A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.
A characteristic symptom complex.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.

Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. (1/547)

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

Methamphetamine abuse and emergency department utilization. (2/547)

Methamphetamine (MAP) abuse continues to increase worldwide, based on morbidity, mortality, drug treatment, and epidemiologic studies and surveys. MAP abuse has become a significant health care, environmental, and law enforcement problem. Acute intoxication often results in agitation, violence, and death. Chronic use may lead to infection, heart failure, malnutrition, and permanent psychiatric illness. MAP users frequently use the emergency department (ED) for their medical care. Over a 6-month period we studied the demographics, type, and frequency of medical and traumatic problems in 461 MAP patients presenting to our ED, which serves an area noted for high levels of MAP production and consumption. Comparison was made to the general ED population to assess use patterns. MAP patients were most commonly Caucasian males who lacked health insurance. Compared to other ED patients during this time, MAP patients used ambulance transport more and were more likely to be admitted to the hospital. There was a significant association between trauma and MAP use in this patient population. Our data suggest MAP users utilize prehospital and hospital resources at levels higher than the average ED population. Based on current trends, we can expect more ED visits by MAP users in the future.  (+info)

Methamphetamine and the expanding complications of amphetamines. (3/547)

During the past 10 years, the use of methamphetamine has increased rapidly in the West and throughout the United States. Because of this increase, our attention has focused on methamphetamine's toxicity. Methamphetamine and related compounds generate many of the same toxic effects as cocaine. Because of methamphetamine's widespread use, clinicians should be familiar with its medical effects and toxicity and with treatment options for acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine abuse.  (+info)

Amphetamine withdrawal alters bistable states and cellular coupling in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens neurons recorded in vivo. (4/547)

Repeated amphetamine administration is known to produce changes in corticoaccumbens function that persist beyond termination of drug administration. We have found previously that long-term alteration in dopamine systems leads to changes in gap junction communication, expressed as dye coupling, between striatal neurons. In this study, the cellular bases of amphetamine-induced changes were examined using in vivo intracellular recordings and dye injection in ventral prefrontal-accumbens system neurons of control and amphetamine-treated rats. Rats that had been withdrawn from repeated amphetamine displayed a significant increase in the incidence of dye coupling in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, which persisted for up to 28 d after withdrawal. The increased coupling was limited to projection neurons in both prefrontal cortical and accumbens brain regions, as identified by their axonal trajectory or the absence of interneuron-selective immunocytochemical markers. These changes occurred with no substantial loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive terminals in these cortical and accumbens regions, ruling out dopamine degeneration as a precipitating factor. Previous studies showed that nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of coupling; however, amphetamine-withdrawn rats had fewer numbers of neurons and processes that stained for nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In amphetamine-treated rats, a higher proportion of cortical cells fired in bursts, and a larger proportion of accumbens and prefrontal cortical neurons exhibited bistable membrane oscillations. By increasing corticoaccumbens transmission, amphetamine withdrawal may lead to neuronal synchronization via gap junctions. Furthermore, this adaptation to amphetamine treatment persists long after the drug is withdrawn.  (+info)

Effects of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, on D-methamphetamine-induced cognitive and physiological changes in humans. (5/547)

D-methamphetamine is abused for its euphoric effects and stimulatory action on cognitive function. Its abuse can, however, be associated with massive hypertension resulting in strokes, ruptured aneurysms, or myocardial infarction. We examined the utility of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium channel antagonist, in treating d-methamphetamine induced hypertension and evaluated its effects on cognitive function, both of which are mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms. D-methamphetamine dose-dependently increased all vital signs (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure, and pulse rate) parameters. Isradipine significantly reduced d-methamphetamine-induced increases in diastolic and mean arterial pressure; however, this potentially beneficial therapeutic effect was offset by a significant reflex rise in pulse rate. D-methamphetamine also improved attention, accuracy of reasoning ability, and performance on computerized cognitive function tasks. D-methamphetamine's cognitive improving effects were not altered significantly by isradipine. Isradipine increased the false responding rate but was without significant effect on any other attentional task, or on reasoning ability, or performance. Isradipine does not appear to enhance cognitive function in healthy humans.  (+info)

Acute psychological effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") are attenuated by the serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram. (6/547)

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a recreational drug that has been shown to release serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in animals. The effect of MDMA on 5-HT release can be blocked by 5-HT uptake inhibitors such as citalopram, suggesting that MDMA interacts with the 5-HT uptake site. It is unknown whether this mechanism is also responsible for the psychological effects of MDMA in humans. We investigated the effect of citalopram pretreatment (40 mg iv) on the psychological effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg po) in a double-blind placebo-controlled psychometric study in 16 healthy human volunteers. MDMA produced an emotional state with heightened mood, increased self-confidence and extroversion, moderate derealization, and an intensification of sensory perception. Most of these effects were markedly reduced by citalopram. This finding suggests that the psychological effects of MDMA are mediated via action at the 5-HT uptake site to increase 5-HT release through the carrier, as expected from animal studies.  (+info)

Carbamazepine suppresses methamphetamine-induced Fos expression in a regionally specific manner in the rat brain. Possible neural substrates responsible for antimanic effects of mood stabilizers. (7/547)

Carbamazepine (CBZ) has been widely used for treatment of manic states. Because amphetamine produces effects in humans similar to those of idiopathic mania, acute methamphetamine administration could serve as a model of this condition. To elucidate the neurobiological substrates responsible for the antimanic effects of carbamazepine, this study investigated the effects of chronic carbamazepine administration on regional Fos protein expression induced by a single dose of methamphetamine (2mg/kg). Chronic treatment with CBZ (0.25% in food for 7 days, followed by 0.5% for 7 days; final mean serum carbamazepine concentration: 4.09 +/- 0.34 microg/ml) significantly attenuated the number of Fos-like immunoreactivity-positive nuclei induced by methamphetamine administration in the core of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate/putamen. The results indicate these brain regions are involved in the antimanic effects of carbamazepine.  (+info)

Substance abuse and the kidney. (8/547)

Substance abuse has been increasing steadily in the UK and some other countries. Recent evidence suggests more than 40% of young people have tried illicit drugs at some time. There are numerous medical consequences to recreational drug use, and a physician should always consider substance abuse in any unexplained illness. The renal complications of drug abuse are also becoming more frequent, and may encompass a spectrum of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases. Although some substances are directly nephrotoxic, a number of other mechanisms are also involved. These effects are often chronic and irreversible, but occasionally acute with possible recovery. The rapid growth of illicit drug use is clearly a major public health problem. We review the commonly used substances of abuse and their associations with renal disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of baclofen and gabapentin for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. AU - Heinzerling, Keith G.. AU - Shoptaw, Steven. AU - Peck, James A.. AU - Yang, Xiaowei. AU - Liu, Juanmei. AU - Roll, John. AU - Ling, Walter. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Objective: To conduct a 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of two GABAergic medications, baclofen (20 mg tid) and gabapentin (800 mg tid), for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Methods: Adults with methamphetamine dependence were randomized to one of three conditions for 16 weeks: baclofen (n = 25), gabapentin (n = 26) or placebo (n = 37). All participants attended clinic thrice weekly to receive study medication and psychosocial counseling, complete study assessments, and provide urine samples. Results: No statistically significant main effects for baclofen or gabapentin in reducing methamphetamine use were observed using a generalized estimating ...
Genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to methamphetamine dependency. In this line, protein that interact with C-kinase-1 (PICK1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes are linked to methamphetamine dependence (substance use disorder). Thus, in a case-control study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of PICK1 and BDNF genes and methamphetamine dependence in an Iranian population. Total of 235 cases and 204 controls were recruited in a period between 2015 to 2018. The PICK1-rs713729, -rs2076369 and BDNF-rs6265 genotypes were determined via ARMS-PCR assay. Statistical analysis was performed, using SPSS 20.0, PHASE 2.1.1 program as well as SNP Analyzer 2.0. In the present study, two polymorphisms including PICK1-rs713729 (OR 1.38 (CI 1.08-1.52; P-value 0.004) in multiplicative and dominant models, and PICK1-rs2076369 (OR 1.31 (CI 1.10-1.56; P-value 0.002) in multiplicative, dominant and co-dominant models were associated with the risk of methamphetamine
Modafinil is a non-amphetamine type stimulant that acts as a wakefulness-promoting drug, and is approved for managing symptoms of narcolepsy (i.e., daytime somnolence). Its precise mechanism of action in promoting wakefulness remains unclear. This trial is a placebo-controlled double-blind trial of modafinil, on a platform of contingency management (CM) and individual cognitive-behavioral (CBT) counseling, for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Participants in this study will complete a 2-week baseline screening period during which they will provide urine samples and complete physical and psychological assessments to establish their eligibility for the study. In addition, participants will be asked to provide a blood or saliva specimen for genetic testing in order to identify genetic variations that influence response to methamphetamine and to treatment with modafinil. Upon successful completion of screening, participants will be randomly assigned to receive either modafinil (400mg qd) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage disequilibrium and association with methamphetamine dependence/psychosis of μ-opioid receptor gene polymorphisms. AU - Ide, S.. AU - Kobayashi, H.. AU - Ujike, H.. AU - Ozaki, N.. AU - Sekine, Y.. AU - Inada, T.. AU - Harano, M.. AU - Komiyama, T.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Iyo, M.. AU - Iwata, N.. AU - Tanaka, K.. AU - Shen, H.. AU - Iwahashi, K.. AU - Itokawa, M.. AU - Minami, M.. AU - Satoh, M.. AU - Ikeda, K.. AU - Sora, Ide. N1 - Funding Information: We are grateful to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) as well as to the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) for support in part by Grants MHLW13-040, MHLW15-7, MHLW17-pharmaco-001, MEXT15025206 and MEXT15029204.. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - Several studies indicate that the μ-opioid receptor plays a role in addiction not only to opiate drugs but also to alcohol and non-opiate addictive drugs. Our studies aim to reveal the associations between gene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trace amine-associated receptor gene polymorphism increases drug craving in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. AU - Loftis, Jennifer M.. AU - Lasarev, Michael. AU - Shi, Xiao. AU - Lapidus, Jodi. AU - Janowsky, Aaron. AU - Hoffman, William F.. AU - Huckans, Marilyn. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by NIAAA R21AA020039 (WFH), Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Sciences Research and Development Merit Review Program award number I0CX001558 (WFH), Department of Veterans Affairs Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development Merit Review Program award numbers 1 I01 BX002061 (JML) and 5 I01 BX002758 (AJ), DOJ 2010-DD-BX-0517 (WFH), NIDA P50 DA018165 (WFH, JML, MH, AJ), the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), grant number UL1TR002369 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. AJ is supported by the VA ...
The high rate of meth use among MSM is paralleled by evidence of rises in sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among this population. The MSM meth epidemic, and its link with HIV transmission, underscores the need to pilot test new, innovative modalities to reduce meth use and meth-associated sexual risk behavior. Ultimately, a pharmacologic treatment for meth use may not only serve to improve outcomes among those who are accessing current treatment services, but might also benefit those who are not willing or able to utilize such services. While studies show that MSM who enter substance use treatment decrease both their substance use and sexual risk behavior, current behavioral meth treatment programs report low rates of success in treating meth dependence among MSM. We believe the time has come to test the acceptability of pharmacologic interventions to reduce meth use among MSM, and to assess the feasibility of conducting such trials among sexually active, meth-dependent MSM, whose ...
Learn the behavioral, physical and psychological signs and symptoms of amphetamine abuse now. Amphetamine abuse symptoms - Amphetamines are stimulants that may be prescribed by a doctor to treat several conditions including: Narcolepsy.
Stimulant use disorder is a type of substance use disorder that involves the abuse of stimulants. It is defined in the DSM-5 as the continued use of amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, or other stimulants leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, from mild to severe. These psychoactive drugs, known as stimulants, are the most widely used drugs in the world today. Approximately 200 million Americans have used some type of a stimulant in the past year alone. A psychoactive drug, such as a stimulant, is a chemical or substance that effects ones behavior, mind, and body. A stimulant can be smoked, injected, snorted, taken in pill form, chewed and even ingested in the form of a drink. Synthetic stimulants are becoming increasingly popular as users attempt to alter the chemicals in drugs to create different reactions, and ultimately steer clear of jail time, legal penalties and detection in drug screening efforts. If a substance is used over a long period of time and the user ...
I URGE ALL MY FRIENDS TO READ & SHARE THIS; YOU COULD SAVE A LOVED ONES LIFE BY KNOWING THIS SIMPLE INFORMATION!!! Stroke has a new indicator! They say if you forward this to ten people, you stand a chance of saving one life. Will you send this along? Blood Clots/Stroke - They Now Have a Fourth Indicator, the Tongue: During a BBQ, a woman stumbled and took a little fall - she assured everyone that she was fine (they offered to call paramedics) ...she said she had just tripped over a brick because of her new shoes. They got her cleaned up and got her a new plate of food. While she appeared a bit shaken up, Jane went about enjoying herself the rest of the evening. Janes husband called later telling everyone that his wife had been taken to the hospital - (at 6:00 PM Jane passed away.) She had suffered a stroke at the BBQ. Had they known how to identify the signs of a stroke, perhaps Jane would be with us today. Some dont die. They end up in a helpless, hopeless condition instead. It only takes a ...
Find a doctor in Wayne, WV who treats Amphetamine Abuse/dependence with Lifescript Doctor Finder. Search 720,000 doctors by specialty, condition, location, insurance.
Find a doctor in Fayetteville, WV who treats Amphetamine Abuse/dependence with Lifescript Doctor Finder. Search 720,000 doctors by specialty, condition, location, insurance.
Learn about amphetamine addiction signs, side effects, causes, symptoms & withdrawals from amphetamine abuse. Acadiana Treatment Center
When its time to talk about amphetamine abuse with your college-aged son or daughter, make sure to explain your reasons for the talk and to stay calm.
Hair analysis is a reliable tool for detecting long-term exposure to illegal drugs, including amphetamine-type stimulants, over periods from a few weeks to a few months, depending on the length of the hair used for analysis. Between 2000...
They said their new study adds to evidence about the need to tackle the global stimulant epidemic.. The investigators were led by Stuart Reece, a clinical associate professor at the University of Western Australia. They assessed arterial stiffening in more than 700 Australians in their 30s and 40s. Arteries tend to harden with age.. Those participants who used illegal amphetamines showed greater aging of the arteries than others, including those who smoked tobacco or used the heroin substitute methadone, the study reported.. The link between illegal amphetamine use and greater aging of the arteries was seen in men and women. It was also independent of other risk factors for heart disease and stroke, Reece and his colleagues said.. ...
SAMHSA has introduced the Matrix Intensive Outpatient Treatment for People With Stimulant Use Disorders Family Education Videos, which are intended to educate family members of those in recovery about substance use disorders.. The videos include interviews of people in recovery and their loved ones and provide key information for those supporting people in treatment and recovery. They were made to be used with the Matrix Intensive Outpatient Treatment for People With Stimulant Use Disorders series.. There are three sets of videos:. ...
Amphetamine addiction has become common with the usage of drugs such as benzedrine & adderall. Read about the effects & treatment for amphetamine dependency.
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Using a Modified Intervention Mapping Approach to Develop and Refine a Single-Session Motivational Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men
Clinical Services provided for Substance Abuse: * Alcohol Abuse * Cannibis Abuse * Opioid Abuse * Amphetamine Abuse * Prescription Medication
Clinical Services provided for Substance Abuse: * Alcohol Abuse * Cannibis Abuse * Opioid Abuse * Amphetamine Abuse * Prescription Medication
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Higher cortical and lower subcortical metabolism in detoxified methamphetamine abusers. AU - Volkow, N. D.. AU - Chang, L.. AU - Wang, G. J.. AU - Fowler, J. S.. AU - Franceschi, D.. AU - Sedler, M. J.. AU - Gatley, S. J.. AU - Hitzemann, R.. AU - Ding, Y. S.. AU - Wong, C.. AU - Logan, J.. PY - 2001/3/21. Y1 - 2001/3/21. N2 - Objective: Methamphetamine has raised concerns because it may be neurotoxic to the human brain. Although prior work has focused primarily on the effects of methamphetamine on dopamine cells, there is evidence that other neuronal types are affected. The authors measured regional brain glucose metabolism, which serves as a marker of brain function, to assess if there is evidence of functional changes in methamphetamine abusers in regions other than those innervated by dopamine cells. Method: Fifteen detoxified methamphetamine abusers and 21 comparison subjects underwent positron emission tomography following administration of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Results: ...
If you take methamphetamine, you should understand its potential for dependence and addiction. Learn the signs and symptoms and how to treat it.
Memory is a complex of systems by which an organism registers, stores and retrieves exposure to an event or experience. Literature purports that methamphetamine users and dependents have been found to exhibits signs of memory impairment. The aim of the research was to establish the possible existence of significant differences in memory in current methamphetamine users, recovering methamphetamine users, and a matched drug naïve control group. Cognitive functioning was assessed via a neurocognitive test battery that examined the memory of 14 current methamphetamine users, 17 recovering methamphetamine addicts, and 18 drug naïve control participants who were matched according to the demographic variables of age, gender and educational status. The results indicated that recovering methamphetamine users experienced the greatest impairment in memory in comparison to both the control group and current users of methamphetamine. The current users of methamphetamine also experienced some impairment in memory
The article describes a study done by eight professors from UCLA where they observed methamphetamine users dental health. The article provides statistics from the study about the prevalence of gum disease and cavities in methamphetamine users.
Context: Methamphetamine is associated with psychotic phenomena, but it is not clear to what extent this relationship is due to premorbid psychosis among people who use the drug. Objective: To determine the change in the probability of psychotic symptoms occurring during periods of methamphetamine use. Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort study. A fixedeffects analysis of longitudinal panel data, consisting of 4 noncontiguous 1-month observation periods, was used to examine the relationship between changes in methamphetamine use and the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms within individuals over time. Setting: Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Participants: A total of 278 participants 16 years of age or older who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence on entry to the study but who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania. Main Outcome Measures: Clinically significant psychotic symptoms in the past month, defined as a score of 4 or more on any of the Brief ...
Many people that struggle with Methamphetamine Abuse care for nothing but their high, so their unaware of the deadly Methamphetamine Abuse Symptoms.
Methamphetamine use has increased substantially in the United States since the 1990s. Few studies have examined the healthcare service needs of women who use methamphetamine. This study describes unmet medical needs in a community-based sample of women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, CA. Women who use methamphetamine were recruited in San Francisco and participated in a computer-assisted survey (N = 298 HIV-negative women).
The rise in methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men in urban centers over the past 10 years has resulted in a greater understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and cultural dimensions of the problem, as well as the development of specific treatments for this patient population. Culturally informed individual counseling and group psychotherapy, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and organized around the Matrix Model, appear to be most effective in the outpatient management of this difficult illness. Pharmacotherapy is limited to the treatment of co-occurring psychiatric disorders.. ...
This ease in the manufacture of methamphetamine has led to the mushrooming of clandestine laboratories for the manufacture of methamphetamine. Estimates in 2006 put the number of such clandestine laboratories manufacturing illegal methamphetamine in the United States of America was more than 6,435, based on the number of laboratory incidents. Most of these laboratories are located in California or in Mexico (OVERVIEW OF METH).According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), in the recent past, there has been an increase in methamphetamine abuse and the problems associated with it in the United States of America. This is reflected in the four-fold increase in the number of people seeking treatment for methamphetamine abuse over the last decade, and the fifty percent increase in emergency calls owing to methamphetamine abuse, over a seven-year period from 1995 to 2002 (Volkow, 2006).Addiction to drugs is a disease of the brain that involves genetic, psychological and social factors. Xu ...
A 2015 study published in the DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences from the Faculty of Sciences presented a random, double blind, placebo-controlled analysis of the treatment process involving participants with a methamphetamine dependency and sustained-release methylphenidate (MPH-SR).. Methylphenidate also known as Ritalin is a stimulant for the central nervous system, which can commonly be used for conditions like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Narcolepsy.. Fifty-six mixed gender participants from 18-65 years old attending outpatient clinics were randomly placed into two groups, treatment or placebo. The treatment group received 18-54 mg of MPH-SR for 10 weeks ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Methamphetamine addiction. T2 - Biological foundations, psychological factors, and social consequences. AU - Halkitis, Perry. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Book. BT - Methamphetamine addiction. PB - APA Publications. CY - Washington, DC. ER - ...
Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - Iranian Rehabilitation Journal - People with special needs - special olympics - Dohsa-hou - Asghar Dadkhah - University of social welfare and rehabilitation sciences
Last decade, positive drug tests among U.S. workers for methamphetamine had started to drop. That trend may be reversing, with positive rates dramatically higher in some states compared to others. The new statistics come from Quest Diagnostics annual report on U.S. worker drug use, based on more than six million urine tests collected from January-December 2010.. Positives for methamphetamine use in the U.S. general workforce dropped dramatically from 0.18% in 2006 to 0.11% in 2008. However, the rate remained the same in 2009 and 2010 at 0.10%.. Dr. Steven Shoptaw, a researcher who studies therapies for methamphetamine dependence, says, Ive worked with patients who, paralyzed by the recession and juggling multiple jobs and family responsibilities, started using methamphetamine for its functional stimulant benefit.. Shoptaw notes that, even when its used as a stimulant by people who work more than one job, meth can wreak havoc on their judgment.. For these sort of people, we now provide ...
In the study published in Addiction Biology, researchers from three Taiwanese institutions explored the potential role of declining levels of a protein called BDNF in promoting the brain damage found in chronic methamphetamine abusers and addicts. Under normal circumstances, BDNF provides the brain with critical protection by helping nerve cells grow, reach maturity and stay in good working order. In addition, the protein plays an essential role in basic brain functionality by supporting the chemical and physical adaptations required for learning new information and storing that information in memory.. For their study, the researchers recruited 59 people diagnosed with methamphetamine abuse, as well as a second group of 59 generally healthy individuals who did not use the drug. The methamphetamine abusers had stopped actively taking the drug and were in the early stages of withdrawal. Over a period of three weeks, the researchers used blood tests to measure the levels of BDNF in both groups of ...
Why people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk of substance dependence, particularly methamphetamine dependence, and have greater difficulty overcoming their addiction is the subject of a new study by researchers at the UC Davis MIND Institute.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results: Nine percent of the students had tried methamphetamine and 30% of male and 17% of female students reported sexual debut. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that methamphetamine use in the past year was significantly associated with being in a higher HIV/STI risk category (RRR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.10-4.03, p & 0.05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use, coupled with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa, raises serious cause for concern about the potential for methamphetamine to further exacerbate the prevalence and spread of HIV in Cape Town. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.. ...
The Methamphetamine Treatment Project is collaborative effort between community and state to address the growing incidence of Methamphetamine use and abuse among youth in the state of South Dakota. The project is comprised of four phases, (1) stabilization, (2) intensive treatment, (3) structured living, and (4) community placement. Each phase will build on the proceeding phase. Most treatment programs do not adequately address the special needs of the Methamphetamine dependent adolescent client.
Methamphetamine Addiction Rehab is here at Pinnacle Peak Recovery. People who use methamphetamine usually say that this drugs pleasurable high keeps ...
Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood
Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood
TY - JOUR. T1 - SB 206553, a putative 5-HT2C inverse agonist, attenuates methamphetamine-seeking in rats. AU - Graves, Steven M.. AU - Napier, T. C.. PY - 2012/6/14. Y1 - 2012/6/14. N2 - Background: Methamphetamine (meth) dependence presents a substantial socioeconomic burden. Despite the need, there is no FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant dependence. We consider 5-HT2C receptors as viable therapeutic targets. We recently revealed that the atypical antidepressant, mirtazapine, attenuates meth-seeking in a rodent model of human substance abuse. Mirtazapine historically has been considered to be an antagonist at 5-HT2C receptors, but more recently shown to exhibit inverse agonism at constitutively active 5-HT2C receptors. To help distinguish the roles for antagonism vs. inverse agonism, here we explored the ability of a more selective 5-HT2C inverse agonist, SB 206553 to attenuate meth-seeking behavior, and compared its effects to those obtained with 5-HT2C antagonists, SDZ Ser 082 ...
PubMed journal article: Determination and long-term stability of twenty-nine cathinones and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The National Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Strategy 2008-2011 (the Strategy) has been developed within the existing legislative framework and focuses on prevention, supply reduction and treatment in a partnership framework.. Page last updated: September 2008 ...
Study findings show the expansion of current amphetamine-type stimulants and overdose prevention and response efforts to address their use.
People who abused methamphetamine or other amphetamine-like stimulants were more likely to develop Parkinsons disease than those who did not, in a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).. The researchers examined almost 300,000 hospital records from California covering 16 years. Patients admitted to hospital for methamphetamine or amphetamine-use disorders had a 76 per cent higher risk of developing Parkinsons disease compared to those with no disorder.. Globally, methamphetamine and similar stimulants are the second most commonly used class of illicit drugs.. This study provides evidence of this association for the first time, even though it has been suspected for 30 years, said lead researcher Dr. Russell Callaghan, a scientist with CAMH. Parkinsons disease is caused by a deficiency in the brains ability to produce a chemical called dopamine. Because animal studies have shown that methamphetamine damages dopamine-producing areas in the brain, scientists have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between the regulator of G-protein signaling 9 gene and patients with methamphetamine use disorder and schizophrenia. AU - Okahisa, Y.. AU - Kodama, M.. AU - Takaki, M.. AU - Inada, T.. AU - Uchimura, N.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Iwata, N.. AU - Iyo, M.. AU - Sora, I.. AU - Ozaki, N.. AU - Ujike, H.. PY - 2011/3/30. Y1 - 2011/3/30. N2 - The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) modulates the functioning of heterotrimeric G protein. RGS9-2 is highly expressed in the striatum and plays a role in modulating dopaminergic receptor-mediated signaling cascades. Previous studies suggested that the RGS9 gene might contribute to the susceptibility to psychotic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the association between the RGS9 gene and two related dopamine psychoses, schizophrenia and methamphetamine use disorders. The subjects comprised 487 patients of schizophrenia and 464 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and 220 patients of methamphetamine use disorder and 289 controls. ...
A new study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) documents the high rates and unique patterns of dental decay and gum disease in people who use the illicit drug methamphetamine. The large study of 571 methamphetamine users found that 96 percent had experienced dental cavities and 58 percent had untreated tooth decay. Only 23 percent retained all of their natural teeth, compared to a tooth retention rate of 48 percent among the U.S. general population. The study was conducted by investigators at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).. The study found that adults reporting moderate or heavy methamphetamine use were twice as likely to have untreated dental cavities than were light users (less than 10 days of use over the past month). Older subjects (ages 30+), women, and current cigarette smokers were disproportionately affected by dental and periodontal disease. In addition, a significant percentage of participants (40 percent) indicated they were often self-conscious ...
Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine
Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age. Methamphetamine is second only to cannabis as the most widely used illegal drug, which may be because it is relatively cheap and easy to manufacture. Yet, to this date, the effects of PME on the developing fetus have not been well characterized and even less is known regarding the effects on development in childhood. Although few studies have established a pattern of MA use in pregnant users, it is important that researchers seek to determine this pattern to examine a possible dose-response relationship between MA use and neonatal outcomes. The recent increase in MA use in the United States, particularly in the South and Midwest, highlights the need for a better understanding of the short-term and long-term effects of MA use during pregnancy upon newborns ...
Importance Methamphetamine use is increasingly prevalent and associated with HIV transmission. A previous phase 2a study of mirtazapine demonstrated reductions in methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men.. Objective To determine the efficacy of mirtazapine for treatment of methamphetamine use disorder and reduction in HIV risk behaviors.. Design, Setting, and Participants This double-blind randomized clinical trial of mirtazapine vs placebo took place from August 2013 to September 2017 in an outpatient research clinic in San Francisco, California. Participants were community-recruited adults who were sexually active; cisgender men, transgender men, and transgender women who (1) had sex with men, (2) had methamphetamine use disorder, and (3) were actively using methamphetamine were eligible. Participants were randomized to receive the study drug or placebo for 24 weeks, with 12 more weeks of follow-up. Data analysis took place from February to June ...
Methamphetamine can increase the release and even block the reuptake of the brain chemical dopamine. This leads to higher levels of dopamine in the brain which is common for drug abusers. Dopamine is responsible for reward, experience of pleasure, motivation and motor function. Since methamphetamine has the ability to release dopamine quickly in the brain, the reward sections of the brain experience an intense euphoria or a rush once the drug has been smoked, snorted, or injected into the body.. Using methamphetamine for a long period of time can significantly change how the brain is able to function. These functions can include reduced motor skills and impaired verbal learning. In other studies conducted, it also shows that chronic methamphetamine abusers have severe structural and even functional changes in the brain; in the memory and emotion areas. This is why many of the abusers of the drug have problems with emotional and cognitive situations.. Using methamphetamine for an extended period ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body dissatisfaction and methamphetamine use among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Theodore, Peter S.. AU - Achiro, Richard P.. AU - Duran, Ron E.F.. AU - Antoni, Michael H.. PY - 2011/10/24. Y1 - 2011/10/24. N2 - Methamphetamine use is strongly associated with risky sex and increased reports of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among gay and bisexual men (GBM) who attend dance/circuit parties. The psychological mechanisms underlying methamphetamine use in this subculture, however, remain unclear. These exploratory findings are from a 2004 dataset measuring body dissatisfaction and drug use among 42 HIV-positive GBM in South Florida who attended at least one bar/club/circuit party within 3 months of participating. A multivariate regression model revealed that body dissatisfaction accounted for a small but significant amount of variance in methamphetamine use. Treatment implications and recommendations for future research are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. AU - Yu, Qianli. AU - Montes, Sergio. AU - Larson, Douglas F. AU - Watson, Ronald R. PY - 2002/7/12. Y1 - 2002/7/12. N2 - Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance ...
Title: Progress in Understanding Basal Ganglia Dysfunction as a Common Target for Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Neurodegeneration. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Shaji Theodore, Wayne A. Cass, Avindra Nath and William F. Maragos. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama, Birmingham 1719, 6th Avenue South, CIRC 516, Birmingham, AL-35294, USA.. Keywords:Drug abuse, AIDS, glia, cytokines, dopamine, striatum, neurodegeneration. Abstract: HIV-1 infection with concurrent methamphetamine (MA) abuse results in exacerbated neurodegenerative changes and rapid progression of a form of sub-cortical dementia termed HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). A notable feature of HAD is the involvement of the dopaminergic system manifested as parkinsonian like movement abnormalities. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is very often used in experimental studies trying to understand neurotoxic consequences of HIV-1 ...
wp-content/uploads/2017/11/fri-banner-logo-2.jpg 0 0 awp-admin /wp-content/uploads/2017/11/fri-banner-logo-2.jpg awp-admin2017-10-06 10:57:472017-10-06 10:57:47Methamphetamine Abuse Treatment Reduces HIV Risk Behaviors among Gay and Bisexual Males in Los Angeles, California, USA ...
A third potential indication in the treatment of substance use disorders is emerging for the medication MN-166 (ibudilast), a drug that is associated with glial cell activation. Biopharmaceutical company MediciNova has announced that the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) will fund a clinical trial of the medication for the treatment of alcohol dependence.. The latest news follows the companys 2013 announcements of a Phase 2 trial of the medication for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence and a phase 2a trial of the drug for the treatment of opioid addiction. Both of those studies have received National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funding. The availability of a medication to treat stimulant dependence would represent a long-awaited breakthrough in the addiction medicine community.. Lara Ray, PhD, associate professor at the UCLA Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, will lead the study. Emerging research in the field of alcohol dependence has ...
Objective: Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal clinics in the Western Cape province. This study aimed to review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. Method: A review of published research conducted in Cape Town between 2004 and 2007 was undertaken using PubMed, EBSCOhost and Science Direct. Results: Eight studies were identified, both quantitative and qualitative, and focusing on diverse populations, such as learners in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers. The total sample across the studies was 8153. Across multiple studies methamphetamine was fairly consistently associated with early vaginal sex, condom use ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methamphetamine self-administration causes persistent striatal dopaminergic alterations and mitigates the deficits caused by a subsequent methamphetamine exposure. AU - McFadden, Lisa M.. AU - Hadlock, Greg C.. AU - Allen, Scott C.. AU - Vieira-Brock, Paula L.. AU - Stout, Kristen A.. AU - Ellis, Jonathan D.. AU - Hoonakker, Amanda J.. AU - Andrenyak, David M.. AU - Nielsen, Shannon M.. AU - Wilkins, Diana G.. AU - Hanson, Glen R.. AU - Fleckenstein, Annette E.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a binge treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of ...
Methamphetamine is often a white or light brown crystalline powder. It can also be in liquid form. If you find it in your home, then that has to be the most obvious sign that someone is abusing it. Still, most adults will try to hide their use of illicit drugs, so getting this evidence might not be so easy.. If you fear that someone you love is abusing the drug-or is already addicted to it-there are a couple of signs you can look out for. If you find small pieces of crumpled aluminum foil lying around your house, thats another indication of drug abuse.. But meth abusers often do not sleep for long periods of time. They take meth until they run out, or until they are unable to maintain consciousness. They will rapidly and drastically lose their weight, becoming and appearing malnourished. This is an effect of methamphetamine abuse, wherein the user loses their appetite.. The drug is a stimulant, so the user will appear euphoric or active. They may also be more nervous or anxious for no ...
Leserman Robbins, J., Lorvick, J., Lutnick, A., Wenger, L., & Kral, A. (2012). Self-reported oral health needs and dental-care seeking behavior among women who use methamphetamine. Substance Use and Misuse, 47(11), 1208 - 1213 ...
Study Purpose: The purpose of the study was to provide information about markets, distribution, and use of methamphetamine in New York City, both inside and outside of the MSM (men who have sex with men)/gay community. The study had four specific aims. (1) Pilot a research design using mixed qualitative/quantitative data collection methods in New York City methamphetamine markets with participants recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. (2) Document, describe, and analyze the demographics and methamphetamine abuse behaviors of a sample of methamphetamine market participants. (3) Document, describe, and analyze the social networks of New York City methamphetamine market participants as users, buyers, and sellers of methamphetamine. (4) Document, describe, and analyze the market behaviors of New York City methamphetamine market participants as users, buyers, and sellers of methamphetamine. Study Design: Researchers piloted a version of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit different ...
The prevalence of methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy in women seeking treatment tripled from 1994 to 2006, rising to 24% of all pregnant women admitted to federally funded treatment centers, according to the researchers. Eze and colleagues defined early adversity as the sum of multiple binary indicators, including self-reported maternal postnatal substance abuse, an annual household income less than $10,000, reported sexual or physical abuse by a caregiver, a maternal score on the Brief Symptom Inventory, maternal depression above average for the Beck Depression Inventory, quality of living environment below average on the HOME Inventory, community violence above average on the Lifestyle Interview, and social position below average for the Index of Social Position.. The researchers began recruiting for the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) longitudinal study in 2002. They enrolled 412 mother and infant pairs at four sites and identified participants as ...
Alcohol and meth have different functions. Alcohol is a sedative - a downer - and works as a central nervous system depressant, also called a CNS depressant. Its effects include nausea, impaired thinking, and slowed cardiovascular functioning. When consumed in large quantities, alcohol can cause dramatic mood swings, slurred speech, loss of motor skills coordination, and alcohol poisoning.. Methamphetamine, or meth, is a stimulant - an upper - and considered one of the most potent of its kind. It stimulates the central nervous system, leading to the occurrence of high blood pressure, increased energy, amplified heart rate, and euphoria. Medically, methamphetamine is an FDA-approved medication for treating ADHD and exogenous obesity in both children and adults.. Being addicted to methamphetamine and alcohol can increase the risk for alcohol poisoning. According to the New Research on Methamphetamine Abuse, ethanol or alcohol attenuates the effects of methamphetamine and slows down the metabolism ...
Ballard Michael E, Mandelkern Mark A, Monterosso John R, Hsu Eustace, Robertson Chelsea L, Ishibashi Kenji, Dean Andy C, London Edythe D Low Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability is Associated with Steep Discounting of Delayed Rewards in Methamphetamine Dependence The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), 2015; 18(7): pyu119 ...
Case report. Mr A, a 38-year-old single man, was admitted to the emergency setting of Iran Educational and Therapeutic Center of Psychiatry because of his suicide attempt in February 2009. He reported hearing voices who ordered him to kill himself. The patient started methamphetamine use in March 2008 at 1 pack/d (a pack is equal to one-tenth of a gram) and gradually increased his dose up to 2.5 packs before his admission. Four months after beginning to use the drug, he began to experience auditory hallucination and persecutory delusion. Initially, the hallucinations comprised voices of 1 or 2 people commanding or insulting him. Gradually, the number and frequency of voices increased, and the voices did not leave the patient even for a moment. He tried to self-medicate by increasing the dose of methamphetamine, which would bring him a temporary relief for 1 or 2 hours; after which, the voices would return more vigorously. Therefore, he might use the drug up to 4 or 5 times a day.. A ...
THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannnabinol).. Ice methamphetamine abuse levels are stable throughout the region; the drug is typically of high purity. Public health authorities report that most methamphetamine abusers are Caucasians and Hispanics and that female abusers outnumbered male abusers in the Atlanta MSA among individuals seeking treatment for the abuse of amphetamines, which include methamphetamine.. CPDs and MDMA are considerable threats to the Atlanta HIDTA region. The most widely available and commonly abused CPDs are hydrocodone, oxycodone, and diazepam. Law enforcement officials report that CPD abuse is a growing problem among Caucasian young adults. MDMA available in the Atlanta HIDTA region is generally abused in combination with other substances, including alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. MDMA is most commonly available in Buckhead (northern Atlanta) and Midtown and is used mainly by Caucasian youths; however, MDMA abuse has increased among African Americans in the region. The abuse ...
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 21, 2019 (American Heart Association News) -- Although frequently overshadowed by the opioid epidemic, surging methamphetamine use nationally and around the world has fueled a chilling crisis of its own, according to a new report.. The result is a significant increase in meth-related deaths from unique cardiovascular consequences that researchers are trying to understand.. Methamphetamines can cause blood vessels to constrict and spasm, dangerous spikes in blood pressure, and the rewiring of the hearts electrical system, among other potentially fatal heart-related problems.. Cardiovascular disease represents the second-leading cause of death among methamphetamine abusers following only accidental overdose, according to the report published Wednesday in the American Heart Associations journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.. The report reviews current research on methamphetamine and the drugs effect on heart disease and stroke. It discusses potential ...
Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in many countries and can induce psychotic episodes mimicking the clinical profile of schizophrenia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in both Meth effects and schizophrenia. We therefore studied the long-term effects of chronic Meth exposure in transgenic mice engineered to harbor the human BDNFVal66Met polymorphism expressed via endogenous mouse promoters. These mice were chronically treated with an escalating Meth regime during late adolescence. At least 4 weeks later, all hBDNFVal66Met Meth-treated mice exhibited sensitization confirming persistent behavioral effects of Meth. We used high-resolution quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to biochemically map the long-term effects of Meth within the brain, resulting in the unbiased detection of 4808 proteins across the mesocorticolimbic circuitry. Meth differentially altered dopamine signaling markers (e.g., Dat, Comt, and Th) between hBDNFVal/Val and hBDNFMet
KOKOMO, Ind. - A teenager who died in a pursuit and crash last month in Kokomo was high on methamphetamine, investigators say. The Howard County Coroner
Wasp spray is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to methamphetamine, posing a whole new set of health risks, law enforcement officials say. The problem has become particularly bad in West Virginia, according to TV station KIRO. The wasp spray is inhaled or injected, providing a rush similar to the one methamphetamine users experience. Sometimes it is used alone, while other times it is used alongside methamphetamine to intensify effects. At least three overdoses have been reported so
Recent studies and research shows that People who use methamphetamine are almost five times more likely to have a stroke caused by a bleed in the brain, many of which are fatal. We can add stroke to the list of terrible and devastating things that methamphetamine does, says Damian Zuloaga, of the University at Albany, New York.. Beyond the signature tooth decay known as meth mouth, methamphetamine also increases heart rate and blood pressure, and can trigger heart attacks. The drug can lead to psychosis, and has been linked to anxiety disorders, depression, and problems with movement similar to those seen in Parkinsons disease.. A handful of studies have also linked methamphetamine use to strokes. To explore further, Julia Lappin and her colleagues at the Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre in Sydney sifted through published research on the topic.. The team specifically looked for research into people under the age of 45 - a group less likely to be affected by age-related ...
The problem of methamphetamine use in todays society is an ever growing problem. Women of childbearing age are among this group, leading to an increasing number of children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.. Christine Cloak, Ph.D., of the University of Hawaii, and colleagues findings are reported online in Neurology. The researchers did MRI scans on 29 methamphetamine-exposed children 3 to 4 years old, recruited from local hospitals, drug rehabilitation centers, and the community. Using detailed interviews of the mothers, the cumulative gestational methamphetamine exposure reported averaged 58 g over 2.5 trimesters, but varied widely.. Methamphetamine has been shown to cross the placenta and impact overall fetal growth. The drug is known to act on dopamine receptors that regulate corticogenesis and are present in the brain as early as the first trimester. It also affects other catecholamine systems involved in brain development.. Cloak and colleagues found that prenatal exposure to meth ...
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Mexican criminal groups have replaced traditional Asian criminal groups as the primary transporters of methamphetamine. Mexican criminal groups are the primary transporters of Mexico-produced methamphetamine as well as methamphetamine produced in California. Law enforcement officials report that Mexican criminal groups transport methamphetamine into Hawaii from the West Coast, primarily California. Mexican criminal groups transport both powdered and crystal methamphetamine. Some powdered methamphetamine is converted to crystal methamphetamine in Mexico and on the West Coast for transportation to Hawaii.. Traditional Asian transporters of crystal methamphetamine--primarily Korean, Japanese, Filipino, and Vietnamese criminal groups--also transport the drug into Hawaii, but to a lesser extent than during the mid-1980s to early 1990s. In the early 1990s law enforcement authorities in Hawaii dismantled several large Asian, primarily Korean, criminal groups that dominated the transportation of crystal ...
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Eighteen rats were implanted with intravenous (IV) catheters and bilateral AcbSh electrodes and subsequently underwent daily sessions in 2-lever (active/methamphetamine and inactive/no reward) operant chambers to establish IV methamphetamine self-administration. After stable responding was achieved, 3 hours of DBS or sham treatment was administered (sham: 0 µA, n = 8; active: 200 µA, n = 10) in a separate nondrug environment prior to the daily operant sessions for 5 consecutive days. Immediately following each DBS/sham treatment, rats were placed in the operant chambers to examine the effects of remote stimulation on methamphetamine intake. After the 5 days of therapy were finished, rats reestablished a posttreatment baseline, followed by extinction training, abstinence, and 1 day of relapse testing to assess methamphetamine-seeking behavior. ...
Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers. The S(+) form, which is also called d methamphetamine, is an ingredient in a few legitimate pharmaceutical products available only by prescription, and can be illicitly synthesized from (-) ephedrine or (+) pseudoephedrine. The S(+) or d form of methamphetamine is generally considered a drug of abuse. On the other hand, the R(-) form, which is also called l-desoxyephedrine or l methamphetamine, is the active ingredient in Vicks inhalers, is a metabolite of the anti-Parkinson drug Selegiline, and is not a drug of abuse. When a specimen gives a confirmed positive result for methamphetamine, this test can be ordered. This test separates the enantiomers and will provide percentage-based information to help determine the source of methamphetamine in the specimen. Note that this test does not provide quantitations; it only provides the percentage(s) of each methamphetamine found in the urine. The urine should be previously tested for methamphetamine and ...
Methamphetamine, generally described as meth, is a highly-addictive neurotoxic energizer that is commonly described as one of the most hazardous medication on earth, due to the broad schedule, simplicity of usage, and also capacity to produce the medicine from normal home products. Most often, methamphetamine comes in two forms, Crystal Meth and also powdered meth, both generate comparable impacts on the customer.. Meth generates a false sense of well-being and joy. It gives the user a thrill, and an increase in feelings of power, confidence, and also wakefulness. These results generally last six to eight hrs, however can be sustained for upwards of twelve hrs.. Methamphetamine is merely and also cheaply made using different family products in about two days- start to complete. The key component in methamphetamine is pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, both of which are discovered in a wide variety of over the counter chilly treatments.. ...
Revive Therapeutics reported it has entered into clinical trial agreement with the University of Wisconsin-Madison to evaluate the use of psilocybin for the treatment of methamphetamine use disorder.
Drug injection and other practices affecting the risk of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection were studied among 154 heroin users and 45 methamphetamine users in San Antonio, Texas. Amphetamine users were younger, mostly white, and had less-severe drug dependence. Heroin users had significantly higher levels of needle risk, as indicated...
Professor Yamamoto at Indiana University, and his collaborators, are cooking up new explanations for why stress and meth use are a common toxic mix
Methamphetamine meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Methamphetamine in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Methamphetamine in Hindi? Methamphetamine ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Methamphetamine का हिंदी में मतलब ). Methamphetamine meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is मेथैंफ़ेटामीन.English definition of Methamphetamine : an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine. AU - Thrash, Bessy. AU - Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.. AU - Uthayathas, Subramaniam. AU - Suppiramaniam, Vishnu. AU - Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments This study was supported by the Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - In Parkinsons disease, depletion of dopamine in the striatum leads to various symptoms such as tremor, rigidity and akinesia. Methamphetamine use has significantly increased in USA and around the world and there are several reports showing that its long-term use increases the risk for dopamine depletion. However, the toxic mechanisms of methamphetamine are not well understood. This study was undertaken to gain greater mechanistic understanding of the toxicity induced by methamphetamine. We evaluated the effect of methamphetamine on the generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial ...
The negative impacts of the illicit drug trade touch every society in the world. The World Drug Report for 2005 estimates that 200 million people, or 5% of the global population age 15-64, have consumed illicit drugs at least once in the last 12 months. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimates its worldwide retail value to be $321bn. It impacts almost every level of human security from individual health, to safety and social welfare. Its consequences are especially devastating for countries with limited resources available to fight against it.. The World Drug Report 2007 places the UK in joint first place with Denmark (out of 30 European countries) for amphetamine use and in fifth place for ecstasy use. The report states that although still tiny compared to amphetamine, the amount of methamphetamine seized in Europe rose more than four-fold between 2000 and 2005.. Chemical Dependency. Chemical dependency has many faces and takes many forms, including the use of depressants, stimulants, ...
"Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM Library, American ... Nicotine dependence Amphetamine dependence Cocaine dependence Substance use disorder American Psychiatric Association. " ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...
... a new approach for the treatment of amphetamine-related conditions such as addiction and/or disorders in which amphetamine is ... In this article, we focus on the relevance of TAs and their receptors to nervous system-related disorders, namely schizophrenia ... effectiveness of amphetamine in this disorder should be explored. Scassellati C, Bonvicini C, Faraone SV, Gennarelli M (October ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders [7,8,36]. Clinical studies report increased β- ...
This was found to be comparatively higher than hallucinogens (26%) and amphetamines (22%). To screen for cannabis-related ... Cannabis use disorder is recognized in the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), ... The combination of nabilone and zolpidem has been shown to decrease sleep-related and mood-related symptoms of cannabis ... physical/psychological problems related to use, activities given up and craving. For a diagnosis of DSM-5 cannabis use disorder ...
International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 22 (Suppl 1): S18-28, discussion S29. PMID 9758240. Buckett ... Older anorectic agents such as amphetamine and fenfluramine force the release of these neurotransmitters rather than affecting ... Related CBS news item 19 November 2004. James WP, Caterson ID, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal LF, Maggioni AP, et al. (September ... A review of the pharmacological evidence to differentiate it from d-amphetamine and d-fenfluramine". ...
Amphetamine, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). ... provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to ... 2008). Any of these can cause you to appear to have a disorder of EFs, such as ADHD, when you do not. You can see the ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Inhibitory control. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... ADHD can be conceptualized as a disorder of executive function; specifically, ADHD is characterized by reduced ability to exert ...
... amphetamine psychosis) and the psychoses related to schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia. Delirium is often drug induced ... particularly conduct disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder). A study in Finland ... In a minority of cases, homicides and acts of violence may be related to mental disorder. These homicides and fantasies do not ... They should be brought swiftly to a place where an assessment can be made and any underlying medical or mental disorder should ...
Related disorder NOS 291.81 Withdrawal 291.0 Withdrawal delirium Amphetamine (or amphetamine-like) 305.70 Abuse 304.40 ... Related disorder NOS Cocaine 305.60 Abuse 304.20 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Inhalant 305.90 Abuse 304.60 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Nicotine 305.1 Dependence 292.9 -Related disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal Opioid 305.50 Abuse 304.00 ...
... an organic mental disorder (F0) or psychoactive substance-related disorder (F1), such as excess consumption of amphetamine-like ... and stressor-related disorders, personality disorders, substance-related and addictive disorders, neurocognitive disorders". ... bipolar disorders, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, trauma- ... The disorder does not meet the criteria for panic disorder (F41.0), phobic anxiety disorders (F40.-), obsessive-compulsive ...
Amphetamine use disorders ... 3,788 (3,425-4,145) Greene SL, Kerr F, Braitberg G (October 2008). "Review article: amphetamines ... "Amphetamine Aspartate". Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals. March 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2015. Wikimedia Commons has media related ... In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in ... Among this group, the most closely related compounds are phenethylamine, the parent compound of amphetamine, and N- ...
Amphetamine use disorders ... 3,788 (3,425-4,145) Greene SL, Kerr F, Braitberg G (October 2008). "Review article: amphetamines ... Among this group, the most closely related compounds are phenethylamine, the parent compound of amphetamine, and N- ... In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in ... Amphetamine: Comparative review". Journal of Attention Disorders. 3 (4): 200-211. doi:10.1177/108705470000300403. S2CID ...
... pharmaceutically important substituted amphetamines. Glennon RA (2013). "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related ... is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [79]. ... [Figure 4](b) Examples of synthetic, ... MA: Triada-X. ISBN 978-5-94497-029-9. Media related to Substituted amphetamines at Wikimedia Commons (CS1 maint: unfit URL, ... Amphetamine was first produced at the end of the 19th century. By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds ...
... pharmaceutically important substituted amphetamines. Glennon RA (2013). "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related ... Stimulants are used in impulse control disorders such as ADHD and off-label in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder ... "amphetamines and prescription stimulants" (with "amphetamines" including amphetamine and methamphetamine) the value was 0.7%, ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ...
... amphetamine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.300 - cocaine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.635 - marijuana abuse MeSH F03.900.650 ... alcohol-related disorders MeSH F03.900.100.050 - alcohol amnestic disorder MeSH F03.900.100.050.500 - korsakoff syndrome MeSH ... panic disorder MeSH F03.080.725 - phobic disorders MeSH F03.080.931 - stress disorders, traumatic MeSH F03.080.931.249 - combat ... conduct disorder MeSH F03.550.300 - child behavior disorders MeSH F03.550.325 - child development disorders, pervasive MeSH ...
... amphetamine enantiomers and pemoline in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder". Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and ... Pemoline has been studied in and reported to be effective in the treatment of fatigue due to multiple sclerosis and HIV-related ... Pemoline is a member of the 4-oxazolidinone class and is structurally related to other members of the class including aminorex ... Cases of serious liver toxicity and associated death related to pemoline in children and adolescents were reported to the ...
Biology of bipolar disorder, Amphetamine, Serotonin). ... The polymorphism has also been related to personality traits ... Furthermore, a 2003 meta-analysis of affective disorders, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, found a minor ... It has been examined in connection with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). I425V is a rare mutation on the ninth exon. In ... Transporters are important sites for agents that treat psychiatric disorders. Drugs that reduce the binding of serotonin to ...
... is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and ... As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine ... Amphetamine use disorders ... 3,788 (3,425-4,145) Albertson TE (2011). "Amphetamines". In Olson KR, Anderson IB, Benowitz NL, ... In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in ...
Amphetamine psychosis may be purely related to high drug usage, or high drug usage may trigger an underlying vulnerability to ... The disorders are often distinguished by a rapid resolution of symptoms in amphetamine psychosis, while schizophrenia is more ... Drugs in the class of amphetamines, or substituted amphetamines, are known to induce "amphetamine psychosis" typically when ... However, unlike similar disorders, in AWP, substituted amphetamines reduce rather than increase symptoms, and the psychosis or ...
Lists of child and adult mental disorders can be found in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related ... Psycho stimulants such as Ritalin, amphetamine- related stimulant drugs: e.g., Adderall, and antidepressants such as Wellbutrin ... Oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder are examples of ... There is also reason to believe that there is co-morbidity of disorders, in that if one disorder is present, there is often ...
Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher ... Libido disorders, disorientation, and visual hallucinations are very rarely reported. Priapism is a very rare adverse event ... It should be used with extreme caution in people with bipolar disorder due to the potential induction of mania or hypomania. ...
Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher ... "Amfetamine and methylphenidate medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complementary treatment options". ... Amphetamine and its derivatives like methamphetamine are weak base compounds that are the only widely used class of drugs known ...
For the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, pemoline As ... A closely related type of drug is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI). Another class of drugs that stimulates adrenergic ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6879-5.[permanent dead link] Media related to Norepinephrine releasing agents at Wikimedia Commons (All ... though this is typically reserved only for those that also induce the release of serotonin and/or dopamine like amphetamine, ...
Related Disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal 294.9 Cognitive Disorder NOS 307.9 Communication Disorder NOS Conduct Disorder 312.81 ... 294.8 Amnestic Disorder NOS Amphetamine (or Amphetamine-Like) 305.70 Abuse 304.40 Dependence 292.89 -Induced Anxiety Disorder ... Related Disorder NOS 301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder 307.44 Hypersomnia related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II ... Related Disorder NOS 307.42 Insomnia Related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder] 312.34 Intermittent Explosive ...
... and conduct disorders, and gambling disorder may be included in addiction and related disorders. The role of impulsivity in the ... For example, alcohol has been shown to increase impulsivity while amphetamines have had mixed results. Substance use disorder ... conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders. The precise ... and skin-picking disorder as obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, moving intermittent explosive disorder under the ...
His clinical work and research focuses on Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. His work centers on amphetamine- ... is to help find ways to prevent or retard the progression of Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. His ... work also has implications for substance use.disorders. Ricaurte's retracted article on the neurotoxicity of ecstasy, ...
... of the amphetamine family (specifically, a derivative of phentermine, and closely related to chlorphentermine, a highly ... Crow S, Brown E (March 2003). "Investigational drugs for eating disorders". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 12 (3): ... anxiety disorders, and anorexia nervosa by Jouveinal but did not complete development and was never marketed. It reached phase ...
Glennon RA (2013). "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related agents". In Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W ( ... Biology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Amphetamine). ... Amphetamine can also undergo aromatic hydroxylation to p-hydroxyamphetamine. ... Subsequent oxidation at the benzylic position ... It also participates in the metabolism of xenobiotics related to these substances; for example, the human DBH enzyme catalyzes ...
ATS use disorders are related to the GABA system. Research shows that ATS use would affect normal function of the GABAA ... Amphetamine type stimulants can be used in the treatment of narcolepsy, a rare neurological disorder where the brain is unable ... amphetamine psychosis. Amphetamine, the parent compound of amphetamine-type stimulants was first synthesized by Romanian ... Jiao D, Liu Y, Li X, Liu J, Zhao M (2015). "The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders". Frontiers ...
This alteration is suggested to be related to the pathology, since antipsychotics do not regulate the expression of DARPP-32. A ... amphetamine, nicotine, LSD, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and morphine, and in Parkinson's disease or EPS (Extra-pyramidal symptoms). ... DARPP-32 levels are decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lymphocytes of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ... "The leukocytes expressing DARPP-32 are reduced in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Progress in Neuro- ...
... underlying disorder coexist with the jealousy The course of morbid jealousy closely relates to that of the underlying disorder ... amphetamines, marijuana.), organic brain disorders (i.e. Parkinson's, Huntington's), schizophrenia, neurosis, affective ... Unlike other delusional disorders, people who suffer from this disorder have a strong association with stalking, cyberstalking ... It can be found in the context of schizophrenia and delusional disorder, such as bipolar disorder, but is also associated with ...
... opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100. Public ... It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal ... The terms "dual diagnosis" or "co-occurring disorders," refer to having a mental health and substance use disorder at the same ... For example, the US, devoid of such measures, has seen large increases in drug-related deaths since 2000 (mostly related to ...
Baldwin, Robert C. (2005). "Is vascular depression a distinct sub-type of depressive disorder? A review of causal evidence". ... A closely related disease to brain ischemia is brain hypoxia. Brain hypoxia is the condition in which there is a decrease in ... and use of drugs such as cocaine and other amphetamines. Other causes associated with brain hypoxia include drowning, ... "Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. National Institutes of Health. ...
... such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, complaining disorders and bonding disorders (emotional ... A minority have a series of periodic relapses related to the menstrual cycle. Complete recovery, with a resumption of normal ... it was first described in cocaine and amphetamine addicts, but can also complicate ergot and bromocriptine prescribed to ... The prevalence and burden of bipolar disorder: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Bipolar Disorders 18: 440 ...
Grohol, John M. (21 May 2013) Psy.D:DSM-5 Changes: Addiction, Substance-Related Disorders & Alcoholism. Pro.psychcentral.com. ... 95% of cannabis users also drank alcohol; 26% took amphetamines; 19% took ecstasy and only 2.7% reported not having used any ... Cannabis use disorder is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as ... Cannabis use disorder is defined as a medical diagnosis in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to Brain. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brain. Wikisource has the text of the 1911 ... Research has shown that the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a central role: addictive drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, and ... Brain-computer interface Central nervous system disease List of neuroscience databases Neurological disorder Optogenetics ... The cerebellum modulates the outputs of other brain systems, whether motor-related or thought related, to make them certain and ...
The four then returned to Tucson and purchased amphetamines from a local drug dealer before spending the remainder of the night ... By the early hours of October 23, Steelman had become resentful of Mestites' discussions relating to topics such as white magic ... Austin, testified that although suffering from an anti-social personality disorder, Steelman was sane. His testimony was ... Unrein and Mestites had separated in August 1973 following a heated argument relating to her bringing a client to their bedroom ...
This complication is related to the impact that alpha and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists have on blood vessels combined with the ... Amphetamines, nicotine, and cocaine can result in marked plasma norepinephrine levels. Lifestyle and Diet: As with most lab ... The National Organization for Rare Disorders is a United States-based advocacy parent organization with the goal of promoting ... Following resection, tumor-related hyperglycemia is likely to resolve. Hypoglycemia: After the tumor is removed, insulin is no ...
Other causes include: Amphetamines along with other types of stimulant medications, such as appetite suppressants ... Compared to heat illnesses like heatstroke, heat intolerance is usually a symptom of endocrine disorders, drugs, or other ... which is a temporary worsening of MS-related symptoms. A temporary worsening of symptoms can also happen in patients with ... Sensory defensiveness/sensory processing disorder Serotonin syndrome Treatment is directed at making the affected person feel ...
Prior to the discovery of rasagiline, a closely related analog called SU-11739 (AGN 1133) was patented. At first, the N-methyl ... Rasagiline metabolizes into 1(R)-aminoindan which has no amphetamine-like characteristics and has neuroprotective properties in ... and methods to use it to treat Parkinsons and other disorders, and Technion eventually assigned its rights to Teva. Teva began ... Binda C, Hubálek F, Li M, Herzig Y, Sterling J, Edmondson DE, Mattevi A (December 2005). "Binding of rasagiline-related ...
Today, amphetamine is largely restricted to use in the treatment of attention deficit disorder and phenobarbital in the ... The settlement is related to the company's illegal promotion of prescription drugs, its failure to report safety data, bribing ... Amphetamine was developed by Smith, Kline and French as a nasal decongestant under the trade name Benzedrine Inhaler. ... There have been related accusations of disease mongering (over-medicalising) to expand the market for medications. An inaugural ...
The non-related β-carbonic anhydrase is required in plants for leaf formation, the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and ... Prakash A, Bharti K, Majeed AB (April 2015). "Zinc: indications in brain disorders". Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 29 (2): 131-149. ... inhibits dopamine reuptake and amplifies amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux in vitro. The human serotonin transporter and ... Krause J (2008). "SPECT and PET of the dopamine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Expert Rev. Neurother ...
Other lines of work that relate to the self in schizophrenia have linked the disorder to psychological dissociation or abnormal ... amphetamines may worsen psychotic symptoms. Methamphetamine, a potent neurotoxic amphetamine derivative, in a substantial ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. One genome-wide association study ... although generally related to all psychotic disorders rather than schizophrenia specifically. The early subtle motor signs ...
The SNPs rs3785143 and rs11568324 have been related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Thus far, however, the only ... Amphetamines have an effect on norepinephrine levels similar to that of cocaine in that they both increase NE levels in the ... There is evidence suggesting a relationship between NET SNPs and various disorders such as ADHD psychiatric disorders, postural ... may be less sensitive compared to normally functioning alpha-2 receptors and thus relate to elevated NE levels in the disorder ...
β-PEA was also as effective as amphetamine in its ability to produce conditioned place preference (i.e., the process by which ... Phenethylamine is sold as a dietary supplement for purported mood and weight loss-related therapeutic benefits; however, in ... Reviews that cover attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and phenethylamine indicate that several studies have found ... Administration of D-amphetamine and methylphenidate resulted in a markedly increased urinary excretion of PEA,20,60 suggesting ...
Infusion of amphetamine into the dorsal hippocampus has also been shown to enhance memory for spatial locations learned ... DTD is a relatively new disorder and can occur in varying degrees of severity. A study was done to see if topographical ... These boundaries are nothing more than axial lines which are a feature that people are biased towards when relating to space; ... Topographical disorientation (TD) is a cognitive disorder that results in the individual being unable to orient his or herself ...
... and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher ... Marijuana and related cannabis products are used by some clubgoers; for example, some Rohypnol and ketamine users mix the ... Amphetamine heavily used in recreational fashion pose a risk of addiction. Cocaine addiction is a psychological desire to use ... Various amphetamines and methamphetamines are used as stimulants, as is cocaine. These drugs enable clubgoers to dance all ...
This specific disorder has been related to self preservation and the body's natural instinct to protect itself. [1] Research is ... Substances with dissociative properties include ketamine, nitrous oxide, alcohol, tiletamine, amphetamine, dextromethorphan, MK ... The ICD-10 classifies conversion disorder as a dissociative disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ... dissociative identity disorder, formerly termed multiple personality disorder) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. ...
... amphetamines or cocaine. Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result ... The increased heart rate also leads to increased work and oxygen demand by the heart, which can lead to rate related ischemia. ... www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/arrhythmias-and-conduction-disorders/long-qt-syndrome-and-torsades- ... tachycardia Sleep deprivation Supraventricular tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome Drug related ...
The amount of substance use disorders diagnosed in the military is significantly lower than any other mental health disorder. ... Amphetamines were given to troops to increase alertness. They had the added benefits of reducing appetites and fatigue. Nazi ... The Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel published that 47% of active ... Studies show that Australian Defence Force veterans of the Gulf War had a prevalence of alcohol use disorder higher than any ...
... which detect morphine and related compounds. It is most closely related to methadone. Dextropropoxyphene was successfully ... Balance disorder is possible, with risk of falls from standing height. Propoxyphene was initially introduced as propoxyphene ... In the presence of amphetamine, propoxyphene overdose increases CNS stimulation and may cause fatal convulsive seizures. In ... Propoxyphene does not show up on standard opiate/opioid tests because it is not chemically related to opiates as part of the ...
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders describes four caffeine-related disorders including intoxication, ... Caffeine's mechanism of action is somewhat different from that of cocaine and the substituted amphetamines; caffeine blocks ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 61:857-872 Addicott, Merideth A. (2014). "Caffeine Use Disorder: A Review of the Evidence ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). ...
Individuals with schizoaffective disorder are also often diagnosed with substance abuse disorder, usually relating to tobacco, ... 5 December 2012). "Amphetamine-induced psychosis - a separate diagnostic entity or primary psychosis triggered in the ... Schizoaffective disorder is defined by mood disorder-free psychosis in the context of a long-term psychotic and mood disorder. ... Schizoaffective disorder and other disorders on the schizophrenic spectrum are evaluated as a psychotic disorder in the DSM-V, ...
Heal DJ, Smith SL, Gosden J, Nutt DJ (June 2013). "Amphetamine, past and present - a pharmacological and clinical perspective ... The Synthesis of Acid Hydrazides, their Derivatives and Related Compounds1,2". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 75 (8 ... Nevertheless, iproniazid has historic value as it helped establish the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the ... Although iproniazid was one of the first antidepressants ever marketed, amphetamine (marketed as Benzedrine from 1935, for " ...
A lack of praise for school-related behaviour might, for instance, not decrease after-school sports-related behaviour that is ... Dopamine, further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine, increases the breakpoint in a progressive ratio ... and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in pivotal response treatment. Motivation has also been found critical in ... A closely related issue concerns the relation between what we believe we ought to do, so-called ought-beliefs, and what we are ...
These Member States are all required to submit national drug control related information to the United Nations Office on Drugs ... overview of amphetamine-type stimulant data, and overview of psychoactive substances data. The second section is centered ... with around 35 million people suffering from drug use disorders and requiring treatment services. The report has now been ... Opioids, which include both heroin and legal pain relievers, were responsible for around two-thirds of drug-related deaths in ...
... cocaine and amphetamines and their substituted analogues, monoamine oxidase inhibitors or food-drug interactions, spinal cord ... likely related to humoral vasoconstrictors Endothelial injury and dysfunction Fibrinoid necrosis of the arterioles Deposition ... disorders, glomerulonephritis, head trauma, neoplasias, preeclampsia and eclampsia, hyperthyroidism and renovascular ...
... was used in the treatment of major depressive disorder in dosages similar to those of other TCAs. Iprindole has been ... Fuller RW, Hemrick-Luecke S (July 1980). "Long-lasting depletion of striatal dopamine by a single injection of amphetamine in ... Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E (1997). "Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at ... Fuller RW, Baker JC, Molloy BB (February 1977). "Biological disposition of rigid analogs of amphetamine". Journal of ...
... describes the following 10 amphetamine-related psychiatric disorders: Amphetamine-induced anxiety disorder Amphetamine-induced ... mood disorder Amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder with delusions Amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder with h... ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) ... encoded search term (Amphetamine-Related Psychiatric Disorders) and Amphetamine-Related Psychiatric Disorders What to Read Next ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. ... Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎ ... The four Technical Briefs on Amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎ were produced by the World Health Organization Regional Office ...
2001)‎. Systematic review of amphetamine-related disorders. World Health Organization. https://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders [‎1]‎. Anemia [‎1]‎. Anemia, Iron-Deficiency [‎1]‎. Annual Report [‎2]‎. ...
Categories: Amphetamine-Related Disorders Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Does illicit amphetamine seizures quantity associated with amphetamine use disorder related admissions in Saudi Arabia? January ... diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. ... Relationship between depressive disorders and biochemical indicators in adult men and women. January 18, 2023 ... Prevalence and related risks of cyberbullying and its effects on adolescent. January 14, 2023 ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders / genetics* * Asians / genetics* * Asians / psychology * Female * Genetic Predisposition to ...
... amphetamine, hallucinogen, inhalant, other stimulant, and other psychoactive substance-related disorders). ... Defined as ED visits made by patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of substance-related disorders or primary ...
D1.625.62.374 Amphetamine-Related Disorders C25.225 C25.775.225 Analgesics, Opioid D27.505.696.663.850.14.520 D27.505.696.277. ... C25.775.100.87 Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System C25.100.87.193 C25.775.100.87.193 Alcohol-Related Disorders C25.775. ... C25.775.835 Substance-Related Disorders C25.775 Sweating G7.700.100.693 G7.700.345.421.693 G16.100.57.500.535.693 Swiss 3T3 ... D23.946.833.850.325.220.244 Cocaine-Related Disorders C25.300 C25.775.300 Cocarcinogenesis C4.697.160 C4.697.98.875 C23.550. ...
... a disorder that tends to occur in young women - is the refusal to eat, resulting in extreme weight loss. ... In healthy women without an eating disorder, amphetamine-induced release of dopamine was related to feelings of extreme ... In fact, this disorder has a very high death rate from starvation. A new study, now online in the journal International Journal ... Perhaps the most puzzling symptom of anorexia nervosa - a disorder that tends to occur in young women - is the refusal to eat, ...
Major Depressive Disorder. *Nondependent Amphetamine or Related Acting Sympathomimetic Abuse. *Nondependent Antidepressant ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders Entry term(s). Amphetamine Related Disorders Disorder, Amphetamine-Related Disorders, Amphetamine ... Amphetamine Related Disorders. Dependence, Amphetamine. Disorder, Amphetamine-Related. Disorders, Amphetamine-Related. Tree ... Amphetamine-Related Disorders - Preferred Concept UI. M0029662. Scope note. Disorders related or resulting from use of ... Abuse, Amphetamine. Addiction, Amphetamine. Amphetamine Abuse. Amphetamine Addiction. Amphetamine Dependence. ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders --epidemiology. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Case-Control Studies. en_US. ... 65 cases used amphetamine or derivatives and 1 case used an opioid derivative. The number had risen from 1 case in 1998 to 58 ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders--epidemiology; Amphetamines--poisoning; Analgesics, Opioid--poisoning; Designer Drugs--poisoning ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders 100% * Cocaine-Related Disorders 78% * Peptides 56% * Fats 21% ... Peptidomics of Cocaine and Amphetamine Abuse. Fricker, L. D. & Rose, S. A. ...
Amphetamine-Related Psychiatric Disorders * Cough, Cold, and Allergy Preparation Toxicity Tools. *Drug Interaction Checker ... You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further ... You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further ...
Amphetamine-Related Disorders group Chemically-Induced Disorders; Mental Disorders Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction 78 3 0.300 ... Amphetamine Addiction disease Chemically-Induced Disorders; Mental Disorders Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction 81 2 0.300 None. ... Amphetamine Abuse disease Chemically-Induced Disorders; Mental Disorders Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction 75 0.300 None. 1.000 ...
Drug Use Disorders; Organic Mental Disorders, Substance-Induced; Substance Use Disorders. On-line free medical diagnosis ... Substance-Related Disorders; Drug Abuse; Substance Abuse; Substance Dependence; Drug Addiction; Drug Dependence; Drug ... Amphetamine-Related Disorders. 5. + + 18. Convalescence. 4. + + 19. Pedophilia. 4. + + 20. Depressive Disorder. 3. + + ... Drug Use Disorders; Organic Mental Disorders, Substance-Induced; Substance Use Disorders. Fast. Hierarchical. ...
Alcohol-Related Disorders (Phase 2) Alzheimer Disease (Phase 4) Amphetamine-Related Disorders (Phase 2) ... shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer to ...
... and who remain at high risk of committing suicide because of the difficulty in treating the disorder. ... ADHD drug associated with lowest risk of amphetamine-related hospitalizations and death ... Drug therapy may be effective in treating both the manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Bipolar Disorder, Brain, Constipation, Depression, Dopamine, Drugs, Fatigue, Hospital, Hypomania ...
Drugs like cocaine and amphetamines will heighten anxious thoughts and feelings: https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related ... Substance Use Disorders (Drugs and Alcohol) People struggling with a mental health condition can be susceptible to using drugs ... Substance use disorders are differentiated as being mild, moderate or severe based on a variety of factors which include but ...
... amphetamine-related psychiatric disorders are conditions resulting from intoxication or long-term use of amphetamines or ... Amphetamines can cause or be associated with the recurrence of psychiatric disorders. People who become dependent on ... Such disorders can also be experienced during the withdrawal period from amphetamines." ... Its important to seek treatment facilities that can treat both disorders at the same time. When one disorder is addressed and ...
Additional trends are amphetamine-type stimulant use, which is growing. The breadth of the health and social problems linked to ... Competencies in substance related disorders for nurse generalists. In the face of growing worldwide nursing shortage health ... Competencies in substance related disorder for post baccalaureate and master s program graduates ... Substance related disorders competencies and their development. The attitudes, knowledge and skills which are the foundation ...
  • 0.01), weekly methamphetamine use for 2 years or more (AOR 18.6, 95% CI 1.26-274.69, p =0.03), using methamphetamine beyond chemsex (AOR 4.76, 95% CI 1.17-19.41, p =0.03 ) were significant predictors for psychiatric disorders in the cases in separate logistic regression models. (researchsquare.com)
  • This increase in psychiatric disorders was predicted by the severity, duration and context of methamphetamine use and the duration of HIV diagnosis. (researchsquare.com)
  • There is no FDA-approved medication for methamphetamine (METH) use disorder. (nature.com)
  • Methamphetamine (METH) use disorder is a worldwide health problem. (nature.com)
  • Bupropion and Naltrexone in Methamphetamine Use Disorder. (duke.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: The use of naltrexone plus bupropion to treat methamphetamine use disorder has not been well studied. (duke.edu)
  • METHODS: We conducted this multisite, double-blind, two-stage, placebo-controlled trial with the use of a sequential parallel comparison design to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release injectable naltrexone (380 mg every 3 weeks) plus oral extended-release bupropion (450 mg per day) in adults with moderate or severe methamphetamine use disorder. (duke.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with methamphetamine use disorder, the response over a period of 12 weeks among participants who received extended-release injectable naltrexone plus oral extended-release bupropion was low but was higher than that among participants who received placebo. (duke.edu)
  • Amphetamine is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines , [note 4] which includes prominent substances such as bupropion , cathinone , MDMA (ecstasy) , and methamphetamine . (wikidoc.org)
  • Previous studies showing the benefits of exercise interventions for patients with depression and for those in recovery from substance use disorders (see here ), it is important to determine if such an intervention has an impact on depressive symptoms of patients in early recovery from methamphetamine (MA) use specifically. (recoveryanswers.org)
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, people became aware of the increased high and speed of onset that could be gained by using amphetamine (particularly methamphetamine) via intravenous injection. (amphetamines.com)
  • Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) such as "ecstasy" and methamphetamine now rank as Africa's second most widely abused drug type. (who.int)
  • A study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) found that "…amphetamine-related psychiatric disorders are conditions resulting from intoxication or long-term use of amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Finally, drug use often exacerbates and triggers mental disorders, such as anxiety or depression. (interventionservicesinc.com)
  • As described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition, 1 ADHD consists of symptoms that are developmentally extreme, highly impairing and cross-situationally displayed. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • Several of these medications for mental disorders can lead to false positive tests. (webmd.com)
  • This educational activity reviews other substance use disorders that often co-occur with opioid use disorder (OUD), including benzodiazepines and other tranquilizers, cocaine and stimulants, and cannabis. (sudtraining.org)
  • Since clenbuterol is a stimulant, short-term side effects are similar to other stimulants such as coffee and amphetamines. (answerpoverty.org)
  • Stimulants are medicines related to amphetamine or methylphenidate. (wustl.edu)
  • In another large ADHD study-this one observational rather than controlled-new onset of tic disorder was actually less common in children treated with stimulants, and tics remitted earlier in children who took stimulants. (wustl.edu)
  • These include stimulants, such as amphetamines ( Adderall , Vyvanse ) and methylphenidates ( Ritalin , Concerta , Focalin ), and non-stimulants, such as atomoxetine ( Strattera ) and guanfacine ( Intuniv ). (medicineshoppe.com)
  • The dose of Adderall(XR) (dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, amphetamine sulfate) needed to produce toxicity and psychiatric symptoms in a child is as low as 2 mg. (medscape.com)
  • These include dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall XR, Mydayis) and lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse). (mayoclinic.org)
  • [note 2] Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base , which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. (wikidoc.org)
  • Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is typically prescribed as Adderall , [note 3] dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine . (wikidoc.org)
  • Psychostimulants used to address ADHD symptoms include methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and mixed amphetamine salts, which all enhance the transmission of dopamine. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder that has been characterized by compulsive seeking and escalated intake of drugs. (nature.com)
  • Disruption of dopamine has been found to be associated with addiction-related disorders, such as amphetamine substance use and abuse. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • Corkrum and her research team stated that their next objective will be to explore what happens with repeated exposures, withdrawal, and reinstatement of amphetamine and how the stage of addiction or disease state could affect the need to increase or decrease the activity of astrocytes. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • Treating addiction the way that we treat other disorders of the brain will help to de-stigmatize substance abuse disorder and hopefully lead to advances that will help reduce rates and severity of addiction. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • Seattle has gained much well-deserved praise for its progressive approach to addiction and related behaviors, such as the diversion court program. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • Drug addiction is a serious risk of amphetamine abuse, but only rarely arises from medical use. (wikidoc.org)
  • Using amphetamines can lead to addiction. (limamemorial.org)
  • Addiction happens when you use amphetamines to get high or improve performance. (limamemorial.org)
  • Amphetamine treatment isn't easy and connecting to qualified professionals who are educated in the field of addiction, you will give yourself the best chance of getting sober and staying that way. (amphetamines.com)
  • Co-occurring disorders are common amongst people who are prone to alcohol and drug addiction. (strugglingwithaddiction.com)
  • According to one study , both impulsive acts and impulsive choices are observed in ADHD and addiction disorder. (strugglingwithaddiction.com)
  • We provide integrated treatment for mental health disorders and addiction. (drugrehab.com)
  • DrugRehab.com provides information regarding illicit and prescription drug addiction, the various populations at risk for the disease, current statistics and trends, and psychological disorders that often accompany addiction. (drugrehab.com)
  • Treatment with mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall) but not methylphenidate (Concerta, Metadate, Ritalin) reverses the hyperactivity, which is consistent with the mechanism of action of these medications. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The amphetamine class of drugs has not been tested as carefully as to whether it helps or worsens tics, and in fact there is some evidence that children with tics tolerate methylphenidate better than amphetamine. (wustl.edu)
  • NEUROFIT offers an animal model of cognitive deficit in which ADHD medication drugs (methylphenidate, amphetamine and atomoxetine) fully restore cognitive performance. (neurofit.com)
  • Prescription amphetamines are used frequently in children and adolescents to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and they are the most commonly prescribed medications in children. (medscape.com)
  • In adults, narcolepsy, ADHD of the adult type, and some depression can be treated with amphetamines. (medscape.com)
  • For people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ), Adderall can be beneficial to help them manage their symptoms. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is frequently misunderstood as caused by normal childhood energy, boring classrooms, or overstressed parents and teachers, several decades of research show ADHD to be a valid disorder with a neurobiological basis (Faraone, in press). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • This is because measures of serotonin metabolism are minimally related to the clinical efficacy of the medicines that treat ADHD. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hyperactivity and inattentiveness level disproportional to the child's developmental stage. (bvsalud.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. (bvsalud.org)
  • If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In general, a child shouldn't receive a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder unless the core symptoms of ADHD start early in life - before age 12 - and create significant problems at home and at school on an ongoing basis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although signs of ADHD can sometimes appear in preschoolers or even younger children, diagnosing the disorder in very young children is difficult. (mayoclinic.org)
  • contracted from alpha ‑ methylphenethylamine ) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy . (wikidoc.org)
  • Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy , and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications , such as depression , obesity , and nasal congestion . (wikidoc.org)
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes difficulty paying attention and controlling behavior, as well as over-activity. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood mental condition that can last into adolescence and adulthood. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • Living with ADHD can difficult for the person with the disorder and his or her family, friends, and teachers. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • The symptoms and severity of ADHD vary and the disorder affects everyone differently. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • They are legal when they are prescribed by a doctor and used to treat health problems such as obesity , narcolepsy , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (limamemorial.org)
  • Impulse behavior is an immediate factor between ADHD and addictive disorders. (strugglingwithaddiction.com)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder that originates in childhood and tends to persist across the lifespan. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • The voluminous research on risk factors, correlates, long-term outcomes and underlying processes related to ADHD has still not been fully translated into mechanism-specific interventions. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • Medication treatments for ADHD typically consist of psychostimulants, although other types are often concurrently prescribed in order to address comorbid disorders. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • Whereas such medications have been shown to reduce ADHD-related symptoms and functional impairments across settings, 4 effects tend to last only as long as the medication is active within the body and brain. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects children and often persists into adulthood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, if you want to treat ADHD , several non-stimulant drugs can help you with the disorder. (getyourpharmacy.com)
  • These are some common symptoms of ADHD, and these symptoms come in groups if you are suffering from this disorder. (getyourpharmacy.com)
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder. (getyourpharmacy.com)
  • Firstly, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a treatable, neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs in kids, teens, and adults. (buymedicationsonline.shop)
  • Secondly, ADHD is defined as Attention-Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder. (buymedicationsonline.shop)
  • A random-assignment controlled study published today in Mind & Brain, The Journal of Psychiatry (Vol 2, No 1, pp. 73-81) found improved brain functioning and decreased symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, in students practicing the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) technique. (theuncarvedblog.com)
  • The paper, ADHD, Brain Functioning, and Transcendental Meditation Practice , is the second published study demonstrating TM's ability to help students with attention-related difficulties. (theuncarvedblog.com)
  • It's chemically similar to amphetamines, a stimulant used to treat ADHD and as a study aid to stay awake. (webmd.com)
  • Despite being such an en-vogue disorder, though, ADHD remains one of the most misunderstood and stigmatized brain conditions of recent history. (mashable.com)
  • They're both going down the same pathway in terms of how people view the disorder," said Dr. Patricia Quinn, a renowned pediatrician , author , and founder of the National Center for Girls and Women with ADHD. (mashable.com)
  • The misunderstandings of ADHD begin with the term Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (mashable.com)
  • Please feel free to comment & add your thoughts on all matters relating to ADHD below. (adhdrichmond.org)
  • But there is no way kicking off will be happening and be related to ADHD. (adhdrichmond.org)
  • The drug may also be mixed with other drugs such as procaine, stimulant amphetamine, or synthetic opioids like fentanyl. (lahacienda.com)
  • A big part of my own weed activism was based on the idea that weed wasn't addictive because it contributes to far less death and disease than alcohol or cigarettes, and because it does not result in lethal overdoses or the gripping dependency that can come with taking opioids or amphetamines. (420press.com)
  • A study led by Walter Kaye, MD, professor of psychiatry and director of the Eating Disorder Treatment and Research Program at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, used a brain imaging technology called positron emission tomography (PET), which permits visualization of dopamine function in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In order to provoke dopamine levels in the brain, scientists administered a one-time dose of the drug amphetamine, which releases dopamine in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In healthy women without an eating disorder, amphetamine-induced release of dopamine was related to feelings of extreme pleasure in a part of the brain known as a 'reward' center. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It's possible that when people with anorexia nervosa eat, the related release of the neurotransmitter dopamine makes them anxious, rather than experiencing a normal feeling of reward. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mixed amphetamine salts block the dopamine transporter but also facilitates the non-vesicular release of dopamine through reverse transport, which would be expected to reverse the deficits in exocytotic neurotransmitter release caused by the coloboma mutation. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Minnesota Medical School found that stimulating cells they're calling "the hidden stars of the brain" can help regulate brain function as it relates to dopamine, one of the major reward molecules of the brain. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • Researchers then looked at amphetamine because it is known to increase dopamine and psychomotor activity in organisms. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • According to Michelle Corkrum, co-leader of the study, "These findings suggest that astrocytes contribute to amphetamine signaling, dopamine signaling and overall reward signaling in the brain. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • clenbuterol can act as a stimulant such as coffee or amphetamine, meaning that it works on the nervous system and increases dopamine. (answerpoverty.org)
  • The acute movement disorders that occur as manifestations of effects of neuroleptics and other dopamine antagonists include akathisia, acute dystonia, and other hyperkinetic dyskinesias. (medscape.com)
  • The acute movement disorders resulting from exposure to dopamine antagonists are commonly termed extrapyramidal syndromes (EPSs). (medscape.com)
  • The occurrence of acute movement disorders on exposure to dopamine antagonists is increased in female patients and older patients. (medscape.com)
  • Use of potent dopamine antagonists, prolonged exposure to dopamine antagonists, and prior occurrence of acute movement disorders on exposure to dopamine antagonists are also associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of acute movement adverse effects. (medscape.com)
  • Association of Dopamine Agonist Use With Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Prior studies have linked these disorders to the use of dopaminergic medications, particularly dopamine agonists. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Dopamine agonist-related ICDs have potentially devastating financial and psychosocial consequences. (reliasmedia.com)
  • The findings highlight the importance of routine screening for ICDs in patients treated with dopamine agonists, so that these disorders can be identified and treated before secondary consequences emerge. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Amphetamine, through activation of a trace amine receptor , increases biogenic amine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. (wikidoc.org)
  • Amphetamines also cause the brain to release dopamine. (limamemorial.org)
  • There is an association between dopamine levels and several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dopamine has a powerful effect on the brain and plays a role in other mental health disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Amphetamine-related psychiatric disorders are conditions resulting from intoxication or long-term use of amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives. (medscape.com)
  • The disorders are often self-limiting after cessation, though, in some patients, psychiatric symptoms may last several weeks after discontinuation. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamine use may elicit or be associated with the recurrence of other psychiatric disorders. (medscape.com)
  • The symptoms of amphetamine-induced psychiatric disorders can be differentiated from those of related primary psychiatric disorders by time. (medscape.com)
  • If symptoms do not resolve within 2 weeks after the amphetamines are discontinued, a primary psychiatric disorder should be suspected. (medscape.com)
  • Socio-demographic, clinical and offense-related characteristics of forensic psychiatric inpatients in Hunan, China: a cross-sectional survey. (medscape.com)
  • These psychic effects of khat chewing similar studies have shown that failure to recall those of amphetamine [19], but a abstain from khat use might prolong a psy- major role of environmental factors in the chotic episode, even during treatment with expression of khat effects has also been psychiatric medication [11,24-28,30]. (who.int)
  • Amphetamines can cause or be associated with the recurrence of psychiatric disorders. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • This study examined the association between Axis I psychiatric disorders and active psychotropic substance use, and identified factors affecting the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in HIV-infected GBM. (researchsquare.com)
  • Significant difference in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders was only evident for disorders with onset after HIV diagnosis. (researchsquare.com)
  • Conclusions: Active psychotropic substance use in HIV-infected gay or bisexual men was associated with a 3-fold increase in Axis I psychiatric disorders. (researchsquare.com)
  • The use of PS has been shown to associate with higher risks of psychiatric disorders. (researchsquare.com)
  • The positive relationship between substance use disorder (SUD) and Axis I psychiatric disorders has been confirmed by decades of epidemiological studies and a meta-analysis (15). (researchsquare.com)
  • The risks for various psychiatric disorders were different for different PS (16). (researchsquare.com)
  • As the sexual minority and living with HIV infection both increased the risks of having psychiatric disorders (17-20). (researchsquare.com)
  • Factors related to higher psychiatric morbidities in people living with HIV (PLHIV) included low nadir CD4 (21), symptomatic infections (22), co-occurring HCV infection (21, 23) and absence or non-adherence of antiretroviral treatment (ART) (22, 24-26). (researchsquare.com)
  • It is uncertain how the pattern of PS use among HIV-infected GBM associates with the profile of psychiatric disorders in this highly-stigmatised population. (researchsquare.com)
  • Inhalant-related psychiatric disorders are a heterogenous group of illnesses caused by the abuse of solvents, glues, paint, fuels, or other volatile substances. (medscape.com)
  • 2003), it is among the most common of psychiatric disorders. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • or it may be caused by endocrine/metabolic problems, cardiopulmonary abnormalities, psychiatric disorders, vitamin deficiencies, or drug withdrawal. (dentalcare.com)
  • Increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents and young adults taking antidepressants for major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, it is expected that cannabis can be applied as a reliever to syndromes of mobility impairment, physical drug dependence, neuronal disorder and psychiatric disease. (asayake.jp)
  • The condition (bipolar I and II) affects approximately 8 million Americans, who have relied on a combination of drugs to manage their symptoms, and who remain at high risk of committing suicide because of the difficulty in treating the disorder. (news-medical.net)
  • A relationship may exist between inhalant use and an increased risk of frequent drinking, binge-type drinking, smoking, and the use of other drugs, making inhalant-related disorders a new public health problem deserving of more attention. (medscape.com)
  • Because most anorectic drugs relate either directly or indirectly to the stimulant amphetamine, these drugs also act to increase physical activity. (reference.com)
  • A number of drugs and toxins have been identified as risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension such as fenfluramine (and other related weight-loss drugs), amphetamines, protein kinase inhibitors (such as dasatinib ), cocaine , and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Harmful use of drugs (such as marijuana, heroin or amphetamines) and alcohol is closely related to suicidal behaviour. (sane.org)
  • Olney JW, Labruyere J, Price MT. Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs. (medscape.com)
  • Aspirin Poisoning Aspirin and related drugs called salicylates, a common ingredient in many prescription and over-the-counter drugs, is safe in normal doses, but severe overdose can cause severe symptoms and. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Amphetamines are drugs. (limamemorial.org)
  • Secondary headaches may be related to extracranial causes (e.g., dental problems, sinusitis, and carotid artery disorders), intracranial causes (e.g., brain tumors and vascular disorders), and exposure to toxins and drugs. (dentalcare.com)
  • Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an ADR related to long-term dopamine2-receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, chlorpromazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, and perphenazine. (dentalcare.com)
  • 38 Drugs that can increase heat production include amphetamines, cocaine, general anesthetics, and antipsychotic agents. (dentalcare.com)
  • And, if you mix your amphetamine use with other drugs or alcohol, you can increase these effects. (amphetamines.com)
  • Health education raised the understanding on basic knowledge related to abuse of alcohol and other drugs, and its correlation to the behavior, in addition to its contextualization and reflection regarding the rehabilitation. (bvsalud.org)
  • What if there were bodybuilding supplements available that mock the same effects of traditional steroids, but with little to no side effectsof amphetamines, steroids, or other drugs used to enhance athletic performance? (gillspools.com)
  • However, mental health and drug-use disorders are drugs ( 10 ). (who.int)
  • Drug-use disorders are associated population size estimation in 2013 found that ~2 million with many adverse mental and physical health outcomes, people used drugs illicitly and ~200 000 injected drugs in such as mood and anxiety disorders ( 4 ), HIV infection the Islamic Republic of Iran ( 13 ). (who.int)
  • Increased prescriptions of drugs containing oxycodone, such as OxyContin and Percocet, have led to an increasing number of people with opioid use disorders. (drugrehab.com)
  • Procedures have a named patient regulation and cholesterol lowering brate drugs (mabs) (clobrate, fenobrate, and gembrozil), plasticisers a decade later, studies related to either risk increase the levels of plasma proteins, and its monobasic ph 8.7.5. (sdchirogroup.com)
  • File includes all drug-related ED visits that are reportable to DAWN without regard for the reason for the visit or the specific drugs involved. (samhsa.gov)
  • People who become dependent on amphetamines like Adderall sometimes decrease their usage after experiencing side effects like paranoia and hallucinations. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Adderall psychosis typically resolves in a few days but it can last for years, in which case, a person may have a primary psychosis disorder. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • If someone has an Adderall use and psychotic disorder, it's recommended that they seek treatment for both disorders because only treating one isn't usually effective. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Adderall, an amphetamine , is often thought of as a safe or harmless drug but it has been linked with mental health conditions like psychosis and schizophrenia . (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • When someone has an Adderall use disorder, it can cause serious problems. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • ADDERALL® tablets contain d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine salts in the ratio of 3:1. (rxdaycare.com)
  • Having a limited understanding of Substance Use Disorders, Crystal gained valuable experience caring for those seeking treatment for the abuse of alcohol, benzodiazepines, opiates, amphetamines, and combinations of these and many more as an LVN, and then as an RN. (hvrc.com)
  • Prognostic prediction of subjective cognitive decline in major depressive disorder based on immune biomarkers: a prospective observational study. (medscape.com)
  • Design and rationale of the REStoring mood after early life trauma with psychotherapy (RESET-psychotherapy) study: a multicenter randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of adjunctive trauma-focused therapy (TFT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) for adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and childhood trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Women diagnosed with PMDD are more susceptible to major depressive disorder when their condition goes untreated. (medscape.com)
  • Trazodone hydrochloride tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder ( 1 ). (nih.gov)
  • Efficacy was established in trials of trazodone immediate release formulation in patients with major depressive disorder ( 14 ). (nih.gov)
  • 65 cases used amphetamine or derivatives and 1 case used an opioid derivative. (who.int)
  • According to figures from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the opioid epidemic continues to rage in the United States, with an estimated 2 million people suffering from an opioid use disorder in 2018. (rapiddetox.com)
  • A recent analysis of CDC data conducted by the Washington Post demonstrated that counties across the country moved through three distinct phases of the opioid epidemic: first, a spike in overdose deaths related to prescription painkillers, then heroin, and ultimately the synthetic opioid fentanyl. (rapiddetox.com)
  • Across the United States, fentanyl now causes more opioid-related deaths than heroin or prescription painkillers. (rapiddetox.com)
  • Unfortunately, people with psychosis or people who have a genetic predisposition of psychosis are at a higher risk of developing substance use disorders. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • In addition to the behavioral problems that someone with psychosis and a substance use disorder experience, the person is often in poor physical health. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • A study published as early as 1969 explored the connection between psychosis and substance use disorder . (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • While there is no definitive answer, early studies found that substances like amphetamines could trigger an onset of psychosis symptoms in otherwise healthy patients. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Since then, MDMA has been further implicated in a number of acute and chronic neuropsychiatric illnesses, ranging from psychosis to panic disorder with secondary depression. (erowid.org)
  • One side effect specific to amphetamine use is amphetamine psychosis . (amphetamines.com)
  • For some sufferers, toxic psychosis is the result of using a high dose of amphetamine over a short time. (amphetamines.com)
  • If you are dependent on amphetamines or addicted to them and you need help making it through withdrawal and working on recovery, you should call Amphetamines.com. (amphetamines.com)
  • Disclosing common biological signatures and predicting new therapeutic targets in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder by integrated bioinformatics analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Arising simultaneously with the "gateway drug" theory that marijuana use would lead to heroin, the Daniel Act enormously increased already draconian pot related penalties and removed the possibility of parole or probation for offenders. (theweedblog.com)
  • For the first time, researchers have demonstrated in separate short-term trials that a single drug therapy may be effective in treating both the manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder. (news-medical.net)
  • Seroquel is currently approved for the short-term treatment of acute manic episodes in bipolar I disorder and the treatment of schizophrenia. (news-medical.net)
  • Though we will soon undertake an even larger trial, these preliminary findings should shape the standard of care for bipolar disorder going forward," says Dr. Calabrese, professor of psychiatry at Case and a nationally renowned researcher in bipolar disease. (news-medical.net)
  • The Center, which he co-directs with pediatric psychiatrist Dr. Robert Findling, is the first NIMH-funded center exclusively dedicated to the development of new treatments for bipolar disorder. (news-medical.net)
  • According to a study by the Epidemiological Catchment Area, 47 percent of people with schizophrenia and 60 percent of people with bipolar disorder were also living with a substance use disorder. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • TDs are most common in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who have been treated with antipsychotic medication for long periods, but they occasionally occur in other patients as well. (medscape.com)
  • Many people who attempt suicide have experienced major depression or bipolar disorder, and may experience very negative or self-critical thinking and periods of very low mood. (sane.org)
  • The average reduction in life expectancy in people with bipolar disorder is between 9 and 20 years, it's 10-20 years for schizophrenia, between 9 and 24 years for drug and alcohol abuse, and around 7-11 years for recurrent depression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activation of Mania/Hypomania: Screen for bipolar disorder and monitor for mania/hypomania ( 5.3 ). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, amphetamines can be psychologically but not physically addictive. (medscape.com)
  • This was also helped by medical professionals incorrectly reporting that amphetamine was not addictive. (amphetamines.com)
  • During this period, professionals in the medical field endorsed amphetamine for a number of complaints: pregnancy-related vomiting (or morning sickness), hangover, excess weight, narcolepsy, hyperactivity, and depression. (amphetamines.com)
  • These symptoms are harder to recognize as part of the disorder and can be mistaken for laziness or depression. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Recently, Alem and Shibre considered the differences in the effect of khat and khat as a substance of abuse and noted that amphetamine are quantitative rather than chewing had the potential to complicate qualitative [20,21]. (who.int)
  • the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) found that 1 in 12 American adults (over 18 million) had a substance use disorder in 2017. (voicesofsept11.org)
  • [ 10 ] This study also noted higher reported rates of abuse and neglect among adolescents who were diagnosed with inhalant use disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Those suffering from substance abuse disorder are viewed as patients in need of treatment rather than criminals. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • People with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders are especially vulnerable to the development of TDs after exposure to conventional neuroleptics, anticholinergics, toxins, substances of abuse, and other agents. (medscape.com)
  • For example, amphetamine abuse often results in seizures and heart problems. (interventionservicesinc.com)
  • The Center for Substance Abuse and Research (CESAR) identifies German chemist L. Edeleano as the first to synthesize amphetamine, which was not immediately recognized for its stimulating effects. (amphetamines.com)
  • This kick started a rise in amphetamine abuse. (amphetamines.com)
  • The researchers searched for the best systematic reviews of clinical studies which reported mortality risk for a whole range of diagnoses - mental health problems, drug and alcohol abuse, dementia, autistic spectrum disorders, learning disability and childhood behavioural disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medication used to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea. (liu.edu)
  • Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy . (wikidoc.org)
  • The leaves of for asthma, it eases symptoms of intestinal the khat plant contain alkaloids structurally tract disorders [9] and maintains social con- related to amphetamine. (who.int)
  • A new study, now online in the journal International Journal of Eating Disorders , sheds light on why these symptoms occur in anorexia nervosa. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medications can improve symptoms related to inattention, impulsive behavior, and hyperactivity. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • It's important to remember that different people will develop different symptoms with prolonged use of amphetamine. (amphetamines.com)
  • Seizures are disorders characterized by temporary neurologic signs or symptoms resulting from abnormal, paroxysmal, and hypersynchronous electrical neuronal activity in the brain. (mhmedical.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a severe, lifelong brain disorder that causes changes in your thoughts, perceptions, emotions and behaviours. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder that causes changes in a person's thoughts, perceptions, emotions and behaviours. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Family history: Being related to other family members with schizophrenia can increase a person's risk of getting schizophrenia. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • In comparison with amphetamine, khat hyperactivity and logorrhoea [4]. (who.int)
  • New research into the genetic basis and possible genetic markers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may open the door for new treatments. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Lisdexamfetamine, sold under the brand name Vyvanse among others, is a stimulant medication that is mainly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in people over the age of five as well as moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder in adults. (buymedicationsonline.shop)
  • For decades, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been one of the most debated disorders, generating countless books and articles fretting over its alleged over-diagnosis. (mashable.com)
  • What is cannabis use disorder? (420press.com)
  • In fact, the term used for it these days is "cannabis use disorder. (420press.com)
  • The law enforcement cost to crack down on cannabis-related crimes is not worth the physical harm of cannabis itself. (asayake.jp)
  • Impulse disorder could be a sign of an underlying problem, like a mental health issue or other personality disorders. (strugglingwithaddiction.com)
  • Impulse behavior is a hallmark of BPD, a debilitating personality disorder that distorts a person's self-perception. (strugglingwithaddiction.com)
  • Effectiveness of outpatient and community treatments for people with a diagnosis of 'personality disorder': systematic review and meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • We modelled and mapped registered illicit-drug-related deaths from March 2016 to March 2017. (who.int)
  • Making lifestyle changes and getting regular medical and prenatal care can help prevent stroke and significantly reduce the risk for other disorders such as dementia, heart disease, and diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of adrenergic blockers and related compounds on the toxicity of. (erowid.org)
  • Removing the charge of the active portion of immuno- detection of acute oxcarbazepine toxicity related to amphetamine). (sdchirogroup.com)
  • These results have been published on line in the International Journal of Eating Disorders . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the mid-'80s, "Dr. Leslie" founded the first New York State licensed, nonprofit mental health clinic specializing in Eating Disorders and women's issues. (not-yet-dead.com)
  • We provide to our customers our in depth know-how in the evaluation of treatment for neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders. (neurofit.com)
  • They found that astrocytes respond to amphetamine with increases in calcium, and if astrocyte activity is ablated (surgically removed), the behavioral effect of amphetamine decreases. (vucsadrugs.com)
  • Drug uses decreases the individual's ability to care for themselves and increases the likelihood of having health-related issues. (interventionservicesinc.com)
  • Recent reports have called attention to the fact that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a higher incidence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) than the general population. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the progressive degeneration of neuronal populations and the simultaneous loss of memory and cognitive functions. (neurofit.com)
  • Treatment of sleep disorders is directed at the particular problem and includes behavioral and pharmacologic components, as well as implementation of a sleep hygiene program. (medscape.com)
  • Fetal alcohol exposure at any stage of pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a group of life-long conditions characterized by congenital malformations, as well as cognitive, behavioral, and emotional impairments. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: Cases had lower level of social support ( p =0.02), more depressive disorders (AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-8.7, p =0.01) and psychotic disorders (AOR 7.2, 95% CI 1.2-41, p =0.03) but not anxiety disorders. (researchsquare.com)
  • Relationship between depressive disorders and biochemical indicators in adult men and women. (medscape.com)