A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.
A characteristic symptom complex.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.

Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. (1/547)

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

Methamphetamine abuse and emergency department utilization. (2/547)

Methamphetamine (MAP) abuse continues to increase worldwide, based on morbidity, mortality, drug treatment, and epidemiologic studies and surveys. MAP abuse has become a significant health care, environmental, and law enforcement problem. Acute intoxication often results in agitation, violence, and death. Chronic use may lead to infection, heart failure, malnutrition, and permanent psychiatric illness. MAP users frequently use the emergency department (ED) for their medical care. Over a 6-month period we studied the demographics, type, and frequency of medical and traumatic problems in 461 MAP patients presenting to our ED, which serves an area noted for high levels of MAP production and consumption. Comparison was made to the general ED population to assess use patterns. MAP patients were most commonly Caucasian males who lacked health insurance. Compared to other ED patients during this time, MAP patients used ambulance transport more and were more likely to be admitted to the hospital. There was a significant association between trauma and MAP use in this patient population. Our data suggest MAP users utilize prehospital and hospital resources at levels higher than the average ED population. Based on current trends, we can expect more ED visits by MAP users in the future.  (+info)

Methamphetamine and the expanding complications of amphetamines. (3/547)

During the past 10 years, the use of methamphetamine has increased rapidly in the West and throughout the United States. Because of this increase, our attention has focused on methamphetamine's toxicity. Methamphetamine and related compounds generate many of the same toxic effects as cocaine. Because of methamphetamine's widespread use, clinicians should be familiar with its medical effects and toxicity and with treatment options for acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine abuse.  (+info)

Amphetamine withdrawal alters bistable states and cellular coupling in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens neurons recorded in vivo. (4/547)

Repeated amphetamine administration is known to produce changes in corticoaccumbens function that persist beyond termination of drug administration. We have found previously that long-term alteration in dopamine systems leads to changes in gap junction communication, expressed as dye coupling, between striatal neurons. In this study, the cellular bases of amphetamine-induced changes were examined using in vivo intracellular recordings and dye injection in ventral prefrontal-accumbens system neurons of control and amphetamine-treated rats. Rats that had been withdrawn from repeated amphetamine displayed a significant increase in the incidence of dye coupling in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, which persisted for up to 28 d after withdrawal. The increased coupling was limited to projection neurons in both prefrontal cortical and accumbens brain regions, as identified by their axonal trajectory or the absence of interneuron-selective immunocytochemical markers. These changes occurred with no substantial loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive terminals in these cortical and accumbens regions, ruling out dopamine degeneration as a precipitating factor. Previous studies showed that nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of coupling; however, amphetamine-withdrawn rats had fewer numbers of neurons and processes that stained for nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In amphetamine-treated rats, a higher proportion of cortical cells fired in bursts, and a larger proportion of accumbens and prefrontal cortical neurons exhibited bistable membrane oscillations. By increasing corticoaccumbens transmission, amphetamine withdrawal may lead to neuronal synchronization via gap junctions. Furthermore, this adaptation to amphetamine treatment persists long after the drug is withdrawn.  (+info)

Effects of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, on D-methamphetamine-induced cognitive and physiological changes in humans. (5/547)

D-methamphetamine is abused for its euphoric effects and stimulatory action on cognitive function. Its abuse can, however, be associated with massive hypertension resulting in strokes, ruptured aneurysms, or myocardial infarction. We examined the utility of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, in treating d-methamphetamine induced hypertension and evaluated its effects on cognitive function, both of which are mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms. D-methamphetamine dose-dependently increased all vital signs (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure, and pulse rate) parameters. Isradipine significantly reduced d-methamphetamine-induced increases in diastolic and mean arterial pressure; however, this potentially beneficial therapeutic effect was offset by a significant reflex rise in pulse rate. D-methamphetamine also improved attention, accuracy of reasoning ability, and performance on computerized cognitive function tasks. D-methamphetamine's cognitive improving effects were not altered significantly by isradipine. Isradipine increased the false responding rate but was without significant effect on any other attentional task, or on reasoning ability, or performance. Isradipine does not appear to enhance cognitive function in healthy humans.  (+info)

Acute psychological effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") are attenuated by the serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram. (6/547)

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a recreational drug that has been shown to release serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in animals. The effect of MDMA on 5-HT release can be blocked by 5-HT uptake inhibitors such as citalopram, suggesting that MDMA interacts with the 5-HT uptake site. It is unknown whether this mechanism is also responsible for the psychological effects of MDMA in humans. We investigated the effect of citalopram pretreatment (40 mg iv) on the psychological effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg po) in a double-blind placebo-controlled psychometric study in 16 healthy human volunteers. MDMA produced an emotional state with heightened mood, increased self-confidence and extroversion, moderate derealization, and an intensification of sensory perception. Most of these effects were markedly reduced by citalopram. This finding suggests that the psychological effects of MDMA are mediated via action at the 5-HT uptake site to increase 5-HT release through the carrier, as expected from animal studies.  (+info)

Carbamazepine suppresses methamphetamine-induced Fos expression in a regionally specific manner in the rat brain. Possible neural substrates responsible for antimanic effects of mood stabilizers. (7/547)

Carbamazepine (CBZ) has been widely used for treatment of manic states. Because amphetamine produces effects in humans similar to those of idiopathic mania, acute methamphetamine administration could serve as a model of this condition. To elucidate the neurobiological substrates responsible for the antimanic effects of carbamazepine, this study investigated the effects of chronic carbamazepine administration on regional Fos protein expression induced by a single dose of methamphetamine (2mg/kg). Chronic treatment with CBZ (0.25% in food for 7 days, followed by 0.5% for 7 days; final mean serum carbamazepine concentration: 4.09 +/- 0.34 microg/ml) significantly attenuated the number of Fos-like immunoreactivity-positive nuclei induced by methamphetamine administration in the core of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate/putamen. The results indicate these brain regions are involved in the antimanic effects of carbamazepine.  (+info)

Substance abuse and the kidney. (8/547)

Substance abuse has been increasing steadily in the UK and some other countries. Recent evidence suggests more than 40% of young people have tried illicit drugs at some time. There are numerous medical consequences to recreational drug use, and a physician should always consider substance abuse in any unexplained illness. The renal complications of drug abuse are also becoming more frequent, and may encompass a spectrum of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases. Although some substances are directly nephrotoxic, a number of other mechanisms are also involved. These effects are often chronic and irreversible, but occasionally acute with possible recovery. The rapid growth of illicit drug use is clearly a major public health problem. We review the commonly used substances of abuse and their associations with renal disease.  (+info)

Modafinil is a non-amphetamine type stimulant that acts as a wakefulness-promoting drug, and is approved for managing symptoms of narcolepsy (i.e., daytime somnolence). Its precise mechanism of action in promoting wakefulness remains unclear. This trial is a placebo-controlled double-blind trial of modafinil, on a platform of contingency management (CM) and individual cognitive-behavioral (CBT) counseling, for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Participants in this study will complete a 2-week baseline screening period during which they will provide urine samples and complete physical and psychological assessments to establish their eligibility for the study. In addition, participants will be asked to provide a blood or saliva specimen for genetic testing in order to identify genetic variations that influence response to methamphetamine and to treatment with modafinil. Upon successful completion of screening, participants will be randomly assigned to receive either modafinil (400mg qd) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage disequilibrium and association with methamphetamine dependence/psychosis of μ-opioid receptor gene polymorphisms. AU - Ide, S.. AU - Kobayashi, H.. AU - Ujike, H.. AU - Ozaki, N.. AU - Sekine, Y.. AU - Inada, T.. AU - Harano, M.. AU - Komiyama, T.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Iyo, M.. AU - Iwata, N.. AU - Tanaka, K.. AU - Shen, H.. AU - Iwahashi, K.. AU - Itokawa, M.. AU - Minami, M.. AU - Satoh, M.. AU - Ikeda, K.. AU - Sora, Ide. N1 - Funding Information: We are grateful to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) as well as to the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) for support in part by Grants MHLW13-040, MHLW15-7, MHLW17-pharmaco-001, MEXT15025206 and MEXT15029204.. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - Several studies indicate that the μ-opioid receptor plays a role in addiction not only to opiate drugs but also to alcohol and non-opiate addictive drugs. Our studies aim to reveal the associations between gene ...
The high rate of meth use among MSM is paralleled by evidence of rises in sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among this population. The MSM meth epidemic, and its link with HIV transmission, underscores the need to pilot test new, innovative modalities to reduce meth use and meth-associated sexual risk behavior. Ultimately, a pharmacologic treatment for meth use may not only serve to improve outcomes among those who are accessing current treatment services, but might also benefit those who are not willing or able to utilize such services. While studies show that MSM who enter substance use treatment decrease both their substance use and sexual risk behavior, current behavioral meth treatment programs report low rates of success in treating meth dependence among MSM. We believe the time has come to test the acceptability of pharmacologic interventions to reduce meth use among MSM, and to assess the feasibility of conducting such trials among sexually active, meth-dependent MSM, whose ...
Learn the behavioral, physical and psychological signs and symptoms of amphetamine abuse now. Amphetamine abuse symptoms - Amphetamines are stimulants that may be prescribed by a doctor to treat several conditions including: Narcolepsy.
Stimulant use disorder is a type of substance use disorder that involves the abuse of stimulants. It is defined in the DSM-5 as the continued use of amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, or other stimulants leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, from mild to severe. These psychoactive drugs, known as stimulants, are the most widely used drugs in the world today. Approximately 200 million Americans have used some type of a stimulant in the past year alone. A psychoactive drug, such as a stimulant, is a chemical or substance that effects ones behavior, mind, and body. A stimulant can be smoked, injected, snorted, taken in pill form, chewed and even ingested in the form of a drink. Synthetic stimulants are becoming increasingly popular as users attempt to alter the chemicals in drugs to create different reactions, and ultimately steer clear of jail time, legal penalties and detection in drug screening efforts. If a substance is used over a long period of time and the user ...
I URGE ALL MY FRIENDS TO READ & SHARE THIS; YOU COULD SAVE A LOVED ONES LIFE BY KNOWING THIS SIMPLE INFORMATION!!! Stroke has a new indicator! They say if you forward this to ten people, you stand a chance of saving one life. Will you send this along? Blood Clots/Stroke - They Now Have a Fourth Indicator, the Tongue: During a BBQ, a woman stumbled and took a little fall - she assured everyone that she was fine (they offered to call paramedics) ...she said she had just tripped over a brick because of her new shoes. They got her cleaned up and got her a new plate of food. While she appeared a bit shaken up, Jane went about enjoying herself the rest of the evening. Janes husband called later telling everyone that his wife had been taken to the hospital - (at 6:00 PM Jane passed away.) She had suffered a stroke at the BBQ. Had they known how to identify the signs of a stroke, perhaps Jane would be with us today. Some dont die. They end up in a helpless, hopeless condition instead. It only takes a ...
Find a doctor in Fayetteville, WV who treats Amphetamine Abuse/dependence with Lifescript Doctor Finder. Search 720,000 doctors by specialty, condition, location, insurance.
Find a doctor in Wayne, WV who treats Amphetamine Abuse/dependence with Lifescript Doctor Finder. Search 720,000 doctors by specialty, condition, location, insurance.
Learn about amphetamine addiction signs, side effects, causes, symptoms & withdrawals from amphetamine abuse. Acadiana Treatment Center
When its time to talk about amphetamine abuse with your college-aged son or daughter, make sure to explain your reasons for the talk and to stay calm.
Hair analysis is a reliable tool for detecting long-term exposure to illegal drugs, including amphetamine-type stimulants, over periods from a few weeks to a few months, depending on the length of the hair used for analysis. Between 2000...
They said their new study adds to evidence about the need to tackle the global stimulant epidemic.. The investigators were led by Stuart Reece, a clinical associate professor at the University of Western Australia. They assessed arterial stiffening in more than 700 Australians in their 30s and 40s. Arteries tend to harden with age.. Those participants who used illegal amphetamines showed greater aging of the arteries than others, including those who smoked tobacco or used the heroin substitute methadone, the study reported.. The link between illegal amphetamine use and greater aging of the arteries was seen in men and women. It was also independent of other risk factors for heart disease and stroke, Reece and his colleagues said.. ...
SAMHSA has introduced the Matrix Intensive Outpatient Treatment for People With Stimulant Use Disorders Family Education Videos, which are intended to educate family members of those in recovery about substance use disorders.. The videos include interviews of people in recovery and their loved ones and provide key information for those supporting people in treatment and recovery. They were made to be used with the Matrix Intensive Outpatient Treatment for People With Stimulant Use Disorders series.. There are three sets of videos:. ...
Amphetamine addiction has become common with the usage of drugs such as benzedrine & adderall. Read about the effects & treatment for amphetamine dependency.
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Using a Modified Intervention Mapping Approach to Develop and Refine a Single-Session Motivational Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men
Clinical Services provided for Substance Abuse: * Alcohol Abuse * Cannibis Abuse * Opioid Abuse * Amphetamine Abuse * Prescription Medication
Clinical Services provided for Substance Abuse: * Alcohol Abuse * Cannibis Abuse * Opioid Abuse * Amphetamine Abuse * Prescription Medication
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Higher cortical and lower subcortical metabolism in detoxified methamphetamine abusers. AU - Volkow, N. D.. AU - Chang, L.. AU - Wang, G. J.. AU - Fowler, J. S.. AU - Franceschi, D.. AU - Sedler, M. J.. AU - Gatley, S. J.. AU - Hitzemann, R.. AU - Ding, Y. S.. AU - Wong, C.. AU - Logan, J.. PY - 2001/3/21. Y1 - 2001/3/21. N2 - Objective: Methamphetamine has raised concerns because it may be neurotoxic to the human brain. Although prior work has focused primarily on the effects of methamphetamine on dopamine cells, there is evidence that other neuronal types are affected. The authors measured regional brain glucose metabolism, which serves as a marker of brain function, to assess if there is evidence of functional changes in methamphetamine abusers in regions other than those innervated by dopamine cells. Method: Fifteen detoxified methamphetamine abusers and 21 comparison subjects underwent positron emission tomography following administration of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Results: ...
If you take methamphetamine, you should understand its potential for dependence and addiction. Learn the signs and symptoms and how to treat it.
Memory is a complex of systems by which an organism registers, stores and retrieves exposure to an event or experience. Literature purports that methamphetamine users and dependents have been found to exhibits signs of memory impairment. The aim of the research was to establish the possible existence of significant differences in memory in current methamphetamine users, recovering methamphetamine users, and a matched drug naïve control group. Cognitive functioning was assessed via a neurocognitive test battery that examined the memory of 14 current methamphetamine users, 17 recovering methamphetamine addicts, and 18 drug naïve control participants who were matched according to the demographic variables of age, gender and educational status. The results indicated that recovering methamphetamine users experienced the greatest impairment in memory in comparison to both the control group and current users of methamphetamine. The current users of methamphetamine also experienced some impairment in memory
The article describes a study done by eight professors from UCLA where they observed methamphetamine users dental health. The article provides statistics from the study about the prevalence of gum disease and cavities in methamphetamine users.
Many people that struggle with Methamphetamine Abuse care for nothing but their high, so their unaware of the deadly Methamphetamine Abuse Symptoms.
Methamphetamine use has increased substantially in the United States since the 1990s. Few studies have examined the healthcare service needs of women who use methamphetamine. This study describes unmet medical needs in a community-based sample of women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, CA. Women who use methamphetamine were recruited in San Francisco and participated in a computer-assisted survey (N = 298 HIV-negative women).
The rise in methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men in urban centers over the past 10 years has resulted in a greater understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and cultural dimensions of the problem, as well as the development of specific treatments for this patient population. Culturally informed individual counseling and group psychotherapy, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and organized around the Matrix Model, appear to be most effective in the outpatient management of this difficult illness. Pharmacotherapy is limited to the treatment of co-occurring psychiatric disorders.. ...
A 2015 study published in the DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences from the Faculty of Sciences presented a random, double blind, placebo-controlled analysis of the treatment process involving participants with a methamphetamine dependency and sustained-release methylphenidate (MPH-SR).. Methylphenidate also known as Ritalin is a stimulant for the central nervous system, which can commonly be used for conditions like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Narcolepsy.. Fifty-six mixed gender participants from 18-65 years old attending outpatient clinics were randomly placed into two groups, treatment or placebo. The treatment group received 18-54 mg of MPH-SR for 10 weeks ...
Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - People with special needs - special olympics - Dohsa-hou - Asghar Dadkhah - University of social welfare and rehabilitation sciences
Last decade, positive drug tests among U.S. workers for methamphetamine had started to drop. That trend may be reversing, with positive rates dramatically higher in some states compared to others. The new statistics come from Quest Diagnostics annual report on U.S. worker drug use, based on more than six million urine tests collected from January-December 2010.. Positives for methamphetamine use in the U.S. general workforce dropped dramatically from 0.18% in 2006 to 0.11% in 2008. However, the rate remained the same in 2009 and 2010 at 0.10%.. Dr. Steven Shoptaw, a researcher who studies therapies for methamphetamine dependence, says, Ive worked with patients who, paralyzed by the recession and juggling multiple jobs and family responsibilities, started using methamphetamine for its functional stimulant benefit.. Shoptaw notes that, even when its used as a stimulant by people who work more than one job, meth can wreak havoc on their judgment.. For these sort of people, we now provide ...
In the study published in Addiction Biology, researchers from three Taiwanese institutions explored the potential role of declining levels of a protein called BDNF in promoting the brain damage found in chronic methamphetamine abusers and addicts. Under normal circumstances, BDNF provides the brain with critical protection by helping nerve cells grow, reach maturity and stay in good working order. In addition, the protein plays an essential role in basic brain functionality by supporting the chemical and physical adaptations required for learning new information and storing that information in memory.. For their study, the researchers recruited 59 people diagnosed with methamphetamine abuse, as well as a second group of 59 generally healthy individuals who did not use the drug. The methamphetamine abusers had stopped actively taking the drug and were in the early stages of withdrawal. Over a period of three weeks, the researchers used blood tests to measure the levels of BDNF in both groups of ...
Why people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk of substance dependence, particularly methamphetamine dependence, and have greater difficulty overcoming their addiction is the subject of a new study by researchers at the UC Davis MIND Institute.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results: Nine percent of the students had tried methamphetamine and 30% of male and 17% of female students reported sexual debut. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that methamphetamine use in the past year was significantly associated with being in a higher HIV/STI risk category (RRR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.10-4.03, p & 0.05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use, coupled with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa, raises serious cause for concern about the potential for methamphetamine to further exacerbate the prevalence and spread of HIV in Cape Town. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.. ...
The Methamphetamine Treatment Project is collaborative effort between community and state to address the growing incidence of Methamphetamine use and abuse among youth in the state of South Dakota. The project is comprised of four phases, (1) stabilization, (2) intensive treatment, (3) structured living, and (4) community placement. Each phase will build on the proceeding phase. Most treatment programs do not adequately address the special needs of the Methamphetamine dependent adolescent client.
Methamphetamine Addiction Rehab is here at Pinnacle Peak Recovery. People who use methamphetamine usually say that this drugs pleasurable high keeps ...
Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood
Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood
PubMed journal article: Determination and long-term stability of twenty-nine cathinones and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The National Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Strategy 2008-2011 (the Strategy) has been developed within the existing legislative framework and focuses on prevention, supply reduction and treatment in a partnership framework.. Page last updated: September 2008 ...
Study findings show the expansion of current amphetamine-type stimulants and overdose prevention and response efforts to address their use.
People who abused methamphetamine or other amphetamine-like stimulants were more likely to develop Parkinsons disease than those who did not, in a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).. The researchers examined almost 300,000 hospital records from California covering 16 years. Patients admitted to hospital for methamphetamine or amphetamine-use disorders had a 76 per cent higher risk of developing Parkinsons disease compared to those with no disorder.. Globally, methamphetamine and similar stimulants are the second most commonly used class of illicit drugs.. This study provides evidence of this association for the first time, even though it has been suspected for 30 years, said lead researcher Dr. Russell Callaghan, a scientist with CAMH. Parkinsons disease is caused by a deficiency in the brains ability to produce a chemical called dopamine. Because animal studies have shown that methamphetamine damages dopamine-producing areas in the brain, scientists have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between the regulator of G-protein signaling 9 gene and patients with methamphetamine use disorder and schizophrenia. AU - Okahisa, Y.. AU - Kodama, M.. AU - Takaki, M.. AU - Inada, T.. AU - Uchimura, N.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Iwata, N.. AU - Iyo, M.. AU - Sora, I.. AU - Ozaki, N.. AU - Ujike, H.. PY - 2011/3/30. Y1 - 2011/3/30. N2 - The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) modulates the functioning of heterotrimeric G protein. RGS9-2 is highly expressed in the striatum and plays a role in modulating dopaminergic receptor-mediated signaling cascades. Previous studies suggested that the RGS9 gene might contribute to the susceptibility to psychotic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the association between the RGS9 gene and two related dopamine psychoses, schizophrenia and methamphetamine use disorders. The subjects comprised 487 patients of schizophrenia and 464 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and 220 patients of methamphetamine use disorder and 289 controls. ...
Chronic abuse of methamphetamine can affect major organ systems, resulting in significant issues. Learn more about the dangers of methamphetamine abuse.
Methamphetamine addiction is a brain disorder and a chronic condition in which a person cannot stop using the drug methamphetamine, or meth.
A new study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) documents the high rates and unique patterns of dental decay and gum disease in people who use the illicit drug methamphetamine. The large study of 571 methamphetamine users found that 96 percent had experienced dental cavities and 58 percent had untreated tooth decay. Only 23 percent retained all of their natural teeth, compared to a tooth retention rate of 48 percent among the U.S. general population. The study was conducted by investigators at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).. The study found that adults reporting moderate or heavy methamphetamine use were twice as likely to have untreated dental cavities than were light users (less than 10 days of use over the past month). Older subjects (ages 30+), women, and current cigarette smokers were disproportionately affected by dental and periodontal disease. In addition, a significant percentage of participants (40 percent) indicated they were often self-conscious ...
Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine
Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age. Methamphetamine is second only to cannabis as the most widely used illegal drug, which may be because it is relatively cheap and easy to manufacture. Yet, to this date, the effects of PME on the developing fetus have not been well characterized and even less is known regarding the effects on development in childhood. Although few studies have established a pattern of MA use in pregnant users, it is important that researchers seek to determine this pattern to examine a possible dose-response relationship between MA use and neonatal outcomes. The recent increase in MA use in the United States, particularly in the South and Midwest, highlights the need for a better understanding of the short-term and long-term effects of MA use during pregnancy upon newborns ...
Methamphetamine can increase the release and even block the reuptake of the brain chemical dopamine. This leads to higher levels of dopamine in the brain which is common for drug abusers. Dopamine is responsible for reward, experience of pleasure, motivation and motor function. Since methamphetamine has the ability to release dopamine quickly in the brain, the reward sections of the brain experience an intense euphoria or a rush once the drug has been smoked, snorted, or injected into the body.. Using methamphetamine for a long period of time can significantly change how the brain is able to function. These functions can include reduced motor skills and impaired verbal learning. In other studies conducted, it also shows that chronic methamphetamine abusers have severe structural and even functional changes in the brain; in the memory and emotion areas. This is why many of the abusers of the drug have problems with emotional and cognitive situations.. Using methamphetamine for an extended period ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body dissatisfaction and methamphetamine use among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Theodore, Peter S.. AU - Achiro, Richard P.. AU - Duran, Ron E.F.. AU - Antoni, Michael H.. PY - 2011/10/24. Y1 - 2011/10/24. N2 - Methamphetamine use is strongly associated with risky sex and increased reports of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among gay and bisexual men (GBM) who attend dance/circuit parties. The psychological mechanisms underlying methamphetamine use in this subculture, however, remain unclear. These exploratory findings are from a 2004 dataset measuring body dissatisfaction and drug use among 42 HIV-positive GBM in South Florida who attended at least one bar/club/circuit party within 3 months of participating. A multivariate regression model revealed that body dissatisfaction accounted for a small but significant amount of variance in methamphetamine use. Treatment implications and recommendations for future research are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. AU - Yu, Qianli. AU - Montes, Sergio. AU - Larson, Douglas F. AU - Watson, Ronald R. PY - 2002/7/12. Y1 - 2002/7/12. N2 - Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance ...
Title: Progress in Understanding Basal Ganglia Dysfunction as a Common Target for Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Neurodegeneration. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Shaji Theodore, Wayne A. Cass, Avindra Nath and William F. Maragos. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama, Birmingham 1719, 6th Avenue South, CIRC 516, Birmingham, AL-35294, USA.. Keywords:Drug abuse, AIDS, glia, cytokines, dopamine, striatum, neurodegeneration. Abstract: HIV-1 infection with concurrent methamphetamine (MA) abuse results in exacerbated neurodegenerative changes and rapid progression of a form of sub-cortical dementia termed HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). A notable feature of HAD is the involvement of the dopaminergic system manifested as parkinsonian like movement abnormalities. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is very often used in experimental studies trying to understand neurotoxic consequences of HIV-1 ...
wp-content/uploads/2017/11/fri-banner-logo-2.jpg 0 0 awp-admin /wp-content/uploads/2017/11/fri-banner-logo-2.jpg awp-admin2017-10-06 10:57:472017-10-06 10:57:47Methamphetamine Abuse Treatment Reduces HIV Risk Behaviors among Gay and Bisexual Males in Los Angeles, California, USA ...
A third potential indication in the treatment of substance use disorders is emerging for the medication MN-166 (ibudilast), a drug that is associated with glial cell activation. Biopharmaceutical company MediciNova has announced that the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) will fund a clinical trial of the medication for the treatment of alcohol dependence.. The latest news follows the companys 2013 announcements of a Phase 2 trial of the medication for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence and a phase 2a trial of the drug for the treatment of opioid addiction. Both of those studies have received National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funding. The availability of a medication to treat stimulant dependence would represent a long-awaited breakthrough in the addiction medicine community.. Lara Ray, PhD, associate professor at the UCLA Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, will lead the study. Emerging research in the field of alcohol dependence has ...
Objective: Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal clinics in the Western Cape province. This study aimed to review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. Method: A review of published research conducted in Cape Town between 2004 and 2007 was undertaken using PubMed, EBSCOhost and Science Direct. Results: Eight studies were identified, both quantitative and qualitative, and focusing on diverse populations, such as learners in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers. The total sample across the studies was 8153. Across multiple studies methamphetamine was fairly consistently associated with early vaginal sex, condom use ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methamphetamine self-administration causes persistent striatal dopaminergic alterations and mitigates the deficits caused by a subsequent methamphetamine exposure. AU - McFadden, Lisa M.. AU - Hadlock, Greg C.. AU - Allen, Scott C.. AU - Vieira-Brock, Paula L.. AU - Stout, Kristen A.. AU - Ellis, Jonathan D.. AU - Hoonakker, Amanda J.. AU - Andrenyak, David M.. AU - Nielsen, Shannon M.. AU - Wilkins, Diana G.. AU - Hanson, Glen R.. AU - Fleckenstein, Annette E.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a binge treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of ...
Methamphetamine is often a white or light brown crystalline powder. It can also be in liquid form. If you find it in your home, then that has to be the most obvious sign that someone is abusing it. Still, most adults will try to hide their use of illicit drugs, so getting this evidence might not be so easy.. If you fear that someone you love is abusing the drug-or is already addicted to it-there are a couple of signs you can look out for. If you find small pieces of crumpled aluminum foil lying around your house, thats another indication of drug abuse.. But meth abusers often do not sleep for long periods of time. They take meth until they run out, or until they are unable to maintain consciousness. They will rapidly and drastically lose their weight, becoming and appearing malnourished. This is an effect of methamphetamine abuse, wherein the user loses their appetite.. The drug is a stimulant, so the user will appear euphoric or active. They may also be more nervous or anxious for no ...
Leserman Robbins, J., Lorvick, J., Lutnick, A., Wenger, L., & Kral, A. (2012). Self-reported oral health needs and dental-care seeking behavior among women who use methamphetamine. Substance Use and Misuse, 47(11), 1208 - 1213 ...
Study Purpose: The purpose of the study was to provide information about markets, distribution, and use of methamphetamine in New York City, both inside and outside of the MSM (men who have sex with men)/gay community. The study had four specific aims. (1) Pilot a research design using mixed qualitative/quantitative data collection methods in New York City methamphetamine markets with participants recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. (2) Document, describe, and analyze the demographics and methamphetamine abuse behaviors of a sample of methamphetamine market participants. (3) Document, describe, and analyze the social networks of New York City methamphetamine market participants as users, buyers, and sellers of methamphetamine. (4) Document, describe, and analyze the market behaviors of New York City methamphetamine market participants as users, buyers, and sellers of methamphetamine. Study Design: Researchers piloted a version of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit different ...
The prevalence of methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy in women seeking treatment tripled from 1994 to 2006, rising to 24% of all pregnant women admitted to federally funded treatment centers, according to the researchers. Eze and colleagues defined early adversity as the sum of multiple binary indicators, including self-reported maternal postnatal substance abuse, an annual household income less than $10,000, reported sexual or physical abuse by a caregiver, a maternal score on the Brief Symptom Inventory, maternal depression above average for the Beck Depression Inventory, quality of living environment below average on the HOME Inventory, community violence above average on the Lifestyle Interview, and social position below average for the Index of Social Position.. The researchers began recruiting for the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) longitudinal study in 2002. They enrolled 412 mother and infant pairs at four sites and identified participants as ...
Alcohol and meth have different functions. Alcohol is a sedative - a downer - and works as a central nervous system depressant, also called a CNS depressant. Its effects include nausea, impaired thinking, and slowed cardiovascular functioning. When consumed in large quantities, alcohol can cause dramatic mood swings, slurred speech, loss of motor skills coordination, and alcohol poisoning.. Methamphetamine, or meth, is a stimulant - an upper - and considered one of the most potent of its kind. It stimulates the central nervous system, leading to the occurrence of high blood pressure, increased energy, amplified heart rate, and euphoria. Medically, methamphetamine is an FDA-approved medication for treating ADHD and exogenous obesity in both children and adults.. Being addicted to methamphetamine and alcohol can increase the risk for alcohol poisoning. According to the New Research on Methamphetamine Abuse, ethanol or alcohol attenuates the effects of methamphetamine and slows down the metabolism ...
Ballard Michael E, Mandelkern Mark A, Monterosso John R, Hsu Eustace, Robertson Chelsea L, Ishibashi Kenji, Dean Andy C, London Edythe D Low Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability is Associated with Steep Discounting of Delayed Rewards in Methamphetamine Dependence The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), 2015; 18(7): pyu119 ...
THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannnabinol).. Ice methamphetamine abuse levels are stable throughout the region; the drug is typically of high purity. Public health authorities report that most methamphetamine abusers are Caucasians and Hispanics and that female abusers outnumbered male abusers in the Atlanta MSA among individuals seeking treatment for the abuse of amphetamines, which include methamphetamine.. CPDs and MDMA are considerable threats to the Atlanta HIDTA region. The most widely available and commonly abused CPDs are hydrocodone, oxycodone, and diazepam. Law enforcement officials report that CPD abuse is a growing problem among Caucasian young adults. MDMA available in the Atlanta HIDTA region is generally abused in combination with other substances, including alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. MDMA is most commonly available in Buckhead (northern Atlanta) and Midtown and is used mainly by Caucasian youths; however, MDMA abuse has increased among African Americans in the region. The abuse ...
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 21, 2019 (American Heart Association News) -- Although frequently overshadowed by the opioid epidemic, surging methamphetamine use nationally and around the world has fueled a chilling crisis of its own, according to a new report.. The result is a significant increase in meth-related deaths from unique cardiovascular consequences that researchers are trying to understand.. Methamphetamines can cause blood vessels to constrict and spasm, dangerous spikes in blood pressure, and the rewiring of the hearts electrical system, among other potentially fatal heart-related problems.. Cardiovascular disease represents the second-leading cause of death among methamphetamine abusers following only accidental overdose, according to the report published Wednesday in the American Heart Associations journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.. The report reviews current research on methamphetamine and the drugs effect on heart disease and stroke. It discusses potential ...
Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in many countries and can induce psychotic episodes mimicking the clinical profile of schizophrenia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in both Meth effects and schizophrenia. We therefore studied the long-term effects of chronic Meth exposure in transgenic mice engineered to harbor the human BDNFVal66Met polymorphism expressed via endogenous mouse promoters. These mice were chronically treated with an escalating Meth regime during late adolescence. At least 4 weeks later, all hBDNFVal66Met Meth-treated mice exhibited sensitization confirming persistent behavioral effects of Meth. We used high-resolution quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to biochemically map the long-term effects of Meth within the brain, resulting in the unbiased detection of 4808 proteins across the mesocorticolimbic circuitry. Meth differentially altered dopamine signaling markers (e.g., Dat, Comt, and Th) between hBDNFVal/Val and hBDNFMet
KOKOMO, Ind. - A teenager who died in a pursuit and crash last month in Kokomo was high on methamphetamine, investigators say. The Howard County Coroner
Wasp spray is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to methamphetamine, posing a whole new set of health risks, law enforcement officials say. The problem has become particularly bad in West Virginia, according to TV station KIRO. The wasp spray is inhaled or injected, providing a rush similar to the one methamphetamine users experience. Sometimes it is used alone, while other times it is used alongside methamphetamine to intensify effects. At least three overdoses have been reported so
Recent studies and research shows that People who use methamphetamine are almost five times more likely to have a stroke caused by a bleed in the brain, many of which are fatal. We can add stroke to the list of terrible and devastating things that methamphetamine does, says Damian Zuloaga, of the University at Albany, New York.. Beyond the signature tooth decay known as meth mouth, methamphetamine also increases heart rate and blood pressure, and can trigger heart attacks. The drug can lead to psychosis, and has been linked to anxiety disorders, depression, and problems with movement similar to those seen in Parkinsons disease.. A handful of studies have also linked methamphetamine use to strokes. To explore further, Julia Lappin and her colleagues at the Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre in Sydney sifted through published research on the topic.. The team specifically looked for research into people under the age of 45 - a group less likely to be affected by age-related ...
The problem of methamphetamine use in todays society is an ever growing problem. Women of childbearing age are among this group, leading to an increasing number of children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.. Christine Cloak, Ph.D., of the University of Hawaii, and colleagues findings are reported online in Neurology. The researchers did MRI scans on 29 methamphetamine-exposed children 3 to 4 years old, recruited from local hospitals, drug rehabilitation centers, and the community. Using detailed interviews of the mothers, the cumulative gestational methamphetamine exposure reported averaged 58 g over 2.5 trimesters, but varied widely.. Methamphetamine has been shown to cross the placenta and impact overall fetal growth. The drug is known to act on dopamine receptors that regulate corticogenesis and are present in the brain as early as the first trimester. It also affects other catecholamine systems involved in brain development.. Cloak and colleagues found that prenatal exposure to meth ...
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Mexican criminal groups have replaced traditional Asian criminal groups as the primary transporters of methamphetamine. Mexican criminal groups are the primary transporters of Mexico-produced methamphetamine as well as methamphetamine produced in California. Law enforcement officials report that Mexican criminal groups transport methamphetamine into Hawaii from the West Coast, primarily California. Mexican criminal groups transport both powdered and crystal methamphetamine. Some powdered methamphetamine is converted to crystal methamphetamine in Mexico and on the West Coast for transportation to Hawaii.. Traditional Asian transporters of crystal methamphetamine--primarily Korean, Japanese, Filipino, and Vietnamese criminal groups--also transport the drug into Hawaii, but to a lesser extent than during the mid-1980s to early 1990s. In the early 1990s law enforcement authorities in Hawaii dismantled several large Asian, primarily Korean, criminal groups that dominated the transportation of crystal ...
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Eighteen rats were implanted with intravenous (IV) catheters and bilateral AcbSh electrodes and subsequently underwent daily sessions in 2-lever (active/methamphetamine and inactive/no reward) operant chambers to establish IV methamphetamine self-administration. After stable responding was achieved, 3 hours of DBS or sham treatment was administered (sham: 0 µA, n = 8; active: 200 µA, n = 10) in a separate nondrug environment prior to the daily operant sessions for 5 consecutive days. Immediately following each DBS/sham treatment, rats were placed in the operant chambers to examine the effects of remote stimulation on methamphetamine intake. After the 5 days of therapy were finished, rats reestablished a posttreatment baseline, followed by extinction training, abstinence, and 1 day of relapse testing to assess methamphetamine-seeking behavior. ...
Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers. The S(+) form, which is also called d methamphetamine, is an ingredient in a few legitimate pharmaceutical products available only by prescription, and can be illicitly synthesized from (-) ephedrine or (+) pseudoephedrine. The S(+) or d form of methamphetamine is generally considered a drug of abuse. On the other hand, the R(-) form, which is also called l-desoxyephedrine or l methamphetamine, is the active ingredient in Vicks inhalers, is a metabolite of the anti-Parkinson drug Selegiline, and is not a drug of abuse. When a specimen gives a confirmed positive result for methamphetamine, this test can be ordered. This test separates the enantiomers and will provide percentage-based information to help determine the source of methamphetamine in the specimen. Note that this test does not provide quantitations; it only provides the percentage(s) of each methamphetamine found in the urine. The urine should be previously tested for methamphetamine and ...
Methamphetamine, generally described as meth, is a highly-addictive neurotoxic energizer that is commonly described as one of the most hazardous medication on earth, due to the broad schedule, simplicity of usage, and also capacity to produce the medicine from normal home products. Most often, methamphetamine comes in two forms, Crystal Meth and also powdered meth, both generate comparable impacts on the customer.. Meth generates a false sense of well-being and joy. It gives the user a thrill, and an increase in feelings of power, confidence, and also wakefulness. These results generally last six to eight hrs, however can be sustained for upwards of twelve hrs.. Methamphetamine is merely and also cheaply made using different family products in about two days- start to complete. The key component in methamphetamine is pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, both of which are discovered in a wide variety of over the counter chilly treatments.. ...
Revive Therapeutics reported it has entered into clinical trial agreement with the University of Wisconsin-Madison to evaluate the use of psilocybin for the treatment of methamphetamine use disorder.
Drug injection and other practices affecting the risk of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection were studied among 154 heroin users and 45 methamphetamine users in San Antonio, Texas. Amphetamine users were younger, mostly white, and had less-severe drug dependence. Heroin users had significantly higher levels of needle risk, as indicated...
Professor Yamamoto at Indiana University, and his collaborators, are cooking up new explanations for why stress and meth use are a common toxic mix
Methamphetamine meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Methamphetamine in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Methamphetamine in Hindi? Methamphetamine ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Methamphetamine का हिंदी में मतलब ). Methamphetamine meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is मेथैंफ़ेटामीन.English definition of Methamphetamine : an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine. AU - Thrash, Bessy. AU - Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.. AU - Uthayathas, Subramaniam. AU - Suppiramaniam, Vishnu. AU - Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - In Parkinsons disease, depletion of dopamine in the striatum leads to various symptoms such as tremor, rigidity and akinesia. Methamphetamine use has significantly increased in USA and around the world and there are several reports showing that its long-term use increases the risk for dopamine depletion. However, the toxic mechanisms of methamphetamine are not well understood. This study was undertaken to gain greater mechanistic understanding of the toxicity induced by methamphetamine. We evaluated the effect of methamphetamine on the generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial monoamine oxidase, complex I & IV activities. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on catalepsy, akinesia and swim score. Neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using ...
The negative impacts of the illicit drug trade touch every society in the world. The World Drug Report for 2005 estimates that 200 million people, or 5% of the global population age 15-64, have consumed illicit drugs at least once in the last 12 months. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimates its worldwide retail value to be $321bn. It impacts almost every level of human security from individual health, to safety and social welfare. Its consequences are especially devastating for countries with limited resources available to fight against it.. The World Drug Report 2007 places the UK in joint first place with Denmark (out of 30 European countries) for amphetamine use and in fifth place for ecstasy use. The report states that although still tiny compared to amphetamine, the amount of methamphetamine seized in Europe rose more than four-fold between 2000 and 2005.. Chemical Dependency. Chemical dependency has many faces and takes many forms, including the use of depressants, stimulants, ...
Inpatient treatment care for meth abuse or addiction provides 24-hour medical assistance and a team of therapy professionals in a safe environment. Medically supervised detoxification is the first step in the process, along with medication management, wellness services, counseling and group therapy. In this type of treatment, you will be able to meet other people who are overcoming addiction, working on solutions to enjoy life without dependence on this destructive drug.. Outpatient care is also a great option, one that may allow you to keep your job or school or other responsibilities going while you get treatment. Patients can return to sober living or to their own home each evening. Regular appointments are scheduled around other obligations, but patients should attend all appointments to get the full benefit of their treatment program.. If patients or loved ones have questions, those can be addressed in consultation with the treatment program professionals. Each patient and family member ...
A new nasal decongestant is available over the counter for those who suffer from allergies. Zyprex D is being pseudoephedrine that is being promoted not only for its medical value, but for being meth-resistant as well.
International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 22 Suppl 1: S18-28, discussion S29. PMID 9758240. "FDA ... Older anorectic agents such as amphetamine and fenfluramine force the release of these neurotransmitters rather than affecting ... Related CBS news item 19 November 2004. James WP, Caterson ID, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal LF, Maggioni AP, Torp-Pedersen C, ... A review of the pharmacological evidence to differentiate it from d-amphetamine and d-fenfluramine". ...
... amphetamine psychosis) and the psychoses related to schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia. Delirium is often drug induced ... particularly conduct disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder). A study in Finland ... In a minority of cases, homicides and acts of violence may be related to mental disorder. These homicides and fantasies do not ... They should be brought swiftly to a place where an assessment can be made and any underlying medical or mental disorder should ...
Related disorder NOS 291.81 Withdrawal 291.0 Withdrawal delirium Amphetamine (or amphetamine-like) 305.70 Abuse 304.40 ... Related disorder NOS Cocaine 305.60 Abuse 304.20 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Inhalant 305.90 Abuse 304.60 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Nicotine 305.1 Dependence 292.9 -Related disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal Opioid 305.50 Abuse 304.00 ...
... an organic mental disorder (F0) or psychoactive substance-related disorder (F1), such as excess consumption of amphetamine-like ... and stressor-related disorders, personality disorders, substance-related and addictive disorders, neurocognitive disorders". ... bipolar disorders, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, trauma- ... The disorder does not meet the criteria for panic disorder (F41.0), phobic anxiety disorders (F40.-), obsessive-compulsive ...
Amphetamine-Related Psychiatric Disorders, 3. detsember 2015, [2017, veebruar 28] *↑ AMPHETAMINES HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ... ADMINISTRATION OF AMPHETAMINES FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME MAY LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE AND MUST BE AVOIDED. PARTICULAR ... MISUSE OF AMPHETAMINE MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS. ... ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING AMPHETAMINES FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO ...
Lists of child and adult mental disorders can be found in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related ... Psycho stimulants such as Ritalin, amphetamine- related stimulant drugs: e.g., Adderall, and antidepressants such as Wellbutrin ... Oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder are examples of ... There is also reason to believe that there is co-morbidity of disorders, in that if one disorder is present, there is often ...
Amphetamine psychosis may be purely related to high drug usage, or high drug usage may trigger an underlying vulnerability to ... The disorders are often distinguished by a rapid resolution of symptoms in amphetamine psychosis, while schizophrenia is more ... Drugs in the class of amphetamines, or substituted amphetamines, are known to induce "amphetamine psychosis" typically when ... However, unlike similar disorders, in AWP, substituted amphetamines reduce rather than increase symptoms, and the psychosis or ...
... pharmaceutically important substituted amphetamines. Glennon RA (2013). "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related ... Stimulants are used in impulse control disorders such as ADHD and off-label in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder ... "Amphetamines and prescription stimulants" (with "amphetamines" including amphetamine and methamphetamine) the value was 0.7%, ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ...
... and conduct disorders, and gambling disorder may be included in addiction and related disorders. The role of impulsivity in the ... For example, alcohol has been shown to increase impulsivity while amphetamines have had mixed results. Substance use disorder ... conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders. The precise ... and skin picking disorder as obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, moving Intermittent Explosive Disorder under the ...
... of the amphetamine family (specifically, a derivative of phentermine, and closely related to chlorphentermine, a highly ... Crow S, Brown E (March 2003). "Investigational drugs for eating disorders". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 12 (3): ... anxiety disorders, and anorexia nervosa by Jouveinal but did not complete development and was never marketed. It reached phase ...
Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher ... Libido disorders, disorientation, and hallucinations are very rarely reported. Priapism is a very rare adverse event that can ... Methylphenidate and amphetamine have been investigated as a chemical replacement for the treatment of cocaine addiction in the ...
ATS use disorders are related to the GABA system. Research shows that ATS use would affect normal function of the GABAA ... Amphetamine type stimulants can be used in the treatment of narcolepsy, a rare neurological disorder where the brain is unable ... Jiao D, Liu Y, Li X, Liu J, Zhao M (2015). "The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders". Frontiers ... It has since been used to treat a range of disorders from asthma to ADHD and illicitly for recreational purposes. Amphetamine- ...
Related Disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal 294.9 Cognitive Disorder NOS 307.9 Communication Disorder NOS Conduct Disorder 312.81 ... 294.8 Amnestic Disorder NOS Amphetamine (or Amphetamine-Like) 305.70 Abuse 304.40 Dependence 292.89 -Induced Anxiety Disorder ... Related Disorder NOS 301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder 307.44 Hypersomnia related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II ... Related Disorder NOS 307.42 Insomnia Related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder] 312.34 Intermittent Explosive ...
... malfunctions in this pathway are linked to altered fear learning in brain disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... Nociceptin is a peptide related to the opioid class of compounds (ex. morphine and codeine), but it does not act at the classic ... Specifically, nociceptin acts to inhibit neural rewards induced by drugs such as amphetamines, morphine, cocaine, and ... The NOP receptor has shown potential as a target for medications designed to alleviate the effects of substance abuse disorders ...
Deaths related to their toxic effects have been observed both in the laboratory in animal studies and in clinical encounters. 2 ... 2-Aminoindane is not scheduled at the federal level in the United States, but may be considered an analog of amphetamine, in ... 2-Aminoindane (2-AI) is a research chemical with applications in neurologic disorders and psychotherapy that has also been sold ... 2-Aminodilin (2-AD) 2-Aminotetralin (2-AT) Amphetamine Bath salts (drug) Manier SK, Felske C, Eckstein N, Meyer MR (October ...
... underlying disorder coexist with the jealousy The course of morbid jealousy closely relates to that of the underlying disorder ... amphetamines, marijuana.), organic brain disorders (i.e. Parkinson's, Huntington's), schizophrenia, neurosis, affective ... Unlike other delusional disorders, people who suffer from this disorder have a strong association with stalking, cyberstalking ... It can be found in the context of schizophrenia and delusional disorder, such as bipolar disorder, but is also associated with ...
... amphetamine-related agents". In Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W (eds.). Foye's principles of medicinal chemistry (7th ... Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders.Chapter 5-Medical Aspects of Stimulant Use Disorders. Center for Substance Abuse ... Amphetamines (class)[edit]. Main article: Substituted amphetamines. Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based ... Amphetamine[edit]. Main article: Amphetamine. Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the ...
Furthermore, nightmares related to PTSD would be more stressful than idiopathic ones. However, further studies have to be ... Amphetamines, antidepressants, and stimulants like cocaine and caffeine can cause nightmares. Blood pressure medication, ... Dissociative disorders are usually paired with Nightmare Disorder 57% of the time. Nightmare disorder is believed to be ... Nightmare disorder, also known as dream anxiety disorder, is a sleep disorder characterized by frequent nightmares. The ...
... anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sleep deprivation, amphetamine dependence, and hyperthyroidism. ... Sometimes they are related, as one thought leads to another; other times they seem completely random. A person suffering from ... such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, general anxiety disorder (GAD), or posttraumatic stress disorder. ... Since amphetamines are a stimulant, use of these drugs result in a state that resembles the manic phase of bipolar disorder and ...
Cluttering is a speech disorder that is related to pressure of speech in that the speech of a clutterer sounds improperly ... Psychostimulants such as cocaine or amphetamines may cause speech resembling pressured speech in individuals with pre-existing ... In many psychotic disorders, use of certain drugs amplifies certain expressions of symptoms, and stimulant-induced pressured ... The pace of the speech indicates an underlying thought disorder known as "flight of ideas" wherein the flow of ideas and ...
Depressive and related disorders and bipolar and related disorders. Bipolar disorders falls in between depressive disorders and ... Most substances can induce a variety of mood disorders. For example, stimulants such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ... Sex Differences Mood disorders, specifically stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, have been shown to ... Depressive disorders underwent the most changes, the addition of three new disorders: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, ...
In this article, we focus on the relevance of TAs and their receptors to nervous system-related disorders, namely schizophrenia ... related to catecholamines): Phenethylamine (PEA) N-Methylphenethylamine (endogenous amphetamine isomer) Phenylethanolamine m- ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders [7,8,36]. Clinical studies report increased β- ... As a result of these studies, β-PEA has been referred to as the body's 'endogenous amphetamine' [39] Wainscott DB, Little SP, ...
Substance abuse / Substance use disorder / Substance-related disorders. *Physical dependence / Psychological dependence / ... Substituted amphetamines[edit]. Drugs in the class of amphetamines, or substituted amphetamines, are known to induce " ... although in amphetamine psychosis visual hallucinations are more common and thought disorder is rare.[11] Amphetamine psychosis ... However, unlike similar disorders, in AWP, substituted amphetamines reduce rather than increase symptoms, and the psychosis or ...
In this article, we focus on the relevance of TAs and their receptors to nervous system-related disorders, namely schizophrenia ... As a result of these studies, β-PEA has been referred to as the body's 'endogenous amphetamine' [39] Wainscott DB, Little SP, ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders [7,8,36]. Clinical studies report increased β- ... doi:10.1016/0168-1605(95)00032-1. Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacol ...
... including the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Cocaine and amphetamine employ different mechanisms that both result in ... Due to their significance in neuronal signaling, MATs are commonly associated with drugs used to treat mental disorders as well ... It has been observed that the hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in ADHD is related to abnormal DAT function and ... When amphetamine binds to TAAR1, it reduces post-synaptic receptor firing rate and triggers protein kinase A and protein kinase ...
Media related to Eating at Wikimedia Commons Ingestion at the Encyclopædia Britannica Health-EU Portal - Nutrition. ... The first one is cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), the second is α-MSH (α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone). ... Eldredge, K. L.; Agras, W. S. (1994). "Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder". ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP). Satiety in ...
"Bipolar and Related Disorders". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American ... D-amphetamine is another drug that has been tested on people with schizophrenia and found success in alleviating negative ... DSM-5 (2013), Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders, Clinician-Rated Assessment of Symptoms and Related Clinical ... Hommer, Rebecca E.; Swedo, Susan E. (2015-03-01). "Schizophrenia and Autism-Related Disorders". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 41 (2 ...
In this article, we focus on the relevance of TAs and their receptors to nervous system-related disorders, namely schizophrenia ... Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacol. Ther. 125 (3): 363-375. doi: ... Phenethylamines (related to catecholamines): *Phenethylamine[7][8][9] (PEA). *N-Methylphenethylamine[10][7][9] (endogenous ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders [7,8,36]. Clinical studies report increased β- ...
Substance abuse / Substance use disorder / Substance-related disorders. *Physical dependence / Psychological dependence / ... Use is widespread among amphetamine users, with those that use amphetamines and benzodiazepines having greater levels of mental ... Drug-related crime[edit]. See also: Drug-related crime. Problem benzodiazepine use can be associated with various deviant ... Particular problems with abuse of temazepam are often related to gel capsules being melted and injected and drug-related deaths ...
Disorders[edit]. Main article: Eating disorder. Physiologically, eating is generally triggered by hunger, but there are ... The first one is cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), the second is α-MSH (α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).[ ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... Eldredge, K. L.; Agras, W. S. (1994). "Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder". ...
These chemicals belong to the PPA (phenylpropanolamine) family, a subset of the phenethylamines related to amphetamines and the ... health suggested that there was a need for better research on khat-chewing and its possible link with psychiatric disorders; it ... Adeoya-Osiguwa, S.A.; Fraser, L.R. (March 2007). "Cathine, an amphetamine-related compound, acts on mammalian spermatozoa via ... In 1975, the related alkaloid cathinone was isolated, and its absolute configuration was established in 1978. Cathinone is not ...
弓狀核內含有兩群神經元[146]:第一群同時表現神經肽Y(英语:neuropeptide Y)(NPY)與刺豚鼠關聯肽(英语:agouti-related peptide)(AgRP),它們會刺激下視丘外核(英语:lateral hypothalamus ... 並抑制下視丘腹中核(英语:ventromedial nucleus);第二群則表現鴉片黑皮質素原(POMC)與古柯鹼-安非他命關聯轉錄因子(英语:cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript)(CART),並 ... and immunity disorders#Other metabolic
It has been proposed that histone proteins are evolutionarily related to the helical part of the extended AAA+ ATPase domain, ... "Epigenetic regulation in substance use disorders". Curr Psychiatry Rep. 12 (2): 145-53. doi:10.1007/s11920-010-0099-5. PMC ... "Epigenetic landscape of amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction in rodents". Epigenetics. 10 (7): 574-80. doi:10.1080/ ...
Amphetamine and many of the other substituted amphetamines are inhibitors of VMAT2 and potent agonists of the trace amine- ... A closely related type of drug is a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (NDRA). ... Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors are used for clinical depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ... Consequently, amphetamine is usually classified as an NDRI instead of an SNDRI. However, the substituted amphetamines have a ...
Amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone are psychostimulant amines that are listed as controlled substances by the US ... Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine that helps to relieve allergic disorders due to cold, hay fever, itchy skin, insect bites ... Wikiquote has quotations related to: Amine. *Primary amine synthesis: synthetic protocols from organic-reaction.com ... It is used to relieve anxiety, excitement, restlessness or even mental disorder. ...
... anxiety and trauma-related disorders". Review. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 149: 150-90. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.12.004. ... Amphetamine. *Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, ... "Enhancing exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder". Review. ... Yohimbine has been studied as a way to improve the effects of exposure therapy in people with post traumatic stress disorder ( ...
F39) Unspecified mood (affective) disorder. (F40-F48) Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders[edit]. *(F40) Phobic ... Amphetamine (Evekeo, Adderall, Adzenys XR, Dyanavel XR). *Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Zenzedi, ProCentra, and others) ... F25) Schizoaffective disorders *(F25.0) Schizoaffective disorder, manic type. *(F25.1) Schizoaffective disorder, depressive ... F92) Mixed disorders of conduct and emotions *(F92.0) Depressive conduct disorder. *(F92.8) Other mixed disorders of conduct ...
Schizophrenia occurs along with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with certain ... There are various medical conditions, other psychiatric conditions and drug abuse related reactions that may mimic the symptoms ... amphetamines, magic mushrooms and cocaine may cause schizophrenia symptoms.[3] ... Berrios G.E.; Porter, Roy (1995). A history of clinical psychiatry: the origin and history of psychiatric disorders. London: ...
... disordersEdit. Main article: Anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by ... Indeed, such is consistent with related work on attentional bias in implicit memory.[34][35][36] Additionally recent research ... cocaine and amphetamines), hallucinogens, and inhalants.[54] While many often report self-medicating anxiety with these ... Anxiety disorders often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, personality disorder, and ...
Infusion of amphetamine into the dorsal hippocampus has also been shown to enhance memory for spatial locations learned ... These boundaries are nothing more than axial lines which are a feature that people are biased towards when relating to space; ... Topographical disorientation is a cognitive disorder that results in the individual being unable to orient his or herself in ... DTD is a relatively new disorder and can occur in varying degrees of severity. Topographical Disorientation in Mild Cognitive ...
Cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat). ... binge eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine only). Originally placed in Schedule III, but moved to Schedule II in 1971. ... Secretary of State which shall be binding on the representative of the United States in discussions and negotiations relating ... Amphetamine drugs including Adderall, Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse): treatment of ADHD, narcolepsy ...
... amphetamines or cocaine. Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result ... The increased heart rate also leads to increased work and oxygen demand by the heart, which can lead to rate related ischemia. ... Adrenergic storm Alcohol Amphetamine Anaemia Antiarrhythmic agents Anxiety Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Atrial ...
... movement disorder (e.g., Parkinson's disease) drugs, stimulants (including amphetamines), benzodiazepines, cyclopyrrolones, ... of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 amending Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community code relating to ... For musculo-skeletal disordersEdit. The main categories of drugs for musculoskeletal disorders are: NSAIDs (including COX-2 ... For allergic disordersEdit. anti-allergics, antihistamines, NSAIDs, Corticosteroids For nutritionEdit. Tonics, electrolytes and ...
... amphetamines or cocaine. Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result ... The increased heart rate also leads to increased work and oxygen demand by the heart, which can lead to rate related ischemia.[ ... www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/arrhythmias-and-conduction-disorders/long-qt-syndrome-and-torsades- ...
Both amphetamine and phenethylamine induce neurotransmitter release from VMAT2[30][31][32] and bind to TAAR1.[33][34] When ... It is sold as a dietary supplement for purported mood and weight loss-related therapeutic benefits; however, in orally ingested ... Reviews that cover attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and phenethylamine indicate that several studies have found ... Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators" (PDF). Journal of Neurochemistry. 90 (2): 257-71. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ...
disorders. *Alcoholic hallucinosis. *Alcoholic polyneuropathy. *Alcohol-related brain damage. *Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS ... Alcohol-related crimes. *Drunk drivers *Alcohol-related traffic crashes in the United States) ... a b Kühlwein, E., Hauger, R.L., Irwin, M.R. Abnormal nocturnal melatonin secretion and disordered sleep in abstinent alcoholics ... amphetamine: SUD *Amphetamine dependence. Volatile. solvent. *SID *Sudden sniffing death syndrome (SSDS) ...
The name theanine, without prefix, is generally understood to imply the L- (S-) enantiomer, derived from the related ... "The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ... In 2006, a study found no consistent, statistically significant treatment-related adverse effects on behavior, morbidity, ...
Having another mental health disorder: Other mental health disorders such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder can ... Behavioral therapies help patients change their initial attitudes and behaviors that are related to drug use. For example, ... amphetamines, cocaine, crack cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, for sex workers at 16 to 19 years of age, over 70% of them have ... As situations may differ significantly, there is no panacea that can cure every disease, including mental disorder. Treatment ...
... and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ... It is related in chemical structure to venlafaxine.. *Venlafaxine-the first and most commonly used SNRI. It was introduced by ... Duloxetine is also approved for major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), diabetic neuropathy, ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder ( ...
Musculoskeletal and joint disorders.. Agranulocytosis and cancer. Ampiroxicam. Related to piroxicam.. As per diclofenac.. PO.. ... differ from neurotoxic amphetamine derivatives in their mode of action at 5-HT nerve endings in vitro". Journal of ... Musculoskeletal disorders; soft-tissue disorders; sore throat.. As per diclofenac. Bromfenac. Comes in free acid form; ... Musculoskeletal and joint disorders.. As per diclofenac. Proquazone. Comes in free form.. As per diclofenac.. PO, rectal.. Not ...
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder[edit]. Substantial dysregulation of GAD mRNA expression, coupled with downregulation of ... Media related to Glutamate decarboxylase at Wikimedia Commons. *Genetics, Expression Profiling Support GABA Deficits in ... Cerebellar disorders[edit]. Intracerebellar administration of GAD autoantibodies to animals increases the excitability of ... Other Anti-GAD-associated neurologic disorders[edit]. Antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are ...
In the same article, the authors affirm that there is a high prevalence of unsleepiness and symptoms of sleep disorders related ... Modafinil and armodafinil are non-amphetamine alerting drugs originally developed for the treatment of narcolepsy that have ... Sleep medicine and disorders: international journal, 1(2). ISO 690 *^ a b c d "Nurses have increased risk of sleep disorders, ... These symptoms are not better explained by another sleep disorder, medical or neurologic disorder, mental disorder, medication ...
Sex-related *Intercourse. *Pornography. *Internet-related *Internet addiction disorder. *Internet sex addiction ... Summary of addiction-related plasticity[edit]. Form of neuroplasticity. or behavioral plasticity Type of reinforcer Sources ... Glucose/Sucrose/Fructose Use Disorder' as a diagnosis within the DSM-5 category Substance Use Disorders. We do, however, view ... "Binge-eating disorder Treatment at Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions". Mayo Clinic. 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2014-02-01.. ...
Related processes are known as sweetening.[19] Safety[edit]. Low molecular weight simple amines, such as ethylamine, are only ... Amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone are psychostimulant amines that are listed as controlled substances by the US ... Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine that helps to relieve allergic disorders due to cold, hay fever, itchy skin, insect bites ... It is used to relieve anxiety, excitement, restlessness or even mental disorder. ...
... an organic mental disorder (F0) or psychoactive substance-related disorder (F1), such as excess consumption of amphetamine-like ... and stressor-related disorders, personality disorders, substance-related and addictive disorders, neurocognitive disorders". ... bipolar disorders, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, trauma- ... The disorder does not meet the criteria for panic disorder (F41.0), phobic anxiety disorders (F40.-), obsessive-compulsive ...
Drug-related crime. *Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. *Long-term effects of cannabis ... heroin or amphetamines. The general intent is to enable the patient to confront substance dependence, if present, and cease ... Klein, Jared Wilson (July 2016). "Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders". Medical Clinics of North America. 100 (4): 891- ... There have also been several deaths related to ibogaine use, which causes tachycardia and long QT syndrome. The drug is an ...
Substance abuse / Substance use disorder / Substance-related disorders. *Physical dependence / Psychological dependence / ... Person-related factors[edit]. Several factors which do not in themselves cause alcohol hangover are known to influence its ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hangover.. *"Alcohol Hangover: Mechanisms and Mediators" [PDF] by Robert Swift, M.D., Ph ... may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. ... Pueraria lobata appears to be ...
Amphetamine abuse symptoms - Amphetamines are stimulants that may be prescribed by a doctor to treat several conditions ... physical and psychological signs and symptoms of amphetamine abuse now. ... Narcolepsy (a disorder causing excessive daytime sleepiness), ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) or for weight ... Related Posts. Ten Questions to Ask Before Entering Rehab. December 19, 2019. ...
Longshore D, Grills C, Annon K. Effects of a culturally congruent intervention on cognitive factors related to drug-use ... Randomized controlled trial of brief cognitive-behavioural interventions among regular users of amphetamine Addiction 2001; 96( ... and family intervention for patients with comorbid schizophrenia and substance use disorders Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158(10): ... There is an ongoing need for the development and adaptation of behavioral interventions to address behaviors related to ...
Learn about amphetamine addiction signs, side effects, causes, symptoms & withdrawals from amphetamine abuse. Acadiana ... Rather, its likely that amphetamine addiction is related to a number of interplaying factors. Some of these factors may ... Increased physiological and behavioral disorders. *Toxic psychosis. *Mental and behavioral changes. *Repetitive motor activity ... Understanding Amphetamine Addiction. Learn About Amphetamine Abuse & Addiction. Amphetamines, Schedule II controlled substances ...
Stress Anxiety Mood Disorders Impulse Disorders Addictions Substance Abuse Health Psychology Motor Vehicle & Work Accidents ... Some prescription medications include amphetamines as an agent. The manufacture, supply, and use of amphetamines are illegal in ... Making feelings related to depression stronger.. Binge drinking:. The short term risks due to binge drinking include alcohol ... Amphetamines are taken many ways, swallowed, injected, smoked, inhaled and snorted. The effects of feeling alert, energised, ...
Systematic review of treatment for amphetamine-related disorders  World Health Organization. Management of Substance ... Workshop on Problems Relating to the Use of Amphetamine-type Stimulants (‎ATS)‎ in the Western Pacific Region, Manila, ... 2001)‎. Systematic review of amphetamine-related disorders. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/ ... Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎ ...
... describes four separate amphetamine-related disorders. These are: * Amphetamine dependence, which refers to chronic or episodic ... also have amphetamine-like action. Amphetamine-related disorders refer to the effects of abuse, dependence, and acute ... amphetamine withdrawal Amphetamine dependence refers to chronic or episodic use of amphetamine involving drug binges known as " ... Closely related are the so-called "designer amphetamines," the most well-known of which is the "club drug" MDMA, or "ecstasy" ( ...
DSM-IV Diagnostic criteria for virtually any mental health disorder. ... Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified symptoms and diagnostic criteria follow below.... ... Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Symptoms and DSM-IV Diagnosis. Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise ... Diagnostic Criteria for 292.9 Amphetamine-Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. The amphetamine-related disorder not ...
Workshop on Problems Relating to the Use of Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS) in the Western Pacific Region, Manila, ... Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific ( ... The four Technical Briefs on Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) were produced by the World Health Organization Regional Office ... "Amphetamine-Related Disorders". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Build: Fri Apr 12 22:16:45 EDT 2019 (commit: 82eed56). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Naltrexone. ... Diagnosis of amphetamine dependence as defined by DSM-IV-TR with 10 or more days of amphetamine use in the past month, and ... Amphetamine Craving Scale [ Time Frame: 24 weeks ]. The Amphetamine Craving Scale is a visual analogue scale, which is scored ... Schizophrenia, Bipolar I or other non-substance related psychotic disorder; Severely depressed, suicidal or homicidal: Dementia ...
Systematic review of amphetamine-related disorders  World Health Organization. Management of Substance Dependence Team (‎World ... 1997)‎. Amphetamine-type stimulants : a report from the WHO Meeting on Amphetamines, MDMA and other Psychostimulants, Geneva, ... Amphetamine-type stimulants : a report from the WHO Meeting on Amphetamines, MDMA and other Psychostimulants, Geneva, 12-15 ... Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎ ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders. D019969. EFO:0004701. metamphetamine dependence. 1. ClinicalTrials. Glioblastoma. D005909. EFO: ... Opioid-Related Disorders. D009293. EFO:0005611. opioid dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Cocaine-Related Disorders. D019970. EFO: ... N07B - DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS. N07BB - Drugs used in alcohol dependence. N07BB01 - disulfiram. P - ANTIPARASITIC ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders. D019969. EFO:0004701. metamphetamine dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome. ... Substance-Related Disorders. D019966. EFO:0003890. drug dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Deglutition Disorders. D003680. HP: ... post-traumatic stress disorder. 2. ClinicalTrials. Cocaine-Related Disorders. D019970. EFO:0002610. cocaine dependence. 3. ... Opioid-Related Disorders. D009293. EFO:0005611. opioid dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Parkinson Disease. D010300. EFO:0002508. ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Naltrexone. ... It has shown promise in reducing relapse to amphetamine use among amphetamine-dependent, yet currently amphetamine-abstinent ... MedlinePlus related topics: Methamphetamine Drug Information available for: Methamphetamine hydrochloride Metamfetamine ...
Mood Disorder. *Substance-Related Disorders. *Amphetamine-Related Disorders. *Drug: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ... Clonidine for Sleep Disturbances in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. *Autism Spectrum Disorder ... To Evaluate the Long-term Efficacy of KAPVAY in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ... Long-term Maintenance of Efficacy of KAPVAY in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders. *HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. *HIV Dementia. *Insomnia Disorder. *Pain Disorder ... The better short-term outcome of cytomegalovirus positive patients observed in this study may relate to the immunosuppressive ... Furthermore, greater reported experiential avoidance was significantly related to reduced self-efficacy of illness management ... greater reported experiential avoidance was significantly related to greater reported trauma and symptoms of traumatic stress. ...
Tobacco Use Disorder. Amphetamine-Related Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced ... Psychiatric disorder that requires medication therapy. History of seizures. Pregnant and/or nursing women. Dependence on ETOH ... Mental Disorders. Dopamine. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Cardiotonic Agents. Sympathomimetics. Autonomic Agents. ... Participants give daily urine samples and fill out health related questionnaires. It is important to determine whether the ...
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders.. Mullen JM, Crawford AT.. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls ... attitudes to people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders / economics, psychology*. Animals. Conditioning, Operant / physiology*. Cues*. Data ... Related Documents : 24924793 - Stimuli inducing the regurgitation of the workers of lasius flavus (formicidae) upon th.... ...
Categories: Amphetamine-Related Disorders Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Systematic review of amphetamine-related disorders  World Health Organization. Management of Substance Dependence Team (‎World ...
See also Amphetamines and related disorders ; Diets ; Anorexia nervosa ; Bulimia nervosa ; Obesity ; Self-help groups ; Support ... The most common, phenylpropanalomine, is an appetite suppressant that is distantly related to the amphetamines. Like the ... The medication was shown to be associated with a rare but very serious and potentially fatal disorder known as primary ... Amphetamines and similar medications were frequently prescribed in the United States, during the 1960s and 70s, as appetite ...
Amphetamines improve ADHD symptom severity but, when compared with placebo, they are associated with increased discontinuation ... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. * Cochrane for Clinicians Related Content. *Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ... 1. Castells X, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Bosch R, Nogueira M, Casas M. Amphetamines for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ... He reports a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that was successfully treated with amphetamines in ...
International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 22 Suppl 1: S18-28, discussion S29. PMID 9758240. "FDA ... Older anorectic agents such as amphetamine and fenfluramine force the release of these neurotransmitters rather than affecting ... Related CBS news item 19 November 2004. James WP, Caterson ID, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal LF, Maggioni AP, Torp-Pedersen C, ... A review of the pharmacological evidence to differentiate it from d-amphetamine and d-fenfluramine". ...
See also amphetamine-related disorders, ice. They provide temporary symptomatic relief of acute intermittent porphyria, ...
Amphetamine-Related Psychiatric Disorders, 3. detsember 2015, [2017, veebruar 28] *↑ AMPHETAMINES HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ... ADMINISTRATION OF AMPHETAMINES FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME MAY LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE AND MUST BE AVOIDED. PARTICULAR ... MISUSE OF AMPHETAMINE MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS. ... ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING AMPHETAMINES FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO ...
Ice, see also amphetamine-related disorders. The stylet is removed (fig. This is a possibility that uterine leiomyoma as it ... Such measures involve basic sleep hygiene consisting of closely related to the inner plexiform layer n. Either of the warning ... However, it is difficult to establish the patients, whereas panic disorder is also indicated. Does not inhibit hepatic ... 1 sexual attraction between mental disorders based on a prevalence of bacterial multiplication may reduce the absorption as ...
Source for information on Substance-induced psychotic disorder: Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders dictionary. ... to be caused by the effects of a psychoactive substance is the primary feature of a substance-induced psychotic disorder. A ... Substance-induced psychotic disorder Definition Prominent psychotic symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and/or delusions ) ... See also Alcohol and related disorders; Amphetamines and related disorders; Antianxiety drugs and abuse-related disorders; ...
Psychosocial interventions for cocaine and psychostimulant amphetamines related disorders (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev ... Cognitive-behavioural therapy for substance use disorders in people with psychotic disorders: randomised controlled trial. Br J ... Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;1:CD003026.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3 ... Amphetamine-group substances and HIV. Lancet 2010;376:458-74.doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60753-2 ...
Food and Drug Administration to remove excess iron in the blood among people with a genetic blood disorder called non- ... Amphetamine-related hospitalizations surged between 2003 and 2015. November 2, 2018 An analysis conducted by Hennepin ... University of Minnesota School of Public Health and University of Michigan researchers shows amphetamine-related ... Related Stories. Blood protein offers help against anemia. January 26, 2010 A new study shows that a protein found in blood ...
Substance-related disorders. *Substance‐related disorders. *Surgical procedures, operative. *Urologic diseases. *Vascular ... Trends in amphetamine-related harms in Victoria. Cherie Heilbronn, Caroline X Gao, Belinda Lloyd, Karen Smith, David Best and ... we conducted an exploratory study using multiple indicators of amphetamine-related harm from July 2010 to June 2012. ... there has been growing concern over rising ice use in Australia and related harms, including psychosis, stroke and cardiac ...
... amphetamine psychosis) and the psychoses related to schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia. Delirium is often drug induced ... particularly conduct disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder). A study in Finland ... In a minority of cases, homicides and acts of violence may be related to mental disorder. These homicides and fantasies do not ... They should be brought swiftly to a place where an assessment can be made and any underlying medical or mental disorder should ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine Tablets. Includes indications, proper use, special ... Amphetamine / dextroamphetamine systemic 20 mg (cor 135) View all images *Related: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ... Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine Tablets. Generic Name: Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine Tablets (deks troe am FET a meen & ... Misuse of this medicine (dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets) may cause heart-related side effects or even sudden death. ...
See alcohol-related disorders, amphetamine-related disorders, empathogen, substance-related disorders. Rev med interne 910. The ... It is much more confident and independent disorder (standard edition, vii, pp. A part of neuronal connection the muscle and ... the degree of disorder where there is severe and warrants consideration of the. Preanesthesia routine administration of ...
  • Amphetamines work through activating a trace amine receptor and increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmitters, especially the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. (acadianatreatmentcenter.com)
  • Symptoms of use will show up immediately if it is injected (making it a preferred route of administration for amphetamine addicts) and within 3 to 5 minutes if it is snorted. (acadianatreatmentcenter.com)
  • Narcolepsy (a disorder causing excessive daytime sleepiness), ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) or for weight loss. (theduneseasthampton.com)
  • No matter where someone gains access to the drug, amphetamine abuse is a serious problem. (theduneseasthampton.com)
  • Amphetamines, also known as "bennies," "speed," "uppers," and "wake-ups" have a number of ways in which the drug can be synthetically manufactured and distributed illegally. (acadianatreatmentcenter.com)
  • There is an ongoing need for the development and adaptation of behavioral interventions to address behaviors related to acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases and for preventing the onset of chronic diseases. (benthamopen.com)
  • At The Dunes East Hampton , we are pleased to offer a premier amphetamine abuse treatment program in New York. (theduneseasthampton.com)
  • However, at large doses, such as those experienced by those who abuse amphetamines (also called "speed freaks"), these drugs are more likely to increase rapid muscle deterioration and impair coordination. (acadianatreatmentcenter.com)
  • Presently, amphetamines are prescribed as Adderall and dextroamphetamines and despite the heavy health and emotional consequences, are often diverted from the user to be used as recreational drugs. (acadianatreatmentcenter.com)
  • Amphetamine-related disorders refer to the effects of abuse, dependence, and acute intoxication stemming from inappropriate amphetamine and amphetamine-related drug usage. (minddisorders.com)
  • Amphetamine dependence, which refers to chronic or episodic binges (known as "speed runs"), with brief drug-free periods of time in between use. (minddisorders.com)
  • Amphetamine abuse, which is less severe than dependence. (minddisorders.com)
  • Until positive results were found with oral naltrexone, no medication has been effective against amphetamine dependence. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • lists opioid dependence and opioid abuse as substance use disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Marital difficulties, including divorce, unemployment, and drug-related legal problems are often associated with opioid dependence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pharmacological interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders have been well researched and reported on for the management of withdrawal, dependence, and relapse prevention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The terms 'addiction,' 'abuse,' and 'dependence' have traditionally been used in regard to people with substance use disorders. (merckmanuals.com)
  • In one study in 1988-90, illness in approximately half of patients attending mental health services at British hospital psychiatric clinic, for conditions including anxiety disorders such as panic disorder or social phobia , was determined to be the result of alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes anxiety pre-existed alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence, but the dependence was acting to keep the anxiety disorders going and often progressively making them worse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine dependence is a substance-related disorder involving a dysfunctional pattern of amphetamine use. (humanprogress.org)
  • DSM-IV-TR describes both cocaine use disorders (cocaine dependence and cocaine abuse) and cocaine-induced disorders (cocaine intoxication, cocaine withdrawal, cocaine intoxication delirium, cocaine-induced sexual dysfunction, cocaine-induced psychotic, mood, anxiety, and sleep disorders). (ecstasy.com.ua)
  • Drug and alcohol dependence disorders are best characterized as chronic medical illnesses. (ecstasy.com.ua)
  • Substance dependence is continued pattern of substance use in spite of repeated adverse consequences related to repeated use. (mhmedical.com)
  • Both fulfill Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria for substance dependence because of compulsive use of excess amounts of a drug with resultant negative consequences. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • that evaluated DSM-IV axis I disorders in 10 patients with HHD and PD and 10 control patients with PD, 70% of the patients with HHD met operational criteria for maladaptive dependence on their dopamine replacement therapy, whereas none of the controls did. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Amphetamine intoxication, which refers to serious maladaptive behavioral or psychological changes that develop during, or shortly after, use of an amphetamine or related substance. (minddisorders.com)
  • In addition, the disorder is subtyped based on whether it began during intoxication on a substance or during withdrawal from a substance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-IV-TR ) notes that a diagnosis is made only when the psychotic symptoms are above and beyond what would be expected during intoxication or withdrawal and when the psychotic symptoms are severe. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, the opioid-induced disorders of opioid intoxication and opioid withdrawal are listed in the substance-related disorders section as well. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Psychotic symptoms may happen during amphetamine intoxication and can last days or weeks after the intoxication phase of drug use. (drugscience.org.uk)
  • Amphetamine withdrawal, which refers to symptoms that develop within a few hours to several days after reducing or stopping heavy and prolonged amphetamine use. (minddisorders.com)
  • Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified symptoms and diagnostic criteria follow below. (psychtreatment.com)
  • While some of these Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified symptoms may be recognized by family, teachers, legal and medical professionals, and others, only properly trained mental health professionals (psychologists, psychiatrists, professional counselors etc.) can or should even attempt to make a mental health diagnosis. (psychtreatment.com)
  • Many additional factors are considered in addition to the Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified symptoms in making proper diagnosis, including frequently medical and psychological testing considerations. (psychtreatment.com)
  • This information on Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified symptoms and diagnostic criteria are for information purposes only and should never replace the judgment and comprehensive assessment of a trained mental health clinician. (psychtreatment.com)
  • Among a small sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM in a California Bay Area County, greater reported experiential avoidance was significantly related to greater reported trauma and symptoms of traumatic stress. (stanford.edu)
  • The three amphetamine derivatives investigated (dextroamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine, and mixed amphetamine salts) were all efficacious for reducing ADHD symptoms, but mixed amphetamine salts also increased retention in treatment. (aafp.org)
  • Prominent psychotic symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and/or delusions ) determined to be caused by the effects of a psychoactive substance is the primary feature of a substance-induced psychotic disorder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Psychotic symptoms are not actually part of another psychotic disorder (such as schizophrenia , schizophreniform disorder , schizoaffective disorder ) that is not substance induced. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For instance, if the psychotic symptoms began prior to substance or medication use, then another psychotic disorder is likely. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If the symptoms are determined to be due to the medical condition, then a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition is warranted. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Accordingly, psychological treatments aim to reduce MA use and related problems, including symptoms of mental ill health. (bmj.com)
  • At least one-third of patients with an underlying organic disorder present with anxiety symptoms. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Sometimes this particular spectrum of symptoms can be secondary to a mood disorder such as depression or manic-depression. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A new study, now online in the journal International Journal of Eating Disorders , sheds light on why these symptoms occur in anorexia nervosa. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Drugs.com advises that when taken as prescribed by correctly diagnosed patients, Adderall can help control symptoms of ADD and related conditions. (livestrong.com)
  • [17] Similarly, long-term alcohol use is associated with anxiety disorders, [18] with evidence that prolonged abstinence can result in a disappearance of anxiety symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Withdrawal after prolonged therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of underlying disorder, possibly requiring follow-up. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The leaves of for asthma, it eases symptoms of intestinal the khat plant contain alkaloids structurally tract disorders [9] and maintains social con- related to amphetamine. (who.int)
  • Before diagnosing a particular anxiety disorder, it is important to rule-out other possible causes of anxiety symptoms. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Anxiety symptoms can be due to: 1) an anxiety disorder, 2) another psychiatric disorder, 3) a medical disease or disorder, and 4) the use of, or withdrawal from, alcohol and other drugs. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Thus, in order for an anxiety disorder to be diagnosed, the clinician must determine whether the anxiety symptoms are severe enough to result in significant distress, or impairment in functioning. (mentalhelp.net)
  • These two diagnoses are used when symptoms create significant distress and/or impaired functioning but do not seem to meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the other anxiety disorders. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Certain medical disorders or diseases can cause psychiatric symptoms. (mentalhelp.net)
  • When the fear and anxiety symptoms are the direct effect of a medical condition, this would be referred to as an Anxiety Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition. (mentalhelp.net)
  • When anxiety symptoms are a direct result of a prescription drug, over-the-counter drug, or street drug, then the correct diagnosis is Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Steroidal drugs used to treat asthma and other respiratory disorders may create anxiety symptoms (albuterol, salmeterol, and theophylline). (mentalhelp.net)
  • Other Unspecified Anxiety Disorder is used when there are anxiety-like symptoms that cause significant distress or impaired functioning. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Psychotic symptoms (like those suffered by people with schizophrenia) can occur when taking amphetamines. (drugscience.org.uk)
  • Co-occurring disorders can be challenging to identify and treat because the symptoms are complex and broad-ranging. (discoveryplace.info)
  • What are the symptoms of a co-occurring disorder? (discoveryplace.info)
  • Disorders may have overlapping symptoms making it harder to tease them apart. (discoveryplace.info)
  • Higher rates of any past-year drug use and symptoms of drug use disorders were found only in the border city of Laredo, when compared to the non-border city of San Antonio. (scielo.org.mx)
  • A 1.5-Year Follow-Up of Parent Training and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Noncompliant/Disruptive Behavior in Autism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by persistent symptoms of lack of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Giovannoni and colleagues 2 have suggested that HHD, which they describe as excessive use of dopamine replacement therapy despite the occurrence of violent and disabling drug-induced dyskinesias and severe psychiatric symptoms, 'is a pathological, compulsive disorder designed to avoid the negative withdrawal phase of dopamine replacement therapy. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Many physical disorders cause symptoms that mimic those of specific mental disorders. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Like cocaine, amphetamine results in an accumulation of the neurotransmitter dopamine. (minddisorders.com)
  • The primary pharmacologic effect of both amphetamine and methylphenidate is to increase central dopamine and norepinephrine activity, which impacts executive and attentional function. (ovid.com)
  • Amphetamine actions include dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition, vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2) inhibition, and monoamine oxidase activity inhibition. (ovid.com)
  • A study led by Walter Kaye, MD, professor of psychiatry and director of the Eating Disorder Treatment and Research Program at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, used a brain imaging technology called positron emission tomography (PET), which permits visualization of dopamine function in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In order to provoke dopamine levels in the brain, scientists administered a one-time dose of the drug amphetamine, which releases dopamine in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In healthy women without an eating disorder, amphetamine-induced release of dopamine was related to feelings of extreme pleasure in a part of the brain known as a "reward" center. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It's possible that when people with anorexia nervosa eat, the related release of the neurotransmitter dopamine makes them anxious, rather than experiencing a normal feeling of reward. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to Bryn Mawr University, the chemical amphetamine helps to treat ADD and related disorders by blocking the reuptake of the chemical messenger dopamine from certain neural synapses while increasing the uptake into subsequent neurons or nerves in the brain. (livestrong.com)
  • Specifically, amphetamine increases the amount of dopamine, noradrenalin and serotonin in areas of the nervous system such as those involved in reward/pleasure, movement and thought/decision making (amongst others). (drugscience.org.uk)
  • HHD, which affects only a small percentage (4%) of patients with PD, is characterized by adverse psychomotor effects related to dopamine replacement therapy. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Amphetamine acts by stimulating the human central nervous system (nerves and brain) whereby it increases the release of chemical content such as norepinephrine, dopamine and noradrenaline in the body. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • Amphetamines are a group of powerful and highly addictive substances that dramatically affect the central nervous system. (minddisorders.com)
  • Amphetamine-like substances called ephedrine and propranolamine are available over the counter in the United States and are used as nasal decongestants. (minddisorders.com)
  • For example, "poppers," amphetamines, and ecstasy are substances associated with increased sexual intensity, while methamphetamine and erectile dysfunction medication are used to increase duration of intercourse (14). (ohtn.on.ca)
  • This drug family is comprised predominately of methamphetamines and amphetamines, and excludes ecstasy-group substances (28). (ohtn.on.ca)
  • Generally, amphetamine-group substances are associated with sexual risk taking in the form of unprotected sex, sex with multiple partners, and long sexual episodes (27). (ohtn.on.ca)
  • A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis focused on men who have sex with men in high-income countries found that associations between amphetamine-group substances and HIV infection were statistically significant across three types of study designs (cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal) (5). (ohtn.on.ca)
  • Similar to other synthetic substances, amphetamines stimulate or excite the central nervous system, which can result in feelings of higher energy, focus,confidence and to some degree, euphoria. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Psychosis, which accounts for 89% of admissions with homicidal ideation in one US study, includes substance-induced psychosis (e.g. amphetamine psychosis) and the psychoses related to schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in Finland showed an increased risk of violence from people who have antisocial personality disorder, which is greater than the risk of violence from people who have schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifty-eight percent of young adult clients with clearly defined schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related disorders participating in a long-term community treatment study were rated by staff or themselves as using alcohol, cannabis, or other street drugs several times a week or more. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For the treatment of schizophrenia in adults and in adolescents, ages 13 to 17, and for the short-term treatment of manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents ages 10 to 17. (selfdecode.com)
  • Individuals diagnosed with amphetamine abuse have milder but nevertheless still substantial problems due to their drug usage. (minddisorders.com)
  • A substance-induced psychotic disorder that begins during withdrawal may first manifest up to four weeks after an individual stops using the substance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Desired treatments by patients included counseling, medical withdrawal, or medical maintenance with the drug of abuse or a chemically related drug. (ecstasy.com.ua)
  • Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have long been used for conditions including various psychiatric disorders, insomnia, acute alcohol withdrawal, and epilepsy [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use and withdrawal from several street drugs are also implicated in precipitating, or worsening, an anxiety disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Withdrawal symptom starts 2 to 3 days after the last consumption of Amphetamine and the symptom will ease off after a week until 10 days. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • A substance-induced psychotic disorder, by definition, is directly caused by the effects of drugs including alcohol, medications, and toxins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For instance, auditory hallucinations (specifically, hearing voices), visual hallucinations, and tactile hallucinations are most common in an alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, whereas persecutory delusions and tactile hallucinations (especially formication) are commonly seen in a cocaine- or amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, it is clear that substance-induced psychotic disorders occur more commonly in individuals who abuse alcohol or other drugs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Promote abstinence and relapse prevention during and after treatment for an alcohol and/or substance use disorder (TREATMENT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chapter 14 Substance-Related Disorders: Alcohol. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Several hospitalizations for alcohol-related illness can occur before a direct connection is made between a patient's alcohol use and medical problems. (ecstasy.com.ua)
  • Alcoholic patients tend to experience many alcohol-related problems before seeking professional help or attending AA meetings. (ecstasy.com.ua)
  • Psychiatrists participating in a hospital survey positively identified alcohol abuse two-thirds of the time, whereas physicians treating gynecology patients diagnosed the disorder only 10% of the time. (ecstasy.com.ua)
  • There was no history of other psychiatric disorder (depression, drug, or alcohol consumption). (frontiersin.org)
  • and alcohol, have all been known to cause, or aggravate a pre-existing anxiety disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • While young racial/ethnic groups are the fastest growing population in the United States, data on alcohol and drug use disorders among adolescents of various racial/ethnic backgrounds are lacking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Among past-year alcohol or drug users (n=27,705), Native Americans (32%), multiple-race adolescents (25%), whites (23%), and Hispanics (21%) had the highest rates of alcohol or drug use disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These groups also are disproportionately affected by alcohol and drug use disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, there is a growing need for understanding alcohol and drug use disorders among adolescents of various racial/ethnic backgrounds to track health statistics, plan for and improve health services, and identify vulnerable subgroups for focused intervention. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Data are from the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC, 2011-2013), a survey of 4 796 randomly selected Mexican and of Mexican origin individuals on both sides of the border. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Los datos provienen del Estudio "US-Mexico study on alcohol and related conditions" (UMSARC, 2011- 2013), una encuesta de 4 796 personas mexicanas y de origen mexicano en ambos lados de la frontera. (scielo.org.mx)
  • The phenylethylamine structure of amphetamines (see the image below) is similar to catecholaminergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic agonists (biogenic amines), which may explain their actions. (medscape.com)
  • An individual who is addicted to opioids cannot simply just stop using, despite significant negative consequences related to their use. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chapter 22 Substance-Related Disorders: Opioids. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Highlights This review discusses amphetamine (AMP) and methylphenidate (MPH) pharmacology. (ovid.com)
  • Psychostimulants, including amphetamines and methylphenidate, are first-line pharmacotherapies for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (ovid.com)
  • This review aims to educate physicians regarding differences in pharmacology and mechanisms of action between amphetamine and methylphenidate, thus enhancing physician understanding of psychostimulants and their use in managing individuals with ADHD who may have comorbid psychiatric conditions. (ovid.com)
  • This allowed molecular genetic counselling and prevention of potentially harmful drug exposure in the patient's son treated for attention deficit disorder with methylphenidate, an amphetamine‐related drug. (ersjournals.com)
  • Here you can see the latest Comparison Of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate With Atomoxetine HCl In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Subjects With An Inadequate Response To Methylphenidate articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Comparison Of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate With Atomoxetine HCl In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Subjects With An Inadequate Response To Methylphenidate Companies in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
  • You can also find out about relevant Comparison Of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate With Atomoxetine HCl In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Subjects With An Inadequate Response To Methylphenidate Drugs and Medications on this site too. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Labels for methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine caution against use in patients with cardiovascular disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The same study also cites that many other mental disorders are not associated with an increased risk of violence, of note: depression, anxiety disorders and intellectual disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • A n anxiety disorder is more common in such areas as interpersonal communication, self-care, home living, social skills, bowel or using amantadine, bethanechol, buspirone or bupropion. (yogachicago.com)
  • If you're sitting in there on a clear day, trembling, sweating and feeling doomed, then you probably have an anxiety disorder. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Anxiety Disorders are one of the most common psychiatric conditions, affecting fifteen to twenty per cent of the general population. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A type of primary anxiety disorder is the panic attack. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Another form of anxiety is the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. (selfgrowth.com)
  • If a person has six months or more of constant generalized anxiety and excessive worry with the physical and emotional repercussions of anxiety, this is called Generalized Anxiety Disorder. (selfgrowth.com)
  • There is an anxiety disorder which occurs after a person has endured a shocking situation in which he has faced the possibility of his own death . (selfgrowth.com)
  • Clinical implications of these actions in individuals with ADHD with comorbid depression, anxiety, substance use disorder, and sleep disturbances are discussed. (ovid.com)
  • According to the researchers, even though food is accompanied by severe anxiety, it is still critical to eat and gain weight in order to effectively treat this disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder ( GAD ) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • About a third of the variance for generalized anxiety disorder has been attributed to genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco smoking has been established as a risk factor for developing anxiety disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder has been linked to disrupted functional connectivity of the amygdala and its processing of fear and anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • In those with generalized anxiety disorder, these connections seem less functionally distinct, and there is greater gray matter in the central nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapter 9 Childhood Disorders: Elimination Disorders and Childhood Anxiety Disorders. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Chapter 29 Anxiety Disorders: Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobia. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Chapter 30 Anxiety Disorders: Social and Specific Phobias. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Chapter 31 Anxiety Disorders: Obsessive?Compulsive Disorder. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Chapter 32 Anxiety Disorders: Traumatic Stress Disorders. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Chapter 33 Anxiety Disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder. (fishpond.com.au)
  • I have had treatments for Major and Dysthymic Depression (Double Depression)and Anxiety for 35 + years and is one of my long term primary Mental Disorders. (healingwell.com)
  • and the catchall categories Other Specified and Unspecified Anxiety Disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Someone may not fully meet the diagnostic criteria for a particular anxiety disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • In this case, they could receive a diagnosis of Other Specified Anxiety Disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • However, there is insufficient information to determine what particular type of Anxiety Disorder may be present. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Also known as Generalized Anxiety Disorder ) A condition in which people experience a constant state of high anxiety, which does not seem to be attributed to any particular cause. (mental-health-matters.com)
  • Anxiety disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), each coupled with a substance use disorder, are some of the more common co-occurring disorders. (discoveryplace.info)
  • Pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid with an anxiety disorder: a systematic review. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the pharmacological options available to treat patients diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder, for generating evidence on the safest, most-effective and tolerable pharmacotherapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Closely related are the socalled "designer amphetamines," the most well known of which is the "club drug" MDMA, best known as "ecstasy. (minddisorders.com)
  • This so-called designer drug, best known as "ecstasy," but also as MDMA, XTC, and Adam, has behavioral effects that combine amphetamine-like and hallucinogen-like properties. (minddisorders.com)
  • WHO Meeting on Amphetamines, MDMA and other Psychostimulants (‎1996: Geneva, Switzerland)‎ & World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • Chapter 19 Substance-Related Disorders: Hallucinogens and MDMA. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Sometimes pills sold as MDMA (ecstasy) or other drugs may actually contain amphetamine. (drugscience.org.uk)
  • In this latter case treatment would be for the mood disorder. (selfgrowth.com)
  • On the other hand, if they had a mood disorder well before they ever used , then they might well need medication or other treatments. (discoveryplace.info)
  • This drug, cathinone or Khat, has an effect on most of the central nervous system, in addition providing the other properties of amphetamines. (minddisorders.com)
  • During this same time period, a drug chemically related to the amphetamines began to be produced. (minddisorders.com)
  • Delirium is often drug induced or secondary to general medical illness(es) (see ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders F05). (wikipedia.org)
  • To examine the efficacy and safety of amphetamines for adults with ADHD, as well as the influence of dose, drug type, and release formulation type. (aafp.org)
  • When amphetamines were compared with other drug interventions, no differences were found. (aafp.org)
  • A substance-induced psychotic disorder that begins during substance use can last as long as the drug is used. (encyclopedia.com)
  • HealthDay)-Exjade (deferasirox) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to remove excess iron in the blood among people with a genetic blood disorder called non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Substance-related disorders can develop whether or not a drug is legal, is socially acceptable, or has an accepted medical use (with or without a prescription). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Drug screening was positive for amphetamines. (nih.gov)
  • Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.This drug may also be used to treat a certain sleeping disorder ( narcolepsy ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to patients with drug use disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a nationwide cohort study, we investigated the prescribing of benzodiazepines to patients with drug use disorders in connection with treatment admission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Benzodiazepine prescriptions to patients (N = 33203) aged 18 to 67 years admitting for outpatient treatment for drug use disorders in Denmark, 2000 to 2010, were studied by using linked data from nationwide health registries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Admitting to treatment for a drug use disorder did not increase the specialized psychiatric treatment coverage of this patient group, disregarding use of prescribed benzodiazepines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Benzodiazepines were commonly prescribed to patients admitting to treatment for drug use disorders, and included prescription of multiple and non-optimal types, high doses, and very long-term prescriptions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 20 Besides these general elements, the border area is distinctive from interior regions of the United States and Mexico in terms of exposure to stressors and other contribu tors to drug use and related problems. (scielo.org.mx)
  • However, it has previously been difficult to distinguish whether this frequent prescribing was due to underlying psychiatric disorders or inappropriate prescribing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings point towards inappropriate prescribing of benzodiazepines in many cases more than treatment for psychiatric disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This alphabetical list of Mental Disorders , also called Psychological Disorders , Psychiatric Disorders, and Mental Illnesses has been gathered from a wide variety of sources including the DSM-IV, DSM 5, ICD-10 Chapter V, and online resources including the Wikipedia page on mental disorders . (mental-health-matters.com)
  • A substance-induced psychotic disorder is subtyped or categorized based on whether the prominent feature is delusions or hallucinations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Diagnosis of a substance-induced psychotic disorder must be differentiated from a psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The aim of the section is to offer a strong international and well-recognized venue for scientific and clinical publications in the field of addictive disorders in order to meet the needs and opportunities of the 21st century. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ultimate goal is to accelerate progress in these research areas to improve the prevention and treatment of mental health and addictive disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Addictive Disorders, where they are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the specialty section. (frontiersin.org)
  • Articles published in the section Addictive Disorders will benefit from the Frontiers impact and tiering system after online publication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drugs.com warns that Adderall is also considered highly addictive due to its active ingredient, amphetamine. (livestrong.com)
  • Addictive Disorders and their Treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Amphetamines are some of the most addictive drugs in the world. (mental-health-matters.com)
  • Like opiates, amphetamines are highly addictive and disruptive to a person's life when used recreationally. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • He reports a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that was successfully treated with amphetamines in middle and high school. (aafp.org)
  • Are amphetamines effective for the treatment of adult ADHD? (aafp.org)
  • Amphetamines improve ADHD symptom severity but, when compared with placebo, they are associated with increased discontinuation rates because of adverse effects. (aafp.org)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset disorder that can persist into adulthood. (aafp.org)
  • Amphetamines are used to treat adult ADHD, but uncertainties persist about their efficacy and safety. (aafp.org)
  • Amphetamines improved short-term ADHD symptom severity. (aafp.org)
  • ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that typically begins in childhood and often persists into adulthood. (aafp.org)
  • Adderall is prescribed for people to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, but many people use it without a prescription, due to the desired effects. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Impulsiveness as a moderator of amphetamine treatment response for cocaine use disorder among ADHD patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Amphetamines are a first-line treatment for ADHD and have shown promise for the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CUD), both alone and with comorbid ADHD. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Impulsiveness is a key aspect of both ADHD and substance use disorders. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In a post hoc analysis (N = 76) of a 14-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mixed amphetamine salts-extended release (MAS-ER) for comorbid ADHD and CUD, we examined the relationship between treatment response and participants' baseline Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) score by comparing those with scores below versus above the median. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Catecholamine alterations occur in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (ovid.com)
  • This combination medication is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) as part of a total treatment plan, including psychological, social, and other treatments. (medicinenet.com)
  • For instance, some people use amphetamine (often in the form of medications meant to treat ADHD) as a study aid to help them focus and work for long periods of time. (drugscience.org.uk)
  • Also known as ADHD ) This is a neurodevelopmental disorder, meaning that the disorder is present at the time of birth. (mental-health-matters.com)
  • Amphetamines were originally produced to treat disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Sugar consumption and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A birth cohort study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between change in sugar consumption between 6 and 11 years of age and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal, prenatal, perinatal, and postpartum parameters as risk factors for the later development of an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the child. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Clinically, Amphetamine is used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (chronic brain condition related to disturbances in sleep-wake cycle). (myhealth.gov.my)
  • Early in the 1900s, they were also used to treat several medical and psychiatric conditions, including narcolepsy (a rare condition in which an individuals falls asleep at dangerous and inappropriate moments and cannot maintain normal alertness), attention-deficit disorders, obesity , and depression. (minddisorders.com)
  • A very bad and sometimes deadly health problem called serotonin syndrome may happen if you take this medicine (amphetamine tablets) with drugs for depression, migraines, or certain other drugs. (drugs.com)
  • Take Trazodone 100mg for both depression and sleep disorders. (healingwell.com)
  • The Short of this story is IF YOU HAVE DEPRESSION, have you Doctors Check for a Thyroid disorder. (healingwell.com)
  • It may arise in association with personality disorders or it may occur in people who do not have any detectable illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the most puzzling symptom of anorexia nervosa - a disorder that tends to occur in young women - is the refusal to eat, resulting in extreme weight loss. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sleep disorders are better understood when subdivided into dyssomnias, which are characterized by abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep, versus parasomnias, which are characterized by abnormal behavioral or physiologic events that occur in association with sleep stages or sleep-wake transitions. (medscape.com)
  • The authors did not find any study to be at low risk of bias overall, mainly because amphetamines have powerful subjective effects that may reveal the assigned treatment. (aafp.org)
  • Mixed amphetamine salts also increased retention in treatment. (aafp.org)
  • 1. A method of treating or preventing a neuroleptic or related disorder while reducing or avoiding adverse effects associated with the administration of sertindole, which comprises administering to a human in need of such treatment or prevention a therapeutically effective amount of a sertindole derivative, wherein the sertindole derivative is nor-sertindole, 5-oxo-sertindole, dehydro-sertindble, dehydro-nor-sertindole, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, or clathrate thereof. (google.com)
  • As a patient-centered Agency, Recovery Centers of King County's primary mission is to provide a full continuum of treatment and related services for individuals, their families and significant others who are suffering from chemical dependency. (directorym.com)
  • These psychic effects of khat chewing similar studies have shown that failure to recall those of amphetamine [19], but a abstain from khat use might prolong a psy- major role of environmental factors in the chotic episode, even during treatment with expression of khat effects has also been psychiatric medication [11,24-28,30]. (who.int)
  • On the other hand, initiation of psychiatric treatment for BZD users after admission to DUD treatment would be a likely indicator of an underlying psychiatric disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complexity of co-occurring disorders often means a more integrated approach is necessary for treatment. (discoveryplace.info)
  • If you or a loved one is struggling with substance use disorder, know that there is hope for recovery through treatment. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • When the individual make the decision to fight their substance use disorder and seek help, their team of doctors and therapists begin crafting an individualized treatment plan. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Detoxification - When the client arrives at an amphetamine treatment center, detox is often the first step.This step is necessary because an individual's mind can only be clear enough to enter recovery once their body is free from amphetamine. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Amphetamine and its derivatives are also known as speed, ice, ecstasy and syabu on the streets. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • Amphetamine -type medications can be habit-forming. (medicinenet.com)
  • Incidence of Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathy Following Initiation of Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Descriptive Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A person might meet all the diagnostic criteria for Panic Disorder except one. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Showing items related by title and MeSH subject. (who.int)
  • When this can be accomplished, it usually leads to a reduction in risk for obesity-related illnesses, such as high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes. (minddisorders.com)
  • For the second time, researchers have used the HIV virus in gene therapy to cure a severe genetic disease, this time the blood disorder beta-thalassemia, which causes life-threatening anemia. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Researchers have identified a gene that directly affects the production of a form of hemoglobin that is instrumental in modifying the severity of the inherited blood disorders sickle cell disease and thalassemia. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In a period of rising worldwide methamphetamine use, the incidence of methamphetamine-related stroke will increase, with a consequent increase in the burden of disease contributed by such events. (bmj.com)
  • nd This book stems from the 2 Parkinson's Disease Symposium on "Neurotoxic Factors in Parkinsons disease and related disorders", held on August 6-7,1999 at the University ofUlm Medical School in Ulm at the Danube, Germany. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The specific topic, neurotoxic factors in Parkinson's disease (PD), was chosen in light of accumulating neurobiological and epidemiological evidence indicating that the causes of this second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and possibly of related conditions such as multiple systems atrophy, in some manner involve environ- mental (xenobiotic) and even endogenous toxic agents. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Management needs to be individualized,' said Joseph Friedman, MD, director of the Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center of NeuroHealth, in Warwick, Rhode Island. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • It has shown promise in reducing relapse to amphetamine use among amphetamine-dependent, yet currently amphetamine-abstinent heterosexuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The effects that amphetamine can have are both physical (e.g. increased heart rate) and psychological (e.g. increased confidence). (drugscience.org.uk)
  • Because detox can be dangerous without medical supervision, an individual should undergo this process at a credentialed amphetamine rehab facility that has medical professionals onsite, such as The Recovery Village. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Call in backup if no atypical features do not cross the blood but he also articulated the cognitive style characterized by major depressive disorder is cyclothymic disorder. (yogachicago.com)
  • In a minority of cases, homicides and acts of violence may be related to mental disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • These homicides and fantasies do not seem to have the same underlying triggers as those by people without a mental disorder, but when these trigger factors are present the risk for violence is greater than usual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it would not be diagnosed as a mental disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Known officially in the medical field as a co-occurring disorder or comorbidity with a substance use disorder, a dual diagnosis refers to the presentation of both a mental disorder and a substance use disorder. (discoveryplace.info)
  • A broad term to include a range of combinations, a co-occurring disorder refers to the joint presentation of a mental disorder as identified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and a substance use disorder. (discoveryplace.info)
  • 7 Methamphetamine use has changed over years: in 1950s and 1960s, it was popular as benzedrine, later amphetamine became the preferred form, while most recently there has been a substantial global increase in the availability and use of high potency, crystalline methamphetamine. (bmj.com)