Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/1182)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (2/1182)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (3/1182)

(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences.  (+info)

The Ca2+ channel blockade changes the behavioral and biochemical effects of immobilization stress. (4/1182)

We investigated how the effects of chronic immobilization stress in rats are modified by Ca2+ channel blockade preceding restraint sessions. The application of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) shortly before each of seven daily 2 h restraint sessions prevented the development of sensitized response to amphetamine as well as the stress-induced elevation of the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel in the hippocampus and significantly reduced the elevation of the densities of [3H]nitrendipine binding sites in the cortex and D1 dopamine receptors in the limbic forebrain. Neither stress, nor nifedipine affected the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the cerebral cortex nor D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. A single restraint session caused an elevation of blood corticosterone level that remained unaffected by nifedipine pretreatment, but the reduction of this response during the eighth session was significantly less expressed in nifedipine-treated rats. We conclude that L-type calcium channel blockade prevents development of several stress-induced adaptive responses.  (+info)

Necessary role for ventral tegmental area adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A in induction of behavioral sensitization to intraventral tegmental area amphetamine. (5/1182)

In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective activation or inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) on long-term sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA or peripheral amphetamine (AMPH). Selective inhibition of AC by SQ 22,536 (9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine; 100 nmol/side bilateral into VTA) had no effect on acute basal locomotion but attenuated the locomotor stimulation induced by acute i.p. AMPH (1.5 mg/kg). Coinjection of SQ 22,536 (100 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH (15 nmol/side) but had no detectable effect on the sensitization induced by repeated i. p. AMPH. Persistent activation of AC by intra-VTA cholera toxin (500 ng/side) modestly increased acute locomotion and induced a robust sensitization to i.p. AMPH challenge 10 days after the last of three repeated VTA microinjections. Selective inhibition of PKA by Rp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS; 25 nmol/side) had no effect on acute basal or AMPH-stimulated locomotion. Coinjection of Rp-cAMPS (25 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH but had no effect on sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. Intra-VTA microinjection of the selective PKA activator Sp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Sp-cAMPS; 25-100 nmol/side) dose-dependently stimulated acute locomotion and exerted synergistic effects on locomotor activity when coinfused into the VTA with AMPH but had no detectable effect on acute i.p. AMPH-induced locomotion. Repeated intra-VTA Sp-cAMPS did not induce sensitization to AMPH challenge but potentiated the sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. These results suggest that VTA cAMP signal transduction is necessary for the induction of persistent sensitization to intra-VTA amphetamine and that peripheral and intra-VTA AMPH may not induce behavioral sensitization by identical mechanisms.  (+info)

Modulation of amphetamine-stimulated [3H]dopamine release from rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells by sigma type 2 receptors. (6/1182)

An important regulatory mechanism of synaptic dopamine (DA) levels is activation of the dopamine transporter (DAT), which is a target for many drugs of abuse, including amphetamine (AMPH). sigma receptors are located in dopaminergic brain areas critical to reinforcement. We found previously that agonists at sigma2 receptors enhanced the AMPH-stimulated release of [3H]DA from slices of rat caudate-putamen. In the present study, we modeled this response in undifferentiated pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cells, which contain both the DAT and sigma2 receptors but not neural networks that can complicate investigation of individual neuronal mechanisms. We found that enhancement of AMPH-stimulated [3H]DA release by the sigma agonist (+)-pentazocine was blocked by sigma2 receptor antagonists. Additionally, the reduction in the effect of (+)-pentazocine by the inclusion of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid led us to hypothesize that sigma2 receptor activation initiated a Ca2+-dependent process that resulted in enhancing the outward flow of DA via the DAT. The source of Ca2+ required for the enhancement of reverse transport did not appear to be via N- or L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, because it was not affected by nitrendipine or omega-conotoxin. However, two inhibitors of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II blocked enhancement in AMPH-stimulated release by (+)-pentazocine. Our findings suggest that sigma2 receptors are coupled to the DAT via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II transduction system in PC12 cells, and that sigma2 receptor antagonists might be useful in the treatment of drug abuse by blocking elevation of DA levels via reversal of the DAT.  (+info)

Effects of atypical antipsychotic drug treatment on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. (7/1182)

Clozapine, risperidone, and other new "atypical" antipsychotic agents are distinguished from traditional neuroleptic drugs by having clinical efficacy with either no or low levels of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Preclinical models have focused on striatal dopamine systems to account for their atypical profile. In this study, we examined the effects of clozapine and risperidone on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. A novel 11C-raclopride/PET paradigm was used to derive estimates of amphetamine-induced changes in striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations and patients were scanned while antipsychotic drug-free and during chronic treatment with either clozapine or risperidone. We found that amphetamine produced significant reductions in striatal 11C-raclopride binding during the drug-free and antipsychotic drug treatment phases of the study which reflects enhanced dopamine release in both conditions. There were no significant differences in % 11C-raclopride changes between the two conditions indicating that these atypical agents do not effect amphetamine-related striatal dopamine release. The implications for these data for antipsychotic drug action are discussed.  (+info)

Review article: mechanisms and management of hepatotoxicity in ecstasy (MDMA) and amphetamine intoxications. (8/1182)

The social use of ecstasy (methylenedioxymethampheta-mine, MDMA) and amphetamines is widespread in the UK and Europe, and they are popularly considered as 'safe'. However, deaths have occurred and hepatotoxicity has featured in many cases of intoxication with amphetamine or its methylenedioxy analogues such as ecstasy. Recreational use of these drugs presents an important but often concealed cause of hepatitis or acute liver failure, particularly in young people. The patterns of liver damage and multiple putative mechanisms of injury are discussed. Recognition of the aetiological agent requires a high index of suspicion. Optimum management of the resultant liver damage, including the controversial role of liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure, is also discussed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Repeated amphetamine administration alters the expression of mRNA for AMPA receptor subunits in rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. AU - Lu, Wenxiao. AU - Chen, Huiyuan. AU - Xue, Chang Jiang. AU - Wolf, Marina E.. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Recent evidence suggests that behavioral sensitization to amphetamine is associated with alterations in excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmission in perikarya (ventral tegmental area) and terminal regions (nucleus accumbens [NAc]) of the mesoaccumbens dopamine system. The present study determined whether repeated amphetamine administration alters expression of mRNAs for AMPA receptor subunits. We studied the NAc, because it is the site of expression of amphetamine sensitization, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), because it is the origin of EAA projections that regulate the mesoaccumbens dopamine system. Rats were treated for 5 days with 5 mg/kg/day amphetamine sulfate or vehicle (controls) and perfused 3 or 14 days after the last ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Individual differences in amphetamine sensitization, behavior and central monoamines. AU - Scholl, Jamie L.. AU - Feng, Na. AU - Watt, Michael J.. AU - Renner, Kenneth J.. AU - Forster, Gina L.. PY - 2009/3/2. Y1 - 2009/3/2. N2 - Repeated amphetamine treatment results in behavioral sensitization in a high percentage of rats. Alterations to plasma corticosterone, neural monoamines and stress behavior can accompany amphetamine sensitization. Whether these changes occur following repeated amphetamine treatment in the absence of behavioral sensitization is not known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 6 days. Amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy, open-field anxiety behavior, plasma corticosterone and limbic monoamines were measured during withdrawal. Sixty-two percent of amphetamine-treated rats showed behavioral sensitization over the test periods. Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential development of autoreceptor subsensitivity and enhanced dopamine release during amphetamine sensitization. AU - Wolf, Marina. AU - White, F. J.. AU - Nassar, R.. AU - Brooderson, R. J.. AU - Khansa, M. R.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Various changes in the function of dopamine neurons have been proposed to underly the development of behavioral sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of d-amphetamine. The present study examined the relative importance of two such mechanisms after both short (3-4 days off) and longer (10-14 days off) withdrawals from repeated amphetamine or saline injection (1 mg/kg/day, days 1-5 and 8-12). First, single-unit recording was used to examine the sensitivity of impulse-regulating somatodendritic autoreceptors located on mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. Second, in vivo microdialysis was used to examine the ability of amphetamine challenge to increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat ...
A substantial increase in substance treatment episodes for methamphetamine problems suggests characteristics of the treatment population could have changed and that targeted treatment programs are required. To determine who methamphetamine treatment should be designed for this study has two aims. First, to empirically describe changes in amphetamine treatment presentations to a rural NSW drug and alcohol treatment agency over time. Second, to examine how these characteristics may affect the likelihood of being treated for amphetamines compared to other drugs. The Australian Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS-NMDS) containing closed treatment episodes from a single agency from three time periods was used. Characteristics of people receiving amphetamine treatments in these three periods were compared and the effects of these characteristics on the odds of being treated for amphetamine were estimated using a logistic regression model. The characteristics utilised in
The effects of amphetamines described. See what amphetamine use, amphetamines abuse and amphetamines addiction does to amphetamine users and amphetamine addicts.
Please read the label you buy from the label so you know the dosage and what kinds of Amphetamine you need. Drugs made by mixing Amphetamine with other types of illegal medicines, such as tobacco or tobacco products. It is important for us to understand drug-related disorders so we can be on the safe side or being careful that you dont become ill because amphetamine gives you painkillers. Amphetamine are also known as anorexic drugs. They may cause an overdose of many substances, which increases the risk for serious problems. Amphetamine is sometimes found in certain medicines (e.g. alcohol, tea, heroin and alcohol). Amphetamine may be found in chewing gum, chewing alcohols, gum for chewing, e.g. Nicotine in e.g. prescription prescription nicotine, is not as effective, sometimes, as in amphetamine, which can cause a high blood nicotine level such as about 0.5 mg/100 ml. Amphetamine can also be taken as an anti-depressant drug. An occasional withdrawal from any of the four types of Amphetamine will
Amphetamine detox is only the first step in addiction treatment."Amphetamine detox is only the first step in addiction treatment. Without regular, long-term treatment in conjunction with amphetamine detox, many users will return to abusing the drug. Treatment may be provided on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Each person is different, and having a treatment plan tailored to each persons specific situation increases the chances of a good outcome. Support groups such as Narcotics Anonymous can be helpful to some people going through an addiction. Supportive family and friends increase the chances of a successful recovery. Addiction is a chronic disease that needs long-term treatment.. According to the TEDS report, amphetamine treatment admission rates increased between 1993 and 1999 by 250 percent or more in 14 states and by 100 to 249 percent in another 10 states. There are many treatment options available that can be tailored to your specific situation. Amphetamine addiction treatment is not ...
Amphetamine has complex behavioral actions in the rat that depend upon the release of dopamine in striatal and mesolimbic brain regions. To explore a possible role of the dopamine-sensitive cAMP second-messenger system in mediating these effects, we examined the effects of in vivo amphetamine treatments on the D1 receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system in membranes from striatal and mesolimbic rat brain regions. The results show that amphetamine produces a regional, dose- and time- dependent down-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Intermediate and high doses of amphetamine (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), but not a low dose (1.0 mg/kg), resulted in a decrease in the apparent Vmax and/or an increase in the apparent Ka for the selective D1 partial agonist, SKF38393, in striatal membranes 30 min after amphetamine treatment. Treatment of rats with 7.5 mg/kg amphetamine for 30 and 60 min, but not 10 min, similarly resulted in a down-regulation of D1- mediated adenylate cyclase activity in ...
Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up the bodys system. Many are legally prescribed and used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Street names include Bennies, Black Beauties, Crank, Ice, Speed and Uppers. Amphetamines can look like pills or powder. Common prescription amphetamines include methylphenidate (Ritalin® or Ritalin SR®), amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall®) and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®).. Amphetamines are generally taken orally or injected. However, the addition of "ice," the slang name of crystallized methamphetamine hydrochloride, has promoted smoking as another mode of administration. Just as "crack" is smokable cocaine, "ice" is smokable methamphetamine. The effects of amphetamines and methamphetamine are similar to cocaine, but their onset is slower and their duration is longer. In contrast to cocaine, which is quickly removed from the brain and is almost completely metabolized, methamphetamine remains in the central nervous system ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The psychogenetically selected Roman rat lines differ in the susceptibility to develop amphetamine sensitization. AU - Corda, Maria G.. AU - Piras, Giovanna. AU - Lecca, Daniele. AU - Fernández-Teruel, Alberto. AU - Driscoll, Peter. AU - Giorgi, Osvaldo. PY - 2005/2/10. Y1 - 2005/2/10. N2 - The mesolimbic dopamine system is considered to play a pivotal role in the locomotor activation produced by psychostimulants and in the augmentation of this effect observed upon repeated drug administration, a process denominated behavioral sensitization. The selective breeding of Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats, respectively, for rapid versus poor active avoidance acquisition has resulted in two phenotypes that differ in the functional properties of the mesolimbic dopamine system and in their behavioral and neurochemical responses to addictive drugs, including psychostimulants and opiates. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the ability of these lines to develop ...
BACKGROUND: Acute depletion of tyrosine using a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture offers a novel dietary approach to inhibit activated dopamine pathways in the brain. This study investigated the potential of in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods as a noninvasive means to detect effects of tyrosine depletion on dopamine function. METHODS: Changes in blood-oxgenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast induced by administration of the dopamine-releasing agent, amphetamine (3 mg/kg i.v.), were measured in halothane-anaesthetised rats. RESULTS: Amphetamine evoked changes in BOLD signal intensity with the greatest effects observed in the nucleus accumbens (-7.7%), prefrontal cortex (-13.6%), and motor cortex (+12.5%). Pretreatment with a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture attenuated the response to amphetamine in some regions (nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex), but not others (motor cortex). Amphetamine itself had no effect in thalamus and hippocampus but, surprisingly, increased the
A sample of 985 self-admitted amphetamine users was compared with a sample of airmen who had no known record of drug abuse. Results of this study indicate that there is a very strong likelihood for amphetamine users to abuse other drugs. There are relationships between amphetamine use and geographic area of enlistment, religious preference, aptitude scores, educational level, and age at enlistment. Amphetamine use is also related to the likelihood of getting an undesirable discharge and to lower APR ratings. (Author)*Amphetamines
Background: Psychotic states related to psychostimulant misuse in patients with hepatitis C virus infection may complicate acceptance and reaction to antiviral treatment. This observation equally applies to widely used ribavirin therapy. Objective: We examined psychomotor and body weight gain response to low ribavirin doses after cessation of intermittent amphetamine treatment in adult rats to assess its role in neurobehavioral outcome during psychostimulant withdrawal. Method: The model of amphetamine-induced (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 7 consecutive days) motor sensitization and affected body weight gain was established in adult male Wistar rats. Then, additional cohort of amphetamine-sensitized rats was subjected to saline (0.9% NaCl; 1 mL/kg/day; i.p.) or ribavirin (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) treatment for 7 consecutive days. Animals motor activity in a novel environment was monitored after the 1st and the 7th saline/ribavirin injection. Body weight gain was calculated as appropriate. ...
You can also take Amphetamine Powder for mental health reasons. For some people with the disease, Amphetamine Powder may damage DNA or cause damage to other parts of the body. The first symptoms of Amphetamine Powder can be similar to people who have had traumatic brain injuries. People with a certain condition that causes a certain kind of disorder may also develop a reaction to Amphetamine Powder. The first symptoms of Amphetamine Powder can be seen in small, usually white or red blotches. People with a condition that causes a certain kind of disorder may also develop a reaction to Amphetamine Powder. The effect of Amphetamine Powder can be seen in certain ways.
amphetamine - MedHelps amphetamine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for amphetamine. Find amphetamine information, treatments for amphetamine and amphetamine symptoms.
amphetamine - MedHelps amphetamine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for amphetamine. Find amphetamine information, treatments for amphetamine and amphetamine symptoms.
This report describes a series of experiments, all of which demonstrate a strong contribution of the behavioral pattern manifested at the time of initial amphetamine injection to the topography and development of the stereotypy that develops with chronic amphetamine intoxication. These initial behavioral patterns reflect (i) learned behaviors, (ii) species-specific behaviors, (iii) behaviors associated with amphetamine arousal, and (iv) novel behaviors reflecting unique environmental circumstances prevailing at the time of administration. In an experiment using eight dogs administered amphetamine in a situation which allowed interaction between the animals, the behavioral stereotypies that developed were comprised of the social interaction patterns ongoing at the time of initial drug effects. Experiments with rats have demonstrated that the configuration of the enclosure in which they are injected influences the initial behavioral reactions to amphetamine and thus modifies the stereotypy. In experiments
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder that results in debilitating cognitive impairment in 40-65% of patients. There are no current treatments for this symptom of MS. This is a systematic review of literature on the impact amphetamines have on cognitive function of MS patients. Methods: An exhaustive search of available medical literature was conducted using MEDLINE-Ovid, MEDLINE-PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Keywords used included: amphetamines and multiple sclerosis. Relevant articles were assessed for quality using GRADE. Results: Three studies have statistically significant improvements in some aspects of cognitive function in patients on amphetamines when compared to placebo. However, a high rate of adverse events were noted with L-isomer or D-isomer amphetamines alone. Conclusion: Amphetamines positively impact cognitive function in MS patients. Mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR) seemingly have the lowest rate of adverse effects with the greatest
Rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced operant task to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from saline. After discrimination training stabilized, test doses of (+)-amphetamine (0.0625-2.0 mg/kg), (-)-nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or (-)-nornicotine (1-10 mg/kg) were assessed for their ability to substitute for the (+)-amphetamine training dose during brief test sessions in which food reinforcement was withheld. As expected, as the test dose of (+)-amphetamine increased, there was a dose-related increase in drug-appropriate responding, with both 1 and 2 mg/kg test doses substituting fully for the (+)-amphetamine training dose. Both (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine showed partial substitution (approximately 50% drug-appropriate responding) for the (+)-amphetamine training dose, with (-)-nicotine being more potent than (-)-nornicotine. Rate suppressant effects prevented the assessment of higher doses of (-)-nicotine or (-)-nornicotine. Thus, while (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine share ...
Long term consumption of Amphetamine and its derivatives increases the speed of weight loss by reducing appetite. However, the consumption is an extremely high risk that may lead to death. Users are advised to take extra precautions with slimming products available in the market. There are slimming products detected containing drugs in order to obtain visible weight loss. Counterfeit slimming products may produce effects as mention above especially heart attack/stroke.. Amphetamine Abuse. There are lots of reason to promote the abuse of Amphetamine. Some people take Amphetamine to improve performance in sport or work and to boost confidence. However, it is always abuse to be high and excited. Based on report by Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan (AADK), the number of Amphetamine and its derivatives addiction is the highest after heroin, morphine and ganja. Each year shows an increase in the number of seizures of the Amphetamine pills and its derivatives. In year 2012, 11,321,142 pills and its ...
Dont take Amphetamine Powder with meals, sleep pills or drugs. Use Amphetamine Powder in all situations. Have your friends or family know about Amphetamine Powder. You may be able to get relief from certain symptoms of a serious medical condition through taking Amphetamine Powder online in two ways. These two types of Amphetamine Powder online are not the same person, there are some differences between them. You need to buy Amphetamine Powder online.
People who use amphetamines could be at an increased risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Apart from their illegal use amphetamines such as Benzedrine and Dexedrine are often prescribed for people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, as weight-loss pills and are also used to treat traumatic brain injury. Researchers from the U.S. health organisation Kaiser Permanente studied 66,348 people who were initially studied between 1964 and 1973 and re-evaluated in 1995. 1,154 people had been diagnosed with Parkinsons by the end of the study. The participants were asked about their use of amphetamines - either as weight-loss pills or in the form of Benzedrine or Dexedrine. There was no increase in risk for the people who used amphetamines for weight loss but those who took Benzadrine or Dexedrine were nearly 60% more likely to develop Parkinsons. Amphetamines are known to affect the release and uptake of dopamine, the most important neurotransmitter involved in ...
Get AMPHETAMINE SALTS COMBO XR coupons & save on AMPHETAMINE SALTS COMBO XR medicine purchases. Redeem your AMPHETAMINE SALTS COMBO XR coupon at CVS, Walgreens, K-mart, Wal-Mart, Target, Rite-aid, Costco, Duane Reade, Stop & Shop, Winn Dixie, Shaws, Longs & most private ph
Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug, known to produce increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. Clinical uses of amphetamine include chronic administration for the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children [1]. It is also used as a drug of abuse [2]. Amphetamines are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized by deamination, oxidation and hydroxylation. Approximately 90% of the dose is excreted in the urine within 3-4 days [1]. An amphetamine overdose is rarely fatal but can lead to a number of different symptoms, including psychosis, chest pain and hypertension. Cardiovascular effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, chest pain, myocardial ischemia or infarction, dysrhythmias, cardiovascular collapse and death [2].. A typical postmortem toxicological analysis is identification of the drugs or chemicals presence in postmortem specimens [3]. Blood, urine, bile, liver and ...
Gene-environment interactions play a significant role in drug abuse and addiction. Epigenetics (the study of how environmental stimuli alter gene expression) has gained attention in recent years as a significant contributor to many behavioral phenotypes of drug addiction. The current study sought to determine if differential rearing conditions can alter a specific epigenetic mechanism, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and how HDAC inhibition can affect drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors differently among enriched, isolated, or standard-housed rats. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared for 30 days in enriched (EC), isolated (IC), or standard (SC) conditions prior to amphetamine (0.03, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) self-administration, extinction, or reinstatement sessions. Trichostatin A (TsA; 0.3 mg/kg, i.v.), an HDAC inhibitor, was injected 30 min prior to drug-taking or drug-seeking sessions. Results indicated that EC rats self-administered less amphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) than ...
Cases Of Hallucination A teenager taking large amount of Amphetamines can suffer from a condition known as Amphetamine psychosis that causes auditory, visual, and tactile hallucinations. The teenager can also suffer from intense paranoia, irrational thoughts and beliefs, mental confusion, and delusions.. Mood Problems Regular intake of amphetamines can cause mood problems like depression, anxiety, dysphoria, aggression etc. Repeated use of amphetamines cause mood swings in teenagers and they exhibit insomnia, restlessness, and irritability. The intensity of the mood swings depend on the amount of amphetamine consumed by teenagers and physiological response to the drug.. Effects Of Marijuana: Marijuana is the most commonly abused drug among teenagers that has various short-term and long-term negative consequences on health.. Elevates Heart Rate And Decreases Blood Pressure Smoking Marijuana increases the heart rate and decreases blood pressure. The heart rate can increase by 20 to 50 beats per ...
Overindulging is never a good thing. I am sure your Sim will snort like a responsible adult, but if that is not the case, here are some of the side effects that might occur.. Speed Freak. Sims who keeps on snorting a ton of amphetamine over a prolonged period of time will eventually get an "Addicted to Amphetamine" buff. This buff lasts for 5 days and is refreshed every time your Sim snorts more amphetamine. If your Sim is not under the influence while the buff is active, he or she might get a lot of negative debuffs until he or she snorts more amphetamine. Your Sim will also loose a lot of weight quite rapidly while addicted.. Overdosing. If your Sim snorts too much amphetamine in the same sitting he or she might experience a non-fatal or fatal OD. Fatal ODs are much less common than non-fatal ones. If your Sim has a non-fatal OD, the energy levels will plummet and he or she will eventually pass out. If your Sim experience a fatal OD, however… Well… Game over.. ...
Drug-dependent neural plasticity related to drug addiction and schizophrenia can be modeled in animals as behavioral sensitization, which is induced by repeated noncontingent or self-administration of many drugs of abuse. Molecular mechanisms that are critical for behavioral sensitization have yet to be specified. Long-term depression (LTD) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission in the brain has been proposed as a cellular substrate for learning and memory. The expression of LTD in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) required clathrin-dependent endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPARs. NAc LTD was blocked by a dynamin-derived peptide that inhibited clathrin-mediated endocytosis or by a GluR2-derived peptide that blocked regulated AMPAR endocytosis. Systemic or intra-NAc infusion of the membrane-permeable GluR2 peptide prevented the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in the rat. ...
d-Amphetamine is markedly more potent an inhibitor of catecholamine uptake by norepinephrine neurons in the brain than is 1-amphetamine, whereas the two isomers are equally active in inhibiting catecholamine uptake by the dopamine neurons of the corpus striatum. In behavioral studies, d-amphetamine is ten times as potent as 1-amphetamine in enhancing locomotor activity, while it is only twice as potent in eliciting a compulsive gnawing syndrome. This suggests that the locomotor stimulation induced by amphetamine involves central norepinephrine, while dopamine neurons play an important role in the induced compulsive gnawing behavior. Assessment of differential actions of d- and 1-amphetamine may be an efficient method to differentiate behaviors involving norepinephrine or dopamine in the brain. ...
Prevalence is defined as the number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time per 100,000 people. Amphetamine dependence is a substance-related disorder involving a dysfunctional pattern of amphetamine use. Included in the GBD disease modelling were cases meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria for amphetamine dependence (DSM: 304.40; ICD: F15.2), excluding those cases due to a general medical condition. According to DSM-IV TR criteria, dependence involves a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress.. ...
Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamines diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for ...
Even if you only use drugs occasionally, other factors such as dosage amount and length of time using can affect how long amphetamine withdrawal lasts.
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
TY - JOUR. T1 - Strain-dependent behavioural sensitization to amphetamine. T2 - Role of environmental influences. AU - Cabib, S.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Repeated daily pairings of 1 mg/kg of amphetamine and test environment induced a large, significant increase of locomotion in mice of the C57BL/6 strain, while a slight, non-significant increase was observed in mice of the DBA to amphetamine in the test cages when the drug was repeatedly administered in their home cage. Moreover, C57BL/6 but not DBA/2 mice showed conditioned hyperactivity. Subsequently six daily pairings of saline and test cage produced a slight, non-significant reduction of the hyperactive response shown by C57BL/6 mice, accompanied by a further increase in the behavioural effect of amphetamine. Finally, a similar, significant context-independent sensitization (unpaired vs control) was observed in mice of the two strains subjected to pairings of saline with the test cage; while context-dependent sensitization (paired vs ...
The instant invention is directed toward an immunoassay which can determine the presence of amphetamines in a sample suspected of containing amphetamine and/or methamphetamine by employing at least two conjugates, each comprised of a functionally similar label bound to an amphetamine analog and a methamphetamine analog respectively and an antibody to amphetamine and an antibody to methamphetamine wherein at least one of the antibodies is a monoclonal antibody.
The American Academy of Pediatrics doesnt even have guidelines for amphetamine prescription for children below 4 years old. However, it can be expected that at such a young age, children will quickly develop a dependence on these drugs, setting the state for addiction to other amphetamines later in life including methamphetamine.. That is exactly what happens to a lot of people who use amphetamines, methamphetamine. Just imagine how badly a human being would be messed up if they did amphetamines starting at age 2.. A recent survey found that 7.5% of children ages 6-17 are currently on prescription medications for some type of mental illness, ADHD medications make up 80% of them.. This has to stop. It seems in American society today, the gap between the consciousness levels of people is getting wider. In other words, it seems a certain part of our population is getting more and more aware, intelligent, conscious, and deliberate of their actions. At the same time, another part of our population ...
Amphetamines including the drug popularly known as Ecstasy can rever...The researchers caution that the findings in animals do not suggest Pa...The new study also shows that amphetamines -- normally thought to act ...Parkinsons disease stems from the degeneration of neurons in a brain ...The researchers led by James B. Duke professor of cell biology Marc C...,Amphetamines,reverse,Parkinsons,disease,symptoms,in,mice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
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81) See Interpreting seizures and other market data.. (82) The number of laboratories dismantled reported in different countries reflects, in addition to the number of production sites, law enforcement activities and priorities as well as reporting practices.. (83) This situation should be checked against 2004 data for the United Kingdom when available. Data on both number of amphetamine seizures and quantities of amphetamine seized in 2004 were not available for Ireland and the United Kingdom; data on quantities of amphetamine seized were not available for Slovenia in 2004; data on number of amphetamine seizures were not available for the Netherlands in 2004. For estimating purposes, 2004 missing data were replaced by 2003 data. Data on quantities seized in 2004 provided by the Netherlands were only estimates, which could not be included in the analysis of trends to 2004.. (84) See Table SZR-11 in the 2006 statistical bulletin.. (85) See Table SZR-12 in the 2006 statistical bulletin.. (86) ...
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Amphetamine and many of its immediate derivatives (i.e., the substituted amphetamines) are also both non-competitive and competitive inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT) proteins. Amphetamine itself has comparatively low affinity for SERT relative to DAT and NET. Consequently, amphetamine is usually classified as an NDRI instead of an SNDRI. However, the substituted amphetamines have a very diverse effects profile, and many of them have significant inhibiting effects on the SERT. Amphetamine and many of the other substituted amphetamines are inhibitors of VMAT2 and potent agonists of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1); agonism of TAAR1 triggers phosphorylation events that result in both non-competitive reuptake inhibition and reversed transport direction of monoamine transporter proteins. As a result, monoamines flow out of the cell and into the synaptic cleft. Thus, amphetamine and its derivatives have a ...
Amphetamines are non-catecholamine, sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. Peripheral actions include elevations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and weak bronchodilator, and respiratory stimulant action.. Amphetamine, as the racemic form, differs from dextroamphetamine in a number of ways. The l-isomer is more potent than the d-isomer in cardiovascular activity, but much less potent in causing CNS excitatory effects. The racemic mixture also is less effective as an appetite suppressant when compared to dextroamphetamine. There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby amphetamines produce mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how those effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system.. Drugs in this class used in obesity are commonly known as "anorectics" or "anorexigenics." It has not been established, however, that the action of such drugs in treating obesity is primarily one of ...
Subjects. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats (born at the University of Michigan) weighing between 220 and 330 gm were housed in pairs under a reverse 12 hr light/dark cycle (lights off at 9:00 A.M.). Rats were kept in plastic tub cages in a temperature- and humidity-controlled room. Subjects had access to water ad libitum and were given 20-25 gm of rat chow each day after the training or test session. This feeding regimen was designed to maintain the subjects on a regular feeding schedule without significantly depriving them of food and yet keep them motivated to work for food reward. A pure conditioned incentive paradigm was used, which followed the Pavlovian instrumental transfer procedures for training and behavioral testing developed by Dickinson and colleagues (Dickinson and Dawson, 1987; Dickinson and Balleine, 1994; Dickinson et al., 2000).. Instrumental training. The four operant chambers (Med Associates Inc., St. Albans, VT) were made of stainless steel and Plexiglas and contained a ...
High-risk amphetamines use: rising treatment demand. Problems related to long-term, chronic and injecting amphetamine use have, historically, been most evident. Amphetamine sulfat hign quality in eu.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stability of surface NMDA receptors controls synaptic and behavioral adaptations to amphetamine. AU - Mao, Li Min. AU - Wang, Wei. AU - Chu, Xiang Ping. AU - Zhang, Guo Chi. AU - Liu, Xian Yu. AU - Yang, Yuan Jian. AU - Haines, Michelle. AU - Papasian, Christopher J.. AU - Fibuch, Eugene E.. AU - Buch, Shilpa. AU - Chen, Jian Guo. AU - Wang, John Q.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Plastic changes in glutamatergic synapses that lead to endurance of drug craving and addiction are poorly understood. We examined the turnover and trafficking of NMDA receptors and found that chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) induced selective downregulation of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the confined surface membrane pool of rat striatal neurons at synaptic sites. This downregulation was a long-lived event and was a result of the destabilization of surface-expressed NR2B caused by accelerated ubiquitination and degradation of crucial NR2B-anchoring proteins by the ...
Abstract Phenylacetoacetonitrile APAAN is one of the most important preprecursors for amphetamine production in recent years. This assumption is based on seizure data but there is little analytical data available showing how much amphetamine really originated from APAAN. In this study, several syntheses of amphetamine following the Leuckart route...
How many young adults used amphetamines last year: comparison of trends in past year amphetamine use among 12th grade students, college students and those ages 19 to 28 (1986 - 2008).
For the first time, amphetamine illegal drug abuse is the number one problem for people seeking treatment for drug addiction, according to Australias largest rehabilitation service. Sydneys Odyssey House has seen the lot over the years - the heroin usage of the 60s and 70s, and then the rise in the popularity of cocaine and powerful cannabis.. Ten years ago, heroin was the centres major drug battle. However, over the past decade amphetamine use has surged as the heroin supply dried up in Australia. Now, the centres staff say the use of drugs like speed, ice and ecstasy has increased dramatically and the users are younger. An annual snapshot of drug admissions at Odyssey House has found a third of people are seeking treatment for amphetamines addictions - a 10 per ...
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... (DOEF), also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine&oldid=903372537" ...
However, amphetamines are on the official banned substances list; and can/do help swimming performance. CAS ruled on Mellouli's ... Mellouli has since admitted that he took the ADD medication Adderall, a stimulant and a form of amphetamine. (Already in June ... amphetamine... and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). (p. 7) This passage ...
Since amphetamines are a stimulant, use of these drugs result in a state that resembles the manic phase of bipolar disorder and ... Amphetamines are used as a stimulant to trigger the central nervous system, increasing heart rate and blood pressure while ... "Amphetamine". drugs.com. Cerner Multum. April 12, 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2014. Keedle, Jayne (October 30, 2010). "ADHD ... and the use of amphetamines. Racing thoughts may be experienced as background or take over a person's consciousness. Thoughts, ...
Amphetamine refers to equal parts of the enantiomers, i.e., 50% levoamphetamine and 50% dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine is also ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ... For example, (S)-amphetamine, commonly known as d-amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, displays five times greater psychostimulant ... "Amphetamine". DrugBank. University of Alberta. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2013. "Amphetamine". National Library of ...
Amphetamine is similar in structure to dopamine and trace amines; as a consequence, it can enter the presynaptic neuron via DAT ... In addition, amphetamine and trace amines are substrates for the neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter, vesicular monoamine ... "Amphetamine". DrugBank. University of Alberta. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013. ,section= ignored (help) Eiden, Lee ... Studies have shown that, in certain brain regions, amphetamine and trace amines increase the concentrations of dopamine in the ...
ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ... Amphetamine modulates the activity of most psychoactive drugs. In particular, amphetamine may decrease the effects of sedatives ...
The initial lineup of Selberg, Porfiris, Westberg, and J Bryan Bowden recorded the first single on Amphetamine Reptile records ... "AR073: The Heroine Sheiks". Amphetamine Reptile. Retrieved 2008-05-27. Official website The Heroine Sheiks at AllMusic The ... Amphetamine Reptile) "Heroine Sheiks" - (1999, Reptilian) "Best Enemies/Oucha" - (2002, Rubric) Live at The Ottobar - (2005, ...
The reference to Baby's penchant for "fog ... amphetamine and ... pearls" suggests Sedgwick or some similar debutante, ...
"Amphetamine analogs. II. Methylated phenethylamines". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (1): 134-5. doi:10.1021/jm00295a034. ...
"Baby Amphetamine". Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2008. Dee, Johnny (1988) "It's Different ...
... that contains 2.5 mg/mL of amphetamine base.The amphetamine base contains dextro- to levo-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2:1, ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ... Following oral administration, amphetamine appears in urine within 3 hours. Roughly 90% of ingested amphetamine is eliminated 3 ...
Richards JR, Albertson TE, Derlet RW, Lange RA, Olson KR, Horowitz BZ (May 2015). "Treatment of toxicity from amphetamines, ... Handly, Neal (December 16, 2016). "Toxicity, Amphetamine". Medscape. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. "Expert ...
Amphetamines have an effect on norepinephrine levels similar to that of cocaine in that they both increase NE levels in the ... Amphetamines cause a large accumulation of extracellular NE. High levels of NE in the brain account for most of the profound ... "Methamphetamine (And Amphetamine)". Retrieved 1 November 2011 Sulzer D, Chen TK, Lau YY, Kristensen H, Rayport S, Ewing A (May ... Amphetamine-like drugs are substrates for monoamine transporters, include NET, that cause a reversal in the direction of ...
Baby Amphetamine 14. Each Man Kills The Things He Loves Auto Da Fe 12" (1991) Wargasm (EP, 1992) Black Suburbia (LP, 1994, ...
Ross, S. B.; Ögren, S. O.; Renyi, A. L. (2009). "Substituted Amphetamine Derivatives. I. Effect on Uptake and Release of ... Ögren, S. O.; Ross, S. B. (2009). "Substituted Amphetamine Derivatives. II. Behavioural Effects in Mice Related to ... para-Chloroamphetamine (PCA), also known as 4-chloroamphetamine (4-CA), is a substituted amphetamine and monoamine releaser ... para-Chloromethamphetamine Substituted amphetamines 3,4-Dichloroamphetamine (DCA) 4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) 4- ...
... also amphetamines, cathinones, phentermines, etc.): 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine (2-OH-PEA) • 4-Chlorophenylisobutylamine (4-CAB) • ... Amphetamine (dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine) • Amphetaminil • β-Methylphenethylamine (β-Me-PEA) • Benzodioxolylbutanamine ( ...
Amphetamines (class)[edit]. Main article: Substituted amphetamines. Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based ... Amphetamine[edit]. Main article: Amphetamine. Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ... For example, (S)-amphetamine, commonly known as d-amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, displays five times greater psychostimulant ...
... "substituted amphetamines" as they contain the amphetamine backbone but are substituted on the benzene ring. This gives rise to ... Amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine ... They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with ... A systematic review from 2014 noted that low doses of amphetamine also improve memory consolidation, in turn leading to ...
... including trace amounts of four amphetamines previously known only from laboratory synthesis: amphetamine, methamphetamine, ... "Acacias and Natural Amphetamine". Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. 2001-09-26. Chemistry of ...
Adderall is an amphetamine. An initial court hearing for a restraining order that would have allowed Mayfield to compete at ... indicate that the test was positive for amphetamines. Despite releasing this information, NASCAR has still not published a ...
Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term ... Graybiel AM, Moratalla R, Robertson HA (September 1990). "Amphetamine and cocaine induce drug-specific activation of the c-fos ... Kanehisa Laboratories (10 October 2014). "Amphetamine - Homo sapiens (human)". KEGG Pathway. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Most ... Amphetamine achieves this elevation in extracellular levels of DA by promoting efflux from synaptic terminals. ... ...
Verweij, AM (1991). "Contamination of illegal amphetamine. Hydrastatinine as a contaminant in 3,4-(methylenedioxy) ...
However, zinc supplementation may reduce the minimum effective dose of amphetamine when it is used with amphetamine for the ... amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to ... "Amphetamines for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (6): CD007813. doi: ... More common (about 18%) is for frequent amphetamine users to report psychotic symptoms that are sub-clinical and that do not ...
Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term ... AP-1 (transcription factor) In simplest terms, this means that when either amphetamine or sex is perceived as "more alluring or ... ROLE OF ΔFOSB IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS KEGG Pathway - human alcohol addiction KEGG Pathway - human amphetamine addiction KEGG ... McCowan TJ, Dhasarathy A, Carvelli L (February 2015). "The Epigenetic Mechanisms of Amphetamine". J. Addict. Prev. 2015 (Suppl ...
A systematic review from 2014 noted that low doses of amphetamine also improve memory consolidation, in turn leading to ... The present meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of the effects of methylphenidate and amphetamine on ... Amphetamine pharmaceuticals (e.g., Adderall, dextroamphetamine, and lisdexamfetamine [an inactive prodrug]) - systematic ... Drugs used for this purpose include, as stated above, methylphenidate, amphetamines, atomoxetine, and desipramine. Linssen AM, ...
Is Phentermine An Amphetamine Or Narcotic? Is It Safe?. Oct 12, 2016James HariHealthComments Off on Is Phentermine An ... Is Phentermine An Amphetamine or Narcotic?. Phentermine has been classified as controlled substance as it is often been abused ... Phentermine is a stimulant and is considered to be closely linked to the amphetamines. It is commonly used as appetite ... The Phentermine is considered as narcotic and has same structure as that of amphetamine. It has the ability to decrease ...
In recent years a number of drugs have been manufactured and marketed to replace amphetamines as appetite suppressants. These ... They produce many of the effects of the amphetamines, but are generally less potent. Abuse patterns of some of them have not ... yet been established, but all are controlled because of the similarity of their effects to those of the amphetamines. ...
The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine ... Amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and metabolites of the catecholamine ... Furthermore, the discovery that amphetamines, including 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy"), are potent rTAR1 ... An extensive pharmacological survey revealed that psychostimulant and hallucinogenic amphetamines, numerous ergoline ...
Similar to an amphetamine, phentermine is a stimulant that acts as an appetite suppressant by affecting the central nervous ... People who are allergic to it or to those who are allergic to diet pills, amphetamines, stimulants, or cold medications ...
Amphetamine (Adderall). *Benzphetamine (Didrex, Regimex). *Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin XR, Focalin). *Dextroamphetamine ( ...
Is phentermine an amphetamine?. No, it is not. However, phentermine is similar to amphetamine in its chemical structure and ... Phentermine does possess similar biochemical properties to amphetamine and can illicit false-positives on urinalysis testing. ...
Amphetamine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking amphetamine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amphetamine, other stimulant medications ... If you or your child are taking amphetamine for ADHD, your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of amphetamine and ... Alcohol can make the side effects from amphetamine worse.. *you should know that amphetamine should be used as part of a total ...
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... are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... What Are Amphetamines?. Amphetamines are stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pill, tablet, ... When amphetamines get into the body, they go to work on the central nervous system. Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called ... Avoiding Amphetamines. Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. Because people rarely call ...
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What to do if a friend Overdoses: You can't fatally Overdose on Amphetamines, it is possible if you inject it though, if ... Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various other slang names that ... Amphetamineunknown. Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various ... Amphetamineunknown. First developed and marketed in the 1930's as Benzedrine to fight narcolepsy, Amphetamines are now ...
... amphetamine-like compound in dietary supplements - yet federal regulators have issued no warnings to consumers ... Nine diet supplements contain amphetamine-like compound. Alison Young , USA TODAY Published 2:42 p.m. ET Nov. 18, 2013 ... For the second time in recent weeks, scientists have found a "non-natural" amphetamine-like compound in dietary supplements - ... Nine diet supplements contain amphetamine-like compound. For the second time in recent weeks, scientists report finding "non- ...
Amphetamine in the Tropics. Br Med J 1960; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5212.1601 (Published 26 November 1960) Cite ...
Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking dextroamphetamine and amphetamine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amphetamine, ... Store dextroamphetamine and amphetamine in a safe place so that no one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track ... Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go ...
Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. Usually last 4-6 hours for 25 mg and usually needs to take 2 pills ... amphetamine saltsunknown. Used to treat ADHD as well as narcolepsy which is the act of falling asleep while in a relaxed state ... Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. Usually last 4-6 hours for 25 mg and usually needs to take 2 pills ... I just popped 200mg of amphetamine salts and I want to fly out of a 20 story window and fly while ready a boring physics book. ...
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Lyrics to Amphetamine by Peter Laughner: Take the guitar player for a ride / Never he is left bein satisfied / Thinks is all ... Amphetamine Lyrics Languages Arabic Deutsch Greek English Spanish French Italian Japanese Korean Netherlands Portuguese Russian ...
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine (DOEF), also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine&oldid=903372537" ...
Definition Amphetamines are a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system [1]. Some of the brand names of ... amphetamines sold in the United States [2] are Dexedrine, Biphetamine, Das, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Spancap No 1, ... Amphetamines World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a family of chemical ... Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and ...
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JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
The term "amphetamines" also refers to a chemical class, but, unlike the class of substituted amphetamines, the "amphetamines" ... amphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine aspartate") is excessively long, this article exclusively refers to this amphetamine ... ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... Following amphetamine uptake at VMAT2, amphetamine induces the collapse of the vesicular pH gradient, which results in the ...
The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. Evekeo is sometimes used to treat obesity in people ... Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... What is the most important information I should know about amphetamine?. Amphetamine may be habit-forming. Tell your doctor if ... What is amphetamine?. Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ...
  • An extensive pharmacological survey revealed that psychostimulant and hallucinogenic amphetamines, numerous ergoline derivatives, adrenergic ligands, and 3-methylated metabolites of the catecholamine neurotransmitters are also good agonists at the rat trace amine receptor 1 (rTAR1). (mdma.net)
  • It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter and/or stimulate the efflux of transmitter from intracellular stores. (mdma.net)
  • Phentermine does possess similar biochemical properties to amphetamine and can illicit false-positives on urinalysis testing. (phentermineclinics.net)
  • Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for ADHD in children that found an average increase of 4.5 IQ points, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine , dextroamphetamine , and mixed amphetamine salts increase effective use of dopamine and norepinephrine in parts of the brain that regulate attention and behavior in order to control symptoms associated with ADHD and improve functioning. (factbites.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Children and young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are treated with the stimulants amphetamine or methylphenidate face a small but significant risk of developing psychosis, with amphetamine products twice as likely to spark at problem, researchers say. (reuters.com)
  • Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD, yet despite their addictive potential, we really don't know how safe or efficacious they are. (medscape.com)
  • A team of investigators from the University of Alberta, Canada, have used standard Cochrane methodology to evaluate the safety and efficacy of amphetamines for ADHD in children and adolescents. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers found that many of the trials were of poor quality, and while amphetamines did seem efficacious at reducing the core symptoms of ADHD in the short term, they were associated with a greater number of adverse events, such as decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain, nausea, headaches, and anxiety. (medscape.com)
  • The evidence confirms that amphetamines have an established role in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, but from a clinical perspective they should be part of a wider, individually customized biopsychosocial treatment plan. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Efficacy and Safety of Amphetamines in ADHD - Medscape - Apr 14, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamine works in the treatment of ADHD by increasing attention and decreasing restlessness in children and adults who are overactive, cannot concentrate for very long, or are easily distracted and impulsive. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Amphetamine, Dextroamphetamine Mixed Salts belongs to central nervous system stimulants class, prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with counseling and special education. (medindia.net)
  • An amphetamine, it was until this year marketed exclusively to treat ADHD. (motherjones.com)
  • The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine is used as part of a total treatment program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (depression-guide.com)
  • Data derived from the official clinical trials of dextroamphetamine indicate that the drug has a high level of efficacy for treating ADHD, in comparison with other forms of amphetamine. (wisegeek.com)
  • The researchers propose that because the altered transporter runs backward and pushes dopamine out into the space between neurons -- like normal transporters do when amphetamine, or 'speed,' is present -- it alters dopamine signaling and contributes to the symptoms of ADHD. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • People whose bodies are used to taking lots of amphetamines might keep using them to avoid withdrawal symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • Infants who are born to mothers dependent on amphetamines exhibit symptoms of withdrawal and have an increased risk of low birth weight. (medicinenet.com)
  • Certain formulations of amphetamine, typically pseudoephedrine, are used in medications that treat cold symptoms , such as Sudafed, Franssen said. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamine may cause dizziness , blurred vision , or restlessness , and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. (factbites.com)
  • Symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal during the initial days of abstinence from chronic amphetamine use can prompt individuals to return to regular drug use. (cochrane.org)
  • No medications demonstrate significant effects over placebo in reducing symptoms of acute amphetamine withdrawal. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effectiveness of pharmacological alone or in combination with psychosocial treatment for amphetamine withdrawals on discontinuation rates, global state, withdrawal symptoms, craving, and other outcomes. (cochrane.org)
  • All randomised controlled and clinical trials evaluating pharmacological and or psychosocial treatments (alone or combined) for people with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. (cochrane.org)
  • The benefits of mirtazapine over placebo for reducing amphetamine withdrawal symptoms were not as clear. (cochrane.org)
  • One study suggested that mirtazapine may reduce hyperarousal and anxiety symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. (cochrane.org)
  • A more recent study failed to find any benefit of mirtazapine over placebo on retention or on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. (cochrane.org)
  • The authors stress the amphetamine positive patients in the study likely comprised a combination of acutely intoxicated patients, patients in withdrawal, patients without residual symptoms and patients not using methamphetamines. (hawaii.edu)
  • Amphetamine (Evekeo, others) is also used for a limited period of time (a few weeks) along with a reduced calorie diet and an exercise plan for weight loss in obese people unable to lose weight. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The amphetamine business became a vast and profitable economic enterprise: by 1958, some eight billion pills and tablets were produced legally each year in the United States, in addition to the sizable illegal market, and to clandestine imports from Mexico, and by 1971, legal production had risen to twelve billion pills. (psu.edu)
  • No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine tablets in geriatric patients. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension and extended-release oral disintegrating tablets in the geriatric population. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Eight billion amphetamine tablets are officially produced in the U.S. annually, enough to supply 40 doses to every man, woman and child. (nymag.com)
  • Do not stop taking amphetamine without talking to your doctor, especially if you have overused the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • if you suddenly stop taking amphetamine after overusing it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early investigations of the properties of amphetamine focused on the peripheral effects and found that amphetamine was a sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator properties. (factbites.com)
  • To their surprise, the investigators also found that amphetamine blocks the leak of dopamine through variant transporter. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • When this happens, amphetamine users develop a tolerance to the drug. (kidshealth.org)
  • It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine ( DOEF ), also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine , is a lesser-known psychedelic drug and member of the DOx class . (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with a history of drug abuse, psychological agitation, or cardiovascular system disease should also not receive amphetamine therapy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine available as a generic drug? (medicinenet.com)
  • In reality, amphetamines have for over half a century been the basis of a very lively subculture that is overwhelmingly white, and concentrated in rural and suburban communities far removed from conventional stereotypes of drug-ridden neighborhoods. (psu.edu)
  • NC)-Animals that have suffered a stroke recover faster and to a greater extent when they are treated with amphetamine, but it's unclear whether the drug will have the same effect in humans. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Amphetamine may be habit-forming, and this medicine is a drug of abuse. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Amphetamine is a drug I have a strange relationship with, at once a drug I have been intimate with but only at a distance, mediated by the bodies of others, a specific other, an other through whom I came to know the sexual and physiological effects of base only as that body on which, but never within which, amphetaminergic affects played themselves out. (libcom.org)
  • NEW PORT RICHEY, Fla. (AP) - An autopsy report says retired star pitcher Roy Halladay had evidence of amphetamine, morphine and an insomnia drug in his system when he died in a small plane crash in Florida last year. (nydailynews.com)
  • In communal enclaves like the East Village, amphetamine is already the No. 1 drug. (nymag.com)
  • General practitioners rely increasingly on amphetamine to treat overweight and mildly depressed patients, as well as alcoholics and drug addicts. (nymag.com)
  • A new report by UNODC ranks amphetamine-type stimulants as the world's second most widely used type of drug after cannabis. (idpc.net)
  • When half the usual drug intake was given automatically, animals reduced their response rate by half, thus self-regulating the total amount of amphetamine they received. (nih.gov)
  • One of the off-label uses for the drug is for treating obesity: Dextroamphetamine, like all types of amphetamine, is an appetite suppressant, which is helpful for individuals who have abnormally large appetites. (wisegeek.com)
  • Overall, out of 16,018 patients, 15.1 percent of the drug-screened patients tested positive for amphetamines over the study period. (hawaii.edu)
  • The limited usefulness of amphetamines (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ) should be weighed against possible risks inherent in use of the drug, such as those described below. (rxlist.com)
  • Home Drug Testing Kit - From this website I learned what the long-term effects of amphetamine abuse are. (allaboutcounseling.com)
  • Every kind of drug abuse creates damage, but the abuse of amphetamine may create some of the most serious effects. (narconon.ca)
  • He (or she) will continue to abuse amphetamine until the drug runs out or until the body just crashes, unable to sustain any more activity. (narconon.ca)
  • A person trying to get off his steady diet of amphetamine is going to experience very sharp cravings for the drug. (narconon.ca)
  • So amphetamine is a performance enhancing drug. (nbcsports.com)
  • Amphetamine diet pills are a supplement that is commonly used to help lose weight by reducing the levels of hunger throughout the day. (wisegeek.com)
  • By far the biggest speed-pusher in history was the armed services, which from the second world war through Vietnam distributed amphetamines lavishly to service people undertaking tasks requiring alertness and wakefulness: we are talking in terms of multi-billion pill quantities. (psu.edu)
  • It has been shown that amphetamines can trigger release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine and cause sudden bursts in neurotransmission, leading to a feeling of alertness, increased muscular activity, and reduced fatigue. (eurekalert.org)
  • Amphetamine activates nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to increase motor activity and alertness and lessen drowsiness and fatigue. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • The reason for this is that amphetamine diet pills will increase the heart rate, enhance performance and alertness, and produce the feelings of being on top of the world. (wisegeek.com)
  • Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the midbrain inhibits the activity of dopamine neurons through activation of D2 dopamine autoreceptors. (mendeley.com)
  • Amphetamine desensitizes the mGluR-mediated hyperpolarization through release of dopamine, activation of postsynaptic alpha1 adrenergic receptors, and suppression of InsP3-induced calcium release from internal stores. (mendeley.com)
  • Through this mechanism, amphetamine may enhance phasic release of dopamine, which is important in the neural processing of reward. (mendeley.com)
  • In addition, patients who have taken MAO inhibitors, a type of antidepressant, within the last 14 days should not receive amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dr. Sandra Black and her team at the Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre are conducting tests to determine whether patients treated with amphetamine recover better from paralysis, sensory loss, language deficits and other effects of stroke. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Whilst some patients show signs of toxicity at blood concentrations of 20 g/L, chronic abusers of amphetamine have been known to have blood concentration of up to 3000 g/L. (inchem.org)
  • A pilot clinical trial exploring the benefit of d-amphetamine combined with physical therapy for stroke patients found no evidence that the regimen improved post-stroke motor recovery. (news-medical.net)
  • Amphetamine is also used for weight reduction in obese patients. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The rate of patients who tested positive for amphetamine was measured and broken down by year. (hawaii.edu)
  • The biochemical steps underlying amphetamine-induced dopamine release, however, are not well characterized. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now, a team led by Jonathan Javitch and Aurelio Galli has identified a chemical modification of DAT that is essential for DAT-mediated dopamine release in the presence of amphetamine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Amphetamine, through activation of a trace amine receptor, increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • By mimicking the structures of the catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and dopamine, amphetamines modulate monoamine release, reuptake, and signalling within the brain. (drugbank.ca)
  • We were interested in revealing how amphetamine exposure influences the small plants and animals that play a large role in regulating the health of streams. (eurekalert.org)
  • By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds found use as decongestants in the symptomatic treatment of colds and also occasionally as psychoactive agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resulting data showed no overall treatment-related difference in Fugl-Meyer Motor scores between baseline and 3-month post-stroke in the two test groups (18.65+2.27 points with d-amphetamine vs. 20.83+2.94 points with placebo). (news-medical.net)
  • Take amphetamine as prescribed for the full treatment period, even if you begin to feel better before the scheduled end of therapy. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • What Are the Different Types of Amphetamine Treatment? (wisegeek.com)
  • dextroamphetamine is the most prescribed amphetamine treatment. (wisegeek.com)