A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
Amides of salicylic acid.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)
An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/1182)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (2/1182)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (3/1182)

(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences.  (+info)

The Ca2+ channel blockade changes the behavioral and biochemical effects of immobilization stress. (4/1182)

We investigated how the effects of chronic immobilization stress in rats are modified by Ca2+ channel blockade preceding restraint sessions. The application of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) shortly before each of seven daily 2 h restraint sessions prevented the development of sensitized response to amphetamine as well as the stress-induced elevation of the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel in the hippocampus and significantly reduced the elevation of the densities of [3H]nitrendipine binding sites in the cortex and D1 dopamine receptors in the limbic forebrain. Neither stress, nor nifedipine affected the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the cerebral cortex nor D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. A single restraint session caused an elevation of blood corticosterone level that remained unaffected by nifedipine pretreatment, but the reduction of this response during the eighth session was significantly less expressed in nifedipine-treated rats. We conclude that L-type calcium channel blockade prevents development of several stress-induced adaptive responses.  (+info)

Necessary role for ventral tegmental area adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A in induction of behavioral sensitization to intraventral tegmental area amphetamine. (5/1182)

In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective activation or inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) on long-term sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA or peripheral amphetamine (AMPH). Selective inhibition of AC by SQ 22,536 (9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine; 100 nmol/side bilateral into VTA) had no effect on acute basal locomotion but attenuated the locomotor stimulation induced by acute i.p. AMPH (1.5 mg/kg). Coinjection of SQ 22,536 (100 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH (15 nmol/side) but had no detectable effect on the sensitization induced by repeated i. p. AMPH. Persistent activation of AC by intra-VTA cholera toxin (500 ng/side) modestly increased acute locomotion and induced a robust sensitization to i.p. AMPH challenge 10 days after the last of three repeated VTA microinjections. Selective inhibition of PKA by Rp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS; 25 nmol/side) had no effect on acute basal or AMPH-stimulated locomotion. Coinjection of Rp-cAMPS (25 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH but had no effect on sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. Intra-VTA microinjection of the selective PKA activator Sp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Sp-cAMPS; 25-100 nmol/side) dose-dependently stimulated acute locomotion and exerted synergistic effects on locomotor activity when coinfused into the VTA with AMPH but had no detectable effect on acute i.p. AMPH-induced locomotion. Repeated intra-VTA Sp-cAMPS did not induce sensitization to AMPH challenge but potentiated the sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. These results suggest that VTA cAMP signal transduction is necessary for the induction of persistent sensitization to intra-VTA amphetamine and that peripheral and intra-VTA AMPH may not induce behavioral sensitization by identical mechanisms.  (+info)

Modulation of amphetamine-stimulated [3H]dopamine release from rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells by sigma type 2 receptors. (6/1182)

An important regulatory mechanism of synaptic dopamine (DA) levels is activation of the dopamine transporter (DAT), which is a target for many drugs of abuse, including amphetamine (AMPH). sigma receptors are located in dopaminergic brain areas critical to reinforcement. We found previously that agonists at sigma2 receptors enhanced the AMPH-stimulated release of [3H]DA from slices of rat caudate-putamen. In the present study, we modeled this response in undifferentiated pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cells, which contain both the DAT and sigma2 receptors but not neural networks that can complicate investigation of individual neuronal mechanisms. We found that enhancement of AMPH-stimulated [3H]DA release by the sigma agonist (+)-pentazocine was blocked by sigma2 receptor antagonists. Additionally, the reduction in the effect of (+)-pentazocine by the inclusion of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid led us to hypothesize that sigma2 receptor activation initiated a Ca2+-dependent process that resulted in enhancing the outward flow of DA via the DAT. The source of Ca2+ required for the enhancement of reverse transport did not appear to be via N- or L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, because it was not affected by nitrendipine or omega-conotoxin. However, two inhibitors of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II blocked enhancement in AMPH-stimulated release by (+)-pentazocine. Our findings suggest that sigma2 receptors are coupled to the DAT via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II transduction system in PC12 cells, and that sigma2 receptor antagonists might be useful in the treatment of drug abuse by blocking elevation of DA levels via reversal of the DAT.  (+info)

Effects of atypical antipsychotic drug treatment on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. (7/1182)

Clozapine, risperidone, and other new "atypical" antipsychotic agents are distinguished from traditional neuroleptic drugs by having clinical efficacy with either no or low levels of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Preclinical models have focused on striatal dopamine systems to account for their atypical profile. In this study, we examined the effects of clozapine and risperidone on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. A novel 11C-raclopride/PET paradigm was used to derive estimates of amphetamine-induced changes in striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations and patients were scanned while antipsychotic drug-free and during chronic treatment with either clozapine or risperidone. We found that amphetamine produced significant reductions in striatal 11C-raclopride binding during the drug-free and antipsychotic drug treatment phases of the study which reflects enhanced dopamine release in both conditions. There were no significant differences in % 11C-raclopride changes between the two conditions indicating that these atypical agents do not effect amphetamine-related striatal dopamine release. The implications for these data for antipsychotic drug action are discussed.  (+info)

Review article: mechanisms and management of hepatotoxicity in ecstasy (MDMA) and amphetamine intoxications. (8/1182)

The social use of ecstasy (methylenedioxymethampheta-mine, MDMA) and amphetamines is widespread in the UK and Europe, and they are popularly considered as 'safe'. However, deaths have occurred and hepatotoxicity has featured in many cases of intoxication with amphetamine or its methylenedioxy analogues such as ecstasy. Recreational use of these drugs presents an important but often concealed cause of hepatitis or acute liver failure, particularly in young people. The patterns of liver damage and multiple putative mechanisms of injury are discussed. Recognition of the aetiological agent requires a high index of suspicion. Optimum management of the resultant liver damage, including the controversial role of liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure, is also discussed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Repeated amphetamine administration alters the expression of mRNA for AMPA receptor subunits in rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. AU - Lu, Wenxiao. AU - Chen, Huiyuan. AU - Xue, Chang Jiang. AU - Wolf, Marina E.. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Recent evidence suggests that behavioral sensitization to amphetamine is associated with alterations in excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmission in perikarya (ventral tegmental area) and terminal regions (nucleus accumbens [NAc]) of the mesoaccumbens dopamine system. The present study determined whether repeated amphetamine administration alters expression of mRNAs for AMPA receptor subunits. We studied the NAc, because it is the site of expression of amphetamine sensitization, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), because it is the origin of EAA projections that regulate the mesoaccumbens dopamine system. Rats were treated for 5 days with 5 mg/kg/day amphetamine sulfate or vehicle (controls) and perfused 3 or 14 days after the last ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Individual differences in amphetamine sensitization, behavior and central monoamines. AU - Scholl, Jamie L.. AU - Feng, Na. AU - Watt, Michael J.. AU - Renner, Kenneth J.. AU - Forster, Gina L.. PY - 2009/3/2. Y1 - 2009/3/2. N2 - Repeated amphetamine treatment results in behavioral sensitization in a high percentage of rats. Alterations to plasma corticosterone, neural monoamines and stress behavior can accompany amphetamine sensitization. Whether these changes occur following repeated amphetamine treatment in the absence of behavioral sensitization is not known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 6 days. Amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy, open-field anxiety behavior, plasma corticosterone and limbic monoamines were measured during withdrawal. Sixty-two percent of amphetamine-treated rats showed behavioral sensitization over the test periods. Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential development of autoreceptor subsensitivity and enhanced dopamine release during amphetamine sensitization. AU - Wolf, Marina. AU - White, F. J.. AU - Nassar, R.. AU - Brooderson, R. J.. AU - Khansa, M. R.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Various changes in the function of dopamine neurons have been proposed to underly the development of behavioral sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of d-amphetamine. The present study examined the relative importance of two such mechanisms after both short (3-4 days off) and longer (10-14 days off) withdrawals from repeated amphetamine or saline injection (1 mg/kg/day, days 1-5 and 8-12). First, single-unit recording was used to examine the sensitivity of impulse-regulating somatodendritic autoreceptors located on mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. Second, in vivo microdialysis was used to examine the ability of amphetamine challenge to increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat ...
A substantial increase in substance treatment episodes for methamphetamine problems suggests characteristics of the treatment population could have changed and that targeted treatment programs are required. To determine who methamphetamine treatment should be designed for this study has two aims. First, to empirically describe changes in amphetamine treatment presentations to a rural NSW drug and alcohol treatment agency over time. Second, to examine how these characteristics may affect the likelihood of being treated for amphetamines compared to other drugs. The Australian Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS-NMDS) containing closed treatment episodes from a single agency from three time periods was used. Characteristics of people receiving amphetamine treatments in these three periods were compared and the effects of these characteristics on the odds of being treated for amphetamine were estimated using a logistic regression model. The characteristics utilised in
The effects of amphetamines described. See what amphetamine use, amphetamines abuse and amphetamines addiction does to amphetamine users and amphetamine addicts.
Please read the label you buy from the label so you know the dosage and what kinds of Amphetamine you need. Drugs made by mixing Amphetamine with other types of illegal medicines, such as tobacco or tobacco products. It is important for us to understand drug-related disorders so we can be on the safe side or being careful that you dont become ill because amphetamine gives you painkillers. Amphetamine are also known as anorexic drugs. They may cause an overdose of many substances, which increases the risk for serious problems. Amphetamine is sometimes found in certain medicines (e.g. alcohol, tea, heroin and alcohol). Amphetamine may be found in chewing gum, chewing alcohols, gum for chewing, e.g. Nicotine in e.g. prescription prescription nicotine, is not as effective, sometimes, as in amphetamine, which can cause a high blood nicotine level such as about 0.5 mg/100 ml. Amphetamine can also be taken as an anti-depressant drug. An occasional withdrawal from any of the four types of Amphetamine will
Amphetamine detox is only the first step in addiction treatment.Amphetamine detox is only the first step in addiction treatment. Without regular, long-term treatment in conjunction with amphetamine detox, many users will return to abusing the drug. Treatment may be provided on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Each person is different, and having a treatment plan tailored to each persons specific situation increases the chances of a good outcome. Support groups such as Narcotics Anonymous can be helpful to some people going through an addiction. Supportive family and friends increase the chances of a successful recovery. Addiction is a chronic disease that needs long-term treatment.. According to the TEDS report, amphetamine treatment admission rates increased between 1993 and 1999 by 250 percent or more in 14 states and by 100 to 249 percent in another 10 states. There are many treatment options available that can be tailored to your specific situation. Amphetamine addiction treatment is not ...
Amphetamine has complex behavioral actions in the rat that depend upon the release of dopamine in striatal and mesolimbic brain regions. To explore a possible role of the dopamine-sensitive cAMP second-messenger system in mediating these effects, we examined the effects of in vivo amphetamine treatments on the D1 receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system in membranes from striatal and mesolimbic rat brain regions. The results show that amphetamine produces a regional, dose- and time- dependent down-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Intermediate and high doses of amphetamine (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), but not a low dose (1.0 mg/kg), resulted in a decrease in the apparent Vmax and/or an increase in the apparent Ka for the selective D1 partial agonist, SKF38393, in striatal membranes 30 min after amphetamine treatment. Treatment of rats with 7.5 mg/kg amphetamine for 30 and 60 min, but not 10 min, similarly resulted in a down-regulation of D1- mediated adenylate cyclase activity in ...
Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up the bodys system. Many are legally prescribed and used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Street names include Bennies, Black Beauties, Crank, Ice, Speed and Uppers. Amphetamines can look like pills or powder. Common prescription amphetamines include methylphenidate (Ritalin® or Ritalin SR®), amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall®) and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®).. Amphetamines are generally taken orally or injected. However, the addition of ice, the slang name of crystallized methamphetamine hydrochloride, has promoted smoking as another mode of administration. Just as crack is smokable cocaine, ice is smokable methamphetamine. The effects of amphetamines and methamphetamine are similar to cocaine, but their onset is slower and their duration is longer. In contrast to cocaine, which is quickly removed from the brain and is almost completely metabolized, methamphetamine remains in the central nervous system ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The psychogenetically selected Roman rat lines differ in the susceptibility to develop amphetamine sensitization. AU - Corda, Maria G.. AU - Piras, Giovanna. AU - Lecca, Daniele. AU - Fernández-Teruel, Alberto. AU - Driscoll, Peter. AU - Giorgi, Osvaldo. PY - 2005/2/10. Y1 - 2005/2/10. N2 - The mesolimbic dopamine system is considered to play a pivotal role in the locomotor activation produced by psychostimulants and in the augmentation of this effect observed upon repeated drug administration, a process denominated behavioral sensitization. The selective breeding of Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats, respectively, for rapid versus poor active avoidance acquisition has resulted in two phenotypes that differ in the functional properties of the mesolimbic dopamine system and in their behavioral and neurochemical responses to addictive drugs, including psychostimulants and opiates. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the ability of these lines to develop ...
BACKGROUND: Acute depletion of tyrosine using a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture offers a novel dietary approach to inhibit activated dopamine pathways in the brain. This study investigated the potential of in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods as a noninvasive means to detect effects of tyrosine depletion on dopamine function. METHODS: Changes in blood-oxgenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast induced by administration of the dopamine-releasing agent, amphetamine (3 mg/kg i.v.), were measured in halothane-anaesthetised rats. RESULTS: Amphetamine evoked changes in BOLD signal intensity with the greatest effects observed in the nucleus accumbens (-7.7%), prefrontal cortex (-13.6%), and motor cortex (+12.5%). Pretreatment with a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture attenuated the response to amphetamine in some regions (nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex), but not others (motor cortex). Amphetamine itself had no effect in thalamus and hippocampus but, surprisingly, increased the
BACKGROUND: Acute depletion of tyrosine using a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture offers a novel dietary approach to inhibit activated dopamine pathways in the brain. This study investigated the potential of in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods as a noninvasive means to detect effects of tyrosine depletion on dopamine function. METHODS: Changes in blood-oxgenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast induced by administration of the dopamine-releasing agent, amphetamine (3 mg/kg i.v.), were measured in halothane-anaesthetised rats. RESULTS: Amphetamine evoked changes in BOLD signal intensity with the greatest effects observed in the nucleus accumbens (-7.7%), prefrontal cortex (-13.6%), and motor cortex (+12.5%). Pretreatment with a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture attenuated the response to amphetamine in some regions (nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex), but not others (motor cortex). Amphetamine itself had no effect in thalamus and hippocampus but, surprisingly, increased the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of amphetamine on cerebral blood flow and capillary perfusion. AU - Russo, Karen E.. AU - Hall, Wyatt. AU - Chi, Oak Z.. AU - Sinha, Arabinda K.. AU - Weiss, Harvey R.. PY - 1991/2/22. Y1 - 1991/2/22. N2 - The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebral regional microvascular and vascular responses to amphetamine sulfate at a dose (5 mg/kg) known to affect neuronal function. Cerebral blood flow (14C-iodoantipyrine method) and percent of perfused capillaries (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and alkaline phosphatase staining method) were determined during control and after intravenous administration of amphetamine in conscious Long-Evans rats. Amphetamine caused an increase in blood pressure (34%) and heart rate (31%). There was a significant increase in averaged cerebral blood flow from 98 ±8to 166±9 ml/min/100 g after amphetamine. This flow increase was significant in the cortex, basal ganglia, pons and medulla, however the increase was not significant in the ...
A sample of 985 self-admitted amphetamine users was compared with a sample of airmen who had no known record of drug abuse. Results of this study indicate that there is a very strong likelihood for amphetamine users to abuse other drugs. There are relationships between amphetamine use and geographic area of enlistment, religious preference, aptitude scores, educational level, and age at enlistment. Amphetamine use is also related to the likelihood of getting an undesirable discharge and to lower APR ratings. (Author)*Amphetamines
Background: Psychotic states related to psychostimulant misuse in patients with hepatitis C virus infection may complicate acceptance and reaction to antiviral treatment. This observation equally applies to widely used ribavirin therapy. Objective: We examined psychomotor and body weight gain response to low ribavirin doses after cessation of intermittent amphetamine treatment in adult rats to assess its role in neurobehavioral outcome during psychostimulant withdrawal. Method: The model of amphetamine-induced (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 7 consecutive days) motor sensitization and affected body weight gain was established in adult male Wistar rats. Then, additional cohort of amphetamine-sensitized rats was subjected to saline (0.9% NaCl; 1 mL/kg/day; i.p.) or ribavirin (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) treatment for 7 consecutive days. Animals motor activity in a novel environment was monitored after the 1st and the 7th saline/ribavirin injection. Body weight gain was calculated as appropriate. ...
You can also take Amphetamine Powder for mental health reasons. For some people with the disease, Amphetamine Powder may damage DNA or cause damage to other parts of the body. The first symptoms of Amphetamine Powder can be similar to people who have had traumatic brain injuries. People with a certain condition that causes a certain kind of disorder may also develop a reaction to Amphetamine Powder. The first symptoms of Amphetamine Powder can be seen in small, usually white or red blotches. People with a condition that causes a certain kind of disorder may also develop a reaction to Amphetamine Powder. The effect of Amphetamine Powder can be seen in certain ways.
amphetamine - MedHelps amphetamine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for amphetamine. Find amphetamine information, treatments for amphetamine and amphetamine symptoms.
amphetamine - MedHelps amphetamine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for amphetamine. Find amphetamine information, treatments for amphetamine and amphetamine symptoms.
Tags: Auto white balance or manual meatIn 500 words or less games, Ssbb files xml for mac , , Insyde bios editor ezh20 Eve 6. Eve 6 (sometimes typeset as EVE 6 or EVƎ 6) is an American rock band from Southern California, who are most well known for their hit singles Inside Out and Heres to the Night. They disbanded in , returned in with a new lineup, and finally reunited . Eve 6 - Amphetamines Lyrics. Amphetamines and jellybeans She was pretty in her teens Waiting for the month of come what may I smelled you on my shirt today Of course the. Lyrics to Amphetamines song by Eve 6: Amphetamines and jellybeans She was pretty in her teens Waiting for the month of come what May I sme. Eve 6 tabs, chords, guitar, bass, ukulele chords, power tabs and guitar pro tabs including inside out, heres to the night, how much longer, jesus nitelite, anytime. Amphetamines Eve 6. Album Horrorscope. Amphetamines Lyrics. Amphetamines and jellybeans She was pretty in her teens Waiting for the month of come what ...
This report describes a series of experiments, all of which demonstrate a strong contribution of the behavioral pattern manifested at the time of initial amphetamine injection to the topography and development of the stereotypy that develops with chronic amphetamine intoxication. These initial behavioral patterns reflect (i) learned behaviors, (ii) species-specific behaviors, (iii) behaviors associated with amphetamine arousal, and (iv) novel behaviors reflecting unique environmental circumstances prevailing at the time of administration. In an experiment using eight dogs administered amphetamine in a situation which allowed interaction between the animals, the behavioral stereotypies that developed were comprised of the social interaction patterns ongoing at the time of initial drug effects. Experiments with rats have demonstrated that the configuration of the enclosure in which they are injected influences the initial behavioral reactions to amphetamine and thus modifies the stereotypy. In experiments
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder that results in debilitating cognitive impairment in 40-65% of patients. There are no current treatments for this symptom of MS. This is a systematic review of literature on the impact amphetamines have on cognitive function of MS patients. Methods: An exhaustive search of available medical literature was conducted using MEDLINE-Ovid, MEDLINE-PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Keywords used included: amphetamines and multiple sclerosis. Relevant articles were assessed for quality using GRADE. Results: Three studies have statistically significant improvements in some aspects of cognitive function in patients on amphetamines when compared to placebo. However, a high rate of adverse events were noted with L-isomer or D-isomer amphetamines alone. Conclusion: Amphetamines positively impact cognitive function in MS patients. Mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR) seemingly have the lowest rate of adverse effects with the greatest
Rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced operant task to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from saline. After discrimination training stabilized, test doses of (+)-amphetamine (0.0625-2.0 mg/kg), (-)-nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or (-)-nornicotine (1-10 mg/kg) were assessed for their ability to substitute for the (+)-amphetamine training dose during brief test sessions in which food reinforcement was withheld. As expected, as the test dose of (+)-amphetamine increased, there was a dose-related increase in drug-appropriate responding, with both 1 and 2 mg/kg test doses substituting fully for the (+)-amphetamine training dose. Both (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine showed partial substitution (approximately 50% drug-appropriate responding) for the (+)-amphetamine training dose, with (-)-nicotine being more potent than (-)-nornicotine. Rate suppressant effects prevented the assessment of higher doses of (-)-nicotine or (-)-nornicotine. Thus, while (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine share ...
Long term consumption of Amphetamine and its derivatives increases the speed of weight loss by reducing appetite. However, the consumption is an extremely high risk that may lead to death. Users are advised to take extra precautions with slimming products available in the market. There are slimming products detected containing drugs in order to obtain visible weight loss. Counterfeit slimming products may produce effects as mention above especially heart attack/stroke.. Amphetamine Abuse. There are lots of reason to promote the abuse of Amphetamine. Some people take Amphetamine to improve performance in sport or work and to boost confidence. However, it is always abuse to be high and excited. Based on report by Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan (AADK), the number of Amphetamine and its derivatives addiction is the highest after heroin, morphine and ganja. Each year shows an increase in the number of seizures of the Amphetamine pills and its derivatives. In year 2012, 11,321,142 pills and its ...
Dont take Amphetamine Powder with meals, sleep pills or drugs. Use Amphetamine Powder in all situations. Have your friends or family know about Amphetamine Powder. You may be able to get relief from certain symptoms of a serious medical condition through taking Amphetamine Powder online in two ways. These two types of Amphetamine Powder online are not the same person, there are some differences between them. You need to buy Amphetamine Powder online.
People who use amphetamines could be at an increased risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Apart from their illegal use amphetamines such as Benzedrine and Dexedrine are often prescribed for people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, as weight-loss pills and are also used to treat traumatic brain injury. Researchers from the U.S. health organisation Kaiser Permanente studied 66,348 people who were initially studied between 1964 and 1973 and re-evaluated in 1995. 1,154 people had been diagnosed with Parkinsons by the end of the study. The participants were asked about their use of amphetamines - either as weight-loss pills or in the form of Benzedrine or Dexedrine. There was no increase in risk for the people who used amphetamines for weight loss but those who took Benzadrine or Dexedrine were nearly 60% more likely to develop Parkinsons. Amphetamines are known to affect the release and uptake of dopamine, the most important neurotransmitter involved in ...
PubMed journal article: Blockade of D1 dopamine receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex attenuates amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in the rat. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
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Heightened distractibility is a core symptom of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Effective treatment is normally with chronic orally administered psychostimulants including amphetamine. Treatment prevents worsening of symptoms but the site of therapeutic processes, and their nature, is unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that the superior colliculus (SC) is a key substrate in distractibility and a therapeutic target, so we assessed whether therapeutically-relevant changes are induced in this structure by chronic oral amphetamine. We hypothesized that amphetamine would alter visual responses and morphological measures. Six-week old healthy male rats were treated with oral amphetamine (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg) or a vehicle for one month after which local field potential and multiunit recordings were made from the superficial layers of the SC in response to whole-field light flashes in withdrawal. Rapid Golgi staining was also used to assess dendritic spines, and synaptophysin staining was ...
While you might imagine amphetamine addiction to be one of the issues you would see on television instead of affecting someone you are about in real life, it is an all too common problem among people of all ages. Amphetamines can be legitimately prescribed to people for certain issues like ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), but it can be also be abused. What Are Some Commonly Abused Amphetamines? There are several common amphetamine drugs that are quote commonly illicitly used. Adderall is a prescription amphetamine often used to treat patients with attention deficit or hyperactivity disorders. It can be prescribed in several different strengths, which makes the higher strength of 30mg pills much more valuable to people who abuse it often. Methamphetamine is a drug that is often prescribed under the name Desoxyn, but it is also one that is commonly created by folks who might gather up a lot of chemicals necessary to make it themselves, which can lead to dangerous and addictive ...
Buy Amphetamine powder onilne. is a potent stimulator of the central nervous system (brain and nerves of the spinal cord) and has a medicinal role in a number of diseases. It is also highly addictive and has a history of abuse.. Amphetamine Powder is medically used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, a disease characterized by bouts of intense, inappropriate sleepiness.1. Amphetamine Powder to a lesser content is also used in the treatment of depression and obesity.. In this article, we will look at amphetamines medical usage, its side effects and contraindications.. Amphetamines Powder are synthetic stimulants. Their current medical use is limited, with only Dexedrine (dexamphetamine sulphate) currently available for use in the treatment of narcolepsy - where the patient cannot help suddenly falling asleep. The only other amphetamine-related drug available for medical use is methylphenidate (Ritalin) for the treatment of attention deficit syndrome in ...
Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug, known to produce increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. Clinical uses of amphetamine include chronic administration for the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children [1]. It is also used as a drug of abuse [2]. Amphetamines are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized by deamination, oxidation and hydroxylation. Approximately 90% of the dose is excreted in the urine within 3-4 days [1]. An amphetamine overdose is rarely fatal but can lead to a number of different symptoms, including psychosis, chest pain and hypertension. Cardiovascular effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, chest pain, myocardial ischemia or infarction, dysrhythmias, cardiovascular collapse and death [2].. A typical postmortem toxicological analysis is identification of the drugs or chemicals presence in postmortem specimens [3]. Blood, urine, bile, liver and ...
Adderall XR is an extended release form of the amphetamine based drug Adderall, which is commonly used in the 21st century to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the rare sleeping disorder narcolepsy.. Adderall is a trade name for the drug, which is more commonly known as amphetamine mixed salts and has grown in popularity in recent years following its initial approval for use in the U.S. as an obesity treatment.. Amphetamine mixed salts were first created and approved for use in January 1960 under the brand name Obetrol; the mixture of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine salts is know to have a common side effect of weight loss leading to the drug being used in the first instance as an obesity treatment.. In the 21st century this is not a common use, but some physicians do still prescribe Adderall for those wishing to lose weight. Following the rise of the medical condition known as ADHD a form of amphetamine mixed salts was introduced specifically for treating the condition under ...
Gene-environment interactions play a significant role in drug abuse and addiction. Epigenetics (the study of how environmental stimuli alter gene expression) has gained attention in recent years as a significant contributor to many behavioral phenotypes of drug addiction. The current study sought to determine if differential rearing conditions can alter a specific epigenetic mechanism, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and how HDAC inhibition can affect drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors differently among enriched, isolated, or standard-housed rats. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared for 30 days in enriched (EC), isolated (IC), or standard (SC) conditions prior to amphetamine (0.03, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) self-administration, extinction, or reinstatement sessions. Trichostatin A (TsA; 0.3 mg/kg, i.v.), an HDAC inhibitor, was injected 30 min prior to drug-taking or drug-seeking sessions. Results indicated that EC rats self-administered less amphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) than ...
Cases Of Hallucination A teenager taking large amount of Amphetamines can suffer from a condition known as Amphetamine psychosis that causes auditory, visual, and tactile hallucinations. The teenager can also suffer from intense paranoia, irrational thoughts and beliefs, mental confusion, and delusions.. Mood Problems Regular intake of amphetamines can cause mood problems like depression, anxiety, dysphoria, aggression etc. Repeated use of amphetamines cause mood swings in teenagers and they exhibit insomnia, restlessness, and irritability. The intensity of the mood swings depend on the amount of amphetamine consumed by teenagers and physiological response to the drug.. Effects Of Marijuana: Marijuana is the most commonly abused drug among teenagers that has various short-term and long-term negative consequences on health.. Elevates Heart Rate And Decreases Blood Pressure Smoking Marijuana increases the heart rate and decreases blood pressure. The heart rate can increase by 20 to 50 beats per ...
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Overindulging is never a good thing. I am sure your Sim will snort like a responsible adult, but if that is not the case, here are some of the side effects that might occur.. Speed Freak. Sims who keeps on snorting a ton of amphetamine over a prolonged period of time will eventually get an Addicted to Amphetamine buff. This buff lasts for 5 days and is refreshed every time your Sim snorts more amphetamine. If your Sim is not under the influence while the buff is active, he or she might get a lot of negative debuffs until he or she snorts more amphetamine. Your Sim will also loose a lot of weight quite rapidly while addicted.. Overdosing. If your Sim snorts too much amphetamine in the same sitting he or she might experience a non-fatal or fatal OD. Fatal ODs are much less common than non-fatal ones. If your Sim has a non-fatal OD, the energy levels will plummet and he or she will eventually pass out. If your Sim experience a fatal OD, however… Well… Game over.. ...
Drug-dependent neural plasticity related to drug addiction and schizophrenia can be modeled in animals as behavioral sensitization, which is induced by repeated noncontingent or self-administration of many drugs of abuse. Molecular mechanisms that are critical for behavioral sensitization have yet to be specified. Long-term depression (LTD) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission in the brain has been proposed as a cellular substrate for learning and memory. The expression of LTD in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) required clathrin-dependent endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPARs. NAc LTD was blocked by a dynamin-derived peptide that inhibited clathrin-mediated endocytosis or by a GluR2-derived peptide that blocked regulated AMPAR endocytosis. Systemic or intra-NAc infusion of the membrane-permeable GluR2 peptide prevented the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in the rat. ...
Psychostimulant drugs addiction is a chronic public health problem and individuals remain susceptible to relapses increasing public expenses even after withdrawal and treatment. Our research group has focused on finding new therapies to be employed in drug addiction treatment, suggesting the physical exercise as a promising tool. This way, it is necessary to know the mechanisms involved in the beneficial influences of physical exercise observing the pathway that could be explored in drug addiction treatment. Male Wistar rats were conditioned with amphetamine (AMPH) following the conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol and subsequently submitted to swimming for 5 weeks (1 h per day, 5 days per week). Half of the animals were injected with Naloxone (0.3 mg/mL/kg body weight, i.p.) 5 min prior each physical exercise day. After AMPH-CPP re-exposure, our outcomes showed that physical exercise, in addition to minimizing the relapse behavior in the CPP, it increased D1R, D2R and DAT in the Ventral ...
d-Amphetamine is markedly more potent an inhibitor of catecholamine uptake by norepinephrine neurons in the brain than is 1-amphetamine, whereas the two isomers are equally active in inhibiting catecholamine uptake by the dopamine neurons of the corpus striatum. In behavioral studies, d-amphetamine is ten times as potent as 1-amphetamine in enhancing locomotor activity, while it is only twice as potent in eliciting a compulsive gnawing syndrome. This suggests that the locomotor stimulation induced by amphetamine involves central norepinephrine, while dopamine neurons play an important role in the induced compulsive gnawing behavior. Assessment of differential actions of d- and 1-amphetamine may be an efficient method to differentiate behaviors involving norepinephrine or dopamine in the brain. ...
Prevalence is defined as the number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time per 100,000 people. Amphetamine dependence is a substance-related disorder involving a dysfunctional pattern of amphetamine use. Included in the GBD disease modelling were cases meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria for amphetamine dependence (DSM: 304.40; ICD: F15.2), excluding those cases due to a general medical condition. According to DSM-IV TR criteria, dependence involves a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress.. ...
Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamines diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for ...
Even if you only use drugs occasionally, other factors such as dosage amount and length of time using can affect how long amphetamine withdrawal lasts.
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
TY - JOUR. T1 - Strain-dependent behavioural sensitization to amphetamine. T2 - Role of environmental influences. AU - Cabib, S.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Repeated daily pairings of 1 mg/kg of amphetamine and test environment induced a large, significant increase of locomotion in mice of the C57BL/6 strain, while a slight, non-significant increase was observed in mice of the DBA to amphetamine in the test cages when the drug was repeatedly administered in their home cage. Moreover, C57BL/6 but not DBA/2 mice showed conditioned hyperactivity. Subsequently six daily pairings of saline and test cage produced a slight, non-significant reduction of the hyperactive response shown by C57BL/6 mice, accompanied by a further increase in the behavioural effect of amphetamine. Finally, a similar, significant context-independent sensitization (unpaired vs control) was observed in mice of the two strains subjected to pairings of saline with the test cage; while context-dependent sensitization (paired vs ...
The instant invention is directed toward an immunoassay which can determine the presence of amphetamines in a sample suspected of containing amphetamine and/or methamphetamine by employing at least two conjugates, each comprised of a functionally similar label bound to an amphetamine analog and a methamphetamine analog respectively and an antibody to amphetamine and an antibody to methamphetamine wherein at least one of the antibodies is a monoclonal antibody.
The American Academy of Pediatrics doesnt even have guidelines for amphetamine prescription for children below 4 years old. However, it can be expected that at such a young age, children will quickly develop a dependence on these drugs, setting the state for addiction to other amphetamines later in life including methamphetamine.. That is exactly what happens to a lot of people who use amphetamines, methamphetamine. Just imagine how badly a human being would be messed up if they did amphetamines starting at age 2.. A recent survey found that 7.5% of children ages 6-17 are currently on prescription medications for some type of mental illness, ADHD medications make up 80% of them.. This has to stop. It seems in American society today, the gap between the consciousness levels of people is getting wider. In other words, it seems a certain part of our population is getting more and more aware, intelligent, conscious, and deliberate of their actions. At the same time, another part of our population ...
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A Laboratory historical past of Narcotics Vol 1 is a progressive booklet that covers the pharmaceutical training of amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives. This most up-to-date publication through Jared Ledgard has reached one other plateau of element, and excellence within the quarter of laboratory technological know-how. The e-book encompasses a large choice of pharmaceutical procedures, and is by means of a ways certainly one of Jareds maximum works. A Laboratory heritage of Narcotics, vol. 1 will propel you right into a digital labyrinth of psychedelic chemistry and stimulants. in the event you imagine you recognize anything approximately amphetamines and derivatives, your flawed. This ebook will open your eyes to the true international of amphetamines and spinoff medications. essential ebook for anyones reference assortment and past. The publication is a wonderful reference for researchers, scholars, fanatics, and simply undeniable individuals with a interest to know ...
81) See Interpreting seizures and other market data.. (82) The number of laboratories dismantled reported in different countries reflects, in addition to the number of production sites, law enforcement activities and priorities as well as reporting practices.. (83) This situation should be checked against 2004 data for the United Kingdom when available. Data on both number of amphetamine seizures and quantities of amphetamine seized in 2004 were not available for Ireland and the United Kingdom; data on quantities of amphetamine seized were not available for Slovenia in 2004; data on number of amphetamine seizures were not available for the Netherlands in 2004. For estimating purposes, 2004 missing data were replaced by 2003 data. Data on quantities seized in 2004 provided by the Netherlands were only estimates, which could not be included in the analysis of trends to 2004.. (84) See Table SZR-11 in the 2006 statistical bulletin.. (85) See Table SZR-12 in the 2006 statistical bulletin.. (86) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alterations in subcellular expression of acid-sensing ion channels in the rat forebrain following chronic amphetamine administration. AU - Suman, Ajay. AU - Mehta, Bhavi. AU - Guo, Ming Lei. AU - Chu, Xiang Ping. AU - Fibuch, Eugene E.. AU - Mao, Li Min. AU - Wang, John Q.. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are densely expressed in broad areas of mammalian brains and actively modulate synaptic transmission and a variety of neuronal activities. To explore whether ASICs are linked to addictive properties of drugs of abuse, we investigated the effect of the psychostimulant amphetamine on subcellular ASIC expression in the rat forebrain in vivo. Repeated administration of amphetamine (once daily for 7 days, 1.25. mg/kg for days 1/7, 4. mg/kg for days 2-6) induced typical behavioral sensitization. At a 14-day withdrawal period, ASIC1 protein levels were increased in the defined surface and intracellular compartments in the striatum (both caudate putamen ...
THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Adolescents appear to underreport their nonmedical amphetamine use, which may be in part due to lacking awareness that Adderall is an amphetamine, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.. Joseph J. Palamar, Ph.D., M.P.H., from New York University Langone Medical Center, and Austin Le, from New York University College of Dentistry, examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015). They analyzed prevalence and correlates of discordant responses among past-year Adderall users, defined as reporting past-year nonmedical Adderall use but not past-year nonmedical amphetamine use.. The researchers found that while 6.9 percent of respondents reported nonmedical Adderall use and 7.9 percent reported nonmedical amphetamine use, 28.7 percent of Adderall users reported no amphetamine use. ...
THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents appear to underreport their nonmedical amphetamine use, which may be in part due to lacking awareness that Adderall is an amphetamine, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.. Joseph J. Palamar, Ph.D., M.P.H., from New York University Langone Medical Center, and Austin Le, from New York University College of Dentistry, examined self-reported nonmedical Adderall and amphetamine use in a nationally representative sample of 24,740 high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future study (2010-2015). They analyzed prevalence and correlates of discordant responses among past-year Adderall users, defined as reporting past-year nonmedical Adderall use but not past-year nonmedical amphetamine use.. The researchers found that while 6.9 percent of respondents reported nonmedical Adderall use and 7.9 percent reported nonmedical amphetamine use, 28.7 percent of Adderall users reported no amphetamine ...
Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. They are used to induce a state of alert wakefulness and euphoria, and since they inhibit appetite, they also serve as diet pills. After World War II, they were widely prescribed by physicians as diet pills, but they are generally no longer recommended for weight loss programs since there are too many hazards in the prolonged use of amphetamines. Prolonged exposure may result in organ impairment, affecting particularly the kidneys. Amphetamines are addictive and may lead to compulsive behavior, hallucinations, paranoia, and suicidal actions. Their medical use has currently been narrowed to treating only two disorders. One is a condition known as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. When used to treat overactive children, amphetamines are carefully administered under controlled situations as part of a larger program. The other condition for which ...
Urine drug screens have limitations, including the generation of false-positive and false-negative results. False-negative results can occur if the amphetamine screening assay has low cross-reactivity for the ingested amphetamine. For example, some amphetamine immunoassays will not detect MDMA use. For this reason, specific MDMA immunoassays are now available.. False-positive results are common in amphetamine immunoassays. Many over-the-counter (OTC) cold and cough medications interfere with amphetamine/methamphetamine screening immunoassays in urine and can trigger positive results.. Active ingredients known to interfere include ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phentermine, and phenylephrine. In addition, the OTC drug ranitidine and the diet pill tyramine interfere with amphetamine/methamphetamine immunoassay and may trigger positive results. Finally, certain prescription drugs interfere with amphetamine/methamphetamine screening assays. These drugs include buflomedil, chloroquine, chlorpromazine, ...
Amphetamine is a CNSCentral Nervous System stimulant, producing mild euphoria and an abundance of energy. Amphetamines include both the specific chemical amphetamine and the general class of chemicals which share structural similaries. Amphetamines generally cause strong physical and mental stimulation, keeping users awake and alert for many hours, and some amphetamines cause mood lift / euphoria. Because they increase wakefulness, various amphetamines have been used by the military, by pilots, truck drivers, and other workers to keep functioning past their normal limits. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to the racemic free base, or equal parts of the enantiomers levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine in their pure amine forms. Nonetheless, the term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. ...
Amphetamine is a CNSCentral Nervous System stimulant, producing mild euphoria and an abundance of energy. Amphetamines include both the specific chemical amphetamine and the general class of chemicals which share structural similaries. Amphetamines generally cause strong physical and mental stimulation, keeping users awake and alert for many hours, and some amphetamines cause mood lift / euphoria. Because they increase wakefulness, various amphetamines have been used by the military, by pilots, truck drivers, and other workers to keep functioning past their normal limits. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to the racemic free base, or equal parts of the enantiomers levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine in their pure amine forms. Nonetheless, the term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. ...
An intracerebral dialysis method was used in the halothane-anaesthetized rat to further clarify the site which mediates the amphetamine-induced decrease of the striatal dopamine (DA) metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). Following subcutaneous injection of amphetamine (0.1-5.0 mg/kg), DOPAC and HVA in striatal perfusates decreased over the 2 h time course, with 0.5 mg/kg of the drug having maximal effect. In comparison, amphetamine (0.1-5.0 mg/kg) caused a strictly dose-dependent increase of DA in striatal perfusates. Following low (0.1-5.0 mg/kg) but not high (2.0-5.0 mg/kg) doses of amphetamine there was a negative correlation between the increase of DA and decrease of DOPAC in the striatum. Amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) caused a reduction in DA metabolism in the ibotenic acid-lesioned striatum. Intranigral injection of 10 micrograms, but not of 1 microgram amphetamine, decreased DOPAC (-27%) in the striatal perfusates. However, injection of 1 microgram amphetamine into
Amphetamine encompasses various drugs, but you will find methamphetamine is more commonly researched, talked about, and prevalent. Amphetamine is the parent drug of a family of psychostimulants, which speed up the messages going to and from the brain. Some street names for amphetamines include uppers, bennies, black beauties, and diet pills. Amphetamines usually come in powder, pills or tablets. Prescription diet pills also fall into this category of drugs. Amphetamines can be snorted, swallowed, injected, dissolved in a drink, or smoked. A common form of the drug is amphetamine sulphate, more often known as speed.. Another member of this family is methamphetamine, a more potent and more abused version of the drug. Common street names for methamphetamine are meth, speed, crank, and go. A form of methamphetamine is crystalline methamphetamine (ice or crystal meth). Because crystal meth is inexpensive to make and highly addictive, it has become a seriously dangerous drug in ...
Amphetamine encompasses various drugs, but you will find methamphetamine is more commonly researched, talked about, and prevalent. Amphetamine is the parent drug of a family of psychostimulants, which speed up the messages going to and from the brain. Some street names for amphetamines include uppers, bennies, black beauties, and diet pills. Amphetamines usually come in powder, pills or tablets. Prescription diet pills also fall into this category of drugs. Amphetamines can be snorted, swallowed, injected, dissolved in a drink, or smoked. A common form of the drug is amphetamine sulphate, more often known as speed.. Another member of this family is methamphetamine, a more potent and more abused version of the drug. Common street names for methamphetamine are meth, speed, crank, and go. A form of methamphetamine is crystalline methamphetamine (ice or crystal meth). Because crystal meth is inexpensive to make and highly addictive, it has become a seriously dangerous drug in ...
Metabolism and Excretion Amphetamine is reported to be oxidized at the 4 position of the benzene ring to form 4-hydroxy-amphetamine, or on the side chain α or β carbons to form alpha-hydroxy-amphetamine or norephedrine, respectively. Norephedrine and 4-hydroxy-amphetamine are both active and each is subsequently oxidized to form 4-hydroxy-norephedrine. Alpha-hydroxy-amphetamine undergoes deamination to form phenylacetone, which ultimately forms benzoic acid and its glucuronide and the glycine conjugate hippuric acid. Although the enzymes involved in amphetamine metabolism have not been clearly defined, CYP2D6 is known to be involved with formation of 4-hydroxy-amphetamine. Since CYP2D6 is genetically polymorphic, population variations in amphetamine metabolism are a possibility.. Amphetamine is known to inhibit monoamine oxidase, whereas the ability of amphetamine and its metabolites to inhibit various P450 isozymes and other enzymes has not been adequately elucidated. In vitro experiments ...
Amphetamine is reported to be oxidized at the 4 position of the benzene ring to form 4-hydroxyamphetamine, or on the side chain α or β carbons to form alpha-hydroxy-amphetamine or norephedrine, respectively. Norephedrine and 4-hydroxy-amphetamine are both active and each is subsequently oxidized to form 4-hydroxy-norephedrine. Alpha-hydroxy-amphetamine undergoes deamination to form phenylacetone, which ultimately forms benzoic acid and its glucuronide and the glycine conjugate hippuric acid. Although the enzymes involved in amphetamine metabolism have not been clearly defined, CYP2D6 is known to be involved with formation of 4-hydroxy-amphetamine. Since CYP2D6 is genetically polymorphic, population variations in amphetamine metabolism are a possibility.. Amphetamine is known to inhibit monoamine oxidase, whereas the ability of amphetamine and its metabolites to inhibit various P450 isozymes and other enzymes has not been adequately elucidated. In vitro experiments with human microsomes ...
DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SACCHARATE, AMPHETAMINE ASPARTATE, DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATE AND AMPHETAMINE SULFATE, INDICATIONS AND USAGE Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets (Mixed Salts of a Single Entity Amphetamine Product) are indicated
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Looking for online definition of amphetamines in the Medical Dictionary? amphetamines explanation free. What is amphetamines? Meaning of amphetamines medical term. What does amphetamines mean?
Learn the behavioral, physical and psychological signs and symptoms of amphetamine abuse now. Amphetamine abuse symptoms - Amphetamines are stimulants that may be prescribed by a doctor to treat several conditions including: Narcolepsy.
Amphetamines are classified as a stimulant. They work by increasing levels of norepinepherine, serotonin, and dopamine in the brain. Amphetamines are present in ADD medications. It was originally designed as a weight loss drug. It is also commonly used in colleges and high schools as studying and test taking aids. The physical effects of amphetamines are include reduced appetite, increased/distorted sensations, hyperactivity, dilated pupils, flushing, restlessness, dry mouth, erectile dysfunction, headache, tachycardia, increased breathing rate, increased blood pressure, fever, sweating, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, impaired speech, dizziness, uncontrollable movements or shaking, insomnia, numbness, palpitations, and arrhythmia. The psychological effects are anxiety and/or general nervousness euphoria, metacognition, creative or philosophical thinking, perception of increased energy, increased sense of well being, increase of goal-orientated thoughts or organized behavior, repetitive ...
DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SACCHARATE, AMPHETAMINE ASPARTATE MONOHYDRATE, DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATE, AMPHETAMINE SULFATE, 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release, a CNS stimulant, is indicated for the treatmen
Pharmacology refers to the chemical makeup and behavior of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SACCHARATE, AMPHETAMINE ASPARTATE (MONOHYDRATE), DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATE, AMPHETAMINE SULFATE (dextroamphetamine, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, amphetamine tablet).
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Amphetamines are drugs that stimulate the nervous system. They may be used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleeping disorder), and other conditions. Amphetamines produce increased alertness and a feeling of euphoria. Common amphetamine medicines include dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and methamphetamine (Desoxyn). Amphetamines can be misused and are sometimes sold illegally with names such as speed, ice, meth, and lid poppers. ...
There have been previous studies on this which have shown somewhat mixed results and findings. Some participants have said that their amphetamine use led to a more positive sexual experience, including more sexual desire, and spontaneous erections. However, some people reported negative effects of amphetamines, such as reduced libidos and having a harder time reaching orgasms. The researchers said that there could be a correlation between amphetamine use and the possible psychosocial factors that are experienced by the user. People who use illicit drugs often times have psychcosocial problems, and the drug-use related psychosocial issues could be an explanation for the sexual problems that the user experiences. Social and environmental cues, such as drug use settings can also be factors that affect the sexual response of the user.. While women too can experience some symptoms such as having a harder time reaching orgasm if they are using amphetamines, the largest group impacted by the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistent reversal of enhanced amphetamine intake by transient CaMKII inhibition. AU - Loweth, Jessica A.. AU - Li, Dongdong. AU - Cortright, James J.. AU - Wilke, Georgia. AU - Jeyifous, Okunola. AU - Neve, Rachael L.. AU - Bayer, K. Ulrich. AU - Vezina, Paul. PY - 2013/1/23. Y1 - 2013/1/23. N2 - Amphetamine exposure transiently increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) α expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and this persistently increases local GluA1 S831 phosphorylation and enhances behavioral responding to the drug. Here we assessed whether transiently interfering with CaMKII signaling using a dominant-negative CaMKIIα mutant delivered to the NAcc shell with herpes simplex viral vectors could reverse these long-lasting biochemical and behavioral effects observed following exposure to amphetamine. As expected, transient expression of CaMKIIα K42M in the NAcc shell produced a corresponding transient increase in CaMKIIα and decrease in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upregulation of Npas4 protein expression by chronic administration of amphetamine in rat nucleus accumbens in vivo. AU - Guo, Ming Lei. AU - Xue, Bing. AU - Jin, Dao Zhong. AU - Liu, Zhen Guo. AU - Fibuch, Eugene E.. AU - Mao, Li Min. AU - Wang, John Q.. PY - 2012/10/24. Y1 - 2012/10/24. N2 - The neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) is a transcription factor that is almost exclusively expressed in the mammalian brain. As an activity-dependent transcription factor, Npas4 regulates the transcription of discrete genes and transcriptionally controls the experience-dependent learning and memory. In this study, we explored the impact of the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) on Npas4 protein expression in the rat striatum. We found that acute systemic injection of AMPH had a minimal effect on protein levels of Npas4 in the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), while AMPH readily increased protein products of the immediate early gene c-Fos in these regions. In contrast, ...
The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine is used as part of a total treatment program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It works in the brain to decrease the hyperactivity of patients with this disorder.. Amphetamine-dextroamphetamine is a stimulant and appetite suppressant. It stimulates the central nervous system (nerves and brain) by increasing the amount of certain chemicals in the body. This increases heart rate and blood pressure and decreases appetite, among other effects. The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice daily with or without food.. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take dextroamphetamine and amphetamine exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.. Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine can be habit-forming. Do ...
You searched for: Product Keywords amphetamine sulfate tablets Remove constraint Product Keywords: amphetamine sulfate tablets Collections Drugs and Devices, 1940-1963 Remove constraint Collections: Drugs and Devices, 1940-1963 Titles 3948. Misbranding of amphetamine sulfate tablets. U. S. v. Hy-Gold Drug Co., Inc., and Boris Golden. Pleas of nolo contendere. Fine of $200 against corporation and $100 against individual. Remove constraint Titles: 3948. Misbranding of amphetamine sulfate tablets. U. S. v. Hy-Gold Drug Co., Inc., and Boris Golden. Pleas of nolo contendere. Fine of $200 against corporation and $100 against individual. ...
Marmosets were trained on a task involving simultaneous and successive visual discrimination performance where responses were required on all trials. Performance of this task was not affected by low doses of amphetamine. From this it is concluded that amphetamine does not cause a narrowing of attention and that the disruptive effect of amphetamine on the go-no go successive discrimination task already reported is due to a loss of response inhibition rather than to difficulties in the recognition of stimuli presented without a comparison stimulus.. ...
Using Microgenics unique technology, cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA), the multiplex assay (CEDIA Amphetamines/Ecstasy) has been developed for the detection of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy drugs at cutoff level either of 500 ng/mL or 1000 ng/mL applicable for either qualitative screening or semiquantitative measurement. The multiplex assay detects the total concentration of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy drugs in urine samples. In addition, the assay detects metabolites of parent drugs and structurally related drugs including d,l-amphetamine (67.2%), d,l-methamphetamine (58.4%), MDA (113%), MDMA (199%), MDEA (207%), MBDB (123%), BDB (72%), PMA (24%), and PMMA (100%). The assay is highly specific and exhibits minimal cross-reactivity with the undesirable, structurally related over-the-counter amphetaminelike drugs. Imprecision results (n = 120) demonstrate an intra-assay , 6.3% CV and an interassay , 9.2% CV as performed by a modified NCCLS protocol. Using the ...
The pharmacology of novel psychoactive substances is mostly unknown. We evaluated the transporter and receptor interaction profiles of a series of para-(4)-substituted amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones. We tested the potency of these compounds to inhibit the norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) transporters (NET, DAT, and SERT, respectively) using human embryonic kidney 293 cells that express the respective human transporters. We also tested the substance-induced efflux of NE, DA, and 5-HT from monoamine-loaded cells, binding affinities to monoamine receptors, and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Para-(4)-substituted amphetamines, including 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 4-ethylmethcathinone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 4-fluoromethamphetamine, 4-fluoromethcatinone (flephedrone), and 4-bromomethcathinone, were relatively more serotonergic (lower DAT:SERT ratio) compared with their analogs amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone. The 4-methyl, 4-ethyl, and 4-bromo ...
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Adderall (Dextroamphetamine / Amphetamine / Dextroamphetamine / Amphetamine) - Drug Info, User Reviews, Side Effects, Research, Clinical Trials
Adderall XR (Dextroamphetamine / Amphetamine / Dextroamphetamine / Amphetamine) - Drug Info, User Reviews, Side Effects, Research, Clinical Trials
Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate, Amphetamine Sulfate official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
An international scheme to produce and distribute amphetamine was stopped by a joined intervention of Swedish and Czech police, leading to a shutdown of the largest drug laboratory ever found in this part of the world. The lab was located in the Bohemia region and it allegedly served entire Sweden over the period of the last five years, with the total produced in this timeframe estimated at 3.5 tons and a capacity to churn out multi-kilo quantities in a single cycle. Seven people were arrested in relation to the case - four in the Czech Republic and another 3 in Sweden. 700 liters of chemicals used for amphetamine synthesis was discovered at the site, along with 600 liters of waste, while cash, cars and other assets likely acquired through drug trade were confiscated... A Swedish man well-known to the police for his drug activity in the past was supposedly financing the ring, while others arranged for production and transportation of amphetamine into Sweden, where it was predominantly sold. ...
National Drug Codes Number: 68084-887-32. Drug Trade Name: Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate
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and a methyl group adjacent to the phenyl. A large number of chemicals fall into this category, including the club drug MDMA (Ecstasy) and methamphetamine. It is because of the close association with methamphetamine that amphetamine is mistakenly thought of as speed. It is important to note that such an amphetamine class does not technically exist. Phamacodynamically, these drugs all fall under the umbrella of central nervous system stimulants; chemically, they are phenylethylamines. Amphetamine, for example, is methylated phenylethylamine, and methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.. Amphetamine traditionally comes in the salt-form amphetamine sulphate and is comprised of 50% l- and 50% d-amphetamine (where l- and d- refer to levo and dextro, the two optical orientations the amphetamine structure can have). In the United States, pharmaceutical products containing solely amphetamine (for example, Biphetamine) are no longer manufactured. Today, dextroamphetamine (d-amphetamine) ...
Animals and drug treatment protocol. All experimental procedures were performed in accordance with the United States Public Health Service publication Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Pittsburgh. A total of 144 male Sprague Dawley rats, consisting of 72 vehicle-treated control rats and 72 rats treated with amphetamine, were used in this study. The control rats were treated with 0.9% saline and were subjected to treatment withdrawal in parallel with each group of the amphetamine-treated rats. One set of rats (n = 42) weighing 150-175 gm at the start of treatment were given daily injections of amphetamine (1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) in their home cages for 2-4 weeks. This dosing protocol has been reported to elicit sensitization with respect to stimulant-evoked locomotor behavior in rats (Robinson and Becker, 1986; Kalivas and Duffy, 1990; Wolf et al., 1994; 1995). A second set of rats (n = 30) were ...
Amphetamines are a class of central nervous system stimulants with a similar chemical structure, including amphetamine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ephedrine, and others. Generally, these drugs generate emotional, cognitive, and physical effects, such as increased energy and focus and decreased appetite. They may be prescribed legally for the treatment of ADHD, narcolepsy, or other conditions; they are also used illegally to improve performance, lose weight, or to generate a
Although methamphetamine (MA) and other amphetamines can have similar effects, differences also exist. For example, MA has longer lasting and more toxic effects than amphetamine.[1] This is largely because the N-methyl group that differentiates MA from amphetamine decreases the polarity of the molecule, enabling it to better penetrate the blood brain barrier.[2]. In addition, compared with amphetamine, MA has greater activity as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant while having less peripheral nervous system and cardiovascular stimulation activity. Another difference between amphetamine and MA is that amphetamine stimulates the CNS indirectly by activating the release of catecholamines and inhibiting their breakdown and storage. In contrast, MA stimulates the postsynaptic catecholamine receptors directly.[2] ...
1. These experiments examined the effects of a high NaCl diet on (Na+, K+)-ATPase in kidney, heart and cerebral cortex, on the level of circulating inhibitor of (Na+, K+)-ATPase in plasma, and on stimulation of (Na+, K+)-ATPase by treatment with dextro (d)-amphetamine.. 2. High salt diet increased indices of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity (K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity and ouabain binding) in kidney medulla, prevented stimulation by amphetamine in cerebral cortex and reduced amphetamine stimulation in heart.. 3. High NaCl feeding increased the plasma level of circulating inhibitor of (Na+, K+)-ATPase.. 4. Amphetamine alone had no effect on inhibitor level but amphetamine administration reduced the increase in inhibitor with high NaCl feeding.. ...
|Amphetamine use is increasing, according to a report released by the Australian Institute of Criminology that is based on data from interviews of police detainees in four sites within Australia (Bankstown NSW, East Perth WA, Parramatta NSW and Southport Qld
They said their new study adds to evidence about the need to tackle the global stimulant epidemic.. The investigators were led by Stuart Reece, a clinical associate professor at the University of Western Australia. They assessed arterial stiffening in more than 700 Australians in their 30s and 40s. Arteries tend to harden with age.. Those participants who used illegal amphetamines showed greater aging of the arteries than others, including those who smoked tobacco or used the heroin substitute methadone, the study reported.. The link between illegal amphetamine use and greater aging of the arteries was seen in men and women. It was also independent of other risk factors for heart disease and stroke, Reece and his colleagues said.. ...
Amphetamine salt/powder: Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy.
... (DOEF), also known as dimethoxyfluoroethylamphetamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(2-fluoroethyl)amphetamine&oldid=903372537" ...
However, amphetamines are on the official banned substances list; and can/do help swimming performance. CAS ruled on Mellouli's ... Mellouli has since admitted that he took the ADD medication Adderall, a stimulant and a form of amphetamine. (Already in June ... amphetamine... and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). (p. 7) This passage ...
Since amphetamines are a stimulant, use of these drugs result in a state that resembles the manic phase of bipolar disorder and ... Amphetamines are used as a stimulant to trigger the central nervous system, increasing heart rate and blood pressure while ... "Amphetamine". drugs.com. Cerner Multum. April 12, 2009. Archived from the original on November 11, 2014. Retrieved November 11 ... Racing thoughts are also associated with sleep deprivation, hyperthyroidism and the use of amphetamines. Racing thoughts may be ...
Amphetamine is similar in structure to dopamine and trace amines; as a consequence, it can enter the presynaptic neuron via DAT ... In addition, amphetamine and trace amines are substrates for the neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter, vesicular monoamine ... "Amphetamine". DrugBank. University of Alberta. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013. Eiden LE, Weihe E (January 2011). " ... Studies have shown that, in certain brain regions, amphetamine and trace amines increase the concentrations of dopamine in the ...
In Thailand, amphetamines are classified as Type 1 Narcotics. In the United Kingdom, amphetamines are regarded as Class B drugs ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... In South Korea, amphetamines are prohibited. In Taiwan, amphetamines including Adderall are Schedule 2 drugs with a minimum ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ...
His first film, Amphetamine, featured a shock cut to two young men passionately embracing as the camera swooped around them in ... Amphetamine (1966) Where Did Our Love Go? (1966) Hall of Mirrors (1966) The Bad and the Beautiful (1967) Truth Serum (1967) ... "Films: 'Amphetamine'". "Future for the Past: A Tribute to Warren Sonbert & the Estate Project." San Francisco International ...
... amphetamine, (+)-amphetamine, and D-amphetamine. Enantiomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another; they are ... ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ... The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable. If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may ...
The initial lineup of Selberg, Porfiris, Westberg, and J Bryan Bowden recorded the first single on Amphetamine Reptile records ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "AR073: The Heroine Sheiks". Amphetamine Reptile ... Amphetamine Reptile) "Heroine Sheiks" - (1999, Reptilian) "Best Enemies/Oucha" - (2002, Rubric) Live at The Ottobar - (2005, ...
Amphetamine Sulphate. ISBN 978-0-9991825-3-6. "American Campgrounds: Philip Best / Peter Sotos". Archived from the original on ... In 2016, a 60-page chapbook of writings by Best was published by Amphetamine Sulphate. In 2010, a collection of Best's artwork ...
The reference to Baby's penchant for "fog ... amphetamine and ... pearls" suggests Sedgwick or a similar debutante, according ...
"Amphetamine analogs. II. Methylated phenethylamines". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (1): 134-5. doi:10.1021/jm00295a034. ...
Mog Stunt Team Credits (liner notes). Amphetamine Reptile. AmRep061. Retrieved November 13, 2020. Graff, Gary (April 26, 2018 ... The band was signed to the prominent underground label Amphetamine Reptile Records. Dombroski, the Cross brothers, and Mazzola ...
"Baby Amphetamine". Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
Richards JR, Albertson TE, Derlet RW, Lange RA, Olson KR, Horowitz BZ (May 2015). "Treatment of toxicity from amphetamines, ... Handly, Neal (December 16, 2016). "Toxicity, Amphetamine". Medscape. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Wyeth ...
Chase and Amphetamine. Price was the joint lead, with Byron Pang, in the film Amphetamine. He played the character of Daniel. ... Marsh, James (2010-04-07). "HKIFF 2010: Amphetamine Review". Twitch.com. Retrieved 2010-04-08. Thomas Price at IMDb. ... Lee, Maggie (2010-03-22). "Amphetamine - Film Review". Hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved 2010-04-08. ...
Ross, S. B.; Ögren, S. O.; Renyi, A. L. (2009). "Substituted Amphetamine Derivatives. I. Effect on Uptake and Release of ... Ögren, S. O.; Ross, S. B. (2009). "Substituted Amphetamine Derivatives. II. Behavioural Effects in Mice Related to ... para-Chloroamphetamine (PCA), also known as 4-chloroamphetamine (4-CA), is a substituted amphetamine and monoamine releaser ... Substituted amphetamines para-Chloromethamphetamine (4-CMA) Chlorphentermine 3,4-Dichloroamphetamine (DCA) 4-Fluoroamphetamine ...
... also amphetamines, cathinones, phentermines, etc.): 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine (2-OH-PEA) • 4-Chlorophenylisobutylamine (4-CAB) • ... Amphetamine (dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine) • Amphetaminil • β-Methylphenethylamine (β-Me-PEA) • Benzodioxolylbutanamine ( ...
Amphetamines (class)[edit]. Main article: Substituted amphetamines. Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based ... Amphetamine[edit]. Main article: Amphetamine. Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ... For example, (S)-amphetamine, commonly known as d-amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, displays five times greater psychostimulant ...
Amphetamines (class)[edit]. Main article: Substituted amphetamines. Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based ... Amphetamine[edit]. Main article: Amphetamine. Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the ... "Amphetamines and prescription stimulants" (with "amphetamines" including amphetamine and methamphetamine) the value was 0.7%, ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ...
... including trace amounts of four amphetamines previously known only from laboratory synthesis: amphetamine, methamphetamine, ... "Acacias and Natural Amphetamine". Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. 2001-09-26. Archived from the ...
Adderall is an amphetamine. An initial court hearing for a restraining order that would have allowed Mayfield to compete at ... indicate that the test was positive for amphetamines. Despite releasing this information, NASCAR has still not published a ...
Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term ... Graybiel AM, Moratalla R, Robertson HA (September 1990). "Amphetamine and cocaine induce drug-specific activation of the c-fos ... Kanehisa Laboratories (10 October 2014). "Amphetamine - Homo sapiens (human)". KEGG Pathway. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Most ... Amphetamine achieves this elevation in extracellular levels of DA by promoting efflux from synaptic terminals. ... ...
Verweij AM (1991). "[Contamination of illegal amphetamine. Hydrastatinine as a contaminant in 3,4-(methylenedioxy) ...
However, zinc supplementation may reduce the minimum effective dose of amphetamine when it is used with amphetamine for the ... amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to ... More common (about 18%) is for frequent amphetamine users to report psychotic symptoms that are sub-clinical and that do not ... A 2018 review found the greatest short-term benefit with methylphenidate in children and amphetamines in adults. The long-term ...
Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term ... AP-1 (transcription factor) In simplest terms, this means that when either amphetamine or sex is perceived as "more alluring or ... ROLE OF ΔFOSB IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS KEGG Pathway - human alcohol addiction KEGG Pathway - human amphetamine addiction KEGG ... McCowan TJ, Dhasarathy A, Carvelli L (February 2015). "The Epigenetic Mechanisms of Amphetamine". J. Addict. Prev. 2015 (Suppl ...
doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00240-9. "Acacias and Natural Amphetamine". Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Center for Cognitive Liberty & ... Other notable compounds reported were N,N-dimethyltryptamine, mescaline, amphetamine, methamphetamine and nicotine, although ... an amphetamine isomer. Consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 94 mg of BMPEA per day ... of several amphetamines that had previously been found by the same research group in the related species Senegalia berlandieri ...
Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term ... Evidence for epigenetic changes stemming from amphetamine and cocaine abuse derives from animal studies. In animals, drug- ... Epigenetic modifications have been observed in studies on rodents involving ethanol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, ... Kanehisa Laboratories (10 October 2014). "Amphetamine - Homo sapiens (human)". KEGG Pathway. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Most ...
It is an effect of dissociatives and psychedelics, as well as a possible side effect of caffeine, alcohol, amphetamine, ... Djenderedjian, A.; R. Tashjian (1982). "Agoraphobia following amphetamine withdrawal". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 43 ( ...
Comparison with dL-amphetamine". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 24 (12): 2025-9. PMID 4480283. Carroll, F. I.; Muresan, A. Z.; Blough ... l-amphetamine, phenmetrazine and pemoline-Mg". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 23 (6): 810-6. PMID 4740767. Fanelli O, Mazzoncini V, ...
ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Extended-release ... Five different amphetamine-based pharmaceuticals are currently used in ADHD treatment: racemic amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ... Unlike amphetamine, the difference in pharmacological properties between d-MPH and l-MPH is significant, as l-MPH is markedly ...
Amphetamine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking amphetamine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amphetamine, other stimulant medications ... If you or your child are taking amphetamine for ADHD, your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of amphetamine and ... Alcohol can make the side effects from amphetamine worse.. *you should know that amphetamine should be used as part of a total ...
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Amphetamine. Download Amphetamine for macOS 10.8 ... Amphetamine is 100% free (no ads, no in-app purchases).. After you launch Amphetamine, you must activate it by clicking on its ... Amphetamine is a little app that lives in your menu bar. With Amphetamine, you can effortlessly override your energy saver ... If you have previously written a review of Amphetamine, please consider updating it.. If youre brand new to Amphetamine and ...
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... are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... What Are Amphetamines?. Amphetamines are stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pill, tablet, ... When amphetamines get into the body, they go to work on the central nervous system. Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called ... Avoiding Amphetamines. Unless amphetamines are in powder form, they can look like any other pill. Because people rarely call ...
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amphetamine psychosis. So Much For the Afterglow. Amphetamine addiction as a cure for ADHD. crystal meth. Thrown random words ... Amphetamine-induced psychosis often mimics schizophrenia, with paranoia and hallucinations. In the United States, amphetamines ... In the Vietnam War, amphetamines were widely used by American forces. Use of amphetamine has been sanctioned by some components ... The class "amphetamines" is used to describe amphetamine and any of its derivatives. ...
What to do if a friend Overdoses: You can't fatally Overdose on Amphetamines, it is possible if you inject it though, if ... Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various other slang names that ... Amphetamineunknown. Amphetamines AKA Speed: Street Names: Fet, Powder, White, Whizz, Fettle, Throttle and Base (and various ... Amphetamineunknown. First developed and marketed in the 1930's as Benzedrine to fight narcolepsy, Amphetamines are now ...
... amphetamine-like compound in dietary supplements - yet federal regulators have issued no warnings to consumers ... Nine diet supplements contain amphetamine-like compound. Alison Young , USA TODAY Published 2:42 p.m. ET Nov. 18, 2013 ... For the second time in recent weeks, scientists have found a "non-natural" amphetamine-like compound in dietary supplements - ... Nine diet supplements contain amphetamine-like compound. For the second time in recent weeks, scientists report finding "non- ...
Amphetamine in the Tropics. Br Med J 1960; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5212.1601 (Published 26 November 1960) Cite ...
Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking dextroamphetamine and amphetamine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amphetamine, ... Store dextroamphetamine and amphetamine in a safe place so that no one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track ... Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go ...
Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. Usually last 4-6 hours for 25 mg and usually needs to take 2 pills ... amphetamine saltsunknown. Used to treat ADHD as well as narcolepsy which is the act of falling asleep while in a relaxed state ... Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. Usually last 4-6 hours for 25 mg and usually needs to take 2 pills ... I just popped 200mg of amphetamine salts and I want to fly out of a 20 story window and fly while ready a boring physics book. ...
Information about Amphetamines (speed) including basics, effects, dosage, history, legal status, photos, research, media ... The Speed Culture: Amphetamine Use and Abuse in America (book, 1975). Do It Now Amphetamine Publications : (101) (165) (515) ( ... Amphetamine: A European Union perspective in the global context, EMCDDA (2011). The Transition to Amphetamine Abuse, by Stephen ... World-wide Amphetamine Abuse: A Particular Concern for WHO, 1996. Speeding Toward Death: Neal Cassady, Charlie Parker, and ...
Definition Amphetamines are a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system [1]. Some of the brand names of ... amphetamines sold in the United States [2] are Dexedrine, Biphetamine, Das, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Spancap No 1, ... Amphetamines World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a family of chemical ... Amphetamines. Amphetamines are a group of nervous system stimulants that includes amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and ...
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JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
... including amphetamine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ephedrine, and others. Generally, these drugs generate emotional, ... Amphetamines are a class of central nervous system stimulants with a similar chemical structure, ... Amphetamines are a class of central nervous system stimulants with a similar chemical structure, including amphetamine, ... Amphetamine users may also use other drugs inappropriately to manage the side effects of amphetamines. Benzodiazepines, for ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. Evekeo is sometimes used to treat obesity in people ... Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... What is the most important information I should know about amphetamine?. Amphetamine may be habit-forming. Tell your doctor if ... What is amphetamine?. Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ...
Explains the medication amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Adderall XR), two drugs used in combination to treat ... amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. *What is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? ... Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for amphetamine and ... Is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for amphetamine and ...
DRUGS: Facts About Amphetamines (1998) DRUGS: Facts About Amphetamines, The Bangkok Post Dec 6.. ... Police Seize 78 Kg Of Amphetamines (1997) Police Seize 78 Kg Of Amphetamines, China News (Taipei) Dec 24 ... There is a definite link in this part of Asia between amphetamine use and economic development. We have watched amphetamines ... three Taiwanese were arrested for attempting to import 78 kilos of amphetamines from China ( Police seize 78 kg of amphetamines ...
Technical briefs on amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎ ... Systematic review of treatment for amphetamine-related disorders  World Health Organization. Management of Substance ... Workshop on Problems Relating to the Use of Amphetamine-type Stimulants (‎ATS)‎ in the Western Pacific Region, Manila, ... The four Technical Briefs on Amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎ were produced by the World Health Organization Regional Office ...
Detailed drug Information for amphetamine. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing ... Chemical Class: Amphetamine (class). Uses for amphetamine. Amphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy (sleep disorder). It is also ... Proper use of amphetamine. Take amphetamine exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more ... Detailed Amphetamine dosage information. Precautions while using amphetamine. It is very important that your doctor check your ...
Captagon: The amphetamine fueling Syrias war. Combatants on both sides turn to stimulant to help them keep fighting. By WND ... an amphetamine widely consumed in the Middle East but almost unknown elsewhere - generated revenues of millions of dollars ...
Synthetic amphetamine compounds commonly are produced in clandestine laboratories and vary in purity and potency. ... Amphetamines are a class of compounds increasingly abused in regions of the world such as the western United States, ... 17] Data from rural populations reveal that whites use amphetamines significantly more than blacks . [18] However, amphetamine ... Educate patients on the toxic effects of amphetamines and that amphetamines are not a safe alternative to cocaine use. For ...
529 medications are known to interact with amphetamine/dextroamphetamine. Includes Abilify (aripiprazole), Abilify ( ... amphetamine / dextroamphetamine alcohol/food Interactions. There are 6 alcohol/food interactions with amphetamine / ... amphetamine / dextroamphetamine disease Interactions. There are 13 disease interactions with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine ... A total of 529 drugs (3907 brand and generic names) are known to interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine. ...
Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up brain and body functions. Find out how these drugs can affect you in this article for ... Amphetamines are swallowed, smoked, snorted, or injected.. What It Does:. No matter how a person takes amphetamines, these ... Amphetamines are very addictive stimulants. They speed up functions in the brain and body. They come in pills or tablets. ... Even after users stop taking amphetamines, they may still have problems such as aggression, anxiety, and strong cravings for ...
Amphetamines are powerful psychostimulants that are commonly used to treat ADHD, narcolepsy or obesity, but they can be highly ... How amphetamines work. Amphetamines are used in treatments for ADD and ADHD, obesity, narcolepsy, and Parkinsons disease, ... Amphetamine side effects. When taken properly, amphetamine-based medications can be safe and effective. But as with any ... Amphetamines, particularly methamphetamine, can be highly addictive.. Amphetamine can cause the brain to produce such high ...
The term "amphetamines" also refers to a chemical class, but, unlike the class of substituted amphetamines, the "amphetamines" ... ADZENYS XR-ODT (amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet) contains a 3 to 1 ratio of d- to l-amphetamine, a ... Following amphetamine uptake at VMAT2, amphetamine induces the collapse of the vesicular pH gradient, which results in the ... DYANAVEL XR contains d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2 to 1 ... The most common (≥2% in the DYANAVEL XR group ...
Amphetamine sulfate tablets can be taken with or without food.. • From time to time, your doctor may stop amphetamine sulfate ... Store amphetamine sulfate tablets at room temperature between 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).. • Keep amphetamine sulfate tablets ... Do not use amphetamine sulfate tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed.Do not give amphetamine sulfate tablets ... Amphetamine Sulfate is a sympathomimetic amino of the amphetamine group. It is a white, odorless crystalline powder. It has a ...
TestIt Alert: Oval-shaped orange pill sold in Boston, MA as Adderall (amphetamine) but actually contains methamphetamine ... As Erowid states, amphetamines are "the standard against which all other stimulants are measured." ... Read more ... By: Rachel Clark, DanceSafe Contractor #TestIt Alert: Round orange pill sold in Los Angeles, CA as Adderall (amphetamine), but ... July 25th #TestItTuesday Alert: Blue Sun Pill Sold as Ecstasy Tests as Amphetamine ...
  • Amphetamines are listed as a Schedule II stimulant, meaning they have a high potential for abuse. (kidshealth.org)
  • Amphetamine is a strong physical and mental stimulant available widely in both prescription and street forms. (erowid.org)
  • Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine is a stimulant drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine is a stimulant medicine that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (rexhealth.com)
  • In the mid-1970s, an extensive survey of American men born between 1944 and 1954 suggested that some 27 percent had used an amphetamine stimulant at some point in their lives, and about a third of that group had used such a drug in the previous twelve months. (psu.edu)
  • Separate investigations by the news agency Reuters and Time magazine have found that the growing trade in Syrian-made Captagon - an amphetamine widely consumed in the Middle East but almost unknown elsewhere - generated revenues of millions of dollars inside the country last year, some of which was almost certainly used to fund weapons, while combatants on both sides are reportedly turning to the stimulant to help them keep fighting. (wnd.com)
  • For example, methamphetamine lacks much of the peripheral stimulant properties of amphetamine while still offering euphoric and hallucinogenic properties. (medscape.com)
  • Addiction to amphetamines has been an issue since the 1940s, but it escalated in the 1980s with increased illicit production of methamphetamine , a very addictive stimulant known for its euphoric effects. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamines are non-catecholamine, sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. (nih.gov)
  • Test results published on Friday show the tablet contains 21.1 mg of amphetamine, a common stimulant that is found in Adderall and black market drugs such as speed. (dancesafe.org)
  • In chronic high-dose cocaine (75) or amphetamine abuse (49), energy and euphoria induced by active drug administration is replaced in withdrawal by rebound dysphoric and anergic symptoms that appear to occur whether or not the stimulant abuser meets the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder (74). (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant. (healthline.com)
  • The stimulant, called fenethylline and by its trade name Captagon, is a super-boosted amphetamine, they said, and has unique chemical complexities allowing it to induce potent psychoactive effects far more rapidly than amphetamines alone. (reuters.com)
  • Using mice and their own manufactured Captagon in a lab, the team discovered that the drug produces its distinctive effects from a functional synergy between theophylline, a drug traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases, and amphetamine, a stimulant. (reuters.com)
  • Amphetamines are man-made stimulant drugs. (greenfacts.org)
  • Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. (everydayhealth.com)
  • An amine derivative of amphetamine, C 10 H 15 N, used in the form of its crystalline hydrochloride as a central nervous system stimulant, both medically and illicitly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that provides a "sense of well being", in the words of its creator on the occasion of its first use. (libcom.org)
  • Its chemical structure is very similar to amphetamine, a stimulant known to increase blood pressure and heart rate. (buzzfeed.com)
  • Loss of appetite is a side effect of amphetamine and amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant which improves mood. (wisegeek.com)
  • Amphetamine and methamphetamine are the prototypical stimulant amphetamines and are widely abused. (healthy.net)
  • Amphetamine-dextroamphetamine is a stimulant and appetite suppressant. (depression-guide.com)
  • Some generic names of amphetamines include amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamines are a class of central nervous system stimulants with a similar chemical structure, including amphetamine , methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ephedrine, and others. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Of the amphetamines, methamphetamine likely has the largest potential for abuse. (psychologytoday.com)
  • On the basis of this Asian experience, we can say that amphetamine drugs, and particularly methamphetamine, are likely to pose an increasingly serious menace for criminal justice systems globally in the coming decades. (psu.edu)
  • These chemicals are the basis on which amphetamines (including methamphetamine) were created. (livescience.com)
  • Only two years later, in 1887, Lazar Edeleanu, a Romanian chemist, synthesized amphetamine from ephedrine, according to the University of Arizona's Methamphetamine and Other Illicit Drug Education (MethOIDE) program. (livescience.com)
  • By: Rachel Clark, DanceSafe Contractor An oval-shaped orange pill with "30" on one side between a score line and "b 974" on the other was sold in Boston, MA as Adderall (amphetamine), but actually contains methamphetamine. (dancesafe.org)
  • Sustained high-dose administration of amphetamines (especially methamphetamine ) to experimental animals produces a persistent depletion of DA which is associated with terminal degeneration (62, 182, 195), as well as neuronal chromatolysis in the brain stem, cortex and striatum (42, 182). (factbites.com)
  • Psychophysiological aspects of amphetamine-methamphetamine abuse. (medscape.com)
  • Andy Warhol's drug of choice was Obetrol, a popular diet pill composed of amphetamine salts, including methamphetamine. (motherjones.com)
  • Amphetamines have been added to the California Health and Safety Code 11550(b) sections (including PCP, heroin, and methamphetamine) providing a mandatory 30 day sentence for being under the influence. (healthy.net)
  • Urinary detection of methamphetamine and its minor metabolite amphetamine is initially performed by immunoassay. (healthy.net)
  • The cutoff for GC/MS is 500 ng/ml for both metabolites - amphetamine and methamphetamine. (healthy.net)
  • The assay is capable of detecting the use of methamphetamine or amphetamine for 24-48 hours post dose or as long as 72 hours depending on factors such as amount used, fluid intake, excretion, and urinary pH. (healthy.net)
  • Amphetamine (Evekeo, others) is also used to treat narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine (Adderall) is also used to treat narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep) in adults and children 12 years of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamines stimulate the nervous system and are used in the treatment of depression, attention-deficit disorder, obesity , and narcolepsy , a disorder that causes individuals to fall asleep at inappropriate times during the day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The typical dose for amphetamines in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults ranges from 5 mg to 60 mg per day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications, particularly for depression and chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Evekeo brand of amphetamine is used to treat ADHD and also narcolepsy. (rexhealth.com)
  • Adderall contains amphetamine salts (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine ) and is used for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) and narcolepsy . (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Adderall XR) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and narcolepsy. (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy (sleep disorder). (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine tablets in children with obesity who are younger than 12 years of age, in children with narcolepsy who are younger than 6 years of age, and in children with ADHD who are younger than 3 years of age. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamines are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, also called psycho-stimulants, that are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD and ADHD), narcolepsy, Parkinson's disease and obesity, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR) at the University of Maryland. (livescience.com)
  • Additional clinical trials found that amphetamine had positive effects on weight loss, narcolepsy and depression. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamines are used in treatments for ADD and ADHD , obesity, narcolepsy, and Parkinson's disease, according to CESAR. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity ( ADHD ). (factbites.com)
  • The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine should not be used to treat excessive tiredness that is not caused by narcolepsy . (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamines were originally developed to treat asthma, sleep disorders ( narcolepsy ) and hyperactivity. (factbites.com)
  • Narcolepsy & Hyperkinetic states in children (as an adjunct to psychological, educational and social measures) for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine and ethylphenidate. (inchem.org)
  • Amphetamine is in a class of medications called central nervous system stimulants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamines are stimulants. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many amphetamines are Schedule II stimulants, which means they have a high potential for abuse and are legally available only through a prescription. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The four Technical Briefs on Amphetamine-type stimulants (‎ATS)‎ were produced by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific as a joint activity of the HIV/AIDS and STI and Mental Health and Injury Prevention Units. (who.int)
  • CNS stimulants, including amphetamine extended-release oral formulations, other amphetamine-containing products, and methylphenidate, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. (drugs.com)
  • CNS stimulants, including amphetamine sulfate orally disintegrating tablets, other amphetamine-containing products, and methylphenidate, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamines are a class of stimulants often included in cold medications. (livescience.com)
  • As Erowid states, amphetamines are "the standard against which all other stimulants are measured. (dancesafe.org)
  • Reuters Health) - Children and young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are treated with the stimulants amphetamine or methylphenidate face a small but significant risk of developing psychosis, with amphetamine products twice as likely to spark at problem, researchers say. (reuters.com)
  • Amphetamine/dextroamphetamine belongs to a class of medications often called stimulants. (colourlovers.com)
  • Amphetamines belongs to the Stimulants catergory because these drugs speed up the messages between the brain and the body. (prezi.com)
  • Amphetamine, Dextroamphetamine Mixed Salts belongs to central nervous system stimulants class, prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with counseling and special education. (medindia.net)
  • Amphetamines or speed, ups, stimulants, diet pills are science's latest contribution to the turn-on generation. (nymag.com)
  • East Asia and South-East Asia are major centres for the illicit manufacture of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). (idpc.net)
  • A new report by UNODC ranks amphetamine-type stimulants as the world's second most widely used type of drug after cannabis. (idpc.net)
  • These medicines may interact with amphetamine and cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. (rexhealth.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • A total of 529 drugs (3907 brand and generic names) are known to interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine . (drugs.com)
  • Show all medications in the database that may interact with amphetamine / dextroamphetamine. (drugs.com)
  • The following drugs may interact with amphetamine. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Citrus juices and caffeinated beverages and foods may interact with amphetamine. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Amphetamine Salts come in the form of a capsule or tablet. (urbandictionary.com)
  • I just popped 200mg of amphetamine salts and I want to fly out of a 20 story window and fly while ready a boring physics book . (urbandictionary.com)
  • Antacids may increase absorption of amphetamine salts and increase their effectiveness and side effects. (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine , dextroamphetamine , and mixed amphetamine salts increase effective use of dopamine and norepinephrine in parts of the brain that regulate attention and behavior in order to control symptoms associated with ADHD and improve functioning. (factbites.com)
  • Read the side effects of Amphetamine, Dextroamphetamine Mixed Salts as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • ADDERALL XR combines the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d,l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate. (rxlist.com)
  • Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage, but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines, at therapeutic dosages, appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for ADHD in children that found an average increase of 4.5 IQ points, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine works in the treatment of ADHD by increasing attention and decreasing restlessness in children and adults who are overactive, cannot concentrate for very long, or are easily distracted and impulsive. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamines have been used since then in the development of a variety of drugs, most notably Adderall and Ritalin, which treat ADD and ADHD. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD, yet despite their addictive potential, we really don't know how safe or efficacious they are. (medscape.com)
  • A team of investigators from the University of Alberta, Canada, have used standard Cochrane methodology to evaluate the safety and efficacy of amphetamines for ADHD in children and adolescents. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers found that many of the trials were of poor quality, and while amphetamines did seem efficacious at reducing the core symptoms of ADHD in the short term, they were associated with a greater number of adverse events, such as decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain, nausea, headaches, and anxiety. (medscape.com)
  • The evidence confirms that amphetamines have an established role in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, but from a clinical perspective they should be part of a wider, individually customized biopsychosocial treatment plan. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Efficacy and Safety of Amphetamines in ADHD - Medscape - Apr 14, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • Adderall, a brand name drug containing amphetamine , is used to treat ADHD. (nih.gov)
  • An amphetamine, it was until this year marketed exclusively to treat ADHD. (motherjones.com)
  • But its latest incarnation actually represents something of a return to its roots: Before they became ADHD drugs, amphetamines, of course, were diet drugs. (motherjones.com)
  • The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine is used as part of a total treatment program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (depression-guide.com)
  • The effects of amphetamine can last up to 20 hours after the medication has last been taken. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are the side effects of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine tablets in geriatric patients. (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension and extended-release oral disintegrating tablets in the geriatric population. (drugs.com)
  • Clinical effects of amphetamine abuse are significant and commonly observed in emergency departments (EDs). (medscape.com)
  • this may be important for understanding effects of amphetamine use on the fetus during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Pirisino R. Galeotti N. Livi S. Raimondi L. Ghelardini C. 4-methyl benzylamine stimulates food consumption and counteracts the hypophagic effects of amphetamine acting on brain Shaker-like Kv1.1 channels. (citizendium.org)
  • The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine comes as an immediate-relase tablet (Adderall) and as an extended-release (long-acting) capsule (Adderall XR, Mydayis) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ADDERALL XR is a once daily extended-release, single-entity amphetamine product. (rxlist.com)
  • The ADDERALL XR capsule contains two types of drug-containing beads designed to give a double-pulsed delivery of amphetamines, which prolongs the release of amphetamine from ADDERALL XR compared to the conventional ADDERALL (immediate-release) tablet formulation. (rxlist.com)
  • Do not crush or chew the extended-release form of amphetamine-dextroamphetamine (Adderall XR). (depression-guide.com)
  • The study found that from 2005 to 2014, amphetamine prescriptions ballooned nearly four-fold while prescriptions for methylphenidate rose 60 percent. (reuters.com)
  • The new study was designed to see if amphetamine or methylphenidate posed a higher risk, especially when amphetamine seems to produce some of the same brain changes seen in psychosis. (reuters.com)
  • We're waiting on the results now, but does anyone have official sources stating that methylphenidate is NOT an amphetamine? (additudemag.com)
  • Drug stores sell home drug tests, and you will indeed see that there are amphetamine tests and methylphenidate tests (and some have both in one, but the package will say so). (additudemag.com)
  • From 1933 to 1948, amphetamine was included in an over-the-counter nasal-congestion inhaler called Benzedrine. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamine was first marketed in the 1930s as Benzedrine in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. (factbites.com)
  • Did you know Amphetamines was 1st introduced in the 1930's as a remedy for nasal congestion named 'Benzedrine. (prezi.com)
  • The interaction between over-the-counter cold medications with amphetamine, for instance, is particularly dangerous because this combination can significantly increase blood pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients receiving antihypertensive medications may experience loss of blood pressure control with amphetamine. (medicinenet.com)
  • Other potentials for amphetamine abuse include prescription medications often used for attention deficit disorder and various over-the-counter diet pills. (medscape.com)
  • Soon after Alles' discovery, pharmaceutical companies developed amphetamine medications for treating congestion and asthma, according to a review published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2008. (livescience.com)
  • Certain formulations of amphetamine, typically pseudoephedrine, are used in medications that treat cold symptoms , such as Sudafed, Franssen said. (livescience.com)
  • A 2015 clinical trial published in the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology reported that patients who took amphetamine medications experienced increased weight loss and motivation. (livescience.com)
  • When taken properly, amphetamine-based medications can be safe and effective. (livescience.com)
  • Amphetamine medications are taken by mouth, in the morning, with or without food, exactly as prescribed by your healthcare professional. (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamine medications should be avoided in individuals who have a heart defect (structural abnormalities), uncontrolled high blood pressure , or a disorder of the heart or blood vessels. (factbites.com)
  • In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of amphetamine medications in the treatment of conditions like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (eurekalert.org)
  • No medications demonstrate significant effects over placebo in reducing symptoms of acute amphetamine withdrawal. (cochrane.org)
  • In clinical practice, medications for cocaine withdrawal are commonly used to manage amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two illicit substances are different. (cochrane.org)
  • Amphetamine Sulfate is a sympathomimetic amino of the amphetamine group. (nih.gov)
  • Each tablet, for oral administration contains 5 mg or 10 mg of amphetamine sulfate, USP. (nih.gov)
  • The first amphetamine pharmaceutical was Benzedrine, a brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • He took a dose of Benzedrine (a brand name of amphetamine introduced in the United States in 1933) each morning the way many people take a daily multivitamin. (slate.com)
  • He owed his phenomenal stamina to espresso shots, caffeine tablets, and amphetamines-he took 10 to 20 milligrams of Benzedrine or Ritalin daily. (slate.com)
  • Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to occur from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use caution when taking amphetamine if you've ever had substance addiction problems or a family history of addiction. (healthline.com)
  • TUESDAY, May 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new study reveals how cocaine and amphetamines affect the brain, and researchers hope the findings will lead to new addiction treatments. (medicinenet.com)
  • Addiction to amphetamines and cocaine devastates lives, families and communities in Oregon and across the U.S. Our research pinpoints how these addictive drugs interfere with the dopamine transporter and normal signaling in the brain, bringing us closer to developing effective treatments for people who are addicted to cocaine and amphetamines," Eric Gouaux, a senior scientist at the university's Vollum Institute, said in a university news release. (medicinenet.com)
  • I dislike amphetamine in general because it causes addiction and can have very dangerous side effects like psychosis when used in the long term. (wisegeek.com)
  • Using amphetamines can lead to addiction. (nih.gov)
  • People whose bodies are used to taking lots of amphetamines might keep using them to avoid withdrawal symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • Infants who are born to mothers dependent on amphetamines exhibit symptoms of withdrawal and have an increased risk of low birth weight. (medicinenet.com)
  • Amphetamine may cause dizziness , blurred vision , or restlessness , and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. (factbites.com)
  • Symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal during the initial days of abstinence from chronic amphetamine use can prompt individuals to return to regular drug use. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effectiveness of pharmacological alone or in combination with psychosocial treatment for amphetamine withdrawals on discontinuation rates, global state, withdrawal symptoms, craving, and other outcomes. (cochrane.org)
  • All randomised controlled and clinical trials evaluating pharmacological and or psychosocial treatments (alone or combined) for people with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. (cochrane.org)
  • The benefits of mirtazapine over placebo for reducing amphetamine withdrawal symptoms were not as clear. (cochrane.org)
  • One study suggested that mirtazapine may reduce hyperarousal and anxiety symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. (cochrane.org)
  • A more recent study failed to find any benefit of mirtazapine over placebo on retention or on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. (cochrane.org)
  • What is the dosage for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine? (medicinenet.com)
  • We need to prescribe amphetamines carefully, using the minimum effective dosage, and with drug holidays if possible. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine, as the racemic form, differs from dextroamphetamine in a number of ways. (nih.gov)
  • Although 'amphetamine' is used as a descriptor of its own structural class, amphetamine properly refers to a racemic free base composed of equal parts of its two optical antipodes: levo-amphetamine and dextro-amphetamine. (drugbank.ca)
  • 2015 - Tablets imprinted with the "Captagon" logo in the Middle East generally contain amphetamine and caffeine, though "captagon" was originally a pharmaceutical brand name for a different chemical, fenethylline. (erowid.org)
  • The amphetamine business became a vast and profitable economic enterprise: by 1958, some eight billion pills and tablets were produced legally each year in the United States, in addition to the sizable illegal market, and to clandestine imports from Mexico, and by 1971, legal production had risen to twelve billion pills. (psu.edu)
  • Saudi authorities said on Sunday that they had seized more than 5mn amphetamine tablets and arrested 11 people in one of the kingdom's largest drug busts. (gulf-times.com)
  • The interior ministry announced in November that it had seized a total of 22.4mn amphetamine tablets, 28.8 tonnes of cannabis and 26.2 kilograms of heroin in the last Islamic calendar year, which ends in mid-October. (gulf-times.com)
  • Eight billion amphetamine tablets are officially produced in the U.S. annually, enough to supply 40 doses to every man, woman and child. (nymag.com)
  • When people use large amounts of amphetamines more often, it can put added stress on the heart and lead to elevated blood pressure and pulse rates, rapid breathing, and even heart failure. (kidshealth.org)
  • People who are used to taking large amounts of amphetamines may have a hard time quitting. (kidshealth.org)
  • During World War II , large amounts of amphetamines were given to soldiers to keep them alert and awake. (everything2.com)
  • Amphetamine oral tablet is available as brand-name drugs. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine comes in three forms: oral tablet, extended-release orally disintegrating tablet, and extended-release oral liquid. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine is a prescription drug It comes as an oral tablet and extended-release orally disintegrating tablet, as well as an extended-release oral liquid. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine oral tablet is not available as a generic drug. (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamine oral tablet doesn't cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects. (healthline.com)
  • A stereoisomer, pseudoephedrine (Pseudofed) is a popular cold tablet, also used in the manufacture of amphetamine. (healthy.net)
  • The combination of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. (depression-guide.com)
  • Amphetamine supports Retina displays and OS X's dark mode. (apple.com)
  • Amphetamines are commonly abused recreational drugs and are highly addictive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines are highly addictive and should be used only if alternative approaches have failed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that promotes the release of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine. (mendeley.com)
  • Field sampling was then followed up with an artificial stream experiment to determine how amphetamine - a biologically active, highly addictive, and widely used drug - affects stream life. (eurekalert.org)
  • Amphetamines are highly addictive! (prezi.com)
  • However, illicit use of amphetamines for non-medical reasons presents a significant risk to the fetus and the newborn because of uncontrolled doses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Numerous drugs, including amphetamine, were detected in stream sites, with illicit drug levels highest in the most urban streams. (eurekalert.org)
  • Highlighting the role of cooperation between law enforcement agencies in different countries, the study points to the need for a better understanding of illicit amphetamine markets to underpin a more effective and informed policy response. (idpc.net)
  • Because people rarely call them "amphetamines," it can help to be aware of other names for amphetamines, from brand names like Ritalin or Adderall to nicknames like Bennies or Black Mollies. (kidshealth.org)
  • An amphetamine-based medication, such as Adderall or Ritalin, increases dopamine production in the connections between the prefrontal cortex and other locations in the brain, Franssen explained. (livescience.com)
  • My doctors office just told me today that they can't refill my Ritalin because the drug test for Amphetamines comes back negative. (additudemag.com)
  • Using too large a dose of amphetamines at one time can cause an overdose. (kidshealth.org)
  • The typical starting dose of amphetamines given to children with attention-deficit disorder over the age of six years is 5 mg per day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Long-term abuse of amphetamines may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia. (kidshealth.org)
  • You Should need to know these warnings before buy Adderall online, Misuse or abuse of amphetamines may possibly cause critical (maybe fatal) coronary heart and hypertension difficulties. (colourlovers.com)
  • The effect of cocaine and amphetamines on vital signs in trauma patients. (medscape.com)
  • Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with amphetamine and each time you refill your prescription. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This groundbreaking research arms the pharmaceutical industry with specific information about targets for treatment, opening the door for new therapeutic approaches for blocking the effects of cocaine and amphetamine. (medicinenet.com)
  • Today's users take their amphetamines and pharmaceutical amphatamine derivatives in order to lose weight, cheer up, work harder, think faster, or just for fun. (libcom.org)
  • AMPHETAMINES International Programme on Chemical Safety Poison Information Monograph(Group PIM) G009 Pharmaceutical 1. (inchem.org)
  • Advice needed with amphetamine / ephedrine withdrawal. (medhelp.org)
  • In addition, patients who have taken MAO inhibitors, a type of antidepressant, within the last 14 days should not receive amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients taking amphetamines should always tell their physicians and dentists that they are using this medication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients should consult their physician before taking any over-the-counter medication while taking amphetamines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pay particular attention to the possibility of patients obtaining amphetamines for distribution to others or for nontherapeutic use. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamine is also used for weight reduction in obese patients. (drugs.com)
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving amphetamine. (drugs.com)
  • Dr. Sandra Black and her team at the Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre are conducting tests to determine whether patients treated with amphetamine recover better from paralysis, sensory loss, language deficits and other effects of stroke. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Educate patients on the toxic effects of amphetamines and that amphetamines are not a safe alternative to cocaine use. (factbites.com)
  • Many patients with amphetamine intoxication are identified by a change of mental status alone. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Amphetamine-associated Cardiomyopathy in South Auckland, New Zealand. (medscape.com)
  • For example, a current indication for amphetamine is to help rehabilitate patients with traumatic brain injury who have depressed conciousness-not mentioned at all here. (citizendium.org)
  • Whilst some patients show signs of toxicity at blood concentrations of 20 g/L, chronic abusers of amphetamine have been known to have blood concentration of up to 3000 g/L. (inchem.org)
  • A pilot clinical trial exploring the benefit of d-amphetamine combined with physical therapy for stroke patients found no evidence that the regimen improved post-stroke motor recovery. (news-medical.net)
  • General practitioners rely increasingly on amphetamine to treat overweight and mildly depressed patients, as well as alcoholics and drug addicts. (nymag.com)
  • The triad of hyperactivity, hyperpyrexia, and hypertension is characteristic of acute amphetamine overdosage. (factbites.com)
  • White TL, Lott DC, de Wit H. Personality and the subjective effects of acute amphetamine in healthy volunteers. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of acute amphetamine poisoning is made on the history of exposure or abuse, and the characteristic features of CNS and cardiovascular stimulation. (inchem.org)
  • Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine is made up of 2 specific compounds: pure dextroamphetamine and pure levoamphetamine. (prezi.com)
  • Amphetamines are a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamines stimulate the brain by increasing the level of neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. (medicinenet.com)
  • DAT can also bind amphetamine, cocaine, and other psychostimulants, which inhibit dopamine reuptake, and, in the case of amphetamine, also stimulate the release of dopamine through DAT. (innovations-report.com)
  • At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamine really does give a sense of euphoria, especially at higher doses. (wisegeek.com)
  • Amphetamines can produce euphoria, and so are manufactured for recreational use. (cochrane.org)
  • Amphetamine is available only with a doctor's prescription. (drugs.com)
  • With little publicity, often by doctor's prescription, amphetamine is spreading like a new fluoride in the national water supply. (nymag.com)
  • In the Vietnam War , amphetamines were widely used by America n forces. (everything2.com)
  • Originally widely used for legal purposes, amphetamine drugs acquired several distinct and quite respectable American markets, including among hard-pressed businessmen and blue collar workers (truckers and shift-workers), in schools and colleges, in sports, and among women seeking to lose weight (the following account is taken from Jenkins 1999). (psu.edu)
  • Amphetamines were at least as widely abused than other better-known drugs. (psu.edu)
  • Any place where young people gather where worship of the eureka experience runs high and faith in America runs low amphetamine is becoming a god. (nymag.com)
  • In the United States , amphetamines are a non- narcotic Schedule II controlled substance . (everything2.com)
  • Amphetamine is a controlled substance . (healthline.com)
  • Amphetamines were first synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu, but it wasn't until the late 1920's that amphetamines were identified as a medically useful mood and energy booster. (news-medical.net)
  • You may develop severe depression and extreme tiredness if you suddenly stop taking dextroamphetamine and amphetamine after overusing it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamine may cause unusual thoughts or behavior, especially if you have a history of depression, mental illness, or bipolar disorder. (rexhealth.com)
  • Amphetamines became a cure-all for helping truckers to complete their long routes without falling asleep, for weight control, for helping athletes to perform better and train longer, and for treating mild depression . (factbites.com)
  • Amphetamines can make people feel more alert, and are prescribed for problems like depression and attention deficit order. (cochrane.org)
  • Your doctor will probably not prescribe amphetamine for you. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prescribe and dispense amphetamines sparingly. (drugs.com)
  • Amphetamines are a group of structurally related compounds that produce central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • Physical examination findings may demonstrate the strong central nervous system and peripheral nervous system stimulation produced by amphetamine compounds. (medscape.com)
  • Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine, while N-methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine that differs only in the placement of the methyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not a synonym for amphetamine, although both molecules contain a methyl group. (additudemag.com)
  • Daddy Has a Tail is the second Cows album overall and their first album on Amphetamine Reptile Records. (forcedexposure.com)
  • CD reissue of alien guitarist Helios Creed's second solo album originally released on Amphetamine Reptile Records in 1989 and long out of print. (forcedexposure.com)
  • Double CD compilation of the famous Amphetamine Reptile Records 7" series! (forcedexposure.com)
  • Amphetamines are a class of compounds that are abused in many regions of the world, including the United States, Australasia, and Europe. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the midbrain inhibits the activity of dopamine neurons through activation of D2 dopamine autoreceptors. (mendeley.com)
  • Amphetamine desensitizes the mGluR-mediated hyperpolarization through release of dopamine, activation of postsynaptic alpha1 adrenergic receptors, and suppression of InsP3-induced calcium release from internal stores. (mendeley.com)
  • Through this mechanism, amphetamine may enhance phasic release of dopamine, which is important in the neural processing of reward. (mendeley.com)
  • The routes of amphetamine administration may be oral (ingestion), inhalation (smoke), or injection (intravenous). (medscape.com)
  • Intravenous amphetamine abuse spread among a subculture known as "speed freaks. (factbites.com)
  • Long-term users of intravenous amphetamines are at risk of infection and vascular injury. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamines affect a brain chemical called dopamine, increasing it so the user feels a "high. (kidshealth.org)
  • Amphetamine increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamines can have a powerful effect on the body and brain, even when taken only once. (livescience.com)
  • The researchers will use magnetic resonance imaging to detect how the brain recovers from stroke and how amphetamine affects this recovery. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Amphetamine stimulates the central nervous system (nerves and brain) by increasing the amount of certain chemicals in the body. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Two decades later, the question came full circle when Science published the results of a complex, placebo-controlled study demonstrating that rats with brain injuries who were given amphetamines in conjunction with physical therapy showed notable improvement in motor function. (news-medical.net)
  • Amphetamine activates nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to increase motor activity and alertness and lessen drowsiness and fatigue. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • These chemicals in the brain are basically eliminated by the amphetamine diet pills, making it possible to go an entire day, or even a number of days, without feeling any hunger pains. (wisegeek.com)
  • By mimicking the structures of the catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and dopamine, amphetamines modulate monoamine release, reuptake, and signalling within the brain. (drugbank.ca)
  • Amphetamine-induced psychosis often mimics schizophrenia , with paranoia and hallucination s. (everything2.com)
  • Amphetamines produce considerable side effects and are especially toxic in large quantities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Amphetamine diet pills are very effective when it comes to weight loss, but many side effects accompany them when used. (wisegeek.com)
  • Drugs like amphetamine, which trigger dopamine release in the striatum, enhance locomotor activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The biochemical steps underlying amphetamine-induced dopamine release, however, are not well characterized. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now, a team led by Jonathan Javitch and Aurelio Galli has identified a chemical modification of DAT that is essential for DAT-mediated dopamine release in the presence of amphetamine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Amphetamines are usually given orally and their effects can last for hours. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Synthetic amphetamine compounds commonly are produced in clandestine laboratories and vary in purity and potency. (medscape.com)
  • Amphetamine diet pills are a supplement that is commonly used to help lose weight by reducing the levels of hunger throughout the day. (wisegeek.com)
  • If you take too much amphetamine, you may continue to feel a need to take large amounts of the medication, and you may experience unusual changes in your behavior. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not stop taking amphetamine without talking to your doctor, especially if you have overused the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amphetamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (rexhealth.com)
  • Read the Medication Manual before buy Adderall online and, if accessible, the Affected person Details Leaflet supplied by your pharmacist before you start using Amphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and each time you have a refill. (colourlovers.com)
  • No medication is effective for treatment of amphetamine withdrawal. (cochrane.org)
  • Amphetamine compounds cause a general efflux of biogenic amines from neuronal synaptic terminals (indirect sympathomimetics). (medscape.com)
  • [ 22 ] Modification of the basic amphetamine molecule produces compounds with variable effects on target organs. (medscape.com)
  • [1] it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting , one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents . (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1930s, amphetamine and some of its derivative compounds found use as decongestants in the symptomatic treatment of colds and also occasionally as psychoactive agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamines also inhibit monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amine neurotransmitters intracellularly. (medscape.com)