Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.LEOPARD Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.Stress Disorders, Traumatic: Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.Parasomnias: Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Masturbation: Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute: A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pachyonychia Congenita: A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Frasier Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.Abnormalities, MultipleStereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Ectodermal Dysplasia: A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Synucleins: A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Lewy Bodies: Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.United StatesGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Mice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.PropylaminesEuphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.

Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. (1/547)

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

Methamphetamine abuse and emergency department utilization. (2/547)

Methamphetamine (MAP) abuse continues to increase worldwide, based on morbidity, mortality, drug treatment, and epidemiologic studies and surveys. MAP abuse has become a significant health care, environmental, and law enforcement problem. Acute intoxication often results in agitation, violence, and death. Chronic use may lead to infection, heart failure, malnutrition, and permanent psychiatric illness. MAP users frequently use the emergency department (ED) for their medical care. Over a 6-month period we studied the demographics, type, and frequency of medical and traumatic problems in 461 MAP patients presenting to our ED, which serves an area noted for high levels of MAP production and consumption. Comparison was made to the general ED population to assess use patterns. MAP patients were most commonly Caucasian males who lacked health insurance. Compared to other ED patients during this time, MAP patients used ambulance transport more and were more likely to be admitted to the hospital. There was a significant association between trauma and MAP use in this patient population. Our data suggest MAP users utilize prehospital and hospital resources at levels higher than the average ED population. Based on current trends, we can expect more ED visits by MAP users in the future.  (+info)

Methamphetamine and the expanding complications of amphetamines. (3/547)

During the past 10 years, the use of methamphetamine has increased rapidly in the West and throughout the United States. Because of this increase, our attention has focused on methamphetamine's toxicity. Methamphetamine and related compounds generate many of the same toxic effects as cocaine. Because of methamphetamine's widespread use, clinicians should be familiar with its medical effects and toxicity and with treatment options for acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine abuse.  (+info)

Amphetamine withdrawal alters bistable states and cellular coupling in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens neurons recorded in vivo. (4/547)

Repeated amphetamine administration is known to produce changes in corticoaccumbens function that persist beyond termination of drug administration. We have found previously that long-term alteration in dopamine systems leads to changes in gap junction communication, expressed as dye coupling, between striatal neurons. In this study, the cellular bases of amphetamine-induced changes were examined using in vivo intracellular recordings and dye injection in ventral prefrontal-accumbens system neurons of control and amphetamine-treated rats. Rats that had been withdrawn from repeated amphetamine displayed a significant increase in the incidence of dye coupling in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, which persisted for up to 28 d after withdrawal. The increased coupling was limited to projection neurons in both prefrontal cortical and accumbens brain regions, as identified by their axonal trajectory or the absence of interneuron-selective immunocytochemical markers. These changes occurred with no substantial loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive terminals in these cortical and accumbens regions, ruling out dopamine degeneration as a precipitating factor. Previous studies showed that nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of coupling; however, amphetamine-withdrawn rats had fewer numbers of neurons and processes that stained for nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In amphetamine-treated rats, a higher proportion of cortical cells fired in bursts, and a larger proportion of accumbens and prefrontal cortical neurons exhibited bistable membrane oscillations. By increasing corticoaccumbens transmission, amphetamine withdrawal may lead to neuronal synchronization via gap junctions. Furthermore, this adaptation to amphetamine treatment persists long after the drug is withdrawn.  (+info)

Effects of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, on D-methamphetamine-induced cognitive and physiological changes in humans. (5/547)

D-methamphetamine is abused for its euphoric effects and stimulatory action on cognitive function. Its abuse can, however, be associated with massive hypertension resulting in strokes, ruptured aneurysms, or myocardial infarction. We examined the utility of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, in treating d-methamphetamine induced hypertension and evaluated its effects on cognitive function, both of which are mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms. D-methamphetamine dose-dependently increased all vital signs (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure, and pulse rate) parameters. Isradipine significantly reduced d-methamphetamine-induced increases in diastolic and mean arterial pressure; however, this potentially beneficial therapeutic effect was offset by a significant reflex rise in pulse rate. D-methamphetamine also improved attention, accuracy of reasoning ability, and performance on computerized cognitive function tasks. D-methamphetamine's cognitive improving effects were not altered significantly by isradipine. Isradipine increased the false responding rate but was without significant effect on any other attentional task, or on reasoning ability, or performance. Isradipine does not appear to enhance cognitive function in healthy humans.  (+info)

Acute psychological effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") are attenuated by the serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram. (6/547)

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a recreational drug that has been shown to release serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in animals. The effect of MDMA on 5-HT release can be blocked by 5-HT uptake inhibitors such as citalopram, suggesting that MDMA interacts with the 5-HT uptake site. It is unknown whether this mechanism is also responsible for the psychological effects of MDMA in humans. We investigated the effect of citalopram pretreatment (40 mg iv) on the psychological effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg po) in a double-blind placebo-controlled psychometric study in 16 healthy human volunteers. MDMA produced an emotional state with heightened mood, increased self-confidence and extroversion, moderate derealization, and an intensification of sensory perception. Most of these effects were markedly reduced by citalopram. This finding suggests that the psychological effects of MDMA are mediated via action at the 5-HT uptake site to increase 5-HT release through the carrier, as expected from animal studies.  (+info)

Carbamazepine suppresses methamphetamine-induced Fos expression in a regionally specific manner in the rat brain. Possible neural substrates responsible for antimanic effects of mood stabilizers. (7/547)

Carbamazepine (CBZ) has been widely used for treatment of manic states. Because amphetamine produces effects in humans similar to those of idiopathic mania, acute methamphetamine administration could serve as a model of this condition. To elucidate the neurobiological substrates responsible for the antimanic effects of carbamazepine, this study investigated the effects of chronic carbamazepine administration on regional Fos protein expression induced by a single dose of methamphetamine (2mg/kg). Chronic treatment with CBZ (0.25% in food for 7 days, followed by 0.5% for 7 days; final mean serum carbamazepine concentration: 4.09 +/- 0.34 microg/ml) significantly attenuated the number of Fos-like immunoreactivity-positive nuclei induced by methamphetamine administration in the core of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate/putamen. The results indicate these brain regions are involved in the antimanic effects of carbamazepine.  (+info)

Substance abuse and the kidney. (8/547)

Substance abuse has been increasing steadily in the UK and some other countries. Recent evidence suggests more than 40% of young people have tried illicit drugs at some time. There are numerous medical consequences to recreational drug use, and a physician should always consider substance abuse in any unexplained illness. The renal complications of drug abuse are also becoming more frequent, and may encompass a spectrum of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases. Although some substances are directly nephrotoxic, a number of other mechanisms are also involved. These effects are often chronic and irreversible, but occasionally acute with possible recovery. The rapid growth of illicit drug use is clearly a major public health problem. We review the commonly used substances of abuse and their associations with renal disease.  (+info)

*Stimulant use disorder

"Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... Nicotine dependence Amphetamine dependence Cocaine dependence Substance use disorder American Psychiatric Association. " ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... Stimulant use disorder is a type of substance use disorder that involves the abuse of stimulants. It is defined in the DSM-5 as ...

*DSM-5

"Sleep disorders related to another mental disorder, and sleep disorders related to a general medical condition" were deleted. ... 304.20 Cocaine dependence 304.30 Cannabis dependence 304.40 Amphetamine dependence (or amphetamine-like) 304.50 Hallucinogen ... rather than disorders of early onset). A new chapter on obsessive-compulsive and related disorders includes four new disorders ... excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, hoarding disorder, substance-/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder ...

*Mechanisms of schizophrenia

Mighdoll, Michelle I.; Tao, Ran; Kleinman, Joel E.; Hyde, Thomas M. (2015-01-01). "Myelin, myelin-related disorders, and ... Both studies using radio labeled L-DOPA, an indicator of dopamine synthesis, and studies using amphetamine release challenges ... Positive symptoms, such as thoughts of being persecuted, were found to be related to the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ... Negative symptoms were found to be related to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Ventricular and third ...

*List of MeSH codes (F03)

... amphetamine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.300 --- cocaine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.635 --- marijuana abuse MeSH F03.900. ... alcohol-related disorders MeSH F03.900.100.050 --- alcohol amnestic disorder MeSH F03.900.100.050.500 --- korsakoff syndrome ... panic disorder MeSH F03.080.725 --- phobic disorders MeSH F03.080.931 --- stress disorders, traumatic MeSH F03.080.931.249 --- ... combat disorders MeSH F03.080.931.374 --- stress disorders, traumatic, acute MeSH F03.080.931.500 --- stress disorders, post- ...

*Homicidal ideation

... amphetamine psychosis) and the psychoses related to schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia. Delirium is often drug induced ... particularly conduct disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder). A study in Finland ... In a minority of cases, homicides and acts of violence may be related to mental disorder. These homicides and fantasies do not ... They should be brought swiftly to a place where an assessment can be made and any underlying medical or mental disorder should ...

*DSM-IV codes

Related disorder NOS 291.81 Withdrawal 291.0 Withdrawal delirium Amphetamine (or amphetamine-like) 305.70 Abuse 304.40 ... Induced anxiety disorder 292.89 -Induced sleep disorder 305.90 Intoxication 292.9 -Related disorder NOS Cannabis 305.20 Abuse ... Related disorder NOS Cocaine 305.60 Abuse 304.20 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Inhalant 305.90 Abuse 304.60 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ...

*Generalized anxiety disorder

... an organic mental disorder (F0) or psychoactive substance-related disorder (F1), such as excess consumption of amphetamine-like ... and stressor-related disorders, personality disorders, substance-related and addictive disorders, neurocognitive disorders". ... bipolar disorders, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, trauma- ... The disorder does not meet the criteria for panic disorder (F41.0), phobic anxiety disorders (F40.-), obsessive-compulsive ...

*Sibutramine

International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of ... Older anorectic agents such as amphetamine and fenfluramine force the release of these neurotransmitters rather than affecting ... Related CBS news item 19 November 2004. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects. N ... A Review of the Pharmacological Evidence to Differentiate It from D-amphetamine and D-fenfluramine". ...

*Substituted amphetamine

... pharmaceutically important substituted amphetamines. Glennon RA (2013). "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related ... is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [79]. ... [Figure 4](b) Examples of synthetic, ... Amphetamine was first produced at the end of the 19th century. By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds ... MA: Triada-X. ISBN 978-5-94497-029-9. Media related to Substituted amphetamines at Wikimedia Commons. ...

*Stimulant

... pharmaceutically important substituted amphetamines. Glennon RA (2013). "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related ... Stimulants are used in impulse control disorders such as ADHD and off-label in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder ... Amphetamine refers to equal parts of the enantiomers, i.e., 50% levoamphetamine and 50% dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine is also ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ...

*Impulsivity

... and conduct disorders, and gambling disorder may be included in addiction and related disorders. The role of impulsivity in the ... For example, alcohol has been shown to increase impulsivity while amphetamines have had mixed results. Substance use disorder ... conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders. The precise ... and skin picking disorder as obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, moving Intermittent Explosive Disorder under the ...

*Amphetamine

... is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and ... As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine ... Amphetamine use disorders ... 3,788 (3,425-4,145) Kanehisa Laboratories (10 October 2014). "Amphetamine - Homo sapiens (human ... In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in ...

*Stimulant psychosis

... and thought disorder. Drugs in the class of amphetamines, or substituted amphetamines, are known to induce "amphetamine ... Amphetamine psychosis may be purely related to high drug usage, or high drug usage may trigger an underlying vulnerability to ... The disorders are often distinguished by a rapid resolution of symptoms in amphetamine psychosis, while schizophrenia is more ... However, unlike similar disorders, in AWP, substituted amphetamines reduce rather than increase symptoms, and the psychosis or ...

*Child psychopathology

Lists of child and adult mental disorders can be found in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related ... Psycho stimulants such as Ritalin, amphetamine- related stimulant drugs: e.g., Adderall, and antidepressants such as Wellbutrin ... Oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder are examples of ... There is also reason to believe that there is co-morbidity of disorders, in that if one disorder is present, there is often ...

*Dexmethylphenidate

Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher ... Libido disorders, disorientation, and hallucinations are very rarely reported. Priapism is a very rare adverse event that can ... Methylphenidate and amphetamine have been investigated as a chemical replacement for the treatment of cocaine addiction in the ...

*Methylphenidate

Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher ... "Amfetamine and methylphenidate medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complementary treatment options". ... Amphetamine and its derivatives like methamphetamine are weak base compounds that are the only widely used class of drugs known ...

*Substance use disorder

... opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100. ... "Substance use disorders" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" (PDF). American ... Substance abuse Substance dependence Alcohol use disorder Cannabis use disorder Opioid use disorder Stimulant use disorder " ... In the DSM-5 substance use disorder replaced substance abuse and substance dependence. Another term, substance-related disorder ...

*Norepinephrine releasing agent

For the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, pemoline As ... A closely related type of drug is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI). Another class of drugs that stimulates adrenergic ... though this is typically reserved only for those that also induce the release of serotonin and/or dopamine like amphetamine, ... amphetamine, methamphetamine As nasal decongestants - e.g., levomethamphetamine, propylhexedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, ...

*Cericlamine

... of the amphetamine family (specifically, a derivative of phentermine, and closely related to chlorphentermine, a highly ... Crow, Scott; Brown, Eric (2003). "Investigational drugs for eating disorders". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 12 (3 ... anxiety disorders, and anorexia nervosa by Jouveinal but did not complete development and was never marketed. It reached phase ...

*Dopamine beta-hydroxylase

... amphetamine-related agents". In Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W. Foye's principles of medicinal chemistry (7th ed.). ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Inadequate DBH is called dopamine beta ... Tyramine levels are especially high in the basal ganglia and limbic system, which are thought to be related to individual ... Amphetamine can also undergo aromatic hydroxylation to p-hydroxyamphetamine. ... Subsequent oxidation at the benzylic position ...

*DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical)

Related Disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal 294.9 Cognitive Disorder NOS 307.9 Communication Disorder NOS Conduct Disorder 312.81 ... 294.8 Amnestic Disorder NOS Amphetamine (or Amphetamine-Like) 305.70 Abuse 304.40 Dependence 292.89 -Induced Anxiety Disorder ... Related Disorder NOS 301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder 307.44 Hypersomnia related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II ... Related Disorder NOS 307.42 Insomnia Related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder] 312.34 Intermittent Explosive ...

*George A. Ricaurte

His research focuses on Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. His work centers on amphetamine-type drugs and their ... is to help find ways to prevent or retard the progression of Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. His ... work also has implications for substance abuse disorders. Ricaurte's retracted article on the neurotoxicity of ecstasy, ...

*Behavioral epigenetics

... increased anxiety and anxiety disorders. These anxiety issues can precipitate the onset of eating disorders and obesity, and ... In animals, drug-related epigenetic changes in fathers have also been shown to negatively affect offspring in terms of poorer ... Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term ... Evidence for related epigenetic changes has come from human studies involving alcohol, nicotine, and opiate abuse. Evidence for ...

*PPP1R1B

This alteration is suggested to be related to the pathology, since antipsychotics do not regulate the expression of DARPP-32. A ... amphetamine, nicotine, LSD, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and morphine, and in Parkinson's disease or EPS (Extra-pyramidal symptoms). ... DARPP-32 levels are decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lymphocytes of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ... and abnormal signaling through dopaminergic pathways has been implicated in several major neurologic and psychiatric disorders ...

*Dextroamphetamine

Amphetamine use disorders ... 3,788 (3,425-4,145) Kanehisa Laboratories (10 October 2014). "Amphetamine - Homo sapiens (human ... amphetamine, and D-amphetamine. The ADHD-related outcome domains with the greatest proportion of significantly improved ... In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in ... "Amphetamines for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (6): CD007813. doi: ...

*Brain ischemia

A closely related disease to brain ischemia is brain hypoxia. Brain hypoxia is the condition in which there is a decrease in ... Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders: Hypoxia[permanent dead link]. health.enotes.com. URL last accessed February 26, 2006. ( ... and use of drugs such as cocaine and other amphetamines. Other causes associated with brain hypoxia include drowning, ... Baldwin, Robert C. (2005). "Is vascular depression a distinct sub-type of depressive disorder? A review of causal evidence". ...

*Lisdexamfetamine

Amphetamine use disorders ... 3,788 (3,425-4,145) Kanehisa Laboratories (10 October 2014). "Amphetamine - Homo sapiens (human ... Greene SL, Kerr F, Braitberg G (October 2008). "Review article: amphetamines and related drugs of abuse". Emerg. Med. Australas ... In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in ... that contains 2.5 mg/mL of amphetamine base.The amphetamine base contains dextro- to levo-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2:1, ...
Modafinil is a non-amphetamine type stimulant that acts as a wakefulness-promoting drug, and is approved for managing symptoms of narcolepsy (i.e., daytime somnolence). Its precise mechanism of action in promoting wakefulness remains unclear. This trial is a placebo-controlled double-blind trial of modafinil, on a platform of contingency management (CM) and individual cognitive-behavioral (CBT) counseling, for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Participants in this study will complete a 2-week baseline screening period during which they will provide urine samples and complete physical and psychological assessments to establish their eligibility for the study. In addition, participants will be asked to provide a blood or saliva specimen for genetic testing in order to identify genetic variations that influence response to methamphetamine and to treatment with modafinil. Upon successful completion of screening, participants will be randomly assigned to receive either modafinil (400mg qd) ...
The high rate of meth use among MSM is paralleled by evidence of rises in sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among this population. The MSM meth epidemic, and its link with HIV transmission, underscores the need to pilot test new, innovative modalities to reduce meth use and meth-associated sexual risk behavior. Ultimately, a pharmacologic treatment for meth use may not only serve to improve outcomes among those who are accessing current treatment services, but might also benefit those who are not willing or able to utilize such services. While studies show that MSM who enter substance use treatment decrease both their substance use and sexual risk behavior, current behavioral meth treatment programs report low rates of success in treating meth dependence among MSM. We believe the time has come to test the acceptability of pharmacologic interventions to reduce meth use among MSM, and to assess the feasibility of conducting such trials among sexually active, meth-dependent MSM, whose ...
Learn the behavioral, physical and psychological signs and symptoms of amphetamine abuse now. Amphetamine abuse symptoms - Amphetamines are stimulants that may be prescribed by a doctor to treat several conditions including: Narcolepsy.
Stimulant use disorder is a type of substance use disorder that involves the abuse of stimulants. It is defined in the DSM-5 as "the continued use of amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, or other stimulants leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, from mild to severe." These psychoactive drugs, known as stimulants, are the most widely used drugs in the world today. Approximately 200 million Americans have used some type of a stimulant in the past year alone. A psychoactive drug, such as a stimulant, is a chemical or substance that effects ones behavior, mind, and body. A stimulant can be smoked, injected, snorted, taken in pill form, chewed and even ingested in the form of a drink. Synthetic stimulants are becoming increasingly popular as users attempt to alter the chemicals in drugs to create different reactions, and ultimately steer clear of jail time, legal penalties and detection in drug screening efforts. If a substance is used over a long period of time and the user ...
I URGE ALL MY FRIENDS TO READ & SHARE THIS; YOU COULD SAVE A LOVED ONES LIFE BY KNOWING THIS SIMPLE INFORMATION!!! Stroke has a new indicator! They say if you forward this to ten people, you stand a chance of saving one life. Will you send this along? Blood Clots/Stroke - They Now Have a Fourth Indicator, the Tongue: During a BBQ, a woman stumbled and took a little fall - she assured everyone that she was fine (they offered to call paramedics) ...she said she had just tripped over a brick because of her new shoes. They got her cleaned up and got her a new plate of food. While she appeared a bit shaken up, Jane went about enjoying herself the rest of the evening. Janes husband called later telling everyone that his wife had been taken to the hospital - (at 6:00 PM Jane passed away.) She had suffered a stroke at the BBQ. Had they known how to identify the signs of a stroke, perhaps Jane would be with us today. Some dont die. They end up in a helpless, hopeless condition instead. It only takes a ...
Find a doctor in Fayetteville, WV who treats Amphetamine Abuse/dependence with Lifescript Doctor Finder. Search 720,000 doctors by specialty, condition, location, insurance.
Find a doctor in Wayne, WV who treats Amphetamine Abuse/dependence with Lifescript Doctor Finder. Search 720,000 doctors by specialty, condition, location, insurance.
Another name for Amphetamine Abuse is Drug Abuse. The cause of drug abuse is not known. However, those who abuse drugs seem to be searching for something ...
When its time to talk about amphetamine abuse with your college-aged son or daughter, make sure to explain your reasons for the talk and to stay calm.
Hair analysis is a reliable tool for detecting long-term exposure to illegal drugs, including amphetamine-type stimulants, over periods from a few weeks to a few months, depending on the length of the hair used for analysis. Between 2000...
SAMHSA has introduced the Matrix Intensive Outpatient Treatment for People With Stimulant Use Disorders Family Education Videos, which are intended to educate family members of those in recovery about substance use disorders.. The videos include interviews of people in recovery and their loved ones and provide key information for those supporting people in treatment and recovery. They were made to be used with the Matrix Intensive Outpatient Treatment for People With Stimulant Use Disorders series.. There are three sets of videos:. ...
Amphetamine addiction has become common with the usage of drugs such as benzedrine & adderall. Read about the effects & treatment for amphetamine dependency.
Clinical Services provided for Substance Abuse: * Alcohol Abuse * Cannibis Abuse * Opioid Abuse * Amphetamine Abuse * Prescription Medication
Clinical Services provided for Substance Abuse: * Alcohol Abuse * Cannibis Abuse * Opioid Abuse * Amphetamine Abuse * Prescription Medication
Pennsylvanian Terry Murphy, 31, is being held on an assortment of charges, including burglary, strangulation, and simple assault.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Higher cortical and lower subcortical metabolism in detoxified methamphetamine abusers. AU - Volkow, N. D.. AU - Chang, L.. AU - Wang, G. J.. AU - Fowler, J. S.. AU - Franceschi, D.. AU - Sedler, M. J.. AU - Gatley, S. J.. AU - Hitzemann, R.. AU - Ding, Y. S.. AU - Wong, C.. AU - Logan, J.. PY - 2001/3/21. Y1 - 2001/3/21. N2 - Objective: Methamphetamine has raised concerns because it may be neurotoxic to the human brain. Although prior work has focused primarily on the effects of methamphetamine on dopamine cells, there is evidence that other neuronal types are affected. The authors measured regional brain glucose metabolism, which serves as a marker of brain function, to assess if there is evidence of functional changes in methamphetamine abusers in regions other than those innervated by dopamine cells. Method: Fifteen detoxified methamphetamine abusers and 21 comparison subjects underwent positron emission tomography following administration of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Results: ...
If you take methamphetamine, you should understand its potential for dependence and addiction. Learn the signs and symptoms and how to treat it.
Memory is a complex of systems by which an organism registers, stores and retrieves exposure to an event or experience. Literature purports that methamphetamine users and dependents have been found to exhibits signs of memory impairment. The aim of the research was to establish the possible existence of significant differences in memory in current methamphetamine users, recovering methamphetamine users, and a matched drug naïve control group. Cognitive functioning was assessed via a neurocognitive test battery that examined the memory of 14 current methamphetamine users, 17 recovering methamphetamine addicts, and 18 drug naïve control participants who were matched according to the demographic variables of age, gender and educational status. The results indicated that recovering methamphetamine users experienced the greatest impairment in memory in comparison to both the control group and current users of methamphetamine. The current users of methamphetamine also experienced some impairment in memory
The article describes a study done by eight professors from UCLA where they observed methamphetamine users dental health. The article provides statistics from the study about the prevalence of gum disease and cavities in methamphetamine users.
Many people that struggle with Methamphetamine Abuse care for nothing but their high, so their unaware of the deadly Methamphetamine Abuse Symptoms.
Important information regarding methamphetamine addiction. Read about how addictive meth is, as well as what methamphetamine withdrawal is like for ice addicts and methamphetamine users.
Methamphetamine use has increased substantially in the United States since the 1990s. Few studies have examined the healthcare service needs of women who use methamphetamine. This study describes unmet medical needs in a community-based sample of women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, CA. Women who use methamphetamine were recruited in San Francisco and participated in a computer-assisted survey (N = 298 HIV-negative women).
The Methamphetamine Abuse Research Center at OHSU (MARC) and the Portland VA Medical Center is a NIDA center approaching drug research at all levels, in a truly translational context. This means we study meth addiction from bench to bedside - all the way from the genetics or pharmacology lab to the patient who comes in for treatment.
Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - People with special needs - special olympics - Dohsa-hou - Asghar Dadkhah - University of social welfare and rehabilitation sciences
Last decade, positive drug tests among U.S. workers for methamphetamine had started to drop. That trend may be reversing, with positive rates dramatically higher in some states compared to others. The new statistics come from Quest Diagnostics annual report on U.S. worker drug use, based on more than six million urine tests collected from January-December 2010.. Positives for methamphetamine use in the U.S. general workforce dropped dramatically from 0.18% in 2006 to 0.11% in 2008. However, the rate remained the same in 2009 and 2010 at 0.10%.. Dr. Steven Shoptaw, a researcher who studies therapies for methamphetamine dependence, says, "Ive worked with patients who, paralyzed by the recession and juggling multiple jobs and family responsibilities, started using methamphetamine for its functional stimulant benefit.". Shoptaw notes that, even when its used as a stimulant by people who work more than one job, meth can wreak havoc on their judgment.. "For these sort of people, we now provide ...
In the study published in Addiction Biology, researchers from three Taiwanese institutions explored the potential role of declining levels of a protein called BDNF in promoting the brain damage found in chronic methamphetamine abusers and addicts. Under normal circumstances, BDNF provides the brain with critical protection by helping nerve cells grow, reach maturity and stay in good working order. In addition, the protein plays an essential role in basic brain functionality by supporting the chemical and physical adaptations required for learning new information and storing that information in memory.. For their study, the researchers recruited 59 people diagnosed with methamphetamine abuse, as well as a second group of 59 generally healthy individuals who did not use the drug. The methamphetamine abusers had stopped actively taking the drug and were in the early stages of withdrawal. Over a period of three weeks, the researchers used blood tests to measure the levels of BDNF in both groups of ...
Why people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk of substance dependence, particularly methamphetamine dependence, and have greater difficulty overcoming their addiction is the subject of a new study by researchers at the UC Davis MIND Institute.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results: Nine percent of the students had tried methamphetamine and 30% of male and 17% of female students reported sexual debut. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that methamphetamine use in the past year was significantly associated with being in a higher HIV/STI risk category (RRR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.10-4.03, p & 0.05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use, coupled with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa, raises serious cause for concern about the potential for methamphetamine to further exacerbate the prevalence and spread of HIV in Cape Town. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.. ...
The Methamphetamine Treatment Project is collaborative effort between community and state to address the growing incidence of Methamphetamine use and abuse among youth in the state of South Dakota. The project is comprised of four phases, (1) stabilization, (2) intensive treatment, (3) structured living, and (4) community placement. Each phase will build on the proceeding phase. Most treatment programs do not adequately address the special needs of the Methamphetamine dependent adolescent client.
... is here at Pinnacle Peak Recovery. People who use methamphetamine usually say that this drugs pleasurable high keeps ...
Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood
Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood
The National Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Strategy 2008-2011 (the Strategy) has been developed within the existing legislative framework and focuses on prevention, supply reduction and treatment in a partnership framework.. Page last updated: September 2008 ...
People who abused methamphetamine or other amphetamine-like stimulants were more likely to develop Parkinsons disease than those who did not, in a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).. The researchers examined almost 300,000 hospital records from California covering 16 years. Patients admitted to hospital for methamphetamine or amphetamine-use disorders had a 76 per cent higher risk of developing Parkinsons disease compared to those with no disorder.. Globally, methamphetamine and similar stimulants are the second most commonly used class of illicit drugs.. "This study provides evidence of this association for the first time, even though it has been suspected for 30 years," said lead researcher Dr. Russell Callaghan, a scientist with CAMH. Parkinsons disease is caused by a deficiency in the brains ability to produce a chemical called dopamine. Because animal studies have shown that methamphetamine damages dopamine-producing areas in the brain, scientists have ...
Methamphetamine addiction is a brain disorder and a chronic condition in which a person cannot stop using the drug methamphetamine, or meth.
A person may become addicted to methamphetamine after just a few uses. Here are several clear signs and symptoms of methamphetamine addiction.
Cocaine abuse indicators increased in many U.S. metropolitan areas during 1998 and the first half of 1999, according to a NIDA-supported network of drug abuse researchers who regularly report data on drug abuse in the United States. The rise follows several years of stable or declining use, the researchers reported at the December 1999 meeting of the Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG).. CEWG researchers meet twice a year to report on such drug abuse indicators as drug-related deaths, hospital emergency department (ED) visits, and treatment admissions. Data from 20 cities presented at the December meeting indicate that marijuana and heroin abuse also continued to increase in most areas of the country. However, methamphetamine abuse declined in most cities, including some areas that have been hardest hit by the problem. Highlights from the meetings advance report are:. Cocaine. Indicators of cocaine abuse increased in half of the 20 CEWG cities, remained stable or mixed in 8, and decreased ...
Results: The availability of crystal methamphetamine has increased as evidenced by increased laboratory detections, domestic seizures and purity of the seized drug. Population surveys do not report an increase in the number of people who used at least once in the past year. However, more users report using crystal methamphetamine rather than lower-purity powder methamphetamine and more regular use. Indicators of methamphetamine-related harms have increased in parallel with this change. Amphetamine-related helpline calls, drug treatment, arrests and hospital admissions for amphetamine disorders and psychosis all peaked in the mid-2000s, declined for several years and have increased steeply since 2010. Discussion and ...
Apart from brain damage, meth can also cause many other side effects. It can destroy blood vessels and body tissues, which can be damaged beyond the natural capability to repair. You skin can lose its shine and elasticity, and develop acne. All this can make you look much older. Another problem with meth abusers is tooth grinding. When this combines with poor diet and poor hygiene, it results in severe tooth decay.. Other long term effects of Methamphetamine Abuse include increased heart rate and weakened immune system. Your life becomes disarrayed and lifestyle becomes disorganized. It can also cause liver damage, which can be life threatening. You can also suffer from convulsions. Because the body temperatures can remain elevated in many cases, it can further cause brain damage in a different way.. ...
Apart from brain damage, meth can also cause many other side effects. It can destroy blood vessels and body tissues, which can be damaged beyond the natural capability to repair. You skin can lose its shine and elasticity, and develop acne. All this can make you look much older. Another problem with meth abusers is tooth grinding. When this combines with poor diet and poor hygiene, it results in severe tooth decay.. Other long term effects of Methamphetamine Abuse include increased heart rate and weakened immune system. Your life becomes disarrayed and lifestyle becomes disorganized. It can also cause liver damage, which can be life threatening. You can also suffer from convulsions. Because the body temperatures can remain elevated in many cases, it can further cause brain damage in a different way.. ...
Meth is powerful & extremely addictive. It can cause severe physiological & psychological dependence. Seek Methamphetamine Addiction Treatment now for immediate recovery.
Acupuncture, which dates back to ancient Chinese medical practice, can play an important role in this lifestyle change for recovering meth addicts. This technique involves the insertion of fine stainless steel needles into muscle tissue along well known
Acupuncture, which dates back to ancient Chinese medical practice, can play an important role in this lifestyle change for recovering meth addicts. This technique involves the insertion of fine stainless steel needles into muscle tissue along well known
Care guide for Methamphetamine Abuse (Discharge Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
A methamphetamine addiction happens fast. This drug is a cheap high and the lab may be as close as your neighbors kitchen. Treatment is difficult.
Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychostimulant that when used regularly is associated with harms such as injecting and sexual risk-taking behaviour, symptoms of mental ill health (eg, psychosis, aggression, depression and/or anxiety), psychomotor, social and cognitive impairment, criminal activity and sometimes death caused by overdose.1-7 MA use can be considered problematic if an individual continues the use of the drug despite experiencing significant harms.8 Increased production and availability of the drug has influenced regular use, consequently increasing drug-related harms.7 Substance use accounts for an increasing proportion of the global burden of disease.9 Amphetamine-type stimulants have become the most prevalent type of psychostimulants used in the world, and it is estimated that there are 24 million users worldwide.10 In South Asia and the Middle East, MA is becoming increasingly popular, and use is already well established in the USA, Australia, China, Mexico and Thailand.10 11 Due to ...
South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence.This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township. Demographics, sex trading, drug use, trauma, and mental health were assessed by a structured clinical interview and computer survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of sex trading for men and women.In the past 3 months, 40% of men and 33% of women endorsed trading sex for methamphetamine or money. Among these, they reported trading with same sex partners (33%), high rates of inconsistent condom use (73%), and incidences of physical (23%) and sexual (27%) assault when sex trading. Increased drug ...
South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence.This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township. Demographics, sex trading, drug use, trauma, and mental health were assessed by a structured clinical interview and computer survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of sex trading for men and women.In the past 3 months, 40% of men and 33% of women endorsed trading sex for methamphetamine or money. Among these, they reported trading with same sex partners (33%), high rates of inconsistent condom use (73%), and incidences of physical (23%) and sexual (27%) assault when sex trading. Increased drug ...
Participants were about 30% female, 84% unemployed, had an average of 12 years of education, and were 32 years old on average. Methamphetamine (MA) use in the month prior to study enrollment was about 16 days on average. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between groups. When examining predictors of depression in both treatment groups, the authors found that individuals who injected MA, had been hospitalized for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, had been hospitalized for medical reasons in the past 12 months, and HIV positive individuals experienced significantly greater decreases in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than their counterparts. For example, those who injected MA experienced a decrease in BDI of 10.59 points versus 8.54 for those who did not inject.. There were no baseline differences in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) by group (13.7 for the exercise group versus 12.0 for the education group). By the end of the 8-week study, patients in the exercise group ...
The study findings showed that withdrawal in short term decreased depression level but the anxiety did not change significantly. Withdrawal improved quality of life, which could also be seen in some of its scales. A cross sectional study by McGregor et al. (32) showed that methamphetamine withdrawal syndrome can be categorized into two phases of first 7 - 10 days of acute phase and a second sub-acute phase, which is at least 2 weeks. In acute phase, increased sleeping and eating, depression, anxiety symptoms, and also craving exist but following the acute phase, these symptoms remain at a low level (32).. The study group had a high level of depression at admission. A study showed that substantial percentages (40%) of methamphetamine users, who enter into treatment process, have major depression and another 44% may have substance-induced depression (33). Depression level of methamphetamine users decreased significantly after withdrawal, which is compatible with other studies (18, 19, 34, 35). ...
A new study (Neurology, March 2000) by researchers at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center provides evidence that people who used methamphetamine have significant changes in their brain chemistry. Researchers used brain-imaging methods to compare chemicals in the brains of 26 former methamphetamine abusers and 24 healthy, age-matched people. Researchers examined levels of N-acetylaspartate (NA), because it is thought to be a marker for neuron damage. For example, decreases in NA are seen in the brains of patients with Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Compared to healthy people, methamphetamine abusers had reduced levels of NA in the basal ganglia and the white matter of the frontal lobe. People who had used the most methamphetamine had the lowest levels of NA. Two other brain chemicals, choline and myoinositol, were used to track glial cell changes. Significant increases in these chemicals were found in the gray matter of the frontal lobes of ...
Journal of Addiction Medicine & Therapy is a peer reviewed, multidisciplinary, international open access journal. Highly accessed Open Access platform provides novel insights & happenings around the globe
Health,...Study cites crime court fees productivity losses and deaths among co...WEDNESDAY Feb. 4 (HealthDay News) -- In 2005 the economic cost of me...While methamphetamine causes some unique types of harm many of the co...Almost two-thirds of the costs caused by methamphetamine use resulted ...,Methamphetamine,Abuse,Costs,U.S.,$23.4,Billion,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Today, the Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) released a report, Estimating the number of regular and dependent methamphetamine users in Australia, 2002-2014, which showed a substantial increase in methamphetamine regular and dependent users.
Journal of Medical Internet Research - International Scientific Journal for Medical Research, Information and Communication on the Internet
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 1999. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 33.) Chapter 5-Medical Aspects of Stimulant Use Disorders. Accessed on December 26, 2016: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64323/. Dupont, RL. A Physicians Guide to Discontinuing Benzodiazepine Therapy, West J Med. 1990 May; 152(5): 600-603. Accessed on December 26, 2016 at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1002417/. Gordon D, Dahl J. Opioid Withdrawal, 2nd Edition. Fast Facts and Concepts. October 2007; 95. Accessed on December 26, 2016 at: http://www.mypcnow.org/blank-nonh6.. Longo, L., Johnson, B., Addiction: Part I. Benzodiazepines-Side Effects, Abuse Risk and Alternatives, Am Fam Physician. 2000 Apr 1;61(7):2121-2128. Accessed on December 26, 2016 at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2121.html. Shoptaw SJ, et al., Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal. Cochrane ...
In the 1980s, use of methylenedioxy derivatives of amphetamine and methamphetamine surfaced and were able to circumvent existing regulations. The best known of these derivatives were 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA).46 Since the late 1980s, a dramatic resurgence of methamphetamine abuse has spread throughout much of the United States. A high purity preparation of methamphetamine hydrochloride was marketed in a large crystalline form termed "ice" by abusers.7,49 From 1991 to 1994, the number of methamphetamine-related deaths in the United States reported by medical examiners tripled from 151 to 433, with a disproportional distribution from the Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, and Phoenix metropolitan areas. Methamphetamine use is particularly prevalent among men who have sex with men in New York City.74 Because of the ease and low cost of methamphetamine synthesis and the local production, methamphetamine is the most common illicit drug ...
Rationale: Methamphetamine abuse has become increasingly problematic. Yet, the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in humans have not been systematically evaluated. Objective: To characterize metha
Objective: Increasing amphetamine abuse worldwide has aroused widespread concern in medical and governmental agencies. Cerebral angiitis and intracranial hemorrhage are reported to associate with amphetamine abuse. The mortality rate is estimated at 50%. The two major factors involved are the drug hypertensive effect, a preexisting vascular alteration, and a cerebral vasculitis. We report on case of amphetamine-related intracranial hemorrhage and review the current literature.. Methods: A 26-year-old man developed complete loss of consciousness. On admission, he was intubated and ventilated. His vital signs were blood pressure 116/80 mmHg, pulse rate 78/min, respiration rate 14/min. Apart from prothrombin time (68%), laboratory studies showed normal blood count, biochemistry, and platelet count. A toxicology screen test for urine was found to be positive for ecstasy. Computed tomographic scans demonstrated a large intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal and parietal lobes as well as ...
Staying up on methamphetamine - Russellville was in the headlines across the state and nation recently for an unusual combination found at a local cafe. The Main Street Cafe redefined the term home cooking when local law enforcement agencies rai...
The driver 18-year-old Kaitlyn Schager admitted to being high on methamphetamine, she was booked into the Woodbury County Jail on charges of child endangerment, interfering with official acts, reckless driving, speeding, improper use of lane, 4 counts of failure to stop at a stop sign. Charges are pending on Eluding and OWI pending chemical test results. She is being held on $10,000 Bond with her next court appearance is scheduled for February 9th at 9:00 ...
Our states strategy on methamphetamine, and any other issue, is going to be a moving target. - Phil Bredesen quotes from BrainyQuote.com
Scientists and researchers have linked chronic and long term methamphetamine abuse to significant brain changes and tissue damage. MRI scans of individuals who are methamphetamine addicts show distinct cell loss in particular regions, including the limbic and hippocampus. The limbic system is primarily responsible for emotions and formation of memories. The hippocampus is one area of the limbic system that converts short-term memories into long-term memories. If the hippocampus is damaged, a person will exhibit symptoms similar to those of a person who has Alzheimers.. Long term, chronic users of methamphetamine are known to have difficulty in memory retention but also exhibit symptoms similar to bipolar, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinsons disease. It is believed that long-term methamphetamine use also causes irreparable damage to the central nervous system which causes these symptoms.. Irrational and violent mood swings, inability to concentration, poor judgment and ...
In the current study, rats were first put through a series of conditioning tests that taught them to expect methamphetamine in one chamber of a three-chamber apparatus and saline solution in another chamber. The researchers then allowed the rats to roam freely among the three chambers. If the rats spent the majority of their time in the chamber where they had been given methamphetamine, the scientists knew they had established a "conditioned place preference.". Once this preference was established, the researchers extinguished it by giving the rats saline injections in both chambers, again allowing the animals to have free access to all chambers until the rats had no preference for the previously methamphetamine-associated chamber for at least six consecutive days.. Once extinguished, however, it is possible for a conditioned preference to be reinstated - just as it is possible for a recovered drug addict to relapse. To reinstate the place preference in this experiment, Brookhaven scientists ...
Hello, my name is Suzanne Ingram and in this blog, youll learn all about first aid and what you can do to help an injured person. Knowing first aid for various types of emergencies, such as broken bones, burns and allergy attacks, is very important. When I was a child, my dad collapsed in front of me while we were in a store. A stranger ran up to my dad and immediately began performing CPR, which saved my dads life. Watching the stranger immediately jump into action to perform CPR on my dad made a huge impression on me. Ever since that day Ive learned everything I could about first aid and what to do in a medical emergency situation. I hope that after you read my blog, youll also know how to help others who are injured or having a medical crisis.
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Other Hopkins researchers who contributed to this study include Cynthia A. Munro, Ph.D.; Mary E. McCaul, Ph.D.; Dean F. Wong, M.D., Ph.D.; and Lynn M. Oswald, Ph.D., of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; and Yun Zhou, Ph.D.; James Brasic, M.D., M.P.H.; Hiroto Kuwabara, M.D., Ph.D.; Anil Kumar, M.D.; Mohad Alexander, M.D.; and Weiguo Ye, M.D., of the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Services ...
Watch the video lecture Amphetamines - Drugs of Abuse & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online with high-yield video lectures by world-class professors & earn perfect scores. Save time & study efficiently. ➨ Try now for free! Online Learning with Lecturio - anytime, anywhere
Facts about methamphetamine drug addiction, information on methamphetamines and meth drug addiction. Help finding drug addiction and alcoholism treatment centers is available on the drug addition site as well.
Cocaine and methamphetamine both have the potential for causing addiction and abuse which further strengthens the bond associate between them. Though there are many similarities, a fair number of diff
In a paper published in |em|eNeuro|/em|, MUSC researchers suggest that the brain of a female rat responds differently to drugs like methamphetamine and that these differences may be due to the presence of...
Methamphetamine (crystal meth) use remains high across diverse populations, causing long-term health damage while increasing HIV and hepatitis C risk.
Signs of methamphetamine use include social, behavioral and emotional problems. Know these signs and get the help you or your loved ones need to safely recover from drug addiction.
Eventbrite - Insight Training and Education presents Crystal Clear - How to Respond Effectively to Methamphetamine Use - Gold Coast - Wednesday, 9 November 2016 at Southport Health Precinct, Southport, QLD. Find event and ticket information.
UNION - Heath M. Millwood, 38, of 302 3rd Ave., Union, was charged Jan. 10 with possession of methamphetamine, manufacturing methamphetamine, and unlawful disposal of methamphetamine.. According to the incident report, officers served a search warrant on Millwoods residence on Jan. 10, and as officers searched, evidence of methamphetamine waste was discovered.. The report stated officers found a trail of waste products leading to an abandoned house beside his property. In and around the area, officers found several plastic drink bottles used to manufacture methamphetamine, empty lithium battery packs, cold and sinus packs that contain ephedrine, liquid fire, Coleman fuel, coffee filters, aluminum foil, fertilizer and other items used for the production of methamphetamine.. Small quantities of methamphetamine and marijuana were also found on the living room table.. http://www.uniondailytimes.com/view/full_story/21408086/article-Union-man-facing-drug-charges-after-meth-waste-discovered. ...
Those children were the ones who usually resorted to hanging out alone by the teeter-totters, selling crystal meth. Yet even their existential box pain could be alleviated for a few bucks at Mickey Ds. The Happy Meal expressed, I am a child whose… Continue reading →. ...
Historicanalysis of abuse and use of Methamphetamine in America (1950 to2000). Historicanalysis of abuse and use of Methamphetamine in America (1950 to2000). Drugsare the most necessities in the life of a human being. Drugs areuseful when used for medicinal purposes. The biggest challenge iswhen drugs are in use for the wrong purpose, for example, when abusedfor the sake of ecstasy effects. Currently, many states are facing achallenge of drugs and drug abuse that has been there for a longperiod. As technology advances, more drugs are discovered, and thisequals to more use and abuse. Most of the problems associated withdrug abuse date back to the history of discovering of that drug. InAmerica, one of the drugs that came into the market and was meant formedicinal purpose is Methamphetamine. Methamphetamine was equallyabused by some groups of people such as college students (Rasmussen,2008). This essay looks at Methamphetamine use in the period between1950 to the wake of millennium. ...
A Richmond man pleaded guilty in federal court Friday to allowing his Fan District home to be used as a base for an interstate methamphetamine trafficking business.. Stephen D. Hahne, 44, who authorities said worked out of his home as a computer specialist, entered his plea before U.S. District Judge Henry E. Hudson, who set sentencing for Sept. 7. Hahne could face up to 20 years in prison and a $500,000 fine.. According to a written statement of facts, Hahne allowed dealers from October 2007 through fall 2008 to operate their methamphetamine distribution business out of his residence in the 2200 block of Park Avenue, where they received, stored, distributed and used the drug.. In return for use of his house, the dealers provided Hahne with methamphetamine at a reduced rate, "thus enabling him to obtain and use methamphetamine without having to leave his residence and look for it on the street," court documents say. The amount of drugs attributed to Hahne was 40 to 50 grams.. With Hahnes ...
Shards on a platter Dissolve into puddles With great clever Although they shouldnt sever It still does too because you smoke it in a toot When you inhale that hoot You feel like you got to move Lots of golden energy in your veins Crawling up your head and spreading To your spleens Intoxicated you are thats for sure Crystal is nothing but a lure Although we are not sure how to understand colors Because after 48 hours of not sleeping And youre really tweaking You start seeing crazy shit like Snakes on blinds and yellow crosses in the sky The hallucinations make you wonder why. 2 seconds after inhalation You also feel a rising sensation Makes you think if your just gods creation Or just an aliens experimentation Listening to music is like an entire new generation It makes your body and mind go crazy On crystal you for surely dont feel lazy I found out this is a very crazy drug, and not worth the experimentation When youre coming down it makes you feel like fucking grub You feel like ...
If its simple keep it quick, and thinning it was thick And crooked yeah like bent, down the uppers went If its fragile means its cracked and if its started dont look back And climbing yeah like those, in and out right on the nose You looking for a crying shoulder Or just someone to blame Cause you lost your mamas tall order And now youre bad Cause you got no shame Keep crying till I find you Gotta let your head leak Your daddy knows what youre doing And mamas just a freak Nix the cocktail hang with thirsty nate aint got no mercy Slammed damn no regard, and never peeked in your back yard And if you love it youre a waste and if you take it grab the case Running yes this nation away from prescribed fixation Companies make your high States approve the deal If you choose not to buy The little piggys squeal If its not what they want Then the robes demand Taxes will be paid To live on this free land If its hard make it cushy, if its easy then be pushy And busy yeah like far out youve lost ...
The use of amphetamine-type stimulants such as ecstasy and meth is surging around the world, a new United Nations report finds, warning that the growing trade in these illegal drugs and the high profits they bring to criminals are posing an increasing threat to health and security.
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These drugs are typically administered orally, by inhalation, or by injection, with the worst outcomes apparently associated with snorting or intravenous administration. Mephedrone is of particular concern because, according to the United Kingdom experience, it presents a high risk for overdose. These chemicals act in the brain like stimulant drugs (indeed they are sometimes touted as cocaine substitutes); thus they present a high abuse and addiction liability. Consistent with this notion, these products have been reported to trigger intense cravings not unlike those experienced by methamphetamine users, and clinical reports from other countries appear to corroborate their addictiveness. They can also confer a high risk for other medical adverse effects. Some of these may be linked to the fact that, beyond their known psychoactive ingredients, the contents of "bath salts" are largely unknown, which makes the practice of abusing them, by any route, that much more dangerous. Unfortunately, "bath ...
The authors noted that methamphetamine (MA) use among young people is a significant social, economic, and public health concern for affected communities ...
ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine abuse has continued to increase in the United States since the late 1980s with its use spreading from the West Coast to areas across the country. Methamphetamine use in pregnancy endangers the health of the woman and increases the risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age babies and such use may increase the risk of neurodevelopmental problems in children. All pregnant women should be asked about their drug and alcohol use. Urine toxicology screening may be useful in detecting methamphetamine and other substance abuse during pregnancy, but this screening... ...
The AMA has called on the Federal Government to treat substance abuse and other behavioural addiction problems within the community as a high-level priority to address.. Substance dependence and behavioural addictions are chronic brain diseases and people affected by them should be treated like any other patient with a serious illness.. AMA President Dr Michael Gannon said while the Government responded quickly to concerns about crystal methamphetamine use, with the National Ice Action Strategy, broader drug policy appears to be a lower priority.. "I dont think we need to underestimate the cancer in our society that methamphetamine causes. Its destroying lives, its destroying communities, its destroying families," Dr Gannon said.. "But we can acknowledge that and at the same time reflect on the carnage that legal drugs still cause.. "Twelve per cent of Australians are still smoking. Its the only habit that kills over half of its regular users and certainly impairs the health of the ...
This article is interested in how notions of the public are conceived, marshalled and enacted in drug-treatment responses to methamphetamine use in Melbourne, Australia. After reviewing qualitative data collected among health-care providers and methamphetamine consumers, we draw on the work of Michael Warner to argue that services for methamphetamine consumers in Melbourne betray ongoing tensions between public and counterpublic constituencies. Our analysis indicates that these tensions manifest in two ways: in the management of street business in the delivery of services and in negotiating the meaning of health and the terms of its restoration or promotion. Reflecting these tensions, while the design of services for methamphetamine consumers is largely modelled on public health principles, the everyday experience of these services may be more accurately characterised in terms of what Kane Race has called counterpublic health. Extending Races analysis, we conclude that more explicit ...
Dentist can help parents to detect if there is any changes in their kids oral health which could be associated with drug abuses. One common drug abuse is methamphetamine. When patients come in for biannual dental checkup, dentist would detect any changes in their oral health. This includes any health problems caused by diseases or drug abuses. There are signs and symptoms dentist can detect in the oral cavity and in the facial regions.. A methamphetamine abuser usually have whats called the meth mouth. Xerostomia or dry mouth is common occurence. The oral cavity is dry because of vasoconstriction caused by the drug. This vasoconstriction also can cause the teeth to die from inside out. The teeth will become rotten from the interior pulpal chamber. Often the teeth will break at the neck, leaving unsightly blackened root stump exposed. Multiple teeth will have severe cavity at the smooth surface and may break off at the gum line.. ...
Were in the midst of an ice epidemic-or are we? Its known that current methamphetamine users are switching from speed to the stronger form of crystal meth or ice. As a result, the risk of addiction and associated mental health problems is increasing.
Methamphetamine or "meth" is a powerful, tremendously addictive psychomotor stimulant.. Most of the methamphetamine available on the street is made in secret, makeshift laboratories that may be found in ordinary kitchens, bathrooms, basements, or sheds. The ingredients used to make meth are fairly inexpensive, although they can be difficult to obtain. The process for making ("cooking") methamphetamine is not difficult to learn, so uneducated drug dealers can make the drug without any scientific training. Making methamphetamine is also incredibly dangerous; toxic fumes fill the labs, and explosions and fires are constant dangers.. Methamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. Another common form of the drug is called crystal meth, or "ice," because it comes in large chunky crystals that look like ice chunks or rock candy. The powder form of the drug may be snorted, swallowed, or diluted and injected. The "crystal" form of the ...
Methamphetamine, or Meth, is a nasty drug. Its long been known that long-term meth use can cause cognitive problems and neuronal death through a myriad of ways, such as increases in free radicals in the brain and inflammation. However, meth use can also lead to liver damage. Liver is one of the most important organs…
Question - Meth user. Unable to get proper erection. What should I do?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Erectile dysfunction, Ask a Psychiatrist
Methamphetamine Training for Community Service Organisations. The Centre and YSAS have collaborated to deliver the Victorian Government funded training for practitioners to increase knowledge and confidence in identifying, discussing and responding to methamphetamine (ice) use.. Learning Outcomes. · Understand the effects methamphetamine use can have on the brain, behaviour, psychological health, and in social contexts.. · Understand patterns of use, including the binge-crash cycle and the recovery process. · Understand what contributes to aggressive behaviour and methamphetamine-induced psychosis, and learn how to recognise these presentations.. · Develop knowledge and confidence in responding to people affected by methamphetamines. · Know how to find treatment options for both adolescents and adults. Who should attend?. This workshop will benefit anyone who works with children, young people and families where there is a risk of exposure to methamphetamines. This includes child protection, ...
Methamphetamine Training for Community Service Organisations. The Centre and YSAS have collaborated to deliver the Victorian Government funded training for practitioners to increase knowledge and confidence in identifying, discussing and responding to methamphetamine (ice) use.. Learning Outcomes. · Understand the effects methamphetamine use can have on the brain, behaviour, psychological health, and in social contexts.. · Understand patterns of use, including the binge-crash cycle and the recovery process. · Understand what contributes to aggressive behaviour and methamphetamine-induced psychosis, and learn how to recognise these presentations.. · Develop knowledge and confidence in responding to people affected by methamphetamines. · Know how to find treatment options for both adolescents and adults. Who should attend?. This workshop will benefit anyone who works with children, young people and families where there is a risk of exposure to methamphetamines. This includes child protection, ...
More commonly known by the street names speed, ice or crystal meth, both amphetamine and methamphetamine belong to a group of stimulant drugs called amphetamines. Australia has one of the highest rates…
Show moreMethamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was ...
Teens who use methamphetamine have an increased risk of adverse side effects and lasting damage because their brains are still developing. Learn more now.
Ultimately, it can be gathered from the film that METH is a highly addictive drug and long-term use can result in the failure of dopamine receptors. It does not, however, disclose the symptoms of long-term use. Physical symptoms include decayed teeth, weight loss, skin lesions, stroke, and heart attack. By presenting a gloomy picture of a METH user in front of the camera, it gives the viewer an image of how METH can alter ones appearance, change their lifestyle, and ultimately, their demeanor. As evident by the METH users recount of situations presented in the media item, behavioral symptoms include aggressiveness, violence, and isolation. The story of this METH abuse victim, personalizes the promo clip, engages the viewer on an emotional level as a means for better communicating the information and the message that methamphetamine is a dangerous drug with severe effects and lifestyle consequences. In the conclusion of the clip, the narrator states that there is no effective medication for ...
A new study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) documents the high rates and unique patterns of dental decay and gum disease in people who use the illicit drug methamphetamine. The large study of 571 methamphetamine users found that 96 percent had experienced dental cavities and 58 percent had untreated tooth decay. Only 23 percent retained all of their natural teeth, compared to a tooth retention rate of 48 percent among the U.S. general population. The study was conducted by investigators at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).. The study found that adults reporting moderate or heavy methamphetamine use were twice as likely to have untreated dental cavities than were light users (less than 10 days of use over the past month). Older subjects (ages 30+), women, and current cigarette smokers were disproportionately affected by dental and periodontal disease. In addition, a significant percentage of participants (40 percent) indicated they were often self-conscious ...
Although at low levels, methamphetamine is being used by diverse groups of drug users in different ways, and this is clearly raising a variety of challenges and initial responses from service providers. Services currently identified as responding to problems include mental health, low-threshold, drug treatment, youth and sexual health.. Methamphetamine has long been used by problem drug users in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with injection as the most common route of administration. In the Czech Republic mental health care and residential treatment programmes applying the therapeutic community model have been at the centre of the response (Kalina, 2007). The focus has been on client assessment, the use of psychosocial interventions and medical treatment, and social reintegration initiatives. Services offering information, including harm reduction advice to methamphetamine users, are also available. An innovative intervention has involved the distribution of empty gelatine capsules by ...
(Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure) Although research on the medical and developmental effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is still in its early stages, our experience with almost 20 years of research on the chemically related drug, cocaine, has not identified a recognizable condition, syndrome or disorder that should be termed crack baby nor found the degree of
Brief Description Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug usually used as a white, bitter-tasting powder or a pill. Crystal methamphetamine is a form of the drug that looks like glass fragments or shiny, bluish-white rocks. It is chemically similar to amphetamine [a drug used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, a sleep disorder]. Read the DrugFacts Learn more: Research Report on Methamphetamine Health Effects of Methamphetamine
Exposure to repeated high doses of methamphetamine produces long-term toxicity to central monoamine systems and alters striatonigral pathway function 3 weeks after exposure. To determine whether these changes in the striatonigral pathway persist for longer we examined neuropeptide mRNA expression in the striatum and cytochrome oxidase activity in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia after treatment with multiple high doses of methamphetamine. Rats exposed to multiple high doses of methamphetamine had significant depletion in dopamine and serotonin content, decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and decreases in preprotachykinin mRNA expression, 6 and 12 weeks after methamphetamine treatment. Preprotachykinin mRNA expression was significantly reduced by ∼20% in the middle striatum and ∼32% in the caudal striatum, 6 weeks after treatment. Twelve weeks after treatment, preprotachykinin mRNA expression continued to be significantly reduced by ∼20% in the middle striatum and ...
From Pediatrics: OBJECTIVE: We evaluated behavior problems in children who were prenatally exposed to methamphetamine (MA) at ages 3 and 5 years. METHODS: The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle study, a prospective, longitudinal study of prenatal MA exposure and child outcome, enrolled subjects postpartum in Los Angeles, California; Honolulu, Hawaii; Des Moines, Iowa; and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Prenatal…
BACKGROUND Non-fatal drug overdose is a major cause of morbidity among people who use drugs, although few studies have examined this risk among street-involved youth. We sought to determine the risk factors associated with non-fatal overdose among Canadian street-involved youth who reported illicit drug use. METHODS Using data from a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, we identified youth without a history of overdose and employed Cox regression analyses to determine factors associated with time to non-fatal overdose between September 2005 and May 2012. RESULTS Among 615 participants, 98 (15.9%) reported a non-fatal overdose event during follow-up, resulting in an incidence density of 7.67 cases per 100 person-years. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, binge drug use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.20-2.84), non-injection crystal methamphetamine use (AHR=1.70; 95% CI=1.12-2.58), non-injection prescription opiate use (AHR=2.56; 95%
[email protected] About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a component of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA supports most of the worlds research on the health aspects of drug use and addiction. The Institute carries out a large variety of programs to inform policy, improve practice, and advance addiction science. Fact sheets on the health effects of drugs and information on NIDA research and other activities can be found at www.drugabuse.gov, which is now compatible with your smartphone, iPad or tablet. To order publications in English or Spanish, call NIDAs DrugPubs research dissemination center at 1-877-NIDA-NIH or 240-645-0228 (TDD) or email requests to [email protected] Online ordering is available at drugpubs.drugabuse.gov. NIDAs media guide can be found at www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/dear-journalist, and its easy-to-read website can be found at ...

Systematic review of amphetamine-related disordersSystematic review of amphetamine-related disorders

Systematic review of treatment for amphetamine-related disorders  World Health Organization. Management of Substance ... Workshop on Problems Relating to the Use of Amphetamine-type Stimulants (‎ATS)‎ in the Western Pacific Region, Manila, ... 2001)‎. Systematic review of amphetamine-related disorders. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/ ... Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎ ...
more infohttps://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/66973

Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Symptoms and DSM IV DiagnosisAmphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Symptoms and DSM IV Diagnosis

DSM-IV Diagnostic criteria for virtually any mental health disorder. ... Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified symptoms and diagnostic criteria follow below.... ... Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Symptoms and DSM-IV Diagnosis. Amphetamine Related Disorder Not Otherwise ... Diagnostic Criteria for 292.9 Amphetamine-Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. The amphetamine-related disorder not ...
more infohttp://psychtreatment.com/mental_health_amphetamine_related_disorder_not_otherwise_specifiedl_symptoms_and_diagnosis.htm

Browsing  by Subject Amphetamine-Related DisordersBrowsing by Subject "Amphetamine-Related Disorders"

Workshop on Problems Relating to the Use of Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS) in the Western Pacific Region, Manila, ... Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific ( ... The four Technical Briefs on Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) were produced by the World Health Organization Regional Office ... "Amphetamine-Related Disorders". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/browse?authority=Amphetamine-Related+Disorders&type=mesh

Browsing  by Subject Amphetamine-Related DisordersBrowsing by Subject "Amphetamine-Related Disorders"

Workshop on Problems Relating to the Use of Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS) in the Western Pacific Region, Manila, ... Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific ( ... The four Technical Briefs on Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) were produced by the World Health Organization Regional Office ... "Amphetamine-Related Disorders". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/browse?authority=Amphetamine-Related+Disorders&type=mesh&locale-attribute=fr

Amphetamine-Related DisordersAmphetamine-Related Disorders

Build: Fri Apr 12 22:16:45 EDT 2019 (commit: 82eed56). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/diseases/Amphetamine-Related%20Disorders

Amphetamines and related disorders - causes, DSM, functioning, effects, adults, withdrawal, drug, peopleAmphetamines and related disorders - causes, DSM, functioning, effects, adults, withdrawal, drug, people

... describes four separate amphetamine-related disorders. These are: * Amphetamine dependence, which refers to chronic or episodic ... also have amphetamine-like action. Amphetamine-related disorders refer to the effects of abuse, dependence, and acute ... amphetamine withdrawal Amphetamine dependence refers to chronic or episodic use of amphetamine involving drug binges known as " ... Closely related are the so-called "designer amphetamines," the most well-known of which is the "club drug" MDMA, or "ecstasy" ( ...
more infohttp://www.minddisorders.com/A-Br/Amphetamines-and-related-disorders.html

Compound Report CardCompound Report Card

Amphetamine-Related Disorders. D019969. EFO:0004701. metamphetamine dependence. 1. ClinicalTrials. Glioblastoma. D005909. EFO: ... Opioid-Related Disorders. D009293. EFO:0005611. opioid dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Cocaine-Related Disorders. D019970. EFO: ... N07B - DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS. N07BB - Drugs used in alcohol dependence. N07BB01 - disulfiram. P - ANTIPARASITIC ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembl/compound/inspect/CHEMBL964

Compound Report CardCompound Report Card

Amphetamine-Related Disorders. D019969. EFO:0004701. metamphetamine dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome. ... Substance-Related Disorders. D019966. EFO:0003890. drug dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Deglutition Disorders. D003680. HP: ... post-traumatic stress disorder. 2. ClinicalTrials. Cocaine-Related Disorders. D019970. EFO:0002610. cocaine dependence. 3. ... Opioid-Related Disorders. D009293. EFO:0005611. opioid dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Parkinson Disease. D010300. EFO:0002508. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembldb/index.php/compound/inspect/CHEMBL1373

Extended-Release Naltrexone to Treat Methamphetamine Dependence in Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) - Full Text View -...Extended-Release Naltrexone to Treat Methamphetamine Dependence in Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) - Full Text View -...

Amphetamine-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Naltrexone. ... It has shown promise in reducing relapse to amphetamine use among amphetamine-dependent, yet currently amphetamine-abstinent ... MedlinePlus related topics: Methamphetamine Drug Information available for: Methamphetamine hydrochloride Metamfetamine ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01449565?order=163

Extended-Release Naltrexone to Treat Methamphetamine Dependence in Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) - Full Text View -...Extended-Release Naltrexone to Treat Methamphetamine Dependence in Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) - Full Text View -...

Amphetamine-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Naltrexone. ... It has shown promise in reducing relapse to amphetamine use among amphetamine-dependent, yet currently amphetamine-abstinent ... MedlinePlus related topics: Methamphetamine Drug Information available for: Methamphetamine hydrochloride Metamfetamine ... Amphetamine-Related Disorders Drug: Naltrexone Drug: Placebo Phase 2 Detailed Description:. The investigators will enroll 100 ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01449565?order=629

Search of: CLONIDINE - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: CLONIDINE - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Mood Disorder. *Substance-Related Disorders. *Amphetamine-Related Disorders. *Drug: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ... Clonidine for Sleep Disturbances in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. *Autism Spectrum Disorder ... To Evaluate the Long-term Efficacy of KAPVAY in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ... Long-term Maintenance of Efficacy of KAPVAY in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/search?submit=Search&term=CLONIDINE

Effects of Stimulant Dependence on Human Striatal Dopamine System - 15 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govEffects of Stimulant Dependence on Human Striatal Dopamine System - 15 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Tobacco Use Disorder. Amphetamine-Related Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced ... Psychiatric disorder that requires medication therapy. History of seizures. Pregnant and/or nursing women. Dependence on ETOH ... Mental Disorders. Dopamine. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Cardiotonic Agents. Sympathomimetics. Autonomic Agents. ... Participants give daily urine samples and fill out health related questionnaires. It is important to determine whether the ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000350

A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking or food-seeking in rats.A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking or food-seeking in rats.

Amphetamine-Related Disorders / economics, psychology*. Animals. Conditioning, Operant / physiology*. Cues*. Data ... Related Documents : 24924793 - Stimuli inducing the regurgitation of the workers of lasius flavus (formicidae) upon th.... ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/comparison-economic-demand-conditioned-cued/21597363.html

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Amphetamine-Related Disorders Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Amphetamine-Related+Disorders&parentid=36108&catid=36112

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Amphetamine-Related Disorders Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Amphetamine-Related+Disorders&parentid=36107&catid=36111

Browsing Technical Documents by TitleBrowsing Technical Documents by Title

Systematic review of amphetamine-related disorders  World Health Organization. Management of Substance Dependence Team (‎World ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/26723/browse?rpp=20&offset=12323&etal=-1&sort_by=1&type=title&starts_with_previous=T&order=ASC

Protocol for a systematic review of psychological treatment for methamphetamine use: an analysis of methamphetamine use and...Protocol for a systematic review of psychological treatment for methamphetamine use: an analysis of methamphetamine use and...

Psychosocial interventions for cocaine and psychostimulant amphetamines related disorders (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev ... Cognitive-behavioural therapy for substance use disorders in people with psychotic disorders: randomised controlled trial. Br J ... Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;1:CD003026.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3 ... Amphetamine-group substances and HIV. Lancet 2010;376:458-74.doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60753-2 ...
more infohttps://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/9/e015383

Physical activity and the prevention, reduction, and treatment of alcohol and/or substance use across the lifespan (The PHASE...Physical activity and the prevention, reduction, and treatment of alcohol and/or substance use across the lifespan (The PHASE...

... but relapse rates across interventions for substance and alcohol use disorders are as high as 60-90%. Physical activity may ... Amphetamine-Related Disorders/ 2676 28 Cocaine-Related Disorders/ 7413 29 Drug Overdose/ 9375 ... related terminology because the databases above are drug and alcohol related. Feel free to search for other relevant ... However, with relapse rates as high as 60% 1 year after treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) [10,11,12] and 60-90% for ...
more infohttps://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13643-018-0674-0

Ondansetron for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence - 1Ondansetron for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence - 1

Amphetamine-Related Disorders clinical trial. Clinical trial for Ondansetron for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence - ... Amphetamine-Related Disorders Clinical Trial. Official title:. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose Response Trial of ... I found this clinical trial for Amphetamine-related Disorders at http://inclinicaltrials.com. ...
more infohttp://inclinicaltrials.com/amphetamine-related-disorders/NCT00040053/

Assessment of Interactions Between Intravenous Methamphetamine & ModafinilAssessment of Interactions Between Intravenous Methamphetamine & Modafinil

Amphetamine-Related Disorders clinical trial. Clinical trial for Assessment of Interactions Between Intravenous Methamphetamine ... Amphetamine-Related Disorders Clinical Trial. Official title:. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Assessment of Interactions ... I found this clinical trial for Amphetamine-related Disorders at http://inclinicaltrials.com. ...
more infohttp://inclinicaltrials.com/amphetamine-related-disorders/NCT00265278/

2018 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code F15.281: Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced sexual dysfunction2018 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code F15.281: Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced sexual dysfunction

Other stimulant related disorders. 2016 2017 2018 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Includes*amphetamine-related disorders ... Disorder (of) - see also Disease* amphetamine (or other stimulant)* moderate or severe* with* amphetamine (or other stimulant)* ... F01-F99 Mental, Behavioral and Neurodevelopmental disorders › * F10-F19 Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive ... ICD-10-CM F15.281 is grouped within Diagnostic Related Group(s) (MS-DRG v35.0): *894 Alcohol, drug abuse or dependence, left ...
more infohttp://www.icd10data.com/ICD10CM/Codes/F01-F99/F10-F19/F15-/F15.281

WHO | Amphetamine-type stimulantsWHO | Amphetamine-type stimulants

Systematic review of treatment for amphetamine-related disorders. The ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily available ... Amphetamine-type stimulants. Background. There has been great concern about the use of amphetamines, MDMA and other ... Amphetamine-type stimulants: a report from the WHO meeting on amphetamines, MDMA and other psychostimulants, Geneva, 12-15 ... some consideration is given to structurally related ring-substituted amphetamines, particularly those that are used or sold as ...
more infohttp://origin.who.int/entity/substance_abuse/activities/amphetamine/en/

WHO | DrugsWHO | Drugs

Systematic Review of Treatment for Amphetamine-Related Disorders, 2001. The ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily ... Amphetamine-type Stimulants: A report from the WHO Meeting on Amphetamines, MDMA and other Psychostimulants, 1997. This report ... some consideration is given to structurally related ring-substituted amphetamines, particularly those that are used or sold as ... International Standards for the Treatment of Drug Use Disorders, 2017. This document was prepared by UNODC and WHO to support ...
more infohttp://origin.who.int/entity/substance_abuse/publications/drugs/en/

Mullen J[au] - PubMed - NCBIMullen J[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders.. Mullen JM, Crawford AT.. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls ... attitudes to people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Mullen+J%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

SelfDecode | Genome AnalysisSelfDecode | Genome Analysis

Amphetamine-Related Disorders FOS. Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome AR. Anemia, Hemolytic EPO. Anemia, Sideroblastic SOD2. ...
more infohttps://www.selfdecode.com/molecular-function/GO:0006357/
  • In April 2016, the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on the world drug problem heralded a new era for addressing drug use and drug use disorders through a balanced and healthcentred system approach. (who.int)
  • In response to this, UNODC and WHO launched the initiative "Treatment and Care of People with Drug Use Disorders in Contact with the Criminal Justice System: Alternatives to Conviction or Punishment" at the 59th session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2016. (who.int)
  • The UNGASS Outcome Document1 of 2016, as well as the CND Resolution 59/42 of 2016 on the Development and dissemination of international standards for the treatment of drug use disorders reiterated the importance of disseminating the International Standards for the Treatment of Drug Use Disorders to promote a balanced and health-centered approach to drug use disorders. (who.int)
  • This so-called designer drug, best known as "ecstasy," but also as MDMA, XTC, and Adam, has behavioral effects that combine amphetamine-like and hallucinogen-like properties. (minddisorders.com)
  • The structure of amphetamines differs significantly from that of cocaine, even though both are stimulants with similar behavioral and physiological effects. (minddisorders.com)
  • This drug, cathinone or Khat, has an effect on most of the central nervous system, in addition providing the other properties of amphetamines. (minddisorders.com)
  • Closely related are the socalled "designer amphetamines," the most well known of which is the "club drug" MDMA, best known as "ecstasy. (minddisorders.com)
  • The use of MDMA and other amphetamine analogues is a relatively new international phenomena and it is timely that WHO review the broader issues. (who.int)
  • Direct or indirect regulation of factors related to neuronal plasticity seemed to be critical for these actions of PKC. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Most commonly, stimulants such as Adderall, Ritalin, and Vyvanse are prescribed for both children and adults diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The four Technical Briefs on Amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎ were produced by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific as a joint activity of the HIV/AIDS and STI and Mental Health and Injury Prevention Units. (who.int)
  • While amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have been available and used for many years, in the last decade or so their manufacture, trafficking and use have been increasing in many countries. (who.int)
  • Finally, some over-the-counter drugs used as appetite suppressants also have amphetamine-like action. (minddisorders.com)
  • In 2009, UNODC and WHO were called upon by the international community to develop standards for drug use disorders in the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, adopted at the high-level segment of the 52nd Commission on Narcotic Drugs. (who.int)
  • Participants give daily urine samples and fill out health related questionnaires. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Given the sustained high level of interest in ecstasy and recent findings relating to neurotoxicity, it was considered timely to undertake a specific review of the health effects of ecstasy. (who.int)
  • The United States, in the year 1960, had an increase in amphetamine-based diet pills as pharmaceutical companies began recognizing the appetite suppressant and energy boosting effects stimulants have on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawing on the growing knowledge in this area over recent decades, the document describes the impact of drug use on road safety and suggests what can be done to reduce drug-related crashes, injuries and deaths on the roads. (who.int)