycardia and renal sympathoinhibition in rats pretreated (i.c.v.) with the antagonist vehicle 10% PEG. These effects of quipazine were completely blocked by pretreatment with cinanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and attenuated by spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the sympathoinhibition, while pretreatment with SB204741 (a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist) reversed the sympathoinhibition to excitation as it also did for DOI. Quipazine also caused renal sympathoexcitation in the presence (i.v.) of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked by quipazine alone and in the presence of SB204741 caused an immediate fall in MAP. For quipazine alone the renal sympathoinhibition was slowly reversed to an excitation, while the renal sympathoexcitation observed in the presence of SB204741 was potentiated. In both, the quipazine-evoked tachycardia was unaffected. 4. The data indicate that cardiovascular responses caused by i.c.v. quipazine and DOI are primarily due to activation of central 5-HT2A receptors, which causes the release of vasopressin and a tachycardia. This released vasopressin appears to suppress a 5-HT2A receptor-evoked central increase in sympathetic outflow, which involves the activation of central 5-HT2B receptors indirectly by the released vasopressin.  (+info)

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THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents appear to underreport their nonmedical amphetamine use, which may be in part due to lacking awareness that Adderall is an amphetamine, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.. Joseph J. Palamar, Ph.D., M.P.H., from New York University Langone Medical Center, and Austin Le, from New York University College of Dentistry, examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015). They analyzed prevalence and correlates of discordant responses among past-year Adderall users, defined as reporting past-year nonmedical Adderall use but not past-year nonmedical amphetamine use.. The researchers found that while 6.9 percent of respondents reported nonmedical Adderall use and 7.9 percent reported nonmedical amphetamine use, 28.7 percent of Adderall users reported no amphetamine ...
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Adderall is a popular and effective prescription drug commonly used in the treatment of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, as shown on a recent episode of a popular health program, Adderall addiction is a growing diet drug problem with housewives desperate to lose weight. The following discusses what Adderall is, symptoms and dangers of its abuse, what Adderall withdrawal and detoxification is like and what kind of effective treatment is available for desperate housewives addicted to this diet drug.. What is Adderall. Adderall is a drug that belongs under the classification of amphetamine. Its use in the treatment of ADHD is based on its ability to increase levels of dopamine-a neurotransmitter chemical that acts on the pleasure center of the brain. Adderall increases a persons energy, ability to concentrate, alertness, libido, and has a side effect of weight loss. All of these factors contribute to making Adderall a very addictive drug for ...
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Although there are many different options for ADHD and narcolepsy treatment, the two most popular drugs are those that contain methylphenidate or mixed amphetamine salts such as Focalin and Adderall. So, Focalin and Adderall are not the same thing, they are different, however they also have many similarities. Immediate release form of Focalin and immediate release form of Adderall both last for about 4-6 hours after administration. Their extended release forms (Focalin XR and Adderall XR) have also comparable effect lasting, which is about 12 hours. Their mechanisms of action are similar as they both work by inhibiting reuptake of stimulatory catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine increasing their extracellular levels of each, but Adderall also triggers presynaptic release from presynaptic neurons of these neurotransmitters. However, both products contain chemically different active ingredients, and Adderall is a combination of two active ingredients. Adderall is ...
What happens if to take Adderall and Klonopin combo? No known interactions exist between Adderall and Klonopin in terms of the metabolism of the two drugs. Adderall is metabolized by CYP2D6, whereas Klonopin is metabolized by the hepatic (liver) enzyme CY34A. However, because Adderall is a potent psychostimulant and Klonopin is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant, mixing the two medications can result in serious adverse events. Combining Adderall and Klonopin may adversely affect the heart by sending it mixed signals. Adderall promotes the release of norepinephrine, which may increase heart rate, heart contractility and blood pressure. Conversely, the benzodiazepine Klonopin may oppose these cardiovascular effects.. ...
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To the Editor: In the 21 November 2011 issue of the Journal, Sara and colleagues identified 97 000 Australians as heavy stimulant users,1 and McKetin and Lubman detailed the public health importance of heavy stimulant consumption, emphasising impacts of ice(crystal methamphetamine).2 In addition, there has been growing concern over rising ice use in Australia and related harms, including psychosis, stroke and cardiac abnormalities.2 In Victoria, there is evidence of significant increases in ice use among people who inject drugs (from 36% in 2010 to 53% in 2011)3 and regular ecstasy (methylenedioxy-methamphetamine; MDMA) users (from 18% in 2010 to 38% in 2011).4 To examine this issue, we conducted an exploratory study using multiple indicators of amphetamine-related harm from July 2010 to June 2012.. ...
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I used to take 10MG IR, and drink a cup of coffee, and use nicotine pouches. Terrible combination. I didnt know it was bad for me until I was in my psychiatrists office one morning and he took my blood pressure and pulse and told me to stop doing that. fast forward, I stopped taking adderall, and cut out nicotine, but thats not helpful with ADD, so I cut the pill in half now and take 5mg. I find that while Im on it, and have coffee (even a small amount), my heart rates gets up in the 90s while resting. As Im tryping this Im hovering around 94-97. Im going to try again tomorrow but without coffee, which is hard for me because I love coffee. Does anyone else experience this? I cant imagine how some people take 30-60mg of Adderall. I feel like Id go through a wall. My cardiologist said to keep taking adderall, but even a small amount still increases my resting heart rate. So I feel like it cant be healthy long term. Question mainly is, how do people react to Adderall? pulse, and how with ...
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This means that youngsters might remove dextroamphetamine in 49.5 hours (2.06 days) and also levoamphetamine in 55 hrs (2.29 days). Comparative, youngsters could get rid of Adderall almost 22 hrs quicker than grownups (perhaps requiring up to 77 hrs for removal). Though unsubstantiated by research, it is reasonable to consider that elderly individuals could exhibit prolonged removal rate of Adderall compared to kids and healthy and balanced grownups.. Long term removal speed in senior people could be related to age-related clinical conditions and/or any medications made use of to treat those problems. It is additionally comprehended that senior individuals might show age-related decrease in efficiency of kidney and/or renal feature, each which is recognized to expand elimination time. That claimed, senior people healthy [with no decline] could remove Adderall from their system as promptly as healthy and balanced adults.. Body make-up: Your body make-up may partly determine how much time Adderall ...
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Adderall (Adderall XR) is a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy in children and adults.
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... (DOEF), also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine&oldid=903372537" ...
"Amphetamines". AIC. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011. "Hallucinogens". AIC. Archived from the ... Over two tonnes of precursor chemicals for the production of meth/amphetamines were detected at the Australian border in 2008- ... had used amphetamines in the past 12 months. According to the Australian Crime Commission, there is an increase in the number ... "the majority of amphetamines consumed in Australia is produced in this country in clandestine laboratories." Community impact ...
The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1; however, ... Methylone does not substitute for amphetamine or for the hallucinogenic DOM in animals trained to discriminate between these ... In New Zealand, although methylone is not explicitly scheduled and falls outside the strict definitions of an "amphetamine ... However, Methylone bears the exact chemical difference between amphetamine and cathinone - and cathinone is listed as not being ...
... amphetamine, (+)-amphetamine, and D-amphetamine. Enantiomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another; they are ... ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ...
ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sex addictions, which are ... Kraemer T, Maurer HH (August 1998). "Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or ... the metabolites of amphetamine. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are amphetamine, 4‑hydroxyamphetamine, 4‑ ... of 647 individuals with amphetamine dependence reporting six or more signs of amphetamine withdrawal listed in the DSM when the ...
In Thailand, amphetamines are classified as Type 1 Narcotics. In the United Kingdom, amphetamines are regarded as Class B drugs ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... In South Korea, amphetamines are prohibited. In Taiwan, amphetamines including Adderall are Schedule 2 drugs with a minimum ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ...
Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS (January 2001). "Amphetamine-type central ... ISBN 978-0-312-42226-4. "Jeevan Vasagar: cocaine-based "wonder drug" tested on concentration camp inmates". Amphetamines.com. ... Medicine portal Black cocaine Coca alkaloids Coca eradication Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript Cocaine Anonymous ... amphetamine, or heroin.[dubious - discuss] The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of ...
"WW II German soldiers, civilians dropped amphetamines to give them boost to battle allies". NY Daily News. Retrieved 5 January ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Henley, Jon (13 January 2014). "Captagon: the amphetamine fuelling Syria's civil war". ... Academy of Military Medical Sciences History and culture of substituted amphetamines § Military use Project MKUltra ...
... (Voranil) was developed by Ciba in the 1960s[1] and is an anorectic drug of the amphetamine class.[2] It is the 2- ... Sannerud, C. A.; Brady, J. V.; Griffiths, R. R. (1989). "Self-Injection in Baboons of Amphetamines and Related Designer Drugs ...
α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine). *β-Methylphenethylamine. *m-Methylphenethylamine. *N-Methylphenethylamine. *o- ...
Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... MDEA is a substituted amphetamine and a substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine. MDEA acts as a serotonin, norepinephrine, and ... Freudenmann RW, Spitzer M (2004). "The Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA ...
... (also known as 3-FMC) is a chemical compound of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes ... "Analysis of Amphetamine-Derived Designer Drugs by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry". Journal of Analytical Toxicology ...
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... (DOPR) is a psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It was ... Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
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... (2-FA) is a stimulant drug from the amphetamine family which has been sold as a designer drug.[1] 2- ... Costa E, Garattini S (1970). Amphetamines and Related Compounds. New York: Raven Press. p. 28.. ... 2-FA may be considered to be an analog of amphetamine, thus falling under the Federal Analog Act. ...
Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... Partilla JS, Dempsey AG, Nagpal AS, Blough BE, Baumann MH, Rothman RB (October 2006). "Interaction of amphetamines and related ...
3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine analogues alkylated on the dioxole ring". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 22 (10): 1264-7. doi: ... Trachsel D, Hadorn M, Baumberger F (March 2006). "Synthesis of fluoro analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine (MDA) and ...
α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine). *β-Methylphenethylamine. *m-Methylphenethylamine. *N-Methylphenethylamine. *o- ...
... is a lesser-known psychedelic drug and a substituted amphetamine. It is also the N-methoxy analogue of MDA. MDMEO was first ...
... (4-EA) is a psychoactive drug and research chemical of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. ... Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ...
Substituted amphetamines. Hidden categories: *Infobox drug articles with non-default infobox title ...
... (Oberex) is an anorectic of the amphetamine class.[1] It is a prodrug to chlorphentermine.[2] ... Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ...
... and hepatic metabolism of designer drugs of the amphetamine (ecstasy), piperazine, and pyrrolidinophenone types: a synopsis". ...
α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine). *β-Methylphenethylamine. *m-Methylphenethylamine. *N-Methylphenethylamine. *o- ...
Omission of the amphetamine related α-methyl leads to 2C-B, a compound that possesses a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor ... Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... Listed as a Schedule 1 as it is an analogue of amphetamine.[9] ... another psychedelic amphetamine, DOB has been shown to have a ...
Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... amphetamine". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 36 (23): 3700-6. doi:10.1021/jm00075a027. PMID 8246240.. ...
... are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... What Are Amphetamines?. Amphetamines are stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pill, tablet, ... When amphetamines get into the body, they go to work on the central nervous system. Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called ... Avoiding Amphetamines. Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. Because people rarely call ...
Definition Amphetamines are a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system [1]. Some of the brand names of ... amphetamines sold in the United States [2] are Dexedrine, Biphetamine, Das, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Spancap No 1, ... Amphetamines World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a family of chemical ... Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and ...
Amphetamines Outmoded. Br Med J 1971; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5743.288 (Published 30 January 1971) Cite this as: ...
... including amphetamine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ephedrine, and others. Generally, these drugs generate emotional, ... Amphetamines are a class of central nervous system stimulants with a similar chemical structure, ... Amphetamines are a class of central nervous system stimulants with a similar chemical structure, including amphetamine, ... Amphetamine users may also use other drugs inappropriately to manage the side effects of amphetamines. Benzodiazepines, for ...
Ban on Amphetamines. Br Med J 1970; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5725.770-b (Published 26 September 1970) Cite this as ...
Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... Amphetamines are swallowed, smoked, snorted, or injected.. What It Does:. No matter how a person takes amphetamines, these ... Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pills or tablets. ... Even after users stop taking amphetamines, they may still have problems such as aggression, anxiety, and strong cravings for ...
Amphetamines are powerful psychostimulants that are commonly used to treat ADHD, narcolepsy or obesity, but they can be highly ... How amphetamines work. Amphetamines are used in treatments for ADD and ADHD, obesity, narcolepsy, and Parkinsons disease, ... Amphetamine side effects. When taken properly, amphetamine-based medications can be safe and effective. But as with any ... Amphetamines, particularly methamphetamine, can be highly addictive.. Amphetamine can cause the brain to produce such high ...
Amphetamines are drugs. They can be legal or illegal. They are legal when they are prescribed by a doctor and used to treat ... There are different kinds of street amphetamines. Common ones and some of their slang terms are:. *Amphetamine: goey, louee, ... Some people use amphetamines to help them stay awake on the job or to study for a test. Others use them to boost their ... Amphetamines are drugs. They can be legal or illegal. They are legal when they are prescribed by a doctor and used to treat ...
Amphetamines are man-made stimulant drugs.. Their effects usually last for several hours and include stimulation of the central ... Amphetamines can be snorted, swallowed, injected, dissolved in a drink or smoked. ... Effects of prolonged use of amphetamines include sleep disturbances, anxiety, decreased appetite; changes in dopamine brain ...
A new study reveals how cocaine and amphetamines affect the brain, and researchers hope the findings will lead to new addiction ... Currently, there are no approved drug therapies for amphetamine abuse, and people addicted to amphetamines and cocaine have a ... "Addiction to amphetamines and cocaine devastates lives, families and communities in Oregon and across the U.S. Our research ... home/mental health center/ mental health a-z list/ how amphetamines, cocaine harm the brain article ...
Dr Peter Yellowlees discusses a recent Cochrane review on the safety and efficacy of amphetamines for ADHD in children and ... Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD, yet despite their addictive potential, we ... The researchers found that many of the trials were of poor quality, and while amphetamines did seem efficacious at reducing the ... They found no evidence that supported any one specific amphetamine derivative over another, and the review did not reveal any ...
Amphetamine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking amphetamine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amphetamine, other stimulant medications ... If you or your child are taking amphetamine for ADHD, your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of amphetamine and ... Alcohol can make the side effects from amphetamine worse.. *you should know that amphetamine should be used as part of a total ...
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.8 ... Amphetamine is 100% free (no ads, no in-app purchases).. After you launch Amphetamine, you must activate it by clicking on its ... Amphetamine is a little app that lives in your menu bar. With Amphetamine, you can effortlessly override your energy saver ... If you have previously written a review of Amphetamine, please consider updating it.. If youre brand new to Amphetamine and ...
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.10 ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... Amphetamine 4.0.5 is a small update to fix some minor issues before the Amphetamine 4.1 release. Amphetamine 4.1 will introduce ... What Else Does Amphetamine Do? == Amphetamine is the most powerful and customizable keep-awake utility ever created for macOS. ...
Amphetamines. 1.2 Group The members of this group include: Amphetamine. Benzphetamine. Chlorphentermine. Clortermine. ... There is no antidote to amphetamine poisoning.. 10.5.2 Children There is no antidote to amphetamine poisoning.. 10.6 Management ... amphetamine. New Engl J Med, 279:329.. Kramer JC, Fischman VS & Littlefield DC (1967) Amphetamine abuse. Pattern and effects of ... Therefore lactating mothers are advised not to take or use amphetamine.. 9.5 Other Amphetamine withdrawal syndrome: Abrupt ...
... ,For the qualitative detection of single and multiple drugs and drug metabolites in human urine, ...
Did you know Amphetamines was 1st introduced in the 1930s as a remedy for nasal congestion named Benzedrine.. Amphetamines. ... Amphetamines is also man made.. Speed. 3 Types of. Amphetamines. Dexedrine. Adderall. Vyvanse. 1) Dizziness 2) Dry Mouth 3) ... Transcript of Amphetamines. Amphetamines are white, bitter tasting, crystal powder.. First Introduced in 1887 in. Canada. (cc) ... Dont sell Amphetamines,. illgally you can end up in prison for 14 years!!. By: Asvitha. (legal only for medical use). Hi ...
you know how the viagra commercials say something like do not take viagra if you have a heart condition ? well, amphetamine ...
amphetamine psychosis. So Much For the Afterglow. Amphetamine addiction as a cure for ADHD. crystal meth. Thrown random words ... Amphetamine-induced psychosis often mimics schizophrenia, with paranoia and hallucinations. In the United States, amphetamines ... In the Vietnam War, amphetamines were widely used by American forces. Use of amphetamine has been sanctioned by some components ... The class "amphetamines" is used to describe amphetamine and any of its derivatives. ...
What to do if a friend Overdoses: You can't fatally Overdose on Amphetamines, it is possible if you inject it though, if ... Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various other slang names that ... Amphetamineunknown. Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various ... Amphetamineunknown. First developed and marketed in the 1930's as Benzedrine to fight narcolepsy, Amphetamines are now ...
... amphetamine-like compound in dietary supplements - yet federal regulators have issued no warnings to consumers ... Nine diet supplements contain amphetamine-like compound. Alison Young , USA TODAY Published 2:42 p.m. ET Nov. 18, 2013 ... For the second time in recent weeks, scientists have found a "non-natural" amphetamine-like compound in dietary supplements - ... Nine diet supplements contain amphetamine-like compound. For the second time in recent weeks, scientists report finding "non- ...
Worried about his drug use, a friend once bet Erdös that he wouldnt be able to give up amphetamines for a month. Erdös took ... Auden regarded amphetamines as one of the "labor-saving devices" in the "mental kitchen," alongside alcohol, coffee, and ... He took a dose of Benzedrine (a brand name of amphetamine introduced in the United States in 1933) each morning the way many ... Indeed, amphetamines have their own semidistinguished artistic heritage, particularly among a swath of 20th-century writers. ...
Amphetamines (including prescription diet pills) are highly addictive stimulants that accelerate functions in the brain and ... Amphetamines are swallowed, smoked, snorted, or injected.. What It Does:. No matter how a person takes amphetamines, these ... Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pills or tablets. ... Even after users stop taking amphetamines, they may still have problems such as aggression, anxiety, and strong cravings for ...
Any place where young people gather where worship of the eureka experience runs high and faith in America runs low amphetamine ... But the appeal of amphetamine extends beyond the young and beyond the Village. Eight billion amphetamine tablets are officially ... Amphetamines are helpful to all these people: they do lift the mood, curb the appetite and energize the body. The problem is ... The Amphetamine Explosion. "Any place where young people gather where worship of the eureka experience runs high and faith in ...
Possession of amphetamines is a felony.. Pharmacological Effects. Amphetamine and methamphetamine are the prototypical ... The cutoff for GC/MS is 500 ng/ml for both metabolites - amphetamine and methamphetamine. Amphetamine has a 7-32 hour half life ... Tagged asAmphetaminesDetection of Amphetamines in Urinedrug testinglab testing ... Amphetamines have been added to the California Health and Safety Code 11550(b) sections (including PCP, heroin, and ...
Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. Usually last 4-6 hours for 25 mg and usually needs to take 2 pills ... amphetamine saltsunknown. Used to treat ADHD as well as narcolepsy which is the act of falling asleep while in a relaxed state ... Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. Usually last 4-6 hours for 25 mg and usually needs to take 2 pills ... I just popped 200mg of amphetamine salts and I want to fly out of a 20 story window and fly while ready a boring physics book. ...
Information about Amphetamines (speed) including basics, effects, dosage, history, legal status, photos, research, media ... The Speed Culture: Amphetamine Use and Abuse in America (book, 1975). Do It Now Amphetamine Publications : (101) (165) (515) ( ... Amphetamine: A European Union perspective in the global context, EMCDDA (2011). The Transition to Amphetamine Abuse, by Stephen ... World-wide Amphetamine Abuse: A Particular Concern for WHO, 1996. Speeding Toward Death: Neal Cassady, Charlie Parker, and ...
Bread & Amphetamines (Khlyab i amfeti) (Bulgarian: "Хляб и амфети") is the fourth solo studio album by Bulgarian rapper Big Sha ...
Italian police said on Wednesday they had seized about 14 tonnes of amphetamine pills worth around 1 billion euros ($1 billion ... ROME (Reuters) - Italian police said on Wednesday they had seized about 14 tonnes of amphetamine pills worth around 1 billion ... Italian police seize record amount of amphetamines shipped from Syria. An undated handout image shows Italian finance police ... a drug compound belonging to a family of amphetamines that can inhibit fear and ward off tiredness. ...
  • Some generic names of amphetamines include amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines are a class of central nervous system stimulants with a similar chemical structure, including amphetamine , methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ephedrine, and others. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Of the amphetamines, methamphetamine likely has the largest potential for abuse. (psychologytoday.com)
  • These chemicals are the basis on which amphetamines (including methamphetamine) were created. (livescience.com)
  • Only two years later, in 1887, Lazar Edeleanu, a Romanian chemist, synthesized amphetamine from ephedrine, according to the University of Arizona's Methamphetamine and Other Illicit Drug Education (MethOIDE) program. (livescience.com)
  • Addiction to amphetamines has been an issue since the 1940s, but it escalated in the 1980s with increased illicit production of methamphetamine , a very addictive stimulant known for its euphoric effects. (livescience.com)
  • Andy Warhol's drug of choice was Obetrol, a popular diet pill composed of amphetamine salts, including methamphetamine. (motherjones.com)
  • Amphetamines have been added to the California Health and Safety Code 11550(b) sections (including PCP, heroin, and methamphetamine) providing a mandatory 30 day sentence for being under the influence. (healthy.net)
  • Amphetamine and methamphetamine are the prototypical stimulant amphetamines and are widely abused. (healthy.net)
  • Urinary detection of methamphetamine and its minor metabolite amphetamine is initially performed by immunoassay. (healthy.net)
  • The cutoff for GC/MS is 500 ng/ml for both metabolites - amphetamine and methamphetamine. (healthy.net)
  • The assay is capable of detecting the use of methamphetamine or amphetamine for 24-48 hours post dose or as long as 72 hours depending on factors such as amount used, fluid intake, excretion, and urinary pH. (healthy.net)
  • It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common amphetamine medicines include dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and methamphetamine (Desoxyn). (stlukesonline.org)
  • Drugs of abuse in this class include amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and the synthetic cathinones (bath salts) . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • On the basis of this Asian experience, we can say that amphetamine drugs, and particularly methamphetamine, are likely to pose an increasingly serious menace for criminal justice systems globally in the coming decades. (psu.edu)
  • For example, methamphetamine lacks much of the peripheral stimulant properties of amphetamine while still offering euphoric and hallucinogenic properties. (medscape.com)
  • By: Rachel Clark, DanceSafe Contractor An oval-shaped orange pill with "30" on one side between a score line and "b 974" on the other was sold in Boston, MA as Adderall (amphetamine), but actually contains methamphetamine. (dancesafe.org)
  • Sustained high-dose administration of amphetamines (especially methamphetamine ) to experimental animals produces a persistent depletion of DA which is associated with terminal degeneration (62, 182, 195), as well as neuronal chromatolysis in the brain stem, cortex and striatum (42, 182). (factbites.com)
  • Psychophysiological aspects of amphetamine-methamphetamine abuse. (medscape.com)
  • Narcolepsy & Hyperkinetic states in children (as an adjunct to psychological, educational and social measures) for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine and ethylphenidate. (inchem.org)
  • Amphetamine is made up of 2 specific compounds: pure dextroamphetamine and pure levoamphetamine. (prezi.com)
  • Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? (medicinenet.com)
  • Adderall contains amphetamine salts (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine ) and is used for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) and narcolepsy . (medicinenet.com)
  • What brand names are available for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine available as a generic drug? (medicinenet.com)
  • Do I need a prescription for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the side effects of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • What is the dosage for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (medicinenet.com)
  • What else should I know about amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • What preparations of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine are available? (medicinenet.com)
  • How should I keep amphetamine and dextroamphetamine stored? (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Adderall XR) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and narcolepsy. (medicinenet.com)
  • A total of 529 drugs (3907 brand and generic names) are known to interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine . (drugs.com)
  • Show all medications in the database that may interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamine, as the racemic form, differs from dextroamphetamine in a number of ways. (nih.gov)
  • Amphetamine , dextroamphetamine , and mixed amphetamine salts increase effective use of dopamine and norepinephrine in parts of the brain that regulate attention and behavior in order to control symptoms associated with ADHD and improve functioning. (factbites.com)
  • Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine combination should not be taken in the late afternoon or evening because it may cause difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. (factbites.com)
  • The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine should not be used to treat excessive tiredness that is not caused by narcolepsy . (factbites.com)
  • Read the Medication Manual before buy Adderall online and, if accessible, the Affected person Details Leaflet supplied by your pharmacist before you start using Amphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and each time you have a refill. (colourlovers.com)
  • Amphetamine/dextroamphetamine belongs to a class of medications often called stimulants. (colourlovers.com)
  • Amphetamines are listed as a Schedule II stimulant, meaning they have a high potential for abuse. (kidshealth.org)
  • Amphetamines are stimulant drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamines are man-made stimulant drugs. (greenfacts.org)
  • Amphetamine is a strong physical and mental stimulant available widely in both prescription and street forms. (erowid.org)
  • Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (rexhealth.com)
  • In the mid-1970s, an extensive survey of American men born between 1944 and 1954 suggested that some 27 percent had used an amphetamine stimulant at some point in their lives, and about a third of that group had used such a drug in the previous twelve months. (psu.edu)
  • Separate investigations by the news agency Reuters and Time magazine have found that the growing trade in Syrian-made Captagon - an amphetamine widely consumed in the Middle East but almost unknown elsewhere - generated revenues of millions of dollars inside the country last year, some of which was almost certainly used to fund weapons, while combatants on both sides are reportedly turning to the stimulant to help them keep fighting. (wnd.com)
  • Amphetamines are non-catecholamine, sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. (nih.gov)
  • Test results published on Friday show the tablet contains 21.1 mg of amphetamine, a common stimulant that is found in Adderall and black market drugs such as speed. (dancesafe.org)
  • In chronic high-dose cocaine (75) or amphetamine abuse (49), energy and euphoria induced by active drug administration is replaced in withdrawal by rebound dysphoric and anergic symptoms that appear to occur whether or not the stimulant abuser meets the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder (74). (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant. (healthline.com)
  • The stimulant, called fenethylline and by its trade name Captagon, is a super-boosted amphetamine, they said, and has unique chemical complexities allowing it to induce potent psychoactive effects far more rapidly than amphetamines alone. (reuters.com)
  • Using mice and their own manufactured Captagon in a lab, the team discovered that the drug produces its distinctive effects from a functional synergy between theophylline, a drug traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases, and amphetamine, a stimulant. (reuters.com)
  • Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. (everydayhealth.com)
  • An amine derivative of amphetamine, C 10 H 15 N, used in the form of its crystalline hydrochloride as a central nervous system stimulant, both medically and illicitly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that provides a "sense of well being", in the words of its creator on the occasion of its first use. (libcom.org)
  • Amphetamines stimulate the nervous system and are used in the treatment of depression, attention-deficit disorder, obesity , and narcolepsy , a disorder that causes individuals to fall asleep at inappropriate times during the day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The typical dose for amphetamines in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults ranges from 5 mg to 60 mg per day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, also called psycho-stimulants, that are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD and ADHD), narcolepsy, Parkinson's disease and obesity, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR) at the University of Maryland. (livescience.com)
  • Additional clinical trials found that amphetamine had positive effects on weight loss, narcolepsy and depression. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamines are used in treatments for ADD and ADHD , obesity, narcolepsy, and Parkinson's disease, according to CESAR. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamine (Evekeo, others) is also used to treat narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications, particularly for depression and chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used in the 1960s to treat narcolepsy and depression, Captagon is one of several brand names for fenethylline hydrochloride, a drug compound belonging to a family of amphetamines that can inhibit fear and ward off tiredness. (yahoo.com)
  • The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. (rexhealth.com)
  • Amphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy (sleep disorder). (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine tablets in children with obesity who are younger than 12 years of age, in children with narcolepsy who are younger than 6 years of age, and in children with ADHD who are younger than 3 years of age. (drugs.com)
  • A small daily dose of an amphetamine, for example, may continue to be effective for years for narcolepsy and among those children for whom the drug has a calming effect. (druglibrary.org)
  • Amphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity ( ADHD ). (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamines were originally developed to treat asthma, sleep disorders ( narcolepsy ) and hyperactivity. (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. (urbandictionary.com)
  • I just popped 200mg of amphetamine salts and I want to fly out of a 20 story window and fly while ready a boring physics book . (urbandictionary.com)
  • Effects of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetic profiles of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and extended-release mixed amphetamine salts in adults. (webmd.com)
  • Antacids may increase absorption of amphetamine salts and increase their effectiveness and side effects. (medicinenet.com)
  • The results of the analysis of powder tartrate, sulfate and phosphate salts of amphetamine, as well as variously formulated tablets are presented in this study. (doaj.org)
  • These medicines may interact with amphetamine and cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. (rexhealth.com)
  • CNS stimulants, including amphetamine sulfate orally disintegrating tablets, other amphetamine-containing products, and methylphenidate, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamine Sulfate is a sympathomimetic amino of the amphetamine group. (nih.gov)
  • Each tablet, for oral administration contains 5 mg or 10 mg of amphetamine sulfate, USP. (nih.gov)
  • From 1933 to 1948, amphetamine was included in an over-the-counter nasal-congestion inhaler called Benzedrine. (livescience.com)
  • Did you know Amphetamines was 1st introduced in the 1930's as a remedy for nasal congestion named 'Benzedrine. (prezi.com)
  • Amphetamine was first marketed in the 1930s as Benzedrine in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. (factbites.com)
  • CNS stimulants, including amphetamine extended-release oral formulations, other amphetamine-containing products, and methylphenidate, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. (drugs.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Children and young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are treated with the stimulants amphetamine or methylphenidate face a small but significant risk of developing psychosis, with amphetamine products twice as likely to spark at problem, researchers say. (reuters.com)
  • The study found that from 2005 to 2014, amphetamine prescriptions ballooned nearly four-fold while prescriptions for methylphenidate rose 60 percent. (reuters.com)
  • The new study was designed to see if amphetamine or methylphenidate posed a higher risk, especially when amphetamine seems to produce some of the same brain changes seen in psychosis. (reuters.com)
  • Law enforcement agencies across the country are seizing larger and larger quantities of cocaine and methamphetamines that are being trafficked for illegal use and physicians and other prescribers are increasing the prescribing of stimulants like amphetamines and methylphenidate, more and more of which are being diverted into illicit use. (news-medical.net)
  • Amphetamines have been used since then in the development of a variety of drugs, most notably Adderall and Ritalin, which treat ADD and ADHD. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD, yet despite their addictive potential, we really don't know how safe or efficacious they are. (medscape.com)
  • A team of investigators from the University of Alberta, Canada, have used standard Cochrane methodology to evaluate the safety and efficacy of amphetamines for ADHD in children and adolescents. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers found that many of the trials were of poor quality, and while amphetamines did seem efficacious at reducing the core symptoms of ADHD in the short term, they were associated with a greater number of adverse events, such as decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain, nausea, headaches, and anxiety. (medscape.com)
  • The evidence confirms that amphetamines have an established role in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, but from a clinical perspective they should be part of a wider, individually customized biopsychosocial treatment plan. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Efficacy and Safety of Amphetamines in ADHD - Medscape - Apr 14, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • An amphetamine, it was until this year marketed exclusively to treat ADHD. (motherjones.com)
  • But its latest incarnation actually represents something of a return to its roots: Before they became ADHD drugs, amphetamines, of course, were diet drugs. (motherjones.com)
  • Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines, at therapeutic dosages, appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for ADHD in children that found an average increase of 4.5 IQ points, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine works in the treatment of ADHD by increasing attention and decreasing restlessness in children and adults who are overactive, cannot concentrate for very long, or are easily distracted and impulsive. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamines are commonly abused recreational drugs and are highly addictive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines are highly addictive and should be used only if alternative approaches have failed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants. (kidshealth.org)
  • Addiction to amphetamines and cocaine devastates lives, families and communities in Oregon and across the U.S. Our research pinpoints how these addictive drugs interfere with the dopamine transporter and normal signaling in the brain, bringing us closer to developing effective treatments for people who are addicted to cocaine and amphetamines," Eric Gouaux, a senior scientist at the university's Vollum Institute, said in a university news release. (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamines are highly addictive! (prezi.com)
  • Amphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that promotes the release of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine. (mendeley.com)
  • Its active ingredient, fenethylline, is metabolised by the body into the stimulants amphetamine and theophylline. (reuters.com)
  • He took a dose of Benzedrine (a brand name of amphetamine introduced in the United States in 1933) each morning the way many people take a daily multivitamin. (slate.com)
  • He owed his phenomenal stamina to espresso shots, caffeine tablets, and amphetamines-he took 10 to 20 milligrams of Benzedrine or Ritalin daily. (slate.com)
  • The first amphetamine pharmaceutical was Benzedrine, a brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because people rarely call them "amphetamines," it can help to be aware of other names for amphetamines, from brand names like Ritalin or Adderall to nicknames like Bennies or Black Mollies. (kidshealth.org)
  • An amphetamine-based medication, such as Adderall or Ritalin, increases dopamine production in the connections between the prefrontal cortex and other locations in the brain, Franssen explained. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamines are a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines stimulate the brain by increasing the level of neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. (medicinenet.com)
  • DAT can also bind amphetamine, cocaine, and other psychostimulants, which inhibit dopamine reuptake, and, in the case of amphetamine, also stimulate the release of dopamine through DAT. (innovations-report.com)
  • You usually do not get addicted to prescription amphetamines when you take them at the right dosage to treat your health condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We need to prescribe amphetamines carefully, using the minimum effective dosage, and with drug holidays if possible. (medscape.com)
  • 2015 - Tablets imprinted with the "Captagon" logo in the Middle East generally contain amphetamine and caffeine, though "captagon" was originally a pharmaceutical brand name for a different chemical, fenethylline. (erowid.org)
  • The amphetamines were labeled captagon, the street name for a drug whose chemical base is fenethylline. (ap.org)
  • Long-term abuse of amphetamines may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia. (kidshealth.org)
  • Individuals with a history of drug abuse, psychological agitation, or cardiovascular system disease should also not receive amphetamine therapy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many amphetamines are Schedule II stimulants, which means they have a high potential for abuse and are legally available only through a prescription. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Currently, there are no approved drug therapies for amphetamine abuse, and people addicted to amphetamines and cocaine have a high relapse rate, the researchers said. (medicinenet.com)
  • The diagnosis of acute amphetamine poisoning is made on the history of exposure or abuse, and the characteristic features of CNS and cardiovascular stimulation. (inchem.org)
  • The great debate is: does the medical value of amphetamine outweigh the dangers of abuse and dependency? (nymag.com)
  • If/when the NFL and NFLPA finally reach an agreement on HGH testing, amphetamines could join MDMA and other recreational drugs under the substance-abuse policy. (nbcsports.com)
  • Abuse potential is high with the use of amphetamines. (drugs.com)
  • Other potentials for amphetamine abuse include prescription medications often used for attention deficit disorder and various over-the-counter diet pills. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical effects of amphetamine abuse are significant and commonly observed in emergency departments (EDs). (medscape.com)
  • Intravenous amphetamine abuse spread among a subculture known as "speed freaks. (factbites.com)
  • Could this be signs of amphetamine abuse? (medhelp.org)
  • Abuse of psychostimulants such as amphetamine remains a serious public health concern. (innovations-report.com)
  • Therefore, the insulin signaling pathway, through its unique regulation of brain dopamine, may be targeted for the treatment of amphetamine abuse. (innovations-report.com)
  • You Should need to know these warnings before buy Adderall online, Misuse or abuse of amphetamines may possibly cause critical (maybe fatal) coronary heart and hypertension difficulties. (colourlovers.com)
  • Amphetamine may be habit-forming, and this medicine is a drug of abuse. (everydayhealth.com)
  • I would like to make this article a little more readable and a little less complacent about recreational drug use of amphetamine, which is a major drug of abuse. (citizendium.org)
  • Describes the history, characteristics, legal status, and abuse of amphetamines and methamphetamines"--Provided by publisher. (librarything.com)
  • Still, the findings suggest that "recurrent habitual amphetamine abuse ages the cardiovasculature, and likely the whole organism generally", the researchers said in a journal news release. (health24.com)
  • The problem for Scandrick and, apparently, other NFL players who have tested positive for PEDs this offseason is that the MDMA they have taken on a recreational basis wasn't pure, and it contained amphetamines. (nbcsports.com)
  • Doesn't MDMA contain amphetamines by definition? (nbcsports.com)
  • When people use large amounts of amphetamines more often, it can put added stress on the heart and lead to elevated blood pressure and pulse rates, rapid breathing, and even heart failure. (kidshealth.org)
  • People who are used to taking large amounts of amphetamines may have a hard time quitting. (kidshealth.org)
  • During World War II , large amounts of amphetamines were given to soldiers to keep them alert and awake. (everything2.com)
  • They show that by depleting insulin, or through selective inhibition of insulin signaling, they can severely attenuate amphetamine-induced dopamine release and impair DAT function. (innovations-report.com)
  • Drugs like amphetamine, which trigger dopamine release in the striatum, enhance locomotor activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The biochemical steps underlying amphetamine-induced dopamine release, however, are not well characterized. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now, a team led by Jonathan Javitch and Aurelio Galli has identified a chemical modification of DAT that is essential for DAT-mediated dopamine release in the presence of amphetamine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Eight billion amphetamine tablets are officially produced in the U.S. annually, enough to supply 40 doses to every man, woman and child. (nymag.com)
  • The amphetamine business became a vast and profitable economic enterprise: by 1958, some eight billion pills and tablets were produced legally each year in the United States, in addition to the sizable illegal market, and to clandestine imports from Mexico, and by 1971, legal production had risen to twelve billion pills. (psu.edu)
  • No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine tablets in geriatric patients. (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension and extended-release oral disintegrating tablets in the geriatric population. (drugs.com)
  • Saudi authorities said on Sunday that they had seized more than 5mn amphetamine tablets and arrested 11 people in one of the kingdom's largest drug busts. (gulf-times.com)
  • The interior ministry announced in November that it had seized a total of 22.4mn amphetamine tablets, 28.8 tonnes of cannabis and 26.2 kilograms of heroin in the last Islamic calendar year, which ends in mid-October. (gulf-times.com)
  • Amphetamine supports Retina displays and OS X's dark mode. (apple.com)
  • Amphetamine-induced psychosis often mimics schizophrenia , with paranoia and hallucination s. (everything2.com)
  • A severe effect of long-term speed use is amphetamine psychosis. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • Amphetamine may cause new or worsening psychosis (unusual thoughts or behavior), especially if you have a history of depression, mental illness, or bipolar disorder. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A stereoisomer, pseudoephedrine (Pseudofed) is a popular cold tablet, also used in the manufacture of amphetamine. (healthy.net)
  • Amphetamine oral tablet is available as brand-name drugs. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine comes in three forms: oral tablet, extended-release orally disintegrating tablet, and extended-release oral liquid. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine is a prescription drug It comes as an oral tablet and extended-release orally disintegrating tablet, as well as an extended-release oral liquid. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine oral tablet is not available as a generic drug. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine oral tablet doesn't cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects. (healthline.com)
  • The interaction between over-the-counter cold medications with amphetamine, for instance, is particularly dangerous because this combination can significantly increase blood pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines are a class of stimulants often included in cold medications. (livescience.com)
  • Soon after Alles' discovery, pharmaceutical companies developed amphetamine medications for treating congestion and asthma, according to a review published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2008. (livescience.com)
  • Certain formulations of amphetamine, typically pseudoephedrine, are used in medications that treat cold symptoms , such as Sudafed, Franssen said. (livescience.com)
  • A 2015 clinical trial published in the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology reported that patients who took amphetamine medications experienced increased weight loss and motivation. (livescience.com)
  • When taken properly, amphetamine-based medications can be safe and effective. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamine is in a class of medications called central nervous system stimulants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients receiving antihypertensive medications may experience loss of blood pressure control with amphetamine. (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine medications are taken by mouth, in the morning, with or without food, exactly as prescribed by your healthcare professional. (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamine medications should be avoided in individuals who have a heart defect (structural abnormalities), uncontrolled high blood pressure , or a disorder of the heart or blood vessels. (factbites.com)
  • Even after users stop taking amphetamines, they may still have problems such as aggression, anxiety, and strong cravings for the drugs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Erdős's friends worried about his drug use, and in 1979 Graham bet Erdős $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. (aleph.se)
  • It has been shown that amphetamines can trigger release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine and cause sudden bursts in neurotransmission, leading to a feeling of alertness, increased muscular activity, and reduced fatigue. (eurekalert.org)
  • Experiments in animals have shown that amphetamines (stimulants) might be able to improve recovery from stroke. (cochrane.org)
  • TUESDAY, May 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new study reveals how cocaine and amphetamines affect the brain, and researchers hope the findings will lead to new addiction treatments. (medicinenet.com)
  • The effect of cocaine and amphetamines on vital signs in trauma patients. (medscape.com)
  • BALTIMORE -- The Orioles were dealt another blow on Friday morning, as first baseman Chris Davis was suspended for 25 games by Major League Baseball for testing positive for amphetamines associated with the drug Adderall. (mlb.com)
  • In 2001, Gatlin was banned after he tested positive for amphetamines but he appealed on the grounds that his failure to clear the test was because of a medication that he had been taking since his childhood to treat attention deficit disorder. (isteroids.com)
  • There's some evidence that amphetamines may treat obesity by acting as appetite suppressants. (livescience.com)
  • There was no evidence that amphetamines did more good than harm. (cochrane.org)
  • Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with amphetamine and each time you refill your prescription. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamines are usually given orally and their effects can last for hours. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Second, the amphetamines taken orally have a much longer duration of effectiveness seven hours or so while cocaine must be taken at more frequent intervals for a sustained effect. (druglibrary.org)
  • AS A distinguished pharmacologist with experience in both the pharmaceutical industry and policy-making, Iversen uses his broad knowledge to good effect in this study of amphetamines, the third on psychoactive drugs that he has written for OUP. (newscientist.com)
  • When this happens, amphetamine users develop a tolerance to the drug. (kidshealth.org)
  • It was developed early in the 20th century from its parent drug, amphetamine, and was used originally in nasal decongestants and bronchial inhalers. (psychologytoday.com)
  • After numerous exposes on "Mother's Little Helper" and "speed freaks" in Ladies Home Journal and elsewhere-as well as a study finding that nearly half of the amphetamine users took the pills for nonmedical reasons-the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (the equivalent of today's Drug Enforcement Agency) stepped in. (motherjones.com)
  • Worried about his drug use, a friend once bet Erdös that he wouldn't be able to give up amphetamines for a month. (slate.com)
  • In communal enclaves like the East Village, amphetamine is already the No. 1 drug. (nymag.com)
  • General practitioners rely increasingly on amphetamine to treat overweight and mildly depressed patients, as well as alcoholics and drug addicts. (nymag.com)
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine ( DOEF ), also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine , is a lesser-known psychedelic drug and member of the DOx class . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use. (wikipedia.org)
  • So amphetamine is a performance enhancing drug. (nbcsports.com)
  • In reality, amphetamines have for over half a century been the basis of a very lively subculture that is overwhelmingly white, and concentrated in rural and suburban communities far removed from conventional stereotypes of drug-ridden neighborhoods. (psu.edu)
  • Using amphetamines for a prolonged period of time may lead to drug dependence and must be avoided. (drugs.com)
  • just as cocaine and heroin users learned that a combination of the two drugs (the speedball) provided results superior to either drug taken alone, so some psychiatrists and pharmacologists concluded on the basis of clinical experience that a combination of an amphetamine and a barbiturate or tranquilizer secured improved effects in some cases of depression. (druglibrary.org)
  • NC)-Animals that have suffered a stroke recover faster and to a greater extent when they are treated with amphetamine, but it's unclear whether the drug will have the same effect in humans. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Not only will he need to take higher doses to get the same effect he was achieving earlier on, but once the user's brain gets accustomed to having a certain level of dopamine, the amphetamine user will start to experience cravings for the drug. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • Long-term amphetamine users become psychologically dependent on the drug. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • Over the long term, a person who uses amphetamines regularly will find that the short-term side effects of using the drug are exaggerated. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • ROME (AP) - Italian police have seized 14 tons of amphetamines, allegedly produced in Syria by the Islamic State group to fund extremist activities and destined for the European illegal drug market. (ap.org)
  • Investigators hypothesize that amphetamine production in Europe was hampered by the pandemic lockdown, and so drug traffickers might have turned to Syria-based producers to fill the market. (ap.org)
  • Amphetamines are a Class B drug meaning it's illegal to have, give away or sell. (knowthescore.info)
  • Amphetamine is a drug I have a strange relationship with, at once a drug I have been intimate with but only at a distance, mediated by the bodies of others, a specific other, an other through whom I came to know the sexual and physiological effects of base only as that body on which, but never within which, amphetaminergic affects played themselves out. (libcom.org)
  • Advice needed with amphetamine / ephedrine withdrawal. (medhelp.org)
  • Using amphetamines can lead to addiction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Addiction happens when you use amphetamines to get high or improve performance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects further emphasize the need for amphetamine rehab for the addicted individual, as only proper treatment can help stop the cycle of addiction. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • Use caution when taking amphetamine if you've ever had substance addiction problems or a family history of addiction. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamines produce considerable side effects and are especially toxic in large quantities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines produce their effects by altering chemicals that transmit nerve messages in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The effects of amphetamine can last up to 20 hours after the medication has last been taken. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1929, Gordon Alles, a U.S. biochemist, discovered that amphetamine had physiological effects. (livescience.com)
  • This groundbreaking research arms the pharmaceutical industry with specific information about targets for treatment, opening the door for new therapeutic approaches for blocking the effects of cocaine and amphetamine. (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mothers taking amphetamines should refrain from nursing their infants because these drugs are excreted in human milk and can have undesirable effects on the child. (medicinenet.com)
  • however, while effects of cocaine last for 10-20 minutes, duration of amphetamine action is much longer-as long as 10-12 hours. (medscape.com)
  • this may be important for understanding effects of amphetamine use on the fetus during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • What are some of the positive effects of Amphetamines? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby amphetamines produce mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how those effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Sandra Black and her team at the Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre are conducting tests to determine whether patients treated with amphetamine recover better from paralysis, sensory loss, language deficits and other effects of stroke. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Another way to think about the effects of amphetamines is to remember that they act in a similar way to adrenaline, a hormone produced naturally in the body. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • Early investigations of the properties of amphetamine focused on the peripheral effects and found that amphetamine was a sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator properties. (factbites.com)
  • Educate patients on the toxic effects of amphetamines and that amphetamines are not a safe alternative to cocaine use. (factbites.com)
  • [ 22 ] Modification of the basic amphetamine molecule produces compounds with variable effects on target organs. (medscape.com)
  • White TL, Lott DC, de Wit H. Personality and the subjective effects of acute amphetamine in healthy volunteers. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamines mediate their behavioral effects by stimulating dopaminergic signaling throughout reward circuits of the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a new study published in the open-access journal PLoS Biology, Aurelio Galli, Jason Williams and colleagues used a model of Type I diabetes in rats to uncover how insulin signaling regulates DAT-mediated amphetamine effects. (innovations-report.com)
  • This study verifies in vivo that insulin signaling can dynamically influence the neuronal effects of amphetamine-like psychostimulants. (innovations-report.com)
  • Pirisino R. Galeotti N. Livi S. Raimondi L. Ghelardini C. 4-methyl benzylamine stimulates food consumption and counteracts the hypophagic effects of amphetamine acting on brain Shaker-like Kv1.1 channels. (citizendium.org)
  • Amphetamines are stimulants that can cause heart effects such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure, and increased risk of heart attack, stroke and aneurysm rupture, the researchers said. (health24.com)
  • At present, too few patients have been studied to draw any definite conclusions about the effects of amphetamine treatment on recovery from stroke. (cochrane.org)
  • If the effects are similar in humans, amphetamine treatment could have a major impact on recovery from stroke. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effects of amphetamine treatment in patients with stroke. (cochrane.org)
  • Amphetamines produce increased alertness and a feeling of euphoria. (stlukesonline.org)
  • People whose bodies are used to taking lots of amphetamines might keep using them to avoid withdrawal symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • Infants who are born to mothers dependent on amphetamines exhibit symptoms of withdrawal and have an increased risk of low birth weight. (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine may cause dizziness , blurred vision , or restlessness , and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamines are a class of compounds that are abused in many regions of the world, including the United States, Australasia, and Europe. (medscape.com)
  • Synthetic amphetamine compounds commonly are produced in clandestine laboratories and vary in purity and potency. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamines are a group of structurally related compounds that produce central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamine compounds cause a general efflux of biogenic amines from neuronal synaptic terminals (indirect sympathomimetics). (medscape.com)
  • Through the profiling of impurities of all samples, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), 30 compounds associated with amphetamine were identified. (doaj.org)
  • Physical examination findings may demonstrate the strong central nervous system and peripheral nervous system stimulation produced by amphetamine compounds. (medscape.com)
  • [1] it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting , one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents . (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds found use as decongestants in the symptomatic treatment of colds and also occasionally as psychoactive agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have abused prescription amphetamines (adderall) for several years. (medhelp.org)
  • PHILADELPHIA -- Major League Baseball announced Tuesday that Phillies catcher Carlos Ruiz has been suspended 25 games for using an amphetamine. (mlb.com)
  • In addition, patients who have taken MAO inhibitors, a type of antidepressant, within the last 14 days should not receive amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients taking amphetamines should always tell their physicians and dentists that they are using this medication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients should consult their physician before taking any over-the-counter medication while taking amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Whilst some patients show signs of toxicity at blood concentrations of 20 g/L, chronic abusers of amphetamine have been known to have blood concentration of up to 3000 g/L. (inchem.org)
  • Pay particular attention to the possibility of patients obtaining amphetamines for distribution to others or for nontherapeutic use. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamine is also used for weight reduction in obese patients. (drugs.com)
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving amphetamine. (drugs.com)
  • Many patients with amphetamine intoxication are identified by a change of mental status alone. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Amphetamine-associated Cardiomyopathy in South Auckland, New Zealand. (medscape.com)
  • For example, a current indication for amphetamine is to help rehabilitate patients with traumatic brain injury who have depressed conciousness-not mentioned at all here. (citizendium.org)
  • This review identified 10 small randomized trials of amphetamines in patients with stroke. (cochrane.org)
  • Based on three trials (106 patients) there was no evidence that amphetamine treatment reduced death or dependence (Peto's odds ratio (Peto OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6 to 3.3). (cochrane.org)
  • Imbalances at baseline with more serious stroke allocated to amphetamine may account for the trend for more deaths at the end of follow up among amphetamine-allocated patients (Peto OR 2.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 8.6). (cochrane.org)
  • Based on two trials (73 patients) systolic (weighted mean difference (WMD) 8.4 mm Hg, 95% CI 1.6 to 15.2) and diastolic (WMD 4.9 mm Hg, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.8) blood pressure, as well as heart rate, increased (WMD 10.6 bpm, 95% CI 3.3 to 17.8) in amphetamine-allocated patients. (cochrane.org)
  • Since using amphetamines makes the person feel "up" and gives them a burst of energy, fatigue is a very common withdrawal symptom. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • Srisurapanont M. Jarusuraisin N. Kittirattanapaiboon P. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal. (citizendium.org)
  • 1.Adderall XR (amphetamine) US prescribing information. (webmd.com)
  • 3.Adderall XR (amphetamine) Canadian prescribing information. (webmd.com)
  • With little publicity, often by doctor's prescription, amphetamine is spreading like a new fluoride in the national water supply. (nymag.com)
  • Amphetamine is available only with a doctor's prescription. (drugs.com)
  • The triad of hyperactivity, hyperpyrexia, and hypertension is characteristic of acute amphetamine overdosage. (factbites.com)
  • 2005) Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the Vietnam War , amphetamines were widely used by America n forces. (everything2.com)
  • Any place where young people gather where worship of the eureka experience runs high and faith in America runs low amphetamine is becoming a god. (nymag.com)
  • AMPHETAMINES International Programme on Chemical Safety Poison Information Monograph(Group PIM) G009 Pharmaceutical 1. (inchem.org)
  • By the end of 1971, at least 31 amphetamine preparations (including amphetamine-sedative, amphetamine-tranquilizer, and amphetamine analgesic combinations) were being distributed by 15 pharmaceutical companies. (druglibrary.org)
  • Today's users take their amphetamines and pharmaceutical amphatamine derivatives in order to lose weight, cheer up, work harder, think faster, or just for fun. (libcom.org)
  • Your doctor will probably not prescribe amphetamine for you. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prescribe and dispense amphetamines sparingly. (drugs.com)
  • Recently, researchers have revealed the novel ability of insulin signaling pathways in the brain to regulate DAT function as well as the cellular and behavioral actions of amphetamine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Animal models that were Rhes-deficient had a much stronger active behavioral response to amphetamines. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although amphetamines are used in medicines, they are available only through a limited prescription. (kidshealth.org)
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to amphetamine or any other medicines. (drugs.com)
  • When you are taking amphetamine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamine-form medicines might be pattern-forming. (colourlovers.com)
  • Amphetamines that are used as medicines, such as dexamphetamine, are usually small white pills. (knowthescore.info)
  • Amphetamines also inhibit monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amine neurotransmitters intracellularly. (medscape.com)
  • By far the biggest speed-pusher in history was the armed services, which from the second world war through Vietnam distributed amphetamines lavishly to service people undertaking tasks requiring alertness and wakefulness: we are talking in terms of multi-billion pill quantities. (psu.edu)
  • Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the midbrain inhibits the activity of dopamine neurons through activation of D2 dopamine autoreceptors. (mendeley.com)
  • Amphetamine desensitizes the mGluR-mediated hyperpolarization through release of dopamine, activation of postsynaptic alpha1 adrenergic receptors, and suppression of InsP3-induced calcium release from internal stores. (mendeley.com)
  • Through this mechanism, amphetamine may enhance phasic release of dopamine, which is important in the neural processing of reward. (mendeley.com)
  • The routes of amphetamine administration may be oral (ingestion), inhalation (smoke), or injection (intravenous). (medscape.com)
  • Long-term users of intravenous amphetamines are at risk of infection and vascular injury. (medscape.com)
  • Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. (kidshealth.org)
  • Swallowed, an amphetamine pill will come on within 15 to 30 minutes. (thegooddrugsguide.com)
  • It appears that the main action of amphetamines is to increase the synaptic activity of the dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems. (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamines make users feel powerful, alert, and energized for 3 to 8 hours on average for a small dose. (kidshealth.org)
  • Using too large a dose of amphetamines at one time can cause an overdose. (kidshealth.org)
  • The typical starting dose of amphetamines given to children with attention-deficit disorder over the age of six years is 5 mg per day. (encyclopedia.com)