Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine: An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/1182)1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission. (+info)
Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (2/1182)Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine. (+info)
N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (3/1182)(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences. (+info)
The Ca2+ channel blockade changes the behavioral and biochemical effects of immobilization stress. (4/1182)We investigated how the effects of chronic immobilization stress in rats are modified by Ca2+ channel blockade preceding restraint sessions. The application of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) shortly before each of seven daily 2 h restraint sessions prevented the development of sensitized response to amphetamine as well as the stress-induced elevation of the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel in the hippocampus and significantly reduced the elevation of the densities of [3H]nitrendipine binding sites in the cortex and D1 dopamine receptors in the limbic forebrain. Neither stress, nor nifedipine affected the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the cerebral cortex nor D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. A single restraint session caused an elevation of blood corticosterone level that remained unaffected by nifedipine pretreatment, but the reduction of this response during the eighth session was significantly less expressed in nifedipine-treated rats. We conclude that L-type calcium channel blockade prevents development of several stress-induced adaptive responses. (+info)
Necessary role for ventral tegmental area adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A in induction of behavioral sensitization to intraventral tegmental area amphetamine. (5/1182)In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective activation or inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) on long-term sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA or peripheral amphetamine (AMPH). Selective inhibition of AC by SQ 22,536 (9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine; 100 nmol/side bilateral into VTA) had no effect on acute basal locomotion but attenuated the locomotor stimulation induced by acute i.p. AMPH (1.5 mg/kg). Coinjection of SQ 22,536 (100 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH (15 nmol/side) but had no detectable effect on the sensitization induced by repeated i. p. AMPH. Persistent activation of AC by intra-VTA cholera toxin (500 ng/side) modestly increased acute locomotion and induced a robust sensitization to i.p. AMPH challenge 10 days after the last of three repeated VTA microinjections. Selective inhibition of PKA by Rp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS; 25 nmol/side) had no effect on acute basal or AMPH-stimulated locomotion. Coinjection of Rp-cAMPS (25 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH but had no effect on sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. Intra-VTA microinjection of the selective PKA activator Sp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Sp-cAMPS; 25-100 nmol/side) dose-dependently stimulated acute locomotion and exerted synergistic effects on locomotor activity when coinfused into the VTA with AMPH but had no detectable effect on acute i.p. AMPH-induced locomotion. Repeated intra-VTA Sp-cAMPS did not induce sensitization to AMPH challenge but potentiated the sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. These results suggest that VTA cAMP signal transduction is necessary for the induction of persistent sensitization to intra-VTA amphetamine and that peripheral and intra-VTA AMPH may not induce behavioral sensitization by identical mechanisms. (+info)
Modulation of amphetamine-stimulated [3H]dopamine release from rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells by sigma type 2 receptors. (6/1182)An important regulatory mechanism of synaptic dopamine (DA) levels is activation of the dopamine transporter (DAT), which is a target for many drugs of abuse, including amphetamine (AMPH). sigma receptors are located in dopaminergic brain areas critical to reinforcement. We found previously that agonists at sigma2 receptors enhanced the AMPH-stimulated release of [3H]DA from slices of rat caudate-putamen. In the present study, we modeled this response in undifferentiated pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cells, which contain both the DAT and sigma2 receptors but not neural networks that can complicate investigation of individual neuronal mechanisms. We found that enhancement of AMPH-stimulated [3H]DA release by the sigma agonist (+)-pentazocine was blocked by sigma2 receptor antagonists. Additionally, the reduction in the effect of (+)-pentazocine by the inclusion of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid led us to hypothesize that sigma2 receptor activation initiated a Ca2+-dependent process that resulted in enhancing the outward flow of DA via the DAT. The source of Ca2+ required for the enhancement of reverse transport did not appear to be via N- or L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, because it was not affected by nitrendipine or omega-conotoxin. However, two inhibitors of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II blocked enhancement in AMPH-stimulated release by (+)-pentazocine. Our findings suggest that sigma2 receptors are coupled to the DAT via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II transduction system in PC12 cells, and that sigma2 receptor antagonists might be useful in the treatment of drug abuse by blocking elevation of DA levels via reversal of the DAT. (+info)
Effects of atypical antipsychotic drug treatment on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. (7/1182)Clozapine, risperidone, and other new "atypical" antipsychotic agents are distinguished from traditional neuroleptic drugs by having clinical efficacy with either no or low levels of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Preclinical models have focused on striatal dopamine systems to account for their atypical profile. In this study, we examined the effects of clozapine and risperidone on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. A novel 11C-raclopride/PET paradigm was used to derive estimates of amphetamine-induced changes in striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations and patients were scanned while antipsychotic drug-free and during chronic treatment with either clozapine or risperidone. We found that amphetamine produced significant reductions in striatal 11C-raclopride binding during the drug-free and antipsychotic drug treatment phases of the study which reflects enhanced dopamine release in both conditions. There were no significant differences in % 11C-raclopride changes between the two conditions indicating that these atypical agents do not effect amphetamine-related striatal dopamine release. The implications for these data for antipsychotic drug action are discussed. (+info)
Review article: mechanisms and management of hepatotoxicity in ecstasy (MDMA) and amphetamine intoxications. (8/1182)The social use of ecstasy (methylenedioxymethampheta-mine, MDMA) and amphetamines is widespread in the UK and Europe, and they are popularly considered as 'safe'. However, deaths have occurred and hepatotoxicity has featured in many cases of intoxication with amphetamine or its methylenedioxy analogues such as ecstasy. Recreational use of these drugs presents an important but often concealed cause of hepatitis or acute liver failure, particularly in young people. The patterns of liver damage and multiple putative mechanisms of injury are discussed. Recognition of the aetiological agent requires a high index of suspicion. Optimum management of the resultant liver damage, including the controversial role of liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure, is also discussed. (+info)
Most commercial amphetamine immunoassay screening tests cross-react significantly with MDA and major metabolites of MDMA, but ... MDA is rarely sought after as a recreational drug compared to other drugs in the amphetamine family, however it remains an ... In relation to other phenethylamines and amphetamines, it is the 3,4-methylenedioxy, α-methyl derivative of β-phenylethylamine ... Muszynski, I.E. (1961). "Production of some amphetamine derivatives". Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 18: 471-478. PMID 14477621. ...
Various amphetamines and methamphetamines are used as stimulants, as is cocaine. These drugs enable clubgoers to dance all ... Amphetamine heavily used in recreational fashion pose a serious risk of addiction. Cocaine addiction is a psychological desire ... Some club drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines, are addictive, and regular use can lead to the user craving more of the drug ... Some drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, give the dancer hyperactivity and energy to dance all night. Many drugs produce a ...
... and amphetamines. The primary psychological effects have a duration of roughly 3 to 4 hours, with after effects such as ...
Caffeine's mechanism of action is somewhat different from that of cocaine and the substituted amphetamines; caffeine blocks ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure
ISBN 978-1-4786-1318-3. Goldberg, R (2009). "Cocaine amphetamines". Drugs Across the Spectrum. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-495-55793-5 ...
Drugs of abuse that can be detected include Cannabis, Cocaine, Amphetamines and drugs new to the UK such as Mephedrone. In ... Erowid Amphetamine Vault : Drug Testing. Erowid.org. Retrieved on September 5, 2013. Erowid Methamphetamine Vault : Drug ... Various panels are used for screening urine samples for common substances, e.g. triage 8 that detects amphetamines, ... Amphetamine, Ecstasy/MDMA, Methadone, Ketamine, PCP, PMA, DMT, MDPV, and may detect rapidly evolving synthetic designer drugs. ...
Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique
EMIT urine assays for drugs such as cannabinoids, morphine, and amphetamine are designed to detect the drug itself or a ...
Stimulant use disorder
... amphetamines, amphetamine congeners, electronic cigarettes, diet pills, plant stimulants, energy drinks, and the ever-evolving ... In World War II, soldiers were medicated using a type of stimulant called and amphetamine to keep both pilots and soldiers ... It is defined in the DSM-5 as "the continued use of amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, or other stimulants leading to ... The United States, in the year 1960, had an increase in amphetamine-based diet pills as pharmaceutical companies began ...
Substituted phenethylamines such as the 2C family and substituted amphetamines such as the DOx family have also caused a ... Snyder SH, Faillace L, Hollister L (1967). "2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (STP): a new hallucinogenic drug". Science. 158 ...
... produces amphetamine as a metabolite, and was withdrawn in many countries following problems with abuse, but it is ... 1968 Mar;13(3):Suppl:273-6. Tognoni G, Morselli PL, Garattini S. Amphetamine concentrations in rat brain and human urine after ... Metabolic precursors to amphetamine and methamphetamine. Forensic Science Reviews 1993; 5:109. Pelissier-Alicot AL, Piercecchi- ... Fenproporex (Perphoxene) is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which was developed in the ...
The term "amphetamines" also refers to a chemical class, but, unlike the class of substituted amphetamines, the "amphetamines" ... amphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine aspartate") is excessively long, this article exclusively refers to this amphetamine ... ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... Following amphetamine uptake at VMAT2, amphetamine induces the collapse of the vesicular pH gradient, which results in the ...
Amphetamine was first produced at the end of the 19th century. By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds ... Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds ... For example, (S)-amphetamine, commonly known as d-amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, displays five times greater psychostimulant ... Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, ...
... refers to a state of psychological dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class. In individuals with ... "Amphetamines: Drug Use and Abuse". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck. Retrieved 26 September 2013. Chronic Amphetamine ... In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in ... Tolerance is expected to develop with regular substituted amphetamine use. When substituted amphetamines are abused, drug ...
Amphetamine Reptile Records
... (or AmRep Industries) is a nationally renowned record label which was founded in 1986 by then-US ... Amphetamine Reptile Tour - Friday, October 30, 1992 at The Ritz List of record labels Riemenschneider, Chris (October 3, 2005 ...
Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Cocaine Amphetamine Douglass J, Daoud S (March 1996). "Characterization of the human cDNA and genomic DNA encoding CART: a ... cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) Peptides". anaspec.com. Retrieved 10 February 2009. Upadhya MA, Nakhate KT ...
List of regular users of amphetamine
The following is a list of public figures, living or deceased, who took amphetamine repeatedly over the course of at least six ...
Bread and Amphetamines
Bread & Amphetamines (Khlyab i amfeti) (Bulgarian: "Хляб и амфети") is the fourth solo studio album by Bulgarian rapper Big Sha ...
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Substituted Amphetamines DOEF Entry in PiHKAL DOEF Entry in PiHKAL • info. ...
DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: A: Amphetamine
Full chemical and drug information. Includes indication, pharmacology and contraindications. ...
DMOZ - Health: Addictions: Substance Abuse: Drugs: Amphetamines
This category is dedicated to web sites which offer information about amphetamine abuse and addiction. ... MedlinePlus: Amphetamine Abuse Links to information from the National Institutes of Health, along with government agencies and ... This category is dedicated to web sites which offer information about amphetamine abuse and addiction. ...
However, amphetamines are on the official banned substances list; and can/do help swimming performance. CAS ruled on Mellouli's ... Mellouli has since admitted that he took the ADD medication Adderall, a stimulant and a form of amphetamine. (Already in June ... amphetamine... and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). (p. 7) This passage ...
Since amphetamines are a stimulant, use of these drugs result in a state that resembles the manic phase of bipolar disorder and ... Amphetamines are used as a stimulant to trigger the central nervous system, increasing heart rate and blood pressure while ... "Amphetamine". drugs.com. Cerner Multum. April 12, 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2014. Keedle, Jayne (October 30, 2010). "ADHD ... and the use of amphetamines. Racing thoughts may be experienced as background or take over a person's consciousness. Thoughts, ...
Amphetamine refers to equal parts of the enantiomers, i.e., 50% levoamphetamine and 50% dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine is also ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ... For example, (S)-amphetamine, commonly known as d-amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, displays five times greater psychostimulant ... "Amphetamine". DrugBank. University of Alberta. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2013. "Amphetamine". National Library of ...
Amphetamine is similar in structure to dopamine and trace amines; as a consequence, it can enter the presynaptic neuron via DAT ... In addition, amphetamine and trace amines are substrates for the neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter, vesicular monoamine ... "Amphetamine". DrugBank. University of Alberta. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013. ,section= ignored (help) Eiden, Lee ... Studies have shown that, in certain brain regions, amphetamine and trace amines increase the concentrations of dopamine in the ...
ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ... Amphetamine modulates the activity of most psychoactive drugs. In particular, amphetamine may decrease the effects of sedatives ...
Amphetamine has complex behavioral actions in the rat that depend upon the release of dopamine in striatal and mesolimbic brain regions. To explore a possible role of the dopamine-sensitive cAMP second-messenger system in mediating these effects, we examined the effects of in vivo amphetamine treatments on the D1 receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system in membranes from striatal and mesolimbic rat brain regions. The results show that amphetamine produces a regional, dose- and time- dependent down-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Intermediate and high doses of amphetamine (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), but not a low dose (1.0 mg/kg), resulted in a decrease in the apparent Vmax and/or an increase in the apparent Ka for the selective D1 partial agonist, SKF38393, in striatal membranes 30 min after amphetamine treatment. Treatment of rats with 7.5 mg/kg amphetamine for 30 and 60 min, but not 10 min, similarly resulted in a down-regulation of D1- mediated adenylate cyclase activity in ...
Region-specific effects of a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture on amphetamine-induced changes in BOLD fMRI signal in the rat...
BACKGROUND: Acute depletion of tyrosine using a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture offers a novel dietary approach to inhibit activated dopamine pathways in the brain. This study investigated the potential of in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods as a noninvasive means to detect effects of tyrosine depletion on dopamine function. METHODS: Changes in blood-oxgenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast induced by administration of the dopamine-releasing agent, amphetamine (3 mg/kg i.v.), were measured in halothane-anaesthetised rats. RESULTS: Amphetamine evoked changes in BOLD signal intensity with the greatest effects observed in the nucleus accumbens (-7.7%), prefrontal cortex (-13.6%), and motor cortex (+12.5%). Pretreatment with a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture attenuated the response to amphetamine in some regions (nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex), but not others (motor cortex). Amphetamine itself had no effect in thalamus and hippocampus but, surprisingly, increased the
British Library EThOS: Stimulus salience and dopamine : effects of systemic amphetamine and electrolytic lesions of the nucleus...
Stimulus salience and dopamine : effects of systemic amphetamine and electrolytic lesions of the nucleus accumbens on conditioned and unconditioned behaviour in the rat ...
A sample of 985 self-admitted amphetamine users was compared with a sample of airmen who had no known record of drug abuse. Results of this study indicate that there is a very strong likelihood for amphetamine users to abuse other drugs. There are relationships between amphetamine use and geographic area of enlistment, religious preference, aptitude scores, educational level, and age at enlistment. Amphetamine use is also related to the likelihood of getting an undesirable discharge and to lower APR ratings. (Author)*Amphetamines
amphetamine - MedHelps amphetamine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for amphetamine. Find amphetamine information, treatments for amphetamine and amphetamine symptoms.
amphetamine - MedHelps amphetamine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for amphetamine. Find amphetamine information, treatments for amphetamine and amphetamine symptoms.
Amphetamine stereotypy: the influence of environmental factors and prepotent behavioral patterns on its topography and...
This report describes a series of experiments, all of which demonstrate a strong contribution of the behavioral pattern manifested at the time of initial amphetamine injection to the topography and development of the stereotypy that develops with chronic amphetamine intoxication. These initial behavioral patterns reflect (i) learned behaviors, (ii) species-specific behaviors, (iii) behaviors associated with amphetamine arousal, and (iv) novel behaviors reflecting unique environmental circumstances prevailing at the time of administration. In an experiment using eight dogs administered amphetamine in a situation which allowed interaction between the animals, the behavioral stereotypies that developed were comprised of the social interaction patterns ongoing at the time of initial drug effects. Experiments with rats have demonstrated that the configuration of the enclosure in which they are injected influences the initial behavioral reactions to amphetamine and thus modifies the stereotypy. In experiments
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder that results in debilitating cognitive impairment in 40-65% of patients. There are no current treatments for this symptom of MS. This is a systematic review of literature on the impact amphetamines have on cognitive function of MS patients. Methods: An exhaustive search of available medical literature was conducted using MEDLINE-Ovid, MEDLINE-PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Keywords used included: amphetamines and multiple sclerosis. Relevant articles were assessed for quality using GRADE. Results: Three studies have statistically significant improvements in some aspects of cognitive function in patients on amphetamines when compared to placebo. However, a high rate of adverse events were noted with L-isomer or D-isomer amphetamines alone. Conclusion: Amphetamines positively impact cognitive function in MS patients. Mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR) seemingly have the lowest rate of adverse effects with the greatest
Nornicotine partially substitutes for (+)-amphetamine in a drug discrimination paradigm in rats. | Passport
Rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced operant task to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from saline. After discrimination training stabilized, test doses of (+)-amphetamine (0.0625-2.0 mg/kg), (-)-nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or (-)-nornicotine (1-10 mg/kg) were assessed for their ability to substitute for the (+)-amphetamine training dose during brief test sessions in which food reinforcement was withheld. As expected, as the test dose of (+)-amphetamine increased, there was a dose-related increase in drug-appropriate responding, with both 1 and 2 mg/kg test doses substituting fully for the (+)-amphetamine training dose. Both (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine showed partial substitution (approximately 50% drug-appropriate responding) for the (+)-amphetamine training dose, with (-)-nicotine being more potent than (-)-nornicotine. Rate suppressant effects prevented the assessment of higher doses of (-)-nicotine or (-)-nornicotine. Thus, while (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine share ...
People who use amphetamines could be at an increased risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Apart from their illegal use amphetamines such as Benzedrine and Dexedrine are often prescribed for people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, as weight-loss pills and are also used to treat traumatic brain injury. Researchers from the U.S. health organisation Kaiser Permanente studied 66,348 people who were initially studied between 1964 and 1973 and re-evaluated in 1995. 1,154 people had been diagnosed with Parkinsons by the end of the study. The participants were asked about their use of amphetamines - either as weight-loss pills or in the form of Benzedrine or Dexedrine. There was no increase in risk for the people who used amphetamines for weight loss but those who took Benzadrine or Dexedrine were nearly 60% more likely to develop Parkinsons. Amphetamines are known to affect the release and uptake of dopamine, the most important neurotransmitter involved in ...
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Role of HDAC inhibition and environmental condition in altering phases of amphetamine self-administration
Gene-environment interactions play a significant role in drug abuse and addiction. Epigenetics (the study of how environmental stimuli alter gene expression) has gained attention in recent years as a significant contributor to many behavioral phenotypes of drug addiction. The current study sought to determine if differential rearing conditions can alter a specific epigenetic mechanism, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and how HDAC inhibition can affect drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors differently among enriched, isolated, or standard-housed rats. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared for 30 days in enriched (EC), isolated (IC), or standard (SC) conditions prior to amphetamine (0.03, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) self-administration, extinction, or reinstatement sessions. Trichostatin A (TsA; 0.3 mg/kg, i.v.), an HDAC inhibitor, was injected 30 min prior to drug-taking or drug-seeking sessions. Results indicated that EC rats self-administered less amphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) than ...
Synonyms for Amphetamines in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Amphetamines. 4 synonyms for amphetamine: speed, pep pill, upper, speed. What are synonyms for Amphetamines?
Drug-dependent neural plasticity related to drug addiction and schizophrenia can be modeled in animals as behavioral sensitization, which is induced by repeated noncontingent or self-administration of many drugs of abuse. Molecular mechanisms that are critical for behavioral sensitization have yet to be specified. Long-term depression (LTD) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission in the brain has been proposed as a cellular substrate for learning and memory. The expression of LTD in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) required clathrin-dependent endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPARs. NAc LTD was blocked by a dynamin-derived peptide that inhibited clathrin-mediated endocytosis or by a GluR2-derived peptide that blocked regulated AMPAR endocytosis. Systemic or intra-NAc infusion of the membrane-permeable GluR2 peptide prevented the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in the rat. ...
Amphetamine: Differentiation by d and I Isomers of Behavior Involving Brain Norepinephrine or Dopamine | Science
d-Amphetamine is markedly more potent an inhibitor of catecholamine uptake by norepinephrine neurons in the brain than is 1-amphetamine, whereas the two isomers are equally active in inhibiting catecholamine uptake by the dopamine neurons of the corpus striatum. In behavioral studies, d-amphetamine is ten times as potent as 1-amphetamine in enhancing locomotor activity, while it is only twice as potent in eliciting a compulsive gnawing syndrome. This suggests that the locomotor stimulation induced by amphetamine involves central norepinephrine, while dopamine neurons play an important role in the induced compulsive gnawing behavior. Assessment of differential actions of d- and 1-amphetamine may be an efficient method to differentiate behaviors involving norepinephrine or dopamine in the brain. ...
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
Patent US5135863 - Compositions and methods for determining the presence of amphetamines in a ... - Google Patents
The instant invention is directed toward an immunoassay which can determine the presence of amphetamines in a sample suspected of containing amphetamine and/or methamphetamine by employing at least two conjugates, each comprised of a functionally similar label bound to an amphetamine analog and a methamphetamine analog respectively and an antibody to amphetamine and an antibody to methamphetamine wherein at least one of the antibodies is a monoclonal antibody.
The American Academy of Pediatrics doesnt even have guidelines for amphetamine prescription for children below 4 years old. However, it can be expected that at such a young age, children will quickly develop a dependence on these drugs, setting the state for addiction to other amphetamines later in life including methamphetamine.. That is exactly what happens to a lot of people who use amphetamines, methamphetamine. Just imagine how badly a human being would be messed up if they did amphetamines starting at age 2.. A recent survey found that 7.5% of children ages 6-17 are currently on prescription medications for some type of mental illness, ADHD medications make up 80% of them.. This has to stop. It seems in American society today, the gap between the consciousness levels of people is getting wider. In other words, it seems a certain part of our population is getting more and more aware, intelligent, conscious, and deliberate of their actions. At the same time, another part of our population ...
Amphetamines reverse Parkinson's disease symptoms in mice ( Amphetamines including the drug popula...)
Amphetamines including the drug popularly known as Ecstasy can rever...The researchers caution that the findings in animals do not suggest Pa...The new study also shows that amphetamines -- normally thought to act ...Parkinsons disease stems from the degeneration of neurons in a brain ...The researchers led by James B. Duke professor of cell biology Marc C...,Amphetamines,reverse,Parkinsons,disease,symptoms,in,mice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
81) See Interpreting seizures and other market data.. (82) The number of laboratories dismantled reported in different countries reflects, in addition to the number of production sites, law enforcement activities and priorities as well as reporting practices.. (83) This situation should be checked against 2004 data for the United Kingdom when available. Data on both number of amphetamine seizures and quantities of amphetamine seized in 2004 were not available for Ireland and the United Kingdom; data on quantities of amphetamine seized were not available for Slovenia in 2004; data on number of amphetamine seizures were not available for the Netherlands in 2004. For estimating purposes, 2004 missing data were replaced by 2003 data. Data on quantities seized in 2004 provided by the Netherlands were only estimates, which could not be included in the analysis of trends to 2004.. (84) See Table SZR-11 in the 2006 statistical bulletin.. (85) See Table SZR-12 in the 2006 statistical bulletin.. (86) ...
Amphetamine Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Panic Attacks & Acute Amphetamine Intoxication & Crack Ingestion. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Amphetamine and many of its immediate derivatives (i.e., the substituted amphetamines) are also both non-competitive and competitive inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT) proteins. Amphetamine itself has comparatively low affinity for SERT relative to DAT and NET. Consequently, amphetamine is usually classified as an NDRI instead of an SNDRI. However, the substituted amphetamines have a very diverse effects profile, and many of them have significant inhibiting effects on the SERT. Amphetamine and many of the other substituted amphetamines are inhibitors of VMAT2 and potent agonists of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1); agonism of TAAR1 triggers phosphorylation events that result in both non-competitive reuptake inhibition and reversed transport direction of monoamine transporter proteins. As a result, monoamines flow out of the cell and into the synaptic cleft. Thus, amphetamine and its derivatives have a ...
Intra-Accumbens Amphetamine Increases the Conditioned Incentive Salience of Sucrose Reward: Enhancement of Reward "Wanting"...
Subjects. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats (born at the University of Michigan) weighing between 220 and 330 gm were housed in pairs under a reverse 12 hr light/dark cycle (lights off at 9:00 A.M.). Rats were kept in plastic tub cages in a temperature- and humidity-controlled room. Subjects had access to water ad libitum and were given 20-25 gm of rat chow each day after the training or test session. This feeding regimen was designed to maintain the subjects on a regular feeding schedule without significantly depriving them of food and yet keep them motivated to work for food reward. A pure conditioned incentive paradigm was used, which followed the Pavlovian instrumental transfer procedures for training and behavioral testing developed by Dickinson and colleagues (Dickinson and Dawson, 1987; Dickinson and Balleine, 1994; Dickinson et al., 2000).. Instrumental training. The four operant chambers (Med Associates Inc., St. Albans, VT) were made of stainless steel and Plexiglas and contained a ...
Amphetamine definition, a racemic drug, C 9 H 13 N, that stimulates the central nervous system: used chiefly to lift the mood in depressive states and to control the appetite in cases of obesity. See more.
Identification of specific markers for amphetamine synthesised from the pre‐precursor APAAN following the Leuckart route and...
Abstract Phenylacetoacetonitrile APAAN is one of the most important preprecursors for amphetamine production in recent years. This assumption is based on seizure data but there is little analytical data available showing how much amphetamine really originated from APAAN. In this study, several syntheses of amphetamine following the Leuckart route...
...The effects of amphetamines on gene expression in zebrafish have been ...Katharine Webb from the German Research Center for Environmental Heal...The team used the mutagenic chemical ENU to generate hundreds of mutan...By comparing these drug-proof nad mutants to fish with a normal respon...,Drug-proof,zebrafish,reveal,secrets,of,addiction,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid implicated in dopamine and glutamate synaptic plasticity, its role in neuroplastic brain changes that occur following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) treatment are not known. This study used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of repeated AMPH exposure and alterations in brain DHA levels on AMPH-induced brain activation patterns. Male rats were fed a diet with no n-3 fatty acids (Deficient, DEF, n = 20), a diet fortified with preformed DHA (fish oil, FO, n = 20), or a control diet fortified with alpha-linolenic acid (n = 20) from P21 to P90 ...
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Amphetamine withdrawl...help! - posted in Brain Health: So Ive been on 12 mg of Selegiline (Emsam) and 10 mg of Amphetamine (this is prescribed) daily for a while now. Im going to be stopping the Amphetamine in about a week, so Im going to need something to replace it. I know not much will compare to Amps but I need something to keep my concentration and energy levels (mental and physical) up. Im really going to need some help right after I stop the Amps...I a...
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As I mentioned before, Better Amphetamine Plugin is the work of wololo forums user BeatPlay and is a fork of the reworked Amphetamine plugin by Rinnegatamante which itself was a fork of TheFloWs original plugin. What the original plugin was meant to do was allow you to overclock the CPU of your Vita, but now with Henkaku R6 you can also slightly overclock your GPU to allow for better performance in games. Better Amphetamine Plugin also boasts more stabilityTM than the others meaning it is approved by both Sony and Nintendo. ...
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We present a case series (N = 46) of individuals apprehended in Sweden for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). These cases were selected because the concentrations of amphetamine in blood were abnormally high (,5.0 mg/L), the highest being 17 mg/L. In comparison, the median blood-amphetamine concentration in a population of DUID offenders (N = 6,613) was 0.70 mg/L. Among the DUID suspects with extremely high blood-amphetamine concentrations there were 38 men (83%) with mean age of 37.8 y (SD 6.8 y) and 8 women (17%) with a mean age of 34.1 y (SD 4.3 y). All had previously been registered in our database (mean 12 times, median 9 times) for drug-related offences, including DUID. The concentration of amphetamine in blood of female offenders was slightly higher than the concentration in male offenders (6.6 mg/L vs. 5.8 mg/L), although this difference was not statistically significant (p , 0.05). The drugs other than amphetamine most frequently encountered in the blood samples were ...
Drug information site Erowid recently posted a 1951 Disney comic where Mickey Mouse and Goofy take speed.. In the strip, Mickey Mouse and the Medicine Man, Mickey and Goofy discover a new medicine called Peppo which is clearly meant to represent amphetamine. Their enthusiasm for the chemical pick-me-up leads them to become salesman for the product in Africa.. Although the idea of Disney characters taking speed seems rather incongruous these days, in 1951 amphetamine was legal and widely available over-the-counter in America, mostly in the form of Benzedrine inhalers.. It wasnt until the mid-60s when these were made prescription only and non-medical amphetamine wasnt outlawed until 1971.. As well as casual racism, the strip also features various characters eating hash which knocks them out.. For those not familiar with American English, this isnt a direct reference to hashish or cannabis resin but a reference to a peculiarly unappetising type of food of the same name which, in the story, ...
Von Miller's suspension is for testing positive for amphetamines and marijuana | NFL News, Rumors and Opinions ... Powered by...
Denver Broncos LB Von Millers four-game suspension is for testing positive for amphetamines and marijuana during his rookie season in 2011, reports the Denver Post.. Adam Schefter of ESPN reported that Miller is facing a four-game suspension for violating a league policy. Schefter has yet to report whether Miller violated the substance-abuse policy or the PED policy.. Mike Klis of the Denver Post reports that Miller has violated both policies. Per Klis, Miller tested positive for amphetamines and marijuana in 2011.. The former, which is the active ingredient in Adderall and other related substances, would trigger an automatic four-game suspension under the PED policy. The latter would require at least three violations before a suspension arises.. It appears, then, that the suspension comes from the positive test for amphetamine.. Millers case is under appeal. The NFL will not comment unless the appeal fails.. Miller had 30 sacks in his first two seasons and is one of the NFLs premier pass ...
Amphetamines are stimulant drugs which are designed to speed up the central nervous system. It is important that people with an amphetamine addiction receive help as quickly as possible.
Amphetamines are very potent drugs that serve to stimulate the central nervous system. Read about what causes you to test positive for amphetamines or methamphetamines.
MLB announced that Orioles left-hander Troy Patton has been suspended 25 games following a positive test for amphetamine use. Patton has done nice work out of Baltimores bullpen during the past three seasons, throwing a combined 142 innings with a 3.
Amphetamine. Molecular model of the psychostimulant drug amphetamine (C9.H13.N), a drug that produces increased wakefulness and focus as well as decreased fatigue and appetite. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white) and nitrogen (blue). Illustration. - Stock Image F017/0175
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This study yielded three main findings. First, both C57 and 129 strains showed intra- and cross-modal PPI. Second, the degree to which amphetamine disrupted PPI differed across C57 and 129 strains. Third, the effects of amphetamine on locomotor activity, entries into the center area of the open field, and patterns of locomotor behavior differed significantly across strains. In addition to confirming that these mouse strains display intramodal acoustic PPI (Bullock et al., 1997; Logue et al., 1997; Paylor and Crawley, 1997), we also found that they display light PPI in a prepulse-pulse combination without an explicit acoustic component. The DA agonist amphetamine disrupted acoustic PPI in all three strains tested, and light PPI in the C57BL/6J and 129S6 mice. Amphetamine also affected the amount and pattern of motor activity in C57BL/6J and 129X1 mice, but had no significant effect on unconditioned motor activity in the 129S6 mice. Given that amphetamine releases presynaptic DA, these findings ...
amphetamine definition: 1. a colorless, liquid drug, CHCHCH(NH)CH, that acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system and is used, usually in its crystalline sulfate or phosphate form, as a medicine to treat narcolepsy, depression, obesity, and Parkin...
OK, so Im on a Suboxone program and just came back from the doctor. He said the last 2 months my urine came up HOT for amphetamines, the only problem is Ive never done Amphetamines in my fucking life. Hes asking me about this shit called bath salt and I have no idea what hes talking about. Of course since Im a heroin addict he doesnt believe me. Does anyone know what can make this show up in my piss???? The only think Ive done the last 2 months is my regular meds...Trazadone,
The rehab center for Amphetamine addiction at Casa Capri delivers a step-by-step continuum of care that helps young women addicted to Amphetamines, such as Adderall® or Dexadrine®, build a life in sobriety beyond their wildest dreams. Our dedicated team of all-female doctors, therapists and counselors deliver the individualized therapies, life skills programming and structured support youll need heal your whole soul. Your personalized treatment program starts in our cozy, safe and comfortable prescription drug detox center. Unlike a hospital or clinical setting, our medically supervised detox feels nurturing and soothing just like home. Your journey back to life and love begins with a phone call to 1-844-252-5221. We are here for you 24 hours a day.. In our detox center, your safe and comfortable transition off of addictive substances is of utmost importance to us. Since withdrawals can be very intense and even dangerous at times, youll be under the care of a doctor for the duration of your ...
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ANYWAY, there is indeed a warning song in Canned Heats canon, and its called "Amphetamine Annie." Its about taking speed. That was, one would gather, the line over which Canned Heat would not further a toke. One of the planks in their argument against amphetamines was that it came in pill form: "Your mind might think its flying, baby/On those little pills." They had a point, in that the ritualism of pill-taking cant even come close to the ritual of taking hits from a bong or a joint, or bending over a mirror and plugging one nostril, or tying off and vein-mining, or Jazzercise. Pills simply bring all of the convenience and none of the romanticism of stoners, cokeheads, junkies or Jane Fonda. This song also features the refrain "Speed kills!" I was wondering if this song was the first usage of that term, but figured if somebody actually had the inspiration to invent such a hooky slogan, it probably wasnt Canned Heat ...
... definition: Amphetamine is a drug which increases peoples energy , makes them excited , and reduces... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples
1 Answer - Posted in: symbicort, amphetamine - Answer: Hi no symbicort will not give a postive result for amphetamines,symbicort ...
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Broncos wide receiver Wes Welker has been suspended for four games for using amphetamines. Welker says he would never intentionally take a substance to gain a competitive advantage, and said the NFLs.... WBIR.com is the official website for WBIR-TV, Channel 10, your trusted source for breaking news, weather and sports in Knoxville, TN. WBIR.com
Amphetamines are highly addictive! People get addicted because it leads to tolerance and the person using it would want more & more of it. If people stop, it can lead to restless sleep & depression ...
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BACKGROUND: Receptor imaging studies have reported increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release in subjects with schizophrenia (SCH) relative to healthy control subjects (HCs). A limitation of these studies, performed with D2/3 antagonist radiotracers, is the failure to provide information about D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for the agonists (i.e., D2/3 receptors coupled to G proteins [D2/3 HIGH]). The endogenous agonist dopamine binds with preference to D2/3 HIGH receptors relative to D2/3 LOW receptors, making it critical to understand the status of D2/3 HIGH receptors in SCH ...
This case study will discuss Amphetamine use and misuse in the community setting, the impact of the substance use and misuse on contemporary paramedic
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20025948 - Selective changes in gene expression in cortical regions sensitive to amphetamine...
Gene expression profiles in several brain regions of adult male rats were evaluated following a d-amphetamine (AMPH) exposure paradigm previously established to produce AMPH neurotoxicity. Escalating doses of AMPH (5-30 mg/kg) were given over the course of 16 h per day in an 18 degrees C environment for 2 days. This paradigm produces neurotoxicity but eliminates or minimizes the hyperthermia and s
... has grown due to the expansion of attention disorder cases. Medication like Aderol can be found even in peoples hands that are not diagnosed with ADHD.
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Methylphenidate compound is synthetically comparable to amphetamine-class drug (cocaine), by functioning as a long-term dopamine regulator, however its long-term effects on the developmental area of the brain is controversed and poorly understood by the scientific community.  Moreover, chronic Ritalin use may in addition elevate the risks of amphetamine-induced psychosis, a notable side-effect in chronic amphetamine users. Overmedication with amphetamine-type drug is thus an additional concern to assess in the psychotherapy of childrens with amphetamine-like drugs.  Amphetamine-induced psychosis may implicate as well severe hallucinations and other landmarks of long-term drug abuses including altered state of behavior, paranoia, and depression. ...
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Methylphenidate compound is synthetically comparable to amphetamine-class drug (cocaine), by functioning as a long-term dopamine regulator, however its long-term effects on the developmental area of the brain is controversed and poorly understood by the scientific community.  Moreover, chronic Ritalin use may in addition elevate the risks of amphetamine-induced psychosis, a notable side-effect in chronic amphetamine users. Overmedication with amphetamine-type drug is thus an additional concern to assess in the psychotherapy of childrens with amphetamine-like drugs.  Amphetamine-induced psychosis may implicate as well severe hallucinations and other landmarks of long-term drug abuses including altered state of behavior, paranoia, and depression. ...
Amphetamines (including prescription diet pills) are highly addictive stimulants that accelerate functions in the brain and body.
Amphetamines (including prescription diet pills) are highly addictive stimulants that accelerate functions in the brain and body.
We have Kafka, swim instructor and holder of a few other part time jobs, who crosses paths with Daniel, a financier. Kafka is straight and a drug addict while Daniel is gay and not a drug addict. Their story is one of deepening intimacy and trust as the two are locked into a struggle between chaos and stability and attraction and repulsion. Fate locks the two into a powerful and explosive relationship of love. It is a beautifully choreographed sword fight in the nature of the eternal struggle of 我. I also was not previously aware of how Amphetamine was translated into Chinese previously ( 安非他命 literally is security-not-his-life). But what does it mean to escape ones life into not-security ...
Amphetamine. Summary: Toris pretty sure theres no clinic to help you get over an addiction to a person.. Notes: Not angst. Winning. Also, oh my, smut. Finally. Disclaimer: If I owned this, Arianas contract probably wouldnt be parent-approved. And the show wouldnt be appropriate for children. Not even a little.. .. When Tori first came to Hollywood Arts, she was too overtaken by the sights and sounds to really focus on the people. Except for Cat, with her striking red hair and constant stream of words that not even Tori could look over. Cat epitomized the very essence of HA; musical and daring, dynamic and beautiful. She sang the loudest, acted the most sincerely, and danced the sexiest. Everything about her captured Toris attention the way a flame does a moth.. Cat had a bit of an enigmatic quality to her, Tori thought. She was never sure just how much Cat was acting when she said the outlandish things she did. But Tori was certain that Cat was not the simple girl she portrayed herself as. ...
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Researchers have developed a wireless sensor and a smartphone app that can detect the presence of speed in a drop of human urine in seconds. The prototype device is also portable enough to be worn as a bracelet, has unprecedented sensitivity for amphetamines with low risk for false-positive results, and costs about $50 to produce ...
This test is simple, fast, reliable and accurate test which detects for the presence Amphetamines (speed) in urine. All tests are CE Marked and FDA Approved,
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1 Answer - Posted in: vitamins, zantac, amphetamine - Answer: Highly unlikely 99.8% at least. It could have been a problem with the test ...
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Dr. Gitelman responded: Depends. Short acting amphetamines would be mostly eliminated after a few hours, while long acting ones could take several days.
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Part IV delves into the more intriguing parts of Worths spookily beautiful world where her pain and hurt are spelled out in their most eloquent turns, writing: " I fake a landscape of transience, shrug off honesty" and "The room woke up backwards, in the grip of a tight black dress." As well, each chapter starts off with some very stunning illustrations of ecclesiastical farm animals and bloodied hearts sprouting horns. After spending some time with Amphetamine Heart, I came to appreciate Worths efforts, but ultimately I left the work feeling an added layer of polish might have taken this little book so much further. (Dexter Brown). Liz Worth, 60 pgs, Guernica Editions, guernicaeditions.com, $15. ...
Amphetamine TMS | C12H21NSi | CID 575707 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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PUTNAM COUNTY, N.Y. -- An 18-year-old woman was arrested by Kent Police after she was stopped for a traffic infraction and officers discovered she was in possession of amphetamines.Lindsey Quezada, of Kent, was stopped around 10 p.m. No...
A brief explanation of some of the information on amphetamines that presents facts that many people dont realize or are simply unaware of.
Well, its just an ex-Pirate, but I cant go without posting a link to this. A report has surfaced that Barry Bonds failed an amphetamine test last season and blamed it on teammate Mark Sweeney ...
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78violet Amphetamine Bandslam Soundtrack 2009 Submitted by: [email protected] Key: A Tuning: Standard EADGBe Chords used: A - x02220 A7 - x02020
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Amphetamine lyrics - She came out west to find the sun She lost her name but found a new one Amy goes to school all day But at night in the neighborhood They call her...
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Melbourne - People who injected amphetamines were more at risk of contracting HIV or other blood-borne viruses, a new study has revealed that. The study by
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Amphetamines, sometimes referred to as "uppers," are a group of psychoactive drugs that affect the central nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Some of the effects of using these drugs include tremors, vasoconstriction, restlessness, tachycardia, insomnia, agitation and loss of appetite. Amphetamines were once widely used in obesity and weight loss treatments, but their addictive properties have caused them to be rarely used today. Today, methamphetamine, also known as meth, is one of the most commonly used illegal amphetamines. Meth is extremely addictive and destroys tissues in the brain, which can lead to brain damage.5 ...
Come one come all, read and learn, or share your own hints/tips/tricks for getting the most out of your smoke. Speed/Meth tolerance prevention/reduction _____________________ Loading Not much to say here, other than... dont load huge bowls. As by loading more youre more likely to not spread it around enough and end up with a fat puddle boiling and burning up your drugs. Load a moderately small bowl, spread it around good, and smoke that shit son. If you get to the end of the
If using amphetamines a long time, can you damage the central nervous system? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap
Dr. Kinlan responded: Its uncertain.. There are not careful studies and research to determine the answer. There are no negative studies.
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Then there is the question of how declaring in effect that hes a locker room thief aids in any positive offsetting manner the drug accusation. Or where the value resides in essentially stating I didnt know what it was, but went ahead and took it anyhow. Either hes a (another) type of fool prone to end up trying out some cyanide or other lethal ingredient at some point to satisfy his curiousity about its effect, or he views those he made the claim to as fools thatll fall for that sort of whopper ...
The last three decades have seen a silent shift in drug usage in northeastern states, says a United Nations report released on Wednesday.
I could had washed that down the toilet, I paid five hundred pounds for that," Fox told the court, and complaining about the amout of the fine he added: "Im paying for school fees, my outgoings are higher than my income." ...
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Many Teenagers Unaware That Adderall Is an Amphetamine | Physician's Weekly for Medical News, Journals & Articles
THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Adolescents appear to underreport their nonmedical amphetamine use, which may be in part due to lacking awareness that Adderall is an amphetamine, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.. Joseph J. Palamar, Ph.D., M.P.H., from New York University Langone Medical Center, and Austin Le, from New York University College of Dentistry, examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015). They analyzed prevalence and correlates of discordant responses among past-year Adderall users, defined as reporting past-year nonmedical Adderall use but not past-year nonmedical amphetamine use.. The researchers found that while 6.9 percent of respondents reported nonmedical Adderall use and 7.9 percent reported nonmedical amphetamine use, 28.7 percent of Adderall users reported no amphetamine use. ...
Differential effects of the antidepressant mirtazapine on amphetamine- and dizocilpine-induced PPI deficits. | [email protected]
Differential effects of the antidepressant mirtazapine on amphetamine- and dizocilpine-induced PPI deficits.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Tyrosine-free amino acid mixture attenuates amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]raclopride in striatum in vivo: a rat PET...
Previous neurochemical and behavioural studies show that tyrosine depletion using a nutritionally balanced tyrosine-free amino acid mixture attenuates the dopamine-releasing and psychostimulant properties of amphetamine. Here we investigate the effect of a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture on striatal binding of [(11)C]raclopride, and amphetamine-induced [(11)C]raclopride displacement, using positron emission tomography in the rat. Rats were scanned for 60 min after an i.v. injection of approximately 11 MBq [(11)C]raclopride using a quad-HIDAC system. Amphetamine (2 mg/kg i.p., 30 min prior to scan) caused a 12% reduction in [(11)C]raclopride distribution volume ratio (DVR) compared to saline-injected controls. The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture (1 g/kg i.p.) caused a small (+7%) but statistically insignificant increase in [(11)C]raclopride DVR and attenuated, although it did not fully block, the amphetamine-induced reduction. These data are in keeping with previous neurochemical, immunocytochemical,
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Swalve and Li, M* (2012): Parametric studies of antipsychotic-induced sensitization in the conditioned avoidance response model: Roles of number of drug exposure, drug dose, and test-retest interval, Behavioural Pharmacology, 2012 Aug;23(4):380-91 Abstract. Li, M*, He, W, and Munro, R (2012): Differential effects of acute amphetamine and phencyclidine treatment and withdrawal from repeated amphetamine or phencyclidine treatment on social interaction and social memory in rats, PsyCh Journal, 2012 Jun;1(1):56-68 Abstract. Zhao, CJ, Sun, T and Li, M* (2012): Neural basis of the potentiated inhibition of repeated haloperidol and clozapine treatment on the phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion, Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 2012 Aug 7;38(2):175-82 Abstract. Zhang, C and Li, M* (2012): Contextual and behavioral control of antipsychotic sensitization induced by haloperidol and olanzapine, Behavioural Pharmacology, Feb;23(1):66-79. Abstract. Li, M*, Sun, T, and Mead, A ...
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Amphetamine (USAN) or amfetamine (INN) is a psychostimulant drug that is known to produce increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. Amphetamine is chemically related to methamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine, a class of potent drugs that act by increasing levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, inducing euphoria. The class includes prescription CNS drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to diminish the appetite and to control weight. Brand names of the drugs that contain, or metabolize into, amphetamine include Adderall, Vyvanse, and Dexedrine, as well as Benzedrine in the past ...
Effects of phencyclidine, amphetamine and related compounds on dopamine release from and uptake into striatal synaptosomes. |...
The ability of phencyclidine (PCP), amphetamine and other substances to stimulate dopamine release from and inhibit dopamine uptake into rat striatal synaptosomes was examined in a continuous superfusion system. Inhibition of uptake was measured by determining inhibition of [3H]dopamine displacement by unlabeled dopamine ([1H]dopamine). The displacement of [3H]dopamine by 10(-7) M [1H]dopamine was temperature- and sodium-sensitive and calcium-independent. [1H]Dopamine was an order of magnitude more potent than serotonin or norepinephrine in displacing [3H]dopamine. The concentrations of reserpine required to inhibit [3H]dopamine uptake and [3H]dopamine displacement by [1H]dopamine were similar. Nomifensine, benztropine, PCP and amphetamine also inhibited the displacement of [3H]dopamine by [1H]dopamine at concentrations which have been shown previously to inhibit the uptake of [3H]dopamine, suggesting that the mechanism behind displacement and uptake are very similar. PCP, at 10(-7) to 10(-5) M, ...
Comparing the Effectiveness of New Versus Older Treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (The NOTA Study) - Full...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impulsiveness, hyperactivity, and inattention. It is seen primarily in children and adolescents and is often treated with psychostimulant medications. Osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate, brand name Concerta, and mixed amphetamine salts extended release, brand name Adderall XR, are psychostimulant medications that have shown both efficacy (that they can have therapeutic benefits) and effectiveness (that they typically have therapeutic benefits in practice). Two newer psychostimulant medications-lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, brand name Vyvanse, and methylphenidate transdermal system, brand name Daytrana-have shown efficacy but have not been tested for effectiveness, nor have they been tested head-to-head against the older psychostimulants. This study will test the effectiveness, tolerability (lack of side effects), and acceptability (ease of use for patients) of the two newer psychostimulant medications and compare ...
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Sreenivasan, V. Problems in Identification of Methylenedioxy and Methoxy Amphetamines. J. Crim. Law Criminol., 1 Jan 1972, 63 ( ... Bailey, K; Legault, D. 13C NMR spectra and structure of mono-, di- and trimethoxyphenylethylamines and amphetamines. Org. Magn ... Analogs of α-methylphenethylamine (amphetamine). I. Synthesis and pharmacological activity of some methoxy and/or methyl ... Amphetamine analogs. II. Methylated phenethylamines. J. Med. Chem., 1 Jan 1970, 13 (1), 134-135. 278 kB. http://dx.doi.org/ ...http://isomerdesign.com/PiHKAL/explore.php?domain=tk&id=96
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Substance use - amphetamines: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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... are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... What Are Amphetamines?. Amphetamines are stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pill, tablet, ... When amphetamines get into the body, they go to work on the central nervous system. Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called ... Avoiding Amphetamines. Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. Because people rarely call ...http://kidshealth.org/ChildrensHospitalPittsburgh/en/teens/amphetamines.html?WT.ac=ctg
The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. Evekeo is sometimes used to treat obesity in people ... Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... What is the most important information I should know about amphetamine?. Amphetamine may be habit-forming. Tell your doctor if ... What is amphetamine?. Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ...https://www.rexhealth.com/rh/health-library/document-viewer/?id=d00803a1
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Amphetamine on the Mac App Store
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Amphetamine on the Mac App Store
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Amphetamine Logic - Everything2.com
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Amphetamines | Encyclopedia.com
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Nine diet supplements contain amphetamine-like compound
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Amphetamine in the Tropics | The BMJ
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L-amphetamine. D-amphetamine Some of amphetamines substituted derivatives occur in nature, for example in the leaves of ... Redirected from Amphetamines). "Amphetamines" redirects here. For the chemical, see Amphetamine. For other uses, see ... Amphetamine (racemic) Schedule II Schedule II Schedule II Schedule 8 Dextroamphetamine (D-amphetamine) Schedule II Schedule II ... Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds ...https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphetamines
MethamphetamineDextroamphetamineNasal congestionAttention deficitSupports Retina displaysDrugsDopamineDose of amphetaminesInteract with amphetamine1930sDoses1960sSubstituentsEuphoriaAddictiveOverdoseWithdrawalPowderQuantitiesChemicalEffectsMedicinesHypertensionHealthcareAddictionBrandDisordersMedicationInhibitorDependentSubstances
- Sustained high-dose administration of amphetamines (especially methamphetamine ) to experimental animals produces a persistent depletion of DA which is associated with terminal degeneration (62, 182, 195), as well as neuronal chromatolysis in the brain stem, cortex and striatum (42, 182). (factbites.com)
- Some generic names of amphetamines include amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. (encyclopedia.com)
- On the basis of this Asian experience, we can say that amphetamine drugs, and particularly methamphetamine, are likely to pose an increasingly serious menace for criminal justice systems globally in the coming decades. (psu.edu)
- It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
- In the 1920s, both methamphetamine and the dextrorotatory optical isomer of amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, were synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
- Substituted phenethylamines Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines Substituted cathinones Substituted phenylmorpholines 2Cs, DOx, 25-NB Substituted tryptamines Substituted α-alkyltryptamines D-Deprenyl, MAO-B inhibitor prodrug that metabolizes into both D-amphetamine and D-methamphetamine Amphetaminil, brand name Aponeuron a largely-market-withdrawn (due to abuse liability) amphetamine Hagel JM, Krizevski R, Marsolais F, Lewinsohn E, Facchini PJ (2012). (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine , dextroamphetamine , and mixed amphetamine salts increase effective use of dopamine and norepinephrine in parts of the brain that regulate attention and behavior in order to control symptoms associated with ADHD and improve functioning. (factbites.com)
- Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine tablets are also used to treat narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep ). (factbites.com)
- Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine combination should not be taken in the late afternoon or evening because it may cause difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. (factbites.com)
- The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine should not be used to treat excessive tiredness that is not caused by narcolepsy . (factbites.com)
- Read the Medication Manual before buy Adderall online and, if accessible, the Affected person Details Leaflet supplied by your pharmacist before you start using Amphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and each time you have a refill. (colourlovers.com)
- Amphetamine/dextroamphetamine belongs to a class of medications often called stimulants. (colourlovers.com)
- A total of 529 drugs (3907 brand and generic names) are known to interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine . (drugs.com)
- Show all medications in the database that may interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine. (drugs.com)
- Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine was first marketed in the 1930s as Benzedrine in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. (factbites.com)
- Over-the-counter use of substituted amphetamines was initiated in the early 1930s by the pharmaceutical company Smith, Kline & French (now part of GlaxoSmithKline), as a medicine (Benzedrine) for colds and nasal congestion. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (rexhealth.com)
- Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications, particularly for depression and chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamines are drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amphetamines are a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are commonly abused recreational drugs and are highly addictive. (encyclopedia.com)
- People who are taking amphetamines should not stop taking these drugs suddenly. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines are man-made stimulant drugs. (greenfacts.org)
- Specifically, we should pay much more attention to the past history and the present realities of the family of drugs known as the amphetamines, which have a good claim to be recognized as the distinctive crime problem of the Pacific Rim region. (psu.edu)
- This claim about the significance of amphetamines may sound strange given the very small scholarly or professional attention generally paid to these substances in comparison to other better-known drugs. (psu.edu)
- Originally widely used for legal purposes, amphetamine drugs acquired several distinct and quite respectable American markets, including among hard-pressed businessmen and blue collar workers (truckers and shift-workers), in schools and colleges, in sports, and among women seeking to lose weight (the following account is taken from Jenkins 1999). (psu.edu)
- Amphetamines were at least as widely abused than other better-known drugs. (psu.edu)
- Amphetamines also cause the brain to release dopamine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called dopamine, increasing it so the user feels a "high. (kidshealth.org)
- It appears that the main action of amphetamines is to increase the synaptic activity of the dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems. (factbites.com)
- Amphetamine, through activation of a trace amine receptor, increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
- Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
- By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds found use as decongestants in the symptomatic treatment of colds and also occasionally as psychoactive agents. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, although its pharmacological effects remained unknown until the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)
- However, illicit use of amphetamines for non-medical reasons presents a significant risk to the fetus and the newborn because of uncontrolled doses. (encyclopedia.com)
- At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. (wikipedia.org)
- Larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
- In chronic high-dose cocaine (75) or amphetamine abuse (49), energy and euphoria induced by active drug administration is replaced in withdrawal by rebound dysphoric and anergic symptoms that appear to occur whether or not the stimulant abuser meets the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder (74). (factbites.com)
- Amphetamines produce considerable side effects and are especially toxic in large quantities. (encyclopedia.com)
- By far the biggest speed-pusher in history was the armed services, which from the second world war through Vietnam distributed amphetamines lavishly to service people undertaking tasks requiring alertness and wakefulness: we are talking in terms of multi-billion pill quantities. (psu.edu)
- Early investigations of the properties of amphetamine focused on the peripheral effects and found that amphetamine was a sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator properties. (factbites.com)
- this may be important for understanding effects of amphetamine use during pregnancy. (factbites.com)
- Educate patients on the toxic effects of amphetamines and that amphetamines are not a safe alternative to cocaine use. (factbites.com)
- Amphetamines are usually given orally and their effects can last for hours. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamines produce their effects by altering chemicals that transmit nerve messages in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
- The effects of amphetamine can last up to 20 hours after the medication has last been taken. (encyclopedia.com)
- The triad of hyperactivity, hyperpyrexia, and hypertension is characteristic of acute amphetamine overdosage. (factbites.com)
- What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking amphetamine? (rexhealth.com)
- Because people rarely call them "amphetamines," it can help to be aware of other names for amphetamines, from brand names like Ritalin or Adderall to nicknames like Bennies or Black Mollies. (kidshealth.org)
- If you're brand new to Amphetamine and think it is useful, please consider writing a review. (apple.com)
- Amphetamine therapy given to women for medical reasons does not present a significant risk to the developing fetus for congenital disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amphetamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (rexhealth.com)
- Patients taking amphetamines should always tell their physicians and dentists that they are using this medication. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patients should consult their physician before taking any over-the-counter medication while taking amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
- Do not use amphetamine if you have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. (rexhealth.com)